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SECTION - A

## 1. This question consists of TWENTY-FIVE sub-questions (1.1 – 1.25) of ONE mark

each. For each of these sub-questions, four possible alternatives (A,B, C and D)
are given, out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Indicate the correct answer by
darkening the appropriate bubble against the question number on the left hand
side of the Objective Response Sheet (ORS). You may use the answer book
provided for any rough work, if needed.

4Ω 2Ω
1.1 The voltage e0 in figure 1.1 is
(a) 2V
+
4
(b) V 4Ω eO 2Ω
3 12V -
(c) 4V
(d) 8V

1.2. If each branch of a Delta circuit has impedance 3Z , then each branch of the
equivalent Wye circuit has impedance.
Z Z
(a) (b) 3Z (c) 3 3Z (d)
3 3

1
1.3. The transfer function of a system is given by H ( s ) = 2
. The impulse
s ( s − 2)
response of the system is: (* denotes convolution, and U(t) is unit step function)
(a) (t2 * e-2t)U(t) (b) (t * e2t)U(t) (c) (te-2t)U(t) (d) (te-2t)U(t)

1.4. The admittance parameter Y12 in the 2-port network in Figure 1.4 is
(a) -0.2 mho 20Ω
I1 I2
(b) 0.1 mho
(c) -0.05 mho
E1 5Ω 10Ω
(d) 0.05 mho E2

## 1.5. The region of convergence of the z-transform of a unit step function is

(a) z >1 (b) z <1

## (c) (Real part of z) > 0 (d) (Real part of z) < 0

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## 1.6. The current gain of a BJT is

gm gm
(a) gmr0 (b) (c) gmrπ (d)
ro rπ
1.7. MOSFET can be used as a
(a) current controlled capacitor (b) voltage controlled capacitor
(c) current controlled inductor (d) voltage controlled inductor

1.8. The effective channel length of a MOSFET in saturation decreases with increase in
(a) gate voltage (b) drain voltage
(c) source voltage (d) body voltage

## 1.9. The ideal OP-AMP has the following characteristics.

(a) Ri = ∞, A = ∞, R0 = 0 (b) Ri = 0, A = ∞, R0 = 0
(c) Ri = ∞, A = ∞, R0 = ∞ (d) Ri = 0, A = ∞, R0 = ∞

## 1.10. The 2’s complement representation of –17 is

(a) 01110 (b) 01111 (c) 11110 (d) 10001

## 1.11. Consider the following two statements:

Statement 1: A stable multi-vibrator can be used for generating square wave.
Statement 2: B stable multi-vibrator can be used for storing binary information.
(a) Only statement 1 is correct
(b) Only statement 2 is correct
(c) Both the statements 1 and 2 are correct
(d) Both the statements 1 and 2 are incorrect

1.12. For the ring oscillator shown in Figure 1.12, the propagation delay of each
inverter is 100 pico second. What is the fundamental frequency of the oscillator
output?
(a) 10 MHz
V0
(b) 100 MHz
(c) 1 GHz
(d) 2 GHz

1.13. An 8085 microprocessor based system uses a 4K × 8-bit RAM whose starting
address is AA00. The address of the last byte in this RAM is
(a) 0FFFH (b) 1000 H (c) B9FF H (d) BA00 H
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E G1 G2 C

F H

(a) E G1 C (b)
E G1G2 C

F H/G2
F HG2

(c) E G1 C (d)
E G1G2 C

F HG2
F H/G2

## 15. If the characteristic equation of a closed-loop system is s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 , then the

system is
(a) over damped (b) critically damped
(c) underdamped (d) undamped

1.16. The root-locus diagram for a closed loop feedback system is shown in Figure
1.16. The system is overdamped. jω

K=5
K=∞ K=0 K=0
x x σ
∞ K -3 -2 -1
K=1

(a) only if 0 ≤K ≤ 1
(b) only if 1 < K < 5
(c) only if K > 5
(d) if 0 ≤K < 1 or K > 5
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1.17. The Nyquist plot for the open-loop transfer function G(s) of a unity negative
feedback system is shown in figure 1.17 if G(s) has no pole in the right half of s-
plane, the number of roots of the system characteristic equation in the right half
of s-plane is Im(s)
(a) 0
(b) 1 G(s)-Plane
(c) 2
(d) 3
-1 Re(s)

