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# FACULITY OF ENGINEERING

## Department of Civil Engineering

Master of Structural Engineering and Construction

Solved Problems

PREPARED By:

MAGED MOHAMMED

mm.almaged@gmail.com These problems’ solutions are individual attempt, any review or correction is highly appreciated
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

CHAPTER ONE

## Beam Deflection by Integration Method

(6 Questions)

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

1.1 Find the slope and the deflection of the beams shown following beam subjected to point load at

## the mid span using double integration method

Solution
i. Static Equilibrium

P
RA  RC 
2

## 3- Changing in the beam geometry

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## iii. Moment function

+ M x 0 , M -
p
   0 Therefore , M   1 P
2 2

## The governing equation for deflection is:

d2y
EI M
dx 2
d2y 1 L
Therefore, EI  P 0  
dx 2 2 2

## First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y 1  dy 1 2
EIθ  EI    Pχ   EIθ  EI  Pχ  C1
2 
2
dx dx 4
Second integration to obtain deflection

dy 1 1
EIy  EI   ( Pχ 2  C1 ) dx EIy  Px3  C1 x  C2
dx 4 12

v. Boundary condition

L dy
1) At   ,  0 substitute in slope equation
2 dx

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

2
1 L
EI0 
1
P   C1  C1   PL2
4 2 16
2) At   L , y  0 , substitute in deflection equation

1 1 1 1
EI(0)  PL3  PL3  C2  C 2  PL3  PL3
12 16 16 12

1 3 1 1
C2  PL  PL3   PL3
16 12 48

Slop Equation:
dy 1 2 1 P
EIθ  EI  Pχ  PL2  θ (4X 2  L2 )
dx 4 16 16EI

Deflection Equation:

P
y (4 x 3  3 xL2  L3 )
48EI

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

1.2 Determine the slope and the deflection of the beam subjected to Moment at the mid span using

## double integration method.

Solution
i. Static equilibrium

- M - R A L   0 Therefore , RA 
-M
+ M C 0 ,
L

-M
   Fy  0 , R A  R C  0 Therefore ,  RC  0
L
M
RC 
L

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## ii. Moment functions

M Mχ
+ M x 0 , - M 
L
χ  0 Therefore , M  
L

## The governing equation for deflection is:

d 2 y Mχ
EI 
dx 2 L
d 2 y Mχ L
Therefore, EI  0  
dx 2 L 2

## First integration to obtain the slope equation

2
d2y Mχ dy Mχ
EIθ  EI 2
 dx  EIθ  EI   C1 ............. (1)
dx L dx 2 L
Second integration to obtain deflection

dy  Mχ 2  Mχ
3
EIy  EI    C1  dx  EIy   C1 x  C2 ............. (2)
dx  2L  6L

## iv. Boundary condition

L dy
At   ,  0 substitute in equation (1)
2 dx

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

2
L
M 
EI0      C1  C1  
2 ML
2L 8
3) At   L , y  0 , substitute in equation (2)

ML ML M  L2 M  L
3 2
EIy    L  C2  C2  
6L 8 8 6

1
C2   M L2
24

Slop Equation:
2
dy Mχ ML M
EI    θ (X 2  4L2 )
dx 2 L 8 8EIL

Deflection Equation:

 
3
Mχ ML 1 M
EIy   x M L2  y  4 x 3  3L2  L3
6L 8 24 24EIL

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

1.3 Determine the slope and the deflection of simply supported beam subjected a point load at

distance (a) from support as shown below using double integration method.

## Find the reaction at A and C

Pb
  M C  0 , - R A L  Pb  0  R A 
L

Pb Pb  b
  Fy  0 ,  P  RC  0  RC  P   P 1    PL(L - b)
L L  L
Pa
 (L - b)  a Therefore , R C 
L

Moment functions

Segment AB 0  x  a 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Pb
  M χ  0, - χ  Mχ  0
L

Pb
Mχ  χ
L

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d 2 y Pb
Therefore, EI  χ
dx 2 L
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
χ  C1 ............1
Pb dy Pb 2
EIθ  EI 2
 χ dx  EIθ  EI 
dx L dx 2L
Second integration to obtain deflection

