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ISSN 2085-8272

I0uRl{Ar 0F r1{001{ESlAl{ EC01{0MY & BUSIIIESS


JARNAL EKONOMI & BISNIS INDONESIA

THE JOURNAI IS ACCR-EDITED BY THE DIRI,CTORIflE GENERA.L OF


HIGHER EDUCATION MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
NO, 81/DIKTI/KEP/20I1

Faculty of Economics & Business Univcrsitas Gadj:rh i\,t:rda


J(IURNAT llF I]{DIIIIESIAI{ ECtIIIllMY & BUSI]IESS
EDITORIAL BOARD
Editor in Chief
Prof. Mudrajad Kuncoro, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Managing Editor
Fahmy Radhi, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Prof. Lincolin Arsyad, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada

Editorial Board
Bagus Santoso, Ph. D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Prof. Eduardus Tandelilin, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Prof. lndra Wijaya Kusuma, Ph.D, Universitas Gadjah Mada
B.M. Pururanto, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Prof. Catur Sugiyanto, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
DidiAchjari, Ph.D, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Ertambang Nahartyo, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Hargo Utomo, Ph. D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Mamduh M. Hanafi, Ph.D, Universitas Gadjah Mada
M. Edhie Purnawan, Ph. D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Prof. Suwardjono, Ph. D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
TriWidodo, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Wakhid Slamet Ciptono, Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Poppy lsmalina, S.E., M.Ec.Dev. Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Nurul lndadi, S.E., Siv.Ok., M.Sc., Ph.D. Universitas Gadjah Mada
Dr. Bayu Krisnamurthi Institut Pertanian Bogor
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Prof. Djoko Susanto, Ph. D. STIE YKPN
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Prof. Dr" Sukmawati Sukamulja Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta
Dr. Sekar Mayang Sari TRISAKTI

lnternational Advisory Board


Prof. Ainin Sulaiman, Ph.D. Universiti of Malaya
Budy P. Resosudarmo, Ph.D. Australian National University
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Edimon Ginting, Ph.D. Asian Development Bank
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Prof. John Malcolm Dowling, Ph.D. University of Hawaii at Manoa
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Norbani Che Ha, Ph.D. University of Malaya
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Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business
Volume 28, Number 2, 2013, 269 - 285

PERSONALITY AND COGNITIVE FACTORS IN INFORMATION


SYSTEM MIGRATION PROCESS

WillY Abdillah
Faculty of Economics
Universitas Bengkulu
(cinoek29@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

IT adoption from persp:ective of cognitive


This study predicts potential resistance of
and personality. Reseirch conducted on 30 employees of PT. Berau Coal and 54
of PDAM Boyolali who are undergoing the process of migration of EkP and e'
"*ployu",
titiing. Noi-probability sampling procedure was using in this research with purposive'
judgient
-quistion teihniques. Primiry
data retrieved through a questionnaire with a closed
Square with software
format. Hypothesis testing conducted using Partial Least
)pphcatiins 2.o.Mi version SmartPLS. The results show only the cognitive factors have
pisitively influence on intention to adopt ERP and e-billing. This finding reinforces that
-the
devilopment of IT adoption theory will lead to perceptual factors' Also, this finding
indicates that tlrc employees of PT. Beraucoal and PDAM Boyolali have great intentions to
use IT in term of ERP and e-billing migration process. Managerial implication
and further
res earches are d iscus s ed.
Keywords: personality factors, cognitivefactors, information technologt acceptance, EW
and e-billing.

INTRODUCTION (N) as a strategic tool in winning the


organization's business competition. There-
The development of information system
fore, the migration process is expected to be
(IS) in business applications showed increased
accepted by all parties in the organization
strategic role to win the competition through
through the involvement and participation and
changing patterns and business models, such
managerial suppod. However, one of the main
as. e-commerce or e-business and mobile problem in the application of IS is the
commerce (Turban, et al., 2008). IS has no to the change process directly
resistance due
longerjust seen as a necessity but has become
or indirectly that changes the procedure and
a requirement that must be met to improve the
pattem of activities which might harm the
competitiveness of the organization. Some interests of some parties and requires users to
companies are encouraged to migrate infor-
leam new systems. No wonder there are many
rnation technology (IT) to deveiop and opti- in the IS implementation and the
failures
mize Jhe function and role of IT as a resource by iow commit-
resistance problems caused
in the competition to win business.
ment and participation of existing stake-
Based on management perspective, the holders. One of the rnain lactor that cause
migration process is expected to enhance the resistance, Iow commitment and participation
role and function of the Information System in IS is behaviorai aspects, particularly the
270 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business May