 3t 
1.18. Let δ(t) denote the delta function. The value of the integral ∫ δ (t ) cos  2  dt is
−∞

π
(a) 1 (b) -1 (c) 0 (d)
2

1.19. A band limited signal is sampled at the Nyquist rate. The signal can be recovered
by passing the samples through
(a) an RC filter (b) an envelope detector
(c) a PLL
(d) an ideal low-pass filter with appropriate bandwidth

2
− ( x − 4)
1
1.20. The PDF of a Gaussian random variable X is given by Px ( x ) = e 18 . The
3 2π
probability of the event {X = 4} is
1 1 1
(a) (b) (c) 0 (d)
2 3 2π 4

1.21. If a signal f(t) has energy E, the energy of the signal f(2t) is equal to
E
(a) E (b) (c) 2E (d) 4E
2

## 1.22. A transmission line is distortion-less if

1
(a) RL = (b) RL = GC (c) LG = RC (d) RG = LC
GC
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∂2 E x ∂2 E x
1.23. If a plane electromagnetic wave satisfies the equation = c2 , the wave
∂x 2 ∂t 2
propagates in the
(a) x-direction (b) z-direction
(c) y-direction
(d) xy plane at an angle of 45° between the x and z directions

## 1.24. The phase velocity of waves propagating in a hollow metal waveguide is

(a) greater than the velocity of light in free space.
(b) less than the velocity of light in free space.
(c) equal to the velocity of light in free space.
(d) equal to the group velocity.

1.25. The dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide is TE10, because this mode has
(a) no attenuation (b) no cut-off
(c) no magnetic field component (d) the highest cut-off wavelength

## 2. This question consists of TWENTY-FIVE sub-questions (2.1 – 2.25) of TWO marks

each. For each of these sub-questions, four possible alternatives (A, B, C and D)
are given, out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Indicate the correct answer by
darkening the appropriate bubble against the question number on the left hand
side of the Objective Response Sheet (ORS). You may use the answer book
provided for any rough work, if needed. 2Ω

## 2.1 The voltage e0 in figure 2.1 is 16V +

(a) 48 V (b) 24 V 8A 10Ω 12Ω e0
6Ω
(c) 36 V (d) 28 V -

2.2. In figure 2.2, the value of the load resistor R which maximizes the power
delivered to it is 10Ω 1H
(a) 14.14Ω
(b) 10Ω
(c) 200Ω
Emcos10t ~
(d) 28.28Ω R
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2.3. When the angular frequency ω in Figure 2.3 is varied from 0 to ∞, the locus of the
current phasor I2 is given by
i(t)

i1(t) i2(t)
16V
Emcosωt ~ R1 R2

## (a) ω=0 (b)

Em ω=0 E = Em ∠0°
I2 2R2
ω=∞ Em
I2
2R2
E = Em ∠0°
Em Em ω=∞
2R2 2R2
(c) (d)
Em ω=0 E = Em ∠0°
I2
ω=0 R1
ω=∞ Em
2R2
E = Em ∠0°
Em
Em Em Em I2
2R2
R1 2R2 2R2
ω=∞

2.4 The Z parameters Z11 and Z21 for the 2-port network in figure 2.4 are
6 16 2Ω I2
(a) Z11 = − Ω; Z21 = ∞ Ω; I1
11 11
4Ω
6 4
(b) Z11 = Ω; Z21 = Ω; E1
11 11 E2
10E1
6 16
(c) Z11 = Ω; Z21 = − Ω;
11 11
4 4
(d) Z11 = Ω; Z21 = Ω;
11 11

2.5 An npn BJT has gm = 38m A/V, Cµ=10-14 F, Cπ=4×10-13F, and DC current gain β 0 =
90. for this transistor fT and fβ are
(a) fT = 1.64 × 108 Hz and fβ = 1.47 × 1010 Hz