 Pb 2 
χ  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy Pb 3
EIy  EI   χ  C1  dx  EIy 
dx  2L  6L

Segment BC a  x  L 

Pb
  M χ  0, - χ  P(χ  a)  M χ  0
L

Pb
Mχ  χ  P(χ  a)
L

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d 2 y Pb
Therefore, EI  χ  P(χ  a)
dx 2 L
First integration to obtain the slope equation

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

d2y  Pb  dy Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2
EIθ  EI   χ  P(χ  a)  dx  EIθ  EI  χ   C3 ......3
 L 
2
dx dx 2L 2
Second integration to obtain deflection

 Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2  Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3
 C3 χ  C4 .....4
dy
EIy  EI
dx   2L
  χ   C3  dx  EIy  χ 
2  6L 6

## Applying continuity conditions

 dy   dy 
At χ  a ,     
 dx  AB  dx  BC

 dy  1  Pb 2 
    a  C1  ,
 dx  AB (at x a) EI  2L 

 dy  1  Pb 2 P(a  a)2  1  Pb 2 
    a   C3    a  C3 
 dx  BC (at x a) EI  2L 2  EI  2L 

 dy   dy  1  Pb 2  1  Pb 2 
    Therefore,  a  C1    a  C3 
 dx  AB (at x a)  dx  BC (at x a) EI  2L  EI  2L 

So that C1  C3

At χ  a , y AB  y BC

1  Pb 3 
y AB (at x a)   a  C1a  C2 
EI  6L 

1  Pb 3 P(a  a) 3  1  Pb 3 
y BC (at x a)   a   C3a  C4    a  C3a  C4 
) EI  6L 6  EI  6L 

1  Pb 3  1  Pb 3 
 y AB (at x a)  y BC (at x  a) Therefore,  a  C1a  C2    a  C3a  C4 
EI  6L  EI  6L 
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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Since C1  C 3 , then C 2  C 4

## At χ  0 , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

Pb 3
EI(0)  (0)  C1 (0)  C2  C2  0 Then C 2  C 4  0
6L

## At χ  L , y  0 Substitute in equation (4)

Pb 3 P(L  a) 3
EI (0)  L   C3 L  C 4
0
 (L  a )  b
6L 6

0
Pb 2 Pb3
6
L 
6
 C3 L  C3 
Pb3 PbL Pb 2
6L

6

6L
b  L2  

Since C1  C3 , then C1 
Pb 2
6L

b  L2 
The equations for s lop and deflection due bending moment

At 0  x  a  At a  x  L 

##  Slope Equation  Slope Equation

Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2
EIθ  χ   C3 
EIθ 
Pb 2
2L
χ  C1  EIθ 
Pb 2 Pb 2
2L
χ 
6L
b  L2   2L 2

EIθ 
Pb
 
3x 2  b 2  L2 
P(χ  a) 2
θ
Pb
6EIL

3x 2  b 2  L2  6EIL 2EI

##  Deflection Equation  Deflection Equation

Pb 3 Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3
EIy  χ  C1 x  C 2 EIy  χ   C3 χ  C 0 4
0

6L 6L 6

EIy 
Pb 3 Pb 2
6L
χ 
6L
b  L2 χ   EIy 
Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3 Pb 2
χ   
b  L2 χ 
6L 6 6L

Then , y 
Pb 3
6EIL

χ  b 2  L2 χ  Then , y 
Pb 3
 
χ  b L χ 
2 2

P(χ  a) 3
6EIL 6EI

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

1.4 Determine the slope and the deflection of cantilever beam subjected moment at free end as

## shown below using double integration method.

Moment function;
The moment function of this cantilever beam is determined as shown below

  M χ  0,  M 0  M χ  0  M χ  M 0

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d2y
Therefore, EI   M0
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
 M 0 χ  C1 ............1
dy
EIθ  EI
dx 2 
  M 0 dx  EIθ  EI
dx
Second integration to obtain deflection

 M0 2
  M 0 χ  C1  dx χ  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI
dx 
 EIy 
2

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Boundary condition
At χ  L , θ  0 Substitute in equation (1)