problem of acceptance and adoption of IT factors are also indicate as successfui indi-
(Hartono, 2007). cators of IS migration process (Delone &
Empirical study of IT adoption shows that McClean, 2003). This research provides ex-
the personality and cognitive factors are strong planation the concept of situational and
predictors of IT usage. However, the debate dispositional factors in the area of IS beha-
about concept of situational and dispositional vioral researches and implication of resistance
is still inconclusive in the area of behavioral problems in IS migration process for
IS. McElroy, et al. (2007) examined the stakeholder.
effects of personality factors and cognitive
dispositional to predict intention to use the LITERATURE REVIEW AND
intemet. The results indicated that personality HYPOTHESES DEYELOPMENT
factors are better predictor of internet usage Personality
intention than cognitive factors. Meanwhile,
Research in the field of IS that uses the
Abdillah (2009) compared the predictive
concept of personality started by Zmud (1979)
effects of personality factors and cognitive
who examined dispositional individual char-
situational dispositional on intention to use
acteristics (personality and cognitive style) of
intemet within higher education institutions.
the IS implementation success. Factor person-
The research found that cognitive situational
ality dimensions measured by cognitive and
factors as better predictors of internet and
affective structure of individuals in response to
problem of construct validity in personality
events, people and situations encountered.
factors. In addition, other empirical studies
Personality factors that are believed to
indicate that dispositional personality factors
strongly influence the success of Management
are not strong predictor of intentions but it is
Information System (MIS) is the locus of con-
an indirect relationship mediated by situational
trol, dogmatism, tolerance of ambiguity, ex-
factors (Weiss & Adler, 1984). Based on two
trovert/introvert, need for achievement, risk
previous studies, it can be conclude that
taking, and the defense evaluative anxiefy
situational and disposisional factors have
(Zmud,I979). However, this research usedper-
major impact in IT acceptance theory. sonality facet outside of the IS area and this
However, previous studies mainly use intemet
study has not directly examined personality
as research object thus the empirical findings
factorsand cognitive style.
can not be generalized to other area of IT
context. Therefore, it is important to study Agarwal & Karaharura (2000) extracted
cognitive and personality factors in specific dimensional factor model of personality hait
area ofIT adoption. of the Big Five Factor (Costa & McCrae,
1992) in the field of psychology by taking the
This study predicts potential resistance of
dimensions of neuroticism (computer anxiety)
IT adoption from perspective of cognitive and
and openness to experience (personal innova-
personality in the context of ERP and e-billing
tiveness). These personality dimensions asso-
system. This study is important because there
ciated with the technology acceptance model
are limited research to examine cognivite and
(TAM) by adding the conskuct of cognitive
personality factors in specific area of IS adop-
absorption. The results showed that personal
tion. This research examines cognitive and
innovativesness predictssituational cognitive
personality factors as predictors of IT usage
factors, namely perceived usefulness and per-
because both factors have identified as accel-
ceived ease ofuse.
erator of IS migration process and willingness
to use new IT (Davis, et al., 1989; McElroy, el Thatcher, et al. (2007) found that there are
al.. 2001 Venkatesh, et al., 2003). Both three personality traits (internet anxiety,
2013 Abdillah 271

computer anxiety, and personal innovative- Costa & McCrae for measuring personality
IT. In this study,
ness) predict intention to use (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Second, the IPIP
Thatcher et al. {2007) used the term internet was available for free without paying a license
anxiety to replace computer anxiety as a as inskuments. Third, the IPIP consists of 50
dispositional personality. Internet raises items while Big Five has 240 questions. The
emotions which produce interactions with results indicate that IPP has better validity
unfamiliar situations or people. Internet usage and reliability than Big Five.
presents risks, such as the potential for viruses, Yi, et al. Q006) stated that individual
spyware or an invasion of privacy of the users of
characteristics and personality as predictors
(user privacy). Therefore, computer anxiety of
cognitive factors, such as perceived ease
reflects the length of time experience with use and perceived usefulness. Landers &
computers and the internet anxiety reflects the Lounsbury (2006) found that agreeableness
difficulty with which information technology was a predictor of internet use but do not like
in the context of internet use. to interact in a long time, especially if he finds
McElroy, et al. (2007) pulled back the re- difficulties in its use. Therefore, this character
search model using the dimensions of person- is expected as a predictor of perceived utility
ality and cognitive factors to the basic theory and efficacy ofIT users.
in the field ofpsychology. Personality factors Based on these statements, hypotheses
measured using a five-dimensional model of which are developed in this research are:
personality (Big Five Factor: Openness to ex-
perience, conscientiousness, extraversion, Hla: Agreeableness affects user's perceived
ease of use in IT migration process.
agreeableness and neuroticism) and cognitive
factors measured by using a model of MBTI Hlb: Agreeableness affects user's self effi-
cogrritive style (Costa, et al., 1992). The re- cacy in IT migration process.
search objective was to compare the influence Venkatesh (2000) stated that the individ-
of both personality and cognitive factors and ual characteristics and personality factors are
the use of the internet with computer anxiet;r, antecedent cognitive factors (i.e. perceived
self-efficaey and gender as contol variables. ease of use, perceived usefulness and self effi-
The results indicated that personality factors cacy) in predicting intention and IT usage be-
are better predictors than cognitive style. havior. Landers & Lounsbury (2006) found
However, MBTI is not considered an appro- that conscientiousnesswas a disciplined
priate tool to measure cognitive style if it is to use IT for
character, assertive and tend
associated with personality in the context of productive activities, such as search for
intemet use. McCrae & Costa (1989) claims journal articles and publications. Instead, these
that the MBTi has a weakness in measuring characters avoid the use of IT things that are
cognitive style in personality perspective. not productive, such as the chat room.
MBTI shows the limitations and weaknesses
of the validity. of the conshuct reliability of the Based on this, then the hypotheses devel-
data while still achieved in this model.
oped in this research are:

Buchanan, et al. Q005) examined the H2a: Conscientiousness afflects user's per-
influence of personality factors by using the ceived ease of use in IT migration proc-
, ess.
Intemational Personality Item Pool (IPIP)
inskument (Goldberg, 1990). There are three H2b: Conscientiousness affects user's self-
reasons for use of IPIP instrument.First, some efficacy in IT migration process.
previous research showed that the IPIP Extraversion tends to use IT for the bene-
inskument was better than Big Five Factor- fit of socializalion,such as chat rooms for a
272 Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business May

variety of information with virtual communi- Cognitive Factors


ties (Amiel & Sargent, 2004) and assume that
Cognitive is a term used in cognitive psy-
IT is useful facilities for fun and happiness.
chology to describe a form of thought or per-
Venkatesh (2000) stated that this character has
ception ofthe individual or the tendency to use
a self-efficacy in using IT for the sake of so-
perceptual and information events in solving
cializing and fun.
problems. The cognitive psychology learn how
Based on these explanations is the hy- people think, feel, leam, remember, make de-
potheses which are built in this research are: cisions, and how people process (perceive,
H3a: Extraversion affects user's perceived interpret, store and retrieve) data in the mem-
usefulness in IT migration process. ory of the brain (Hartono,2007).
H3b: Extraversion affect user's self-efficacy The development of cognitive concepts in
on IT migration process. IS begun when mainstream behavioral re-
search appeared in the 1960's. Ackoff (1960)
IT Neuroticism tend to avoid socializing
initiated by doing a case study to explore
but for the sake of using it to meet personal causes of IS failure. The study has stimulated
pleasure, are like playing online and search for
the following research although this study
identity in a virhral community (Amiel &
failed to find the cause of the system failure,
Sargent, 2004). Venkatesh (2000) stated that
but it has indicated a link user attitudes and
perceived usefulness and self-efficacy of IT
behavior toward the success of the IS system.
usage was influenced by feelings of fear or
anxiety. That is, individual who has a neurotic Schultz & Slevin (1975) proposed attitude
character will affect his functionality and level dimension to the use IS. Dimension consists of
ofselfefficacy to use IT. performance, interpersonal, change, pulpose,
support or rejection, clients or researchers and
Based on these explanations, the hy-
interests. The results found the influence of
potheses which are built in this research are:
user's perception of the IS use on IS success.
H4a: Neuroticism affects user's perceived This research model was then used in many
ease of use in IT migration process. subsequent studies to examine the influence of
H4b: Neuroticism self efficacy affects users beliefs, attitudes (cognitive perception) and the
of iT migration process. intention to use IS.

Openness to experience tends to use IT to In the same year, Fishbein & Ajzen (1975)
seek new ideas (Tuten & Bosnjak, 2001). proposed theory that explained the sequential
These characters have a high desire to explore process and causal relationships between
IT, positive perceptions and self efficacy in constructs that influence the behavior of IS
using IT (Venkatesh, 2000). use. This theory assumes that human behavior
is driven by intentions, attitudes and beliefs
Based on these explanations, the hy- are influenced by subjective norm to do
potheses which are built in this research are:
something consciously. This theory became
H5a: Openness to experience affects users' the basic model of behavior that adapted by
perceived ease of use in IT migration many researchers in the IS area. The theory is
process. known as the theory of reasoned action (TRA).
H5b: Openness to experience affects users' TRA itself criticized by Triandis (1980)
self-efficacy in IT migration process. that the assumptions can not be used in any
situation or condition. Basically people do not
always voluntarily behave, sometimes people
act emotionally or forced to act (involuntary).
2013 Abdillah 27i