## (b) fT = 1.47 × 1010 Hz and f β = 1.64 × 108 Hz

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## 2.6 The transistor shunt regulator

shown in Figure 2.6 has a 20Ω
regulated output voltage of 10
V, when the input varies from IZ IC
20 V to 30 V. The relevant
parameters for the Zener diode VZ
and the transistor are: Vz = Vin=20-30V VO=10V
9.5, VSE=0.3V, β=99. Neglect VBE+
-
the current through RB. Then RB
the maximum power dissipated
in the Zener diode (Pz) and the
transistor (PT) are
(a) PZ=75mW, PT=7.9W (b) PZ=85mW, PT=8.9W
(c) PZ=95mW, PT=9.9W (d) PZ=115mW, PT=11.9W

-VCC

LC

L=10µH
CC R1 Vo

R2 Re Ce

## (a) Hartley oscillator with foscillation = 79.6MHz

(b) Colpitts oscillator with foscillation = 79.6MHz
(c) Hartley oscillator with foscillation = 159.2MHz
(d) Colpitts oscillator with foscillation = 159.2MHz

R2=10K
2.8 The inverting OP-AMP shown in Figure
R1=1K
2.8 has an open-loop gain of 100. The - Vo
v Vi + +
closed loop gain 0 is Vs
-
vs

## (a) -8 (b) -9 (c) -10 (d) -11

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2.9 In Figure 2.9, assume the OP-AMPs to be ideal. The output v0 of the circuit is:
10mH
10µF

10Ω 100Ω
Vs -
-
Vs=10cos(100t) VO
+
+

t
(a) 10 cos(100t) ∫
(b) 10 cos (100τ ) dτ
0

t
d

(c) 10−4 cos (100τ ) dτ
0
(d) 10−4
dt
cos (100t )

VCC=5V

1K 1K 1K
LED

1K

S1 S2

## (a) emits light when both S1 and S2 are closed.

(b) emits light when both S1 and S2 are open.
(c) emits light when only S1 or S2 is closed.
(d) does not emit light, irrespective of the switch positions.

2.11 In the TTL circuit in Figure 2.11, S2 to S0 are select lines and X7 and X0are input
lines. S0 and X0 are LSBs. The output Y is
(a) indeterminate (b) A ⊕ B

(c) A ⊕ B ( )
(d) C. A ⊕ B + C. ( A ⊕ B )
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x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7

C S2
B S1

A S0

Fig.2.11
y

2.12 The digital block in figure 2.12 is realized using two positive edge triggered D-
flip-flops. Assume that for t < t0, Q1 = Q2 =0. The circuit in the digital block is
given by:

X Y
DIGITAL
BLOCK

t2 t3 t4
t0 t1 t2 t3 t0 t1

## (a) Figure 2.12 (a) (b) Figure 2.12 (b)

(c) Figure 2.12 (c) (d) Figure 2.12 (d)

1 D1 Q1 1 D2 Q2 Y 1 D1 Q1 1 D2 Q2 Y
O
X Q1 Q2 X O Q1 Q2

## Figure (a) Figure (b)

1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y

X X O O
Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2

## Figure (c) Figure (d)

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2.13 In the DRAM cell in Figure 2.13, the Vt of the NMOSFET is 1 V. For the following
three combinations of WL and BL voltages.
Word Line (WL)

C

## (a) 5 V; 3V; 7V (b) 4 V; 3V; 4V (c) 5 V; 5V; 5V (d) 4 V; 4V; 4V

2.14 The impulse response functions of four linear systems S1, S2, S3, S4 are given
respectively by
h1 ( t ) = 1
h2 ( t ) = U ( t )
U (t )
h3 ( t ) =
t +1
h4 ( t ) = e−3t U ( t )
where U(t) is the unit step function. Which of these systems is time invariant,
causal, and stable?
(a) S1 (b) S2 (c) S3 (d) S4

2.15 An electrical system and its signal-flow graph representations are shown in Figure
2.15(a) and 2.15(b) respectively. The values of G2 and H, respectively are
Z3 ( s ) − Z3 ( s )
(a) ,
Z2 ( s ) + Z3 ( s ) + Z4 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) + Z3 ( s )