EI(0)  M 0 L  C1

Then C1  M 0 L

## At χ  L , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

 M0 2  M 0 L2 M 0 L2
EI(0)  L  (M 0 L)L  C2 Then , 0   M 0 L  C2  0 
2
 C2
2 2 2

M 0 L2
C2  
2

## Slope Equation Deflection Equation

 M0 2 M L2
EIy  χ  M 0 Lx  0
2 2

EIy  
M0 2
2EI

χ  2Lx  L2 
θ
M0
L  χ 
EI
EIy  
M0
χ  L2
2EI

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Department of Civil Engineering
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1.5 Determine the slope and the deflection of cantilever beam subjected a point load at distance (a)

## from fixed end as shown below using double integration method.

  M A  0 , M A  Pa  0  M A  Pa

   Fy  0 ,  P  RA  0  RA  P

Moment Functions

Segment AB 0  x  a 

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  M χ  0, - Pχ  Pa  M χ  0

M χ  Px  Pa
M χ  P( x  a)

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d2y
Therefore, EI  P( x  a)
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y dy P( x  a)2
EIθ  EI  C1 ............1
dx 2 
 P( x  a) dx  EIθ  EI 
dx 2
Second integration to obtain deflection

 P( x  a)2  P( x  a)3
 C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI     C1  dx  EIy 
dx  2  6

## At χ  0 , θ  0 Substitute in equation (1)

P(0  a) 2 Pa 2
EI(0)   C1 Therefore , C1  
2 2
dy P( x  a) 2
dy P( x  a) 2
Pa 2 P( x 2  2ax  a 2 ) Pa 2
EI   C1  EI    
dx 2 dx 2 2 2 2

EI
dy P( x 2  2ax)
dx

2

dy

P
dx 2EI
( x 2  2ax)  
 dy 
  
P

(a 2  2a  a )  
Pa 2

 dx  a 2EI 2EI

## At χ  0 , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

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P(0  a)3 Pa 2 Pa 3
EI(0)   (0)  C2  C2 
6 2 6

P( x  a)3 Pa 2 x Pa 3 P( x 3  3 x 2 a  3 xa 2  a 3 ) Pa 2 x Pa 3
EIy     EIy   
6 2 6 6 2 2
P( x 3  3 x 2 a) 3Pxa 2 Pa 3 Pa 2 x Pa 3 P( x 3  3x 2 a) Pa 2 x Pa 3 Pa 2 x Pa 3
EIy          
6 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 2 2
P( x 3  3 x 2 a) P
EIy  y ( x 3  3x 2 a)
6 6 EI
P 2Pa 3 Pa 3
ya  (a 3  3  a 2 a)   
6 EI 6 EI 3 EI

1.6 Formulize the slope and the deflection equation of cantilever beam subjected moment at distance

(a) from fixed end as shown below using double integration method.

Moment Functions

Segment AB 0  x  L 

  M χ  0,  M χ  M  0

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M χ  M

d2y
Therefore, EI  M
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
 M x  C1 ............1
dy
EIθ  EI 2
  M dx  EIθ  EI
dx dx
Second integration to obtain deflection

M x2
 M x  C1  dx  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI
dx 
 EIy  
2

## EI(0)  ML  C1 Therefore , C1  ML

dy dy
EI   Mx  ML  EI  M(L - x)
dx dx
dy M
 (L - x)
dx EI
 dy  M M Ma
   (L - b)  (a  b  b) 
 dx  b EI EI EI

## At χ  a , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

M L2 M L2 M L2
EI(0)    ( ML) L  C2  C2   ML2  
2 2 2

Therefore , EIy  
M x2
2
 MLx 
M L2
2

M 2
2

x  2Lx  L2 
y
M
 x  L 2
2EI
Ma 2
yb  
M
b  L    b  a  b   
2 M 2

## 2EI 2EI 2EI

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

CHAPTER TWO

Stress in Solid

(12 Questions)

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 2.1 At a point in a continuum, the stress components are

 x  12 xy;  y  0; z  0

 xy  20 y 2 ;  yz  8z;  zx  0

X  52 y ; Y  0; Z  0;

State whether equilibrium conditions are satisfied for this state of stress and body forces.