Therefore, according to Triandis (1980) TRA Venkatesh, et ctl. (2003) examined the
should separate aspects of cognitive and af- influence of perceived usefulnesson IT usage
fective dimensions of attitudes. Davis (1989) behavior between men and women. The
developed a model by extending the TRA results showed that perceived usefulness influ-
constructs (i.e. belief) with the perceived ease ence was stronger for men than women. This
of use and perceived usefulness. TAM is result shows that men judge more on the as-
considered more parsimony in explaining the pects of IT utilization compared to women, so
behavior of IS use and supported by most that this perception will influence the attitude
empirical research. However, TAM model of men in the use of IT.
separates the belief as cognitive aspect and Gardner & Amoroso (2004) developed
attitude as affective. extended TAM by adding external variables to
This study use cognitive factors from examine the acceptability internet technology.
TAM, namely perceived usefulness, perceived Four external variables are gender, experience,
ease of use and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1982; complexity and volunteerism. The results
Compeau & Higgins, 1995a, b; Hsu & Chiu, showed that men tend to have higher per-
2004). The selected constructs are based on ceived utility than women. In contrast, women
several reasons. First, TAM is a useful be- tend to have higher perceived ease ofuse than
havioral model to explain why many informa- men.
tion systems failure. TAM is considered as one Taylor and Todd (1995) combined TPB
of model that consists of psychological or be- decomposition model by adding the age as
havioral factors. Second, TAM is developed external variables in the acceptance of tech-
by shong theoretical basis. Third, TAM has nology. The results showed a younger was
been supported by a lot of empirical research more influential on the attitude variables (cog-
and concluded that TAM is anapropriate nitive) on the use of IS. In contrast, older was
model to explain individual usage of IS. In more influentiai on perceived control vari-
fact, TAM is more robust than TRA and the ables. Implications of these findings indicate
TPB. Fourth, self-efficacy has been widely that the dimensions of cognitive factors are
used in research as a cogrritive construct that more variable at a young age, while the per-
affects individual use ofIS.
ceived control variables are more variable at
old age.
Perceived Usefulness
Based on the expianation above, the
Perceived usefulness is level of personal proposed hypotheses are:
belief in using a technology that will improve
H6: Perceived usefulness affects user intention
their performance (Davis, et al., 1989). Per-
in IT migration process.
ceived usefulness is also a perceived belief
about decision-making process. If someone
Perceived Ease of Use
believes in system then he will use it. Con-
versely, if someone was believed that the sys- Davis, el al. (1989) definedperceived ease
tem less useful information he would not use of use as individual confidence level when
it. using a particular system is not required effort.
Previous studies have shown that per- Although the size of the business assumed
ceived usefulness positive effect on use of IS everyone is different, but to avoid rejection of
(Davis, et al., 1989; Igbaria, et al., 1996). the developed system, IS is built to easily
Perceived usefulness is the most powerfirl apply to users without considered burdensome.
construct to influence attitudes, interests and Perceived ease of use is one factor in the TAM
behavior of technology than other constructs. model has been examined in the study. Davis,
274 Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business Moy

et al. {1989) found that perceived ease of use RESEARCH METHOD


could explain why a person used IS and how
This research is descriptive-confirmatory
users accepted new developed IS. Based on
research. The empirical model proposed in this
the explanation above, the proposed hypothe-
research developed from prior research of
ses are:
Abdillah (2009) whose examined the direct
H7: Perceived ease of use has positively influ- effect of dipositional personality factors and
ence on user intention to participate in the situational cognitive factors on the intention to
IT migration process. use the internet (see following figure 1).
Davis, et al.
@
Furthermore, (1989),
Yi, et al. (2006)
Venkatesh, et al. (2003), and
found that perceived ease of use is one of
strong predictor of perceived usefulness.
Based on these explanations, the hypothesis
which is built in this research is:
H8: Perceived ease of use positively influence
on user's perceived usefulness in IT \r
migration process. Hl

H2
Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is defined as individual con-
fidence in ability to perform an action and
persistence to deal with obstacles to achieving
lntention to
the performance of a behavior (Hartono, use the
2007). Self-efficacy is an aspect of human lnternet
psychology changes in response to different
treatments, such as when individuals face dif-
l.Opennes to Experience
ferent task complexify then his self-efficacy 2-conscienliousness
will also be different (Bandura, 1982)" 3.Extraversion
4.Agreeableness
Results from many studies show that self- 5.Neuroticism
efficacy influenced intention to use IT, com- 6.Perceived ease ofuse
7. P e rceiv ed us efu I n e s s
puter anxiety (Agarwal, et al., 2000), the 8.Self-elficacy
adoption of high{ech products (Hill, et al.,
1987) and the intention to innovate (Burkhat Source: Abdillah (2009)
& Brass, 1990). Venkantesh (2000) found that Figure 1. Theoritical Model from Prior
self-efficacy is one of a strong predictors on Research
perceived usefulness.
Based on the explanation above, the pro- This research re-examines the relationship
posed hypotheses are:
between personality factors and cognitive
H9: Self-efficacy positiveiy affects perceived factor on intention use IT in term of ERP and
usefulness in IT migration process. e-biliing migration process. According prior
Hl0: Self-efficacy positively affects research of Abdillah (2009) which did not find
user's
intention to participate in the IT rnigra-
the direct effect of Dispositional Personality
Factors on intention to use the internet, this
tion process.
study argues that personality as dispositional
27s
2013 Abdittah