− Z3 ( s ) − Z3 ( s )
(b) ,
Z2 ( s ) − Z3 ( s ) + Z4 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) + Z3 ( s )

Z3 ( s ) Z3 ( s )
(c) ,
Z2 ( s ) + Z3 ( s ) + Z4 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) + Z3 ( s )

− Z3 ( s ) Z3 ( s )
(d) ,
Z2 ( s ) − Z3 ( s ) + Z4 ( s ) Z1 ( s ) + Z3 ( s )
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## Z1(s) Z2(s) Vo(s)

I1(s) I2(s)
Figure (b)
Z3(s) Z4(s)
Vi(s)
G1 I1(s) G2 I2(s) G3

Vi(s) Vo(s)
Figure (a)

2.16 The open-loop DC gain of a unity negative feedback system with closed-loop
s+4
transfer function 2 is
s + 7s + 13
4 4
(a) (b) (c) 4 (d) 13
13 9

## 2.17 The feedback control system in Figure 2.17 is stable

(a) for all K ≥ 0 S −2
R(s) + C(s)
(b) only if K ≥1 K≥0 2

-
( S + 2)
(c) only if 0 ≤ K < 1
(d) only if 0 ≤ K ≤ 1 SK - 2

2.18 A video transmission system transmits 625 picture frames per second. Each
frame consists of a 400 × 400 pixel grid with 64 intensity levels per pixel. The
data rate of the system is
(a) 16 Mbps (b) 100 Mbps (c) 600 Mbps (d) 6.4 Gbps

2.19 The Nyquist sampling interval, for the signal Sinc (700t) + Sinc (500t) is
1 π 1 π
(a) sec (b) sec (c) sec (d) sec
350 350 700 175

## 2.20 During transmission over a communication channel, bit errors occur

independently with probability p. If a block of n bits is transmitted, the probability
of at most one bit error is equal to
(a) 1 – (1 – p)n (b) p + (n – 1) ( 1 – p)
n-1
(c) np(1 – p) (d) (1 – p)n + np(1 – p)n-1
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2.21 The PSD and the power of a signal g(t) are, respectively, Sg(ω) and Pg. The PSD
and the power of the signal ag(t) are, respectively
(a) a2 Sg (ω ) and a2 Pg (b) a2 Sg (ω ) and aPg

## (c) aSg (ω ) and a2 Pg (d) aSg (ω ) and aPg

2.22 A material has conductivity of 10-2 mho/m and a relative permittivity of 4. The
frequency at which the conduction current in the medium is equal to the
displacement current is
(a) 45 MHz (b) 90 MHz (c) 450 MHz (d) 900 MHz

## 2.23 A uniform plane electromagnetic wave incident normally on a plane surface of a

dielectric material is reflected with a VSWR of 3. What is the percentage of
incident power that is reflected?
(a) 10% (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75%

## 2.24 A medium wave radio transmitter operating at a wavelength of 492 m has a

tower antenna of height 124m. What is the radiation resistance of the antenna?
(a) 25Ω (b) 36.5Ω (c) 50Ω (d) 73Ω

λ
2.25 In a uniform linear array, four isotropic radiating elements are spaced apart.
4
The progressive phase shift between the elements required for forming the main
beam at 60° off the end-fire is:
π π π
2 4 8

SECTION – B
This section consists of TWENTY questions of FIVE marks each. Attempt ANY FIFTEEN

3. For the circuit shown in figure 3, determine the phasors E2, E0, I and I1.
1Ω
0.5Ω j2Ω
I E1

I1

E1=10∠20°
-jΩ 0.5Ω E0
~

1Ω
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## 4. The circuit shown in Figure 4 is operating in steady-state with switch S1 closed.