Solution

 x  yx  zx
  X0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
  Y0
x y z

 xz  yz  z
  Z0
x y z

## Considering the first equilibrium condition, we get:

 x  yx  zx
 12 y  40 y 0 X  -52 y
x y z

## Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

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 xy  y  zy
 0;  0;  0; Y  0
x y z

## Considering the third equilibrium condition, we get:

 xz  yz  z
 0;  0;  8; Z  0
x y z

## Therefore, 0080  0 Not - Satified

Thus, the above equilibrium conditions are not satisfied by the above equilibrium stress.

2.2 If the state of stress at a point in body is given as follows, determine the components of body

##  x  80 x 3  4y 2 ;  y  120 x 3  100;  z  40( y 2  z 2 )

 xy  4 z;  yz  x 3 ;  zx  y 3 .

Solution

## Equilibrium equations are:

 x  yx  zx
   Bx  0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
   By  0
x y z

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 xz  yz  z
   Bz  0
x y z

 x  yx  zx
 240x 2 0 0
x y z

ans

## Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

 xy  y  zy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z

Therefore, 0  0  0  By  0  By  0 ans

 xz  yz  z
 0;  0;  80 z
x y z

## Therefore, 0  0  80 z  B z  0  B z  -80 z ans

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 2.3 The state of stress at a point is given as

 x  4 x  4 y;  y  4 x  8 y;  z  4y

 xy  α  f (x , y) ;  yz  0;  zx  0

Determine α for this stress distribution to satisfy equilibrium equations in the absence of body

forces.

Solution

 x  yx  zx
  0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
  0
x y z

 xz  yz  z
  0
x y z

## Considering the first equilibrium condition, we get:

 x  yx  zx
4 ? 0
x y z

 yx  yx
Therefore, 4 00   -4
y y

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 yx    4 dy   yx  4 y  C1

## Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

 xy  y  zy
 ?;  8 ;  0;
x y z

 xy  xy
Therefore, 80  0  8
x x

 xy   8 dx   xy  8 x  C2

## We find the value of C1 and C2 based on satisfaction of the equilibrium conditions.

C1  8 x and C2  4 y . Hence,   8 x  4 y

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

2.4 The stress components at a point with reference to three planes normal to coordinates axes x, y, z

##  x  800;  y  1600;  z  400

 xy  400 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200

Determine the stress component at the point through and inclined plane whose normal is (8, 8, 4)

with reference to x, y, z axes. Also determine the normal and shear stresses on the plane.

Solution

## Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 ny   xy  y  zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  8; y  8; z4

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 8 2  8 2  4 2  R 2

R 2  144  R  12

x 8 2 y 8 2 z 4 1
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 12 3 R 12 3 R 12 3

##  nx   800  400 1200   3 

2
 
Therefore,  ny    400 1600 0   2 
3
 nz   1200 0  400  1 
 3
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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

##  nz  (1200)( 2 3 )  (0)( 2 3 )  (400)( 13 )  2000 3 MPa

 nx  
2000 MPa 
    800 MPa 
3
 ny   3
 nz  2000 MPa 
 3 

Shear stresses

      
 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3  2000 3 2 3  800 3 2 3  2000 3 13  7600 9 MPa  
2
 2
 
2
 
 R 2   nx 2   ny 2   nz 2  2000 3  800 3  2000 3  960000 MPa 
2
 7600 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 960000     496.904 MPa
 9 

2.5 The stress components at a point with reference to x, y, z co-ordinate system are

##  x  400;  y  400;  z  400

 xy  0 ;  yz  1600 x;  zx  800 y

Find the stress components at a point (4, 8, 12) on a plane whose equation is given by x  y  z  24 .

Solution

## Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 
  ny  xy y zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  4; y  8; z  12

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 4 2  8 2  12 2  R 2

R 2  224  R  4 14

x 4 1 y 8 2 z 12 3
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 4 14 14 R 4 14 14 R 4 14 14

1 
 nx   400 0 800 y   14 
    
Therefore,  ny    0 400 1600 x   2 
 14 
 nz  800 y 1600 x 400  3
 
 14 

1
 nx  (400)( 2 )  (0)( 2 )  (800 y )( 3 ) (800  2400 y) MPa
14 14 14 14

1 20000
 (800  2400  8)  MPa
14 14

1
 ny  (0)( 1 )  (400)( 2 )  (1600 x)( 3 ) (800  4800x) MPa ,
14 14 14 14

1 20000
 (800  4800  4)  MPa
14 14

1
 nz  (800 y)( 1 )  (1600x)( 2 )  (400)( 3 ) (800 y  3200x  1200) MPa
14 14 14 14