factorshaveindirecteffectonintention.Indi-stronglydisagreetopoint5asstronglyagree,
vidual personality will be reflecting individual which
is measured through six questions
adopted from Davis,_et al. (1989)' Self-fficacy
characteristics of belief and attitude toward IT.
aiso assessed with the likert scale' starting
And then, these belief and attitude will be re- is
point I as strongly disagree to point 5 as
flecting individual intention to use IT. How- from
agree, which is assessed through five
ever, individual intention to use lT will be strongly
questions adopted from Hsu & chiu (2004)'
different, depend on individual characteristics
dispositiinal personality is measured by
such as agreeableness has positive attitude ihe
the Five Factor Personality instrument
toward IT but only use IT in short time, using
meanwhile conscientiousness only use IT if
from the IPIP as cited by Goldberg (1990)
theyperceivelThaspositivebenefitforthem.whichconsistoffivedimensions;theopenness
experience, the conscientiousness, the
The differences of individual characteristics, to
belief and attitude toward IT will predict dif- extraversion,
the agreeableness, and the
ferent intention to use IT. The following is
neuroticism' Each dimension is assessed
through the likert scale starting from point I as
empirical research model examined in this
study.stronglydisagree,topoint5asstronglyagree.
rhe perceived usefutness and the per- X"m:'-f#f i{! rii"iii"*[ #'":;:L:,
ai'ue'"" to pJint 5 as strongrv agree
bv
ifJ"rlu1ii""i{r!,':,nil:T,:fr"rT:ff"i"i""

Sources: Adapted from Abdillah (2009)

1. Opennes to ExPerience 5. Neuroticism


6. Perceived ease ofuse
2. Conscitiousness
3. Extraversion 7. Self-efficacY
8. P erceived usefuln es s
4. Agreeableness

Figure 2. Empirical Research Model


276 Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business lIal

adapting three questions based on Davies, el model for construct validity and internal con-
at. (1989). sistency of reliability, namely convergen:.
Population in this study is employees of
discriminant validity, Cronbach's alpha anc
Composite Reliability. Statistical data anaiysis
PT. Beraucoal and PDAM Boyolali who are
uses Partial Least Squares method with appli-
being migrated into the ERP and e-billing
cations SmartPLS ver. 2.0.M3.
system. We use the non-probability with con-
venience sampling technique because not all
employees can be reached as research sample
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
regarding on organizational rules. This re- Research Sample
search employs primary data drawn at cross-
Unit of analysis in this study are emplol -
sectional during July-October 2009. Data col-
ees of PT. Beraucoal and PDAM Boyolali. O:
lected through the questionnaire as much as 84
the 150 questionnaires distributed through
the number of samples taken with the structure
informants and enumerators directly to the
ofclosed questions.
respondents, 85 refumed questionnaires and 8-
This research conducts measurement that can be processed further because 1 ques-

Table 1. The characteristics of the 84 samples in the study


Age Frequency Percentage Sex Frequency Percentage
t7 I t.l9 Male 55 65.48
r9 4 4.75 Female 29 34.52
20 4 4.16
22 1 1.19
23 I 1 l9
24 I 1.19
25 2 2.38
26 I 1.19
27 I 1.19
29 3 3.57
30 10 11.90
31 J 3.57
32 t 1.19
JJ I 1.19
36 J 3.57
3t 9 10.71
39 1 8.33
40 15 17.86
4l 4 4.76
A1 6 7.14
A< 1 1.19
41 I 1.19
49 1 1.19
51 2 2.38
54 I 1.19
Total 84 t00 84 100
Sources: Processed data, 2009
Abdillah 277
201 3

tionnaire filled out bY the respondent (Table Measurement Model


1). The measurement model of PLS technique
Based on frequency distribution, it shows consist of construct vaiidity and reliability test
that most respondents are adults in the pro- (Figure2).
ductive age category. This became the basis
for determining personality and cognitive Construct ValiditY
characteristics of respondents in the adult life Construct validity consist of convergent
cyc1e. Meanwhile, gender distribution shows validity and discriminant validity- Convergent
the proportion of men more than women. This validity assessed by factor loading (correiation
is in accordance with the characteristics of between item score/component scores with
companies that are carried out by more domi- construct scores) indicators that measure these
nant males, so conclusions on the perceptions constructs. In this study there were 9 con-
respondents can not be generalized based on structs with each construct has 3 indicators.
gender. Based on the results of the measurement
This research uses a technique Partial model test, the majority of construction attain
Least Square (PLS) with the asisstance of ap- the validity test (loading scores> 0.7), except
plications Smart PLS 2.0.M3 version. To for the construct of Conscientiousness, Open-
analyze the proposed model, the author uses ness to experince and Extraversion have re-
27 questions with interval scale. Here are the duced one indicator for each. Based on these
results of statistical analysis using PLS tech- results it can be concluded that the proposed
nique. model of personality and cognitive attain con-
vergent validity test.

Figure 3. Output Measurement Model


278 Journal oflndonesian Ecanomy and Business JIat

Discriminant validity is assessed by meas- Based on cross-loading tabie above, it c::


uring the construct cross-loading. The follow- be concluded that the proposed model of pe:-
ing table shows the correlation between the sonality and cognitive constructs have attaine:
constructs in the model with the indicator. the discriminant validity.
Indicators of all constructs showed a strong
correlation with its construct compared to the Reliability
other constructs. Another method used to as-
Reliability indicates the stability and iri-
sess discriminant validity is by comparing the
ternalconsistencyof theinstrument(cooper&
square root of average variance Extracted
Schindler' 2006; Hair' et al''2006)' Reliabihn
(AVE) for each construct with the correlations
can be measured by the value of cronbach s
between constructs in the model. The model
alpha and composite Reability' Rule of thurnr
has sufficient discrirninant validity if the root
value of alpha or composite Reliability mu-':
of AVE for each construct is greater than the
be greater than the value of 0'7 although 0'6 rs
correlation between constructs with other con-
acceptable on exploratory study (Hait, et ai"
structs in the model. The correlation value
2006)' The construct reliabiiity results can be
indicators and latent variables can be seen in
seen in the following table 3'
the following table:..
Based on the table, it can be conclude;