The switch S1 is opened at t = 0.
(a) Find iL(0+).
(b) Find e1(0+).
(c) Using nodal equations and Laplace transform approach, find an expression
for the voltage across the capacitor for all t > 0.
2Ω 2Ω 5Ω
e1(t) e2(t)

S1
iL(t)

C= F
8

## 5. The admittance parameters of a 2-port network shown in figure 5 are given by

Y11 = 2 mho, Y12 = -0.5 mho, Y21 = 4.8 mho, Y22 = 1 mho. The output port is
terminated with a load admittance YL = 0.2 mho. Find E2 for each of the following
conditions?
(a) E1=10∠0° V
(b) I1=10∠0° A
(c) A source 10∠0° V in series with a 0.25Ω resistor is connected to the input
port.

6. For the circuit shown in figure 6, D1 and D2 are indentical diodes with idealilty
factor of unity. The thermal voltage VT = 25 mV.
(a) Calculate Vf and Vr.
(b) If the reverse saturation current, Is, for the diode is 1 pA, then compute the
current I through the circuit.

D1 D2

+ - + -
Vf Vr

50mV
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## 7. An emitter-follower amplifier is shown in Figure 7. Zi is the impedance looking

into the base of the transistor and Z0 is the impedance looking into the emitter of
the transistor.
(a) Draw the small signal equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
(b) Obtain an expression for Zi.
(c) Obtain an expression for Z0.
(d) Determined Zi and Z0 if a capacitor CL is connected across RL.

VCC

IC

RS

Zo
Vo
+ Zi
VS RL
-

-VEE

## 8. Assume that the OP-AMP in Figure 8 is ideal.

(a) obtain an expression for vo in terms of vs, R, and the reverse saturation
current Is of the transistor.
(b) If R = 1Ω, Is = 1 pA and the thermal voltage VT = 25 mV, then what is the
value of the output voltage vo for an input voltage vs = 1V?
(c) Suppose that the transistor in the feedback path is replaced by a p-n junction
diode with a reverse saturation current of Is. The p-side of the diode is
connected to node A and the n-side to node B. Then what is the expression
for vo in terms of vs, R and Is?

R
A - B +
VS + Vo
+ -
-

9. A monochrome video signal that ranges from 0 to 8V, is digitized using an 8-bit
(a) Determine the resolution of the ADC in V/bit.
(b) Calculate the mean squared quantization error.
(c) Suppose the ADC is counter controlled. The counter is up count and positive
edge triggered with clock frequency 1 MHz. What is the time taken in
seconds to get a digital equivalent of 1.59 V?
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10. In figure 10, the output of the oscillator, V1 has 10V peak amplitude with zero DC
value. The transfer characteristic of the Schmitt inverter is also shown in figure
10. Assume that the JK flip-flop is resent at time t = 0.
(a) What is the period and duty cycle of the waveform V2?
(b) What is the period and duty cycle of the waveform V3?
(c) Sketch V1, V2 and V3 for the duration 0 ≤ t ≤ 6µs. Clearly indicate the exact
timings when the waveforms V2 and V3 make high-to-low and low-to-high
transitions.
VCC=5V

J Q

0.5 MHz V1 V2
sinewave V2
oscillator
K
5V

## oscillator Schmitt J-K flip-flop

inverter

0V
V1
2.5V 3.5V

11. For the digital block shown in Figure 11(a), the output Y=f(S3,S2,S1,S0) where S3
is MSB and S0 is LSB. Y is given in terms of minterms as
Y = ∑ m (1,5, 6,7,11,12,13,15) and its complement is
Y = ∑ m ( 0, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9,10,14 )

(a) Enter the logical values in the given Karnaugh map [Fig.11(b)] for the output
Y.
(b) Write down the expression for Y in sum-of products from using minimum
number of terms
(c) Draw the circuit for the digital logic boxes using four 2-input NAND gates
only for each of the boxes.
S1S0
S1 S3 S2 S3S2 00 01 11 10
S0
00

DIGITAL DIGITAL Y 01
LOGIC LOGIC
BOX 1 BOX 2 11

10
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12. Consider the following sequence of instructions for an 8085 microprocessor based
system.