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

1 19600
 (800  8  3200  4  400)  MPa
14 14

  20000 MPa 
  
 
 nx   14

    20000  MPa 
 ny   
14  
 nz  
19600  MPa 
  
14  
 

Shear stresses

 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3   20000  1

   20000
 
 2

  19600
 
 3


 14  14   14  14   14  14 

## 20000  40000  58800 59400

   8485.71 MPa
14 7

2 2 2
 R   nx   ny   nz   20000    8000   19600   84582857.14 MPa
2 2 2 2
    
 14   14   14 

2
 59400 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 84582857.14     3546.2 MPa
 7 

2.6 The state of stress at a point for the reference system of co-ordinates x, y, z is given by

 x  800;  y  0;  z  2000

 xy  400 ;  yz  0;  zx  0

If the new set of axes x ' ; y ' ; z ' is formed by rotating x; y; z 60  about z axis. What are the

## components of stress in the new system?

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Solution

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
1 3
x'  1  cos(60)   2  sin( 60)   3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
 3
m2  cos(60) 
1
m3  cos(90)  0
y' m1  cos(  60)  
2 2 2
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

 1 3 0  1  3 0
 2 2  2 2 800 400 0 
aij   3
2
1
2

0 , aij T 
 3
2
1
2
 
0 and ij  400 0
 0 
 0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 2000
   
   

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

##  1 3 0 800 400  1  3 0

  x  xy  xz   2 2  0   2 2
     
 yx  y  yz   
3 1 0  400 0 0    3 1 0
2 2 2 2
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  0 0 2000  0 0 1
     
   

 1  3 0
 746.41 200 0   2 2  1546.41  546.4 0 
  
  492.82  346.4 0    3 1 0   546.41 253.6 0 
2 2
 0 0 2000  0 0 1  0 0 2000
 
 

##   x  xy  xz   1546.41  546.4 0 

  
 yx  y  yz    546.41 253.6 0  Mpa
 zx  zy  z   0 0 2000
 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

2.7 The stress components at point with reference to x, y , z co-ordinate axes are specified as

x  0;  y  2000 ;  z  2400

 x y  800 ;  yz  0 ;  zx  1200

## Determine the stress components in x  y z co-ordinate system which is obtaining by rotating x, y , z

about x axis by 30 
Solution

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 
m3  , aij    2 m2 n2 
T
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(90 )  0
3 1
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos(30)  m3  sin(30) 
2 2
1 3
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90  30)   n3  cos(30) 
2 2

   
1 0 0  1 0 0   0 800 1200 
 0 
aij  0 3 1  , aij T  0 3  1  and ij   800 2000
 2 2   2 2
0 3  0 3  1200 0 2400
 1 1
 2 2  2 2

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

   
  x  xy  xz  1 0 0   0 800 1200  1 0 0 
   1    800 2000
 yx  y  yz   0
3 0   0 3 1 
2 2    2 2
 zx  zy  z   3  1200 0 2400 0 3 
  0  1 1
 2 2  2 2

 
  x  xy  xz   0 800 1200  1 0 0 
  
 yx  y  yz    0 1292.82 1732.05   0 3 1 
 2 2
 zx  zy  z  639.23  1000 2078.46  3 
  0 1
 2 2

##   x  xy  xz   0 1292.82 639.23 

   
 yx  y  yz   1292.82 2100 173.205
 zx  zy  z   639.23 173.205 2300 
 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

2.8 Determine the values and the directions of principle stresses for the following state of stress at a

point

##  xy  2000 ;  yz  1200 ;  zx  400

Solution

Stress invariants;

## I1   x   y   z  800  1200  200  200

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

##  x  xy  x z   800 2000  400

 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000  1200 1200 

 zx  zy  z   400 1200 200 
 

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

(200) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (6.64  106 )  6, 653, 333.333
3 3

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## 2(200) 3 (200)(6.64  106 )