Table 2. Cross-Loading
AG CS EV NT OP ORG PE PU SE
AGI 0.80 0.22 0.31 -0.03 0.26 0.49 0.23 -0.07 -0.04 -0.16
AGz 0.s0 0.10 0.15 0.00 0.1 I 0.22 0.09 0.05 0.1 1 0.01
AG3 0.84 0.03 0.15 0.09 0.17 0.22 0.13 0.10 0.10 -0.15
csl 0.06 0.78 0.21 -0.22 0.27 0.23 0.34 -0. I 1 -0. 13 -0. 6 1

cs2 o.t1 0.91 0.11 -0.01 0.25 0.32 0.27 -0.03 -0.05 -0.2E
EVl 0.29 0.42 0.5s -0.09 0.41 0.46 0.39 0.04 0.07 -0.2_<
EV3 0.19 0.06 0.92 -0.31 0.41 0.31 0.45 -0.29 -0.21 -0.31
rTl 0.00 -0.13 -0.32 0.92 -0.26 -0.18 -0.54 0.44 0.59 0.6 t-

rT2 0.05 -0.03 -0.22 0.86 -0.19 -0.18 -0.41 0.41 0.46 0.48
IT3 0.09 -0.1 1 -0.21 0,78 -0.27 -0.11 -0.46 0.24 0.36 0.49
NTI 0.2s 0.28 0.40 -0.20 0,91 0.24 0.61 -0.10 -0.24 -0.3.+
NT2 0.34 0.08 0.44 -0.r7 0.80 0.29 0.57 -0.15 -0.19 -0.21
NT3 0.11 0.37 0.46 -0.32 0.88 0.31 0.66 -0.16 -0.29 -0.39
oPz 0.46 0.28 0.41 -0.16 0.32 A.94 0.40 -0.02 -a.07 -0.38
oP3 0.06 0.25 0.23 -0.12 0.13 0.s 1 0.23 0.08 0.26 -0.1-{
Org 0.22 0.35 0.54 -0.s5 0.72 0.43 1.00 -0.30 -0.43 -0.65
PEt 0.06 -0.t2 -0. 14 0.37 -0.18 0.04 -0.2s 0.90 0.53 0.23
PEz -0.08 -0.09 -0.23 0.40 -0.13 -0.03 -0.31 0.93 0.63 0.34
PE3 0.1 1 0.03 -0.24 0.40 -0.I 1 0.03 -0.2s 0.87 0.50 0.25
PUl 0.03 -0.1 I -0. r5 0.50 -0.22 0.06 -0.38 0.56 0.89 0.36
PLJZ -0.06 -0.02 -0.12 0.42 -0.29 0.03 -0.38 0.42 0.78 0.41
PU3 0.r2 -0.11 -0.1 1 0.s2 -0.24 -0.02 -0.35 0.60 0.90 0.45
sEl -0.19 -0.18 -0.33 0.4 r -0.30 -0.27 -0.44 0.28 0.36 o.il
sE2 -0.t2 -0.19 -0.28 0.44 -0.36 -0.36 -0.51 0.22 0.38 0.1r
sE3 -0.1 1 -0.22 -0.21 0.s7 -0.2t -0.22 -4.46 0.18 0.35 0.7:
Sources: Processcd dara, 2009.
201 3 Abdillah 279

that the all indicators used in this study at- value of the path coefficients (p) for the inde-
tained the reliability test. pendent variables and then assessed the sig-
nificance based on t-values ofeach path.
Structural Model
The strucfural model results can be seen in
PLS evaluated structural model using R- the figure 4 below.
square for the dependent variable and the

Table 3. Cronbach's Alpha and Composite Realibility

CronbachsAlpha CompositeReliability
Agreeableness 0.652424 0.7636t1
Conscientiousness 0.618796 0.834892
Extraversion 0.314398 0.7197s9
Intention 0.821919 0.893881
Neuroticism 0.830298 0.897804
Openness to experience 0.313897 0.711548
Perceived ease ofuse 0.887986 0.930624
Perceived usefulness 0.819946 0.893233
Self-efficacy 0,5715 11 0.77',787
Sources: Processed data, 2009.

f---l
f*_lt.i t *_l t
0om

\ 3\\006 65'392 30
/-\
/\
t

i]
E &6
i
I
1.1es
I
't(. -- I
t

lcszl

.'- o,/'* -it

r;.l-
Figure 4. Output of Structural Model
Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business -1/s-

To assess the significance of model paths


between constructs in the structural model
visits from t-value paths between constructs.
Following the path coefficients indicated by
the value of t the construction.
Structural model results show that only
the cognitive constructs influence intention to
IT whereas personality constructs have no
effect. Thus, only five hypotheses are sup-
ported, namely the influence of perceived ease
of use on intentions, percevid eease of use on
perceived usefulness, self-efficacy to inten-
tions, self-efficacy to perceived usefulness and
perceived ease ofuse.