FF00 MVI, A FF H
FF02 INR A
FF03 JC FF0C H
FF06 ORI A8H
FF08 JM FF15 H
FF0B XRA A
FF0C OUT PORT 1
FF0E HLT
FF10 XRI FF H
FF12 OUT PORT 2
FF14 HLT
FF15 MVI, A FF H
FF19 RAL
FF1A JZ FF23 H
FF1D JC FF10 H
FF20 JNC FF12 H
FF23 CMA
FF24 OUT PORT 3
FF26 HLT

(a) If the program execution begins at the location FF00 H, write down the
sequence of instructions which are actually executed till a HLT instruction.
(Assume all flags are initially RESET)
(b) Which of the three ports (PORT1, PORT2 and PORT3) will be loaded with data
and what is the bit pattern of the data?

## 13. A feedback control system is shown in figure 13.

(a) Draw the signal-flow graph that represents the system.
(b) Find the total number of loops in the graph and determine the loop-gains of
all the loops.
(c) Find the number of all possible combination of non-touching loops taken two
at a time.
(d) Determine the transfer function of the system using the signal-flow graph.
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+
+ + +
G1 G2 C(s)
R(s) -
- -

Fig.13

## 14. Consider the feedback control system shown in figure 14.

(a) Find the transfer function of the system and its characteristic equation.
(b) Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the range of K for which the
system is stable.

+ +
R(s) K ( s + 1) 1 C(s)
- s - 2

1
s + 0.1

15. For the feedback control system shown in figure 15, the process transfer function
1
is Gp ( s ) = , and the complification factor of the power amplifier is K ≥ 0.
s ( s + 1)
The design specifications required for the system are a time constant of 1 sec
and a damping ratio of 0.707.
(a) Find the desired locations of the closed loop poles.
(b) Write down the required characteristic equation for the system. Hence
determine the PD controller transfer function G0 ( s ) when K = 1.

## R(s) + PD Power C(s)

Process
controller amplifier
-
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16. The Fourier transform G(ω) of the signal g(t) in Figure 16(a) is given as
1
( )
G (ω ) = 2 e jω − jω e jω − 1 . Using this information and the time-shifting and
ω
time-scaling properties, determine the Fourier transform of signals in Figures
16(b), 16(c) and 16(d).

g(t) g1(t)

1 1

t t
-1 0 0 1

g2(t) g2(t)

1 1

t t
-1 0 1 01
-
2 2

17. The periodic modulating signal m(t) is shown in Fig.17. Using Carson’s rule
estimate BFM (bandwidth of the FM signal) and BPM (bandwidth of the PM signal)
π
for Kf = π × 104 and kp = . Assume the essential bandwidth of m(t) to consist
4
only up to and including the third harmonic.

m(t)

2×10-4
1

t
(sec)

-1
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## 18. A baseband signal g(t) bandlimited to 100 Hz modulates a carrier of frequency f0

Hz. The modulated singal g(t)cos 2πf t is transmitted over a channel whose input
x and output y are related by y = 2x + x2. The spectrum of g(t) is shown in
Figure 18. Sketch the spectrum of the transmitted signal and the spectrum of the
G(f)

f(Hz)
-100 0 100

19. A periodic signal g(t) is shown in Figure 19. Determine the PSD of g(t).

g(t)

t
π π 2π sec
-2π - 4π
2 2

20. A system of three electric charges lying in a straight line is in equilibrium. Two of
the charges are positive with magnitudes Q and 2Q, and are 50 cm apart.
Determine the sign, magnitude and position of the third charge.

21. A medium has breakdown strength of 16 KV/m r.m.s. Its relative permeability is
1.0 and relative permittivity is 4.0 A plane electromagnetic wave is transmitted
through the medium. Calculate the maximum possible power flow density and the
associated magnetic filed.

22. A rectangular hollow metal waveguide has dimensions a= 2.29 cm and b = 1.02
cm. Microwave power at 10 GHz is transmitted through the waveguide in the TE10
mode.
(a) Calculate the cut-off wavelength and the guide wavelength for this mode.
(b) What are the other (TE or TM) modes that can propagate through the
waveguide?
(c) If a = b = 2.29cm, What are the modes which can propagate through the
waveguide?