Tatrle 4. Struchral Model


Standard
Original Sample Sample Mean
Deviation
Error T Statistic=
Standard
(o) (M)
(STDEV)
(STERR) (IO/STERR
AG -> IT 0.025382 0.020668 0.095106 0.095106 0.266881
AG -> PE 0.065284 0.046598 0.183182 0.183182 0.3s6391
AG -> PU 0.04055 0.033791 0.126t23 0.126123 0.32151.1
AG -> SE 0.02t179 0.0233t4 0.1s2066 0.152066 0.t3921E
CS -> IT -0.05852 -0.068204 0.095009 0.09s009 0.6t5921
CS -> PE -0.0502 -0.06221 0.1 59089 0. 1 59089 0.31556-
CS -> PU -0.0s959 -0.06892 0.tt847 0.1 1847 0.50296:
CS -> SE -0.10055 -0.1 17868 0.t34362 0.134362 0.74835i
EV -> IT -0.1 2584 -0.r19677 0.092782 0.092782 i.3s624-
EV -> PE -0.25628 -0.22771 0.1 80537 0. 1 80537 t.4195)
EV -> PU -0.17826 -0. 163 I 8 0.t20748 0.t20148 1.476302
EV -> SE -0.t3974 -0.145856 0.t26172 0.126772 t.10232:
NT -> IT -0. 12 I 86 -0.r14293 0.072999 0.072999 1.669306
NT -> PE -0.07586 -0.066733 0.1 3 1 125 0.13 1 125 0.57855 5

NT -> PU -0.tt439 -0.109321 0.09t702 0.09t702 t.24140:


NT.> SE -0.22417 -0.213318 0.1 16s63 0. I I 6s63 r.92320:
OP -> IT -0.07237 -0.074968 0.099059 0.0990s9 0.7305 E

OP -> PE 0.140307 0.t25747 0.1 59983 0.159983 0.87701j


OP -> PU -0.00529 -0.010253 0.120473 0.120473 0.043 89:
-a.n7165 3505 0.13505 1.6935 i -
OP -> SE -0.22811 0.1
oRG -> IT -0.17235 -0.t82129 0. I I 6836 0.1 16836 t.41513'.
PE -> IT 0.23864 0.236187 0.1 13909 0.1 I 3909 2.09500r
PE -> PU 0.5tt774 0.5 i0644 0.1005 r2 0.100s 12 5.09165 S

PU -> IT 0.2t4666 a.209814 0.123963 0.123963 t.73t6g:


SE -> IT 0.462829 a.464897 0.tt27 | 0.tt27 t 4.1063 ir
SE -> PU 0.337081 0.343488 0.093348 0.093348 3.611001
Sources: Processed data, 2009.
Ahdillah 281
201 3

In general, the R2 for measuring variations ational. Dispositional trait reflects consistency
in the dependent variable changes caused by and persistency of the individual existing
the independent variables showed a fairly character when respond toward an object or
good indication, which is 0.52 or 52 percent of event and reflection of behavior exhibited' In
the variation ofthe dependent variable, can be contrast, situational traits reflect a change in
explained by variations of independent vari- the individual character when respond toward
ables. However, R2 is not a single parameter something and behave. This debate increas-
model for estimation of significance the most ingly becomes marginalized ttait theory in
i.mportant is the consistency of the resuits with behavioral science. Although a lot ofliterature
the existing theories. Thus it can be conclude try to conf,trm this differences, however the
that proposed model is able to explain the debate never end, even when the concept was
phenomenon of IS migration process from the adapted to behavioral information system.
cognitive and personalify aspects. Mitchell (1979) explained that the mar-
ginality of trait factors - as one of the founda-
Discussion tions of the theory of motivation, attitude and
This study examines relationship between leadership - because the strong influence of
personality and cognitive factors on the inten- situational factors in term of causality com-
iion to use IT in term of IT migration' The pared to trait. That is, predictors of behavior
results shows only cognitive factors (perceived
are not only determined by the permanent
usefulness, perceived ease of use, and self- character of the individual but also by situ-
efficacy) have positive relationship on inten- ational factors, even the comparative magni-
tude of these two factors indicate the influence
tion to use IT. It is indicated from t-value of
structural model examination. of situational factors influence greater than the
trait. Furthernore, Weiss & Adler (1984)
Theoretically, this finding is in line with stated that trait factors should not only as an
the statement of Robey (1983) who predicted independent variable but it can be a mediating
the development trend of IT adoption theory variable, dependent variable or moderating
was more directed at the cognitive constructs' variable. However, there are many other fac-
It can be seen in the many theoretical models tors that cause the marginality of trait factor in
developed, such as TAM, TPB and UTAUT' empirical research.
This finding also confirms previous studies
that found cognitive factors were the estab- George (1992) stated that the debate over
lished predictor of intentions (Abdillah, 2009; the nature dispositional or situational trait can
Davis, el at.,|989;Venkatesh, et al-,2003)' be explained through an evolutionary process
of trait factors. Individual characters could
Other interesting finding from this re- directly affect behavior but these effects can
searchis unsupported of personality factors also be mediated by situational factors' Thus,
hlpotheses. Trait theory is the appropriate the specific context of a permanent character
concept to explain the concept of personality' ailows person changes to appropriate context
Personality is a part of trait theories which in shaping behavior. Moreover, George (1992)
shows the stability of the individual thought, suggested that research on trait factors should
attitudes and behavior patterns. These con- develop based on strong theory and research
structs are widely used in behavioral science design should able to explain the problem and
but the dispositional factors have tendency of research phenomenon.
less construct vatidity (Abdillah, 2009)' In
In addition, the deveiopment and debate of
addition, along with the development of em-
pirical studies of trait theory, the nature of the trait factors also occur regarding to measure-
trait can be divided dispositional and situ- ment issues and its application in the real
282 Journal oflndonesian Economy and Business ^11o,

world. One of the main issues is practical CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMME\D{.


validity and realiabity. For example, the Five- TIONS
Factor Model (FFM) or Big Five Personality
This study examines the relationship -:
Factor established by Costa, et al. (1992) is
personality and cognitive factors on the inte:-
one of the most popular instruments and
tion to use IT. Personality factors are me'i-
commercially used by many researchers and
ured by openness to experience, consc:::-
psychologists. Meta-analysis study conducted
tiousness, extraversion, agreeableness a::
by Salgado (1997) showed that five dimen-
neuroticism, whereas cognitive factors me:.-
sions of the FFM trait, namely Agreeableness,
ured by perceived ease of use, perceived u.:-
Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to
fulness and self-efficacy. The results sho'.i,
Experience and Extraversion, has different
that only the cognitive factors that positiie..
effects on individual performance and it has
relationship on intention to use IT. These ::-
lower validity and reliability compared to nar-
sults theoretically support the statement r::'
row instrument (Ashton, 1998), such as Inter-
the development of IT adoption theory re- -,
national Personality Item Pool (IPIP)
(Goidberg, 1990). Buchanan, et al. (2005) to lead to perceptual factors (Robey, 19S-:
Although IS adoption theories assume r::
compared validity and reliability between Big
rationality and volunteerism predict the use - -
Five Personality Factor-Costa and IPIP and
found that narrow instrument has higher
IT but in practice, the organization requr:;,
employees who use IT based on perceir;-
validity and reliability than the broader in-
benefits and ease ofuse (Davis, 1989).
strument. For that, researchers should be more
critical while using personality instruments. Eventhough this study does not find re.,-
Based on these explanations, it can be con- tionship personality factors on intention to rr.
cluded that the use of a trait variable in the IT, hovewer personality factors still one ::
adoption studies is still relevant but potential predictor of attitude and intention use use -,
of measurement bias regarding validity and (Mitchell, 1979; Weiss & Adler, 195-
reliability issues should be concerned by re- George, 1992). Marginality of persona.::
searchers. factors can be caused by inadequate thec:
This research also find that cognitive and research design, particularly measuremi-'
factors (perceived usefulness, ease of use and issues of construct validity and internal cc,:
self-efficacy) have positive relationship on sistency. For future research, it should be m.-..
intention to IT adoption. It can be concluded cautious whiie using personality instrumer:.
that the employees of PT. Beraucoal Based on these explanations, it can be cc:.-
and
PDAM Boyolali have intention to use IT then cluded that the use of a trait variable in ::.
it is expected that the ERP and e-bitling mi- adoption studies is still relevant but poten::.
gration process would not being constrained. of measurement bias regarding validity -- _
reliability issues should be concerned b1 :.-
In line with research findings, it appears
searchers.
that cognitive factors have more influence on
intention to use IT than personality factors. This finding indicates that employees -
These results indicate that the use of IT deci- PT. Beraucoal and PDAM Boyolali h,. .
sions more influenced by aspects of rationality positive attitude (perceived usefulness. :::,
than permanent aspects of the individual char- ceived ease of use, and self-efficacy) to\\ --
acter. So that, corporations and local govern- intention to use IT. It is expected that ernp--
ment should feel confident that the IS migra- ees will not be resistance in ERP and e-bi1-:-:
tion decision will be success as long as IS migration process as ktng as they perceive ::.,
control and management system is running ERP and e-billing har c posirive irnpa;:
we1l.
thern, they ease to use, and they perceire ::..
201 3 Abdillah 283

to use it. Therefore, corporations and local tion".Inforntation Systents


government should feel confident on IS mi_ Researclt,
tr(4),418-430.
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and management system is running wel1. Amiel, T., and Sargent, S.L.. 2004. ,,Indivicluai
Differences in Internet Usage Motives".
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Ashton, M.C., 1998. "personality and Job per_
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