3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (3.872  109 )  4315259259
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  6653333.333
  r   2978.441
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  4315259259 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    43.6
r3 3  r  3  2978.4413 

## Principle stresses are as follow

 1   1   m  2157 
200
 2090.33 MPa
3

 2   2   m  700.3 
200
 633.63 MPa
3

 3   3   m  2857.28 
200
 2923.95 MPa
3

Done by Maged Mohammed
mm.almaged@gmail.com Page 33
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

##  x   1   yx  zx  800  2090.33 2000  400 

  xy  y  1   zy
 
 2000  1200  2090.33 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   1    400 1200 200  2090.33

##  1290.33 2000  400 

  2000  3290.33 1200 
  400 1200  1890.33

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   3290.33 1890.33  12002  4779809.509
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 1890.33   4001200  3300660
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001200   400 3290.33  1076132
y

 xz  yz 

A 4779809.509
1    0.809
R 5907537.174

B  3300660
2    0.559
R 5907537.174

C  1076132
3    0.182
R 5907537.174

##  1   1   1  0809    0.559    0.182   1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Done by Maged Mohammed
mm.almaged@gmail.com Page 34
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

##  x   2   yx  zx  800  633.63 2000  400 

  xy  y   2   zy    2000  1200  633.63 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   2    400 1200 200  633.63

## 166.37 2000  400 

  2000  1833.63 1200 
  400 1200  433.63

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   1833.63 433.63  12002  644883.023
2

 z   2 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 433.63   4001200  387260
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001200   400 1833.63  1666548
y

 xz  yz 

A  644883.023
m1    0.353
R 1828449.249

B  387260
m2    0.212
R 1828449.249

C 1666548
m3    0.911
R 1828449.249

## m1  m2  m3   0.353    0.212   0.911  0.999474  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Done by Maged Mohammed
mm.almaged@gmail.com Page 35
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

##  x   3   yx  zx  800  2923.95 2000  400 

  xy  y   3   zy    2000  1200  2923.95 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   3    400 1200 200  2923.95

## 3723.95 2000  400 

  2000 1723.95 1200 

  400 1200 3123.95

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy  1723.953123.95  12002  3945533.603
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           20003123.95   4001200  1104790
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001200   4001723.95  929580
y

 xz  yz 

A 3945533.603
n1    0.939
R 4201418.253

B 1104790
n2    0.263
R 4201418.253

C 929580
n3    0.221
R 4201418.253

## n1  n2  n3  0.939   0.263   0.221  0.999843  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Done by Maged Mohammed
mm.almaged@gmail.com Page 36
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Angles of inclinations

## n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.221)  77.23

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 2.9 If stress components in x, y, z system are

 x  0;  y  2000;  z  2400

 xy  800 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200

Calculate the principle stresses and the angle of inclinations of the principle planes on which

they act.

Solution

Stress invariants;

## I1   x   y   z  0  2000  2400  4400

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

##  (0)(2000)  (2000)(2400)  (0)(200)  (800) 2  (0) 2  (1200) 2  2.72  10 6

 x  xy  xz   0 800 1200 
   
I 3  det  yx y  yz   det  800 2000 0 
   
 zx  zy  z  1200 0 2400

 0 (2000)(2400) 
800 (800)(2400)  (1200)(0) 
1200 (800)(0)  (1200)(2000)  4.416  109

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (4400) 2
J2   I2   (2.72  106 )  4183333.333
3 3

## 2(4400) 3 (4400)(2.72  106 )

3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (4.416  109 )  1435407407
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  4183333.333
  r   2361.732
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  1435407407 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    38.61
r3 3  r  3  2361.7323 

## Principle stresses are as follow

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1   1   m  1845.408 
4400
 3312 MPa
3

 2   2   m  353.7 
4400
 1820.4 MPa
3

 3   3   m  2199.1 
4400
 732.4 MPa
3

## Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

##  x   1   yx  zx  800  3312 2000  400 

  xy  y  1   zy
 
   2000  1200  3312 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   1    400 1200 200  3312

##  2512 2000  400 

  2000  4512 1200 

  400 1200  3112

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   4512 3112  12002  12601344
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 3112   4001200  5744000
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001200   400 4512  595200
y

 xz  yz 

## R  A 2  B2  C 2  12601344 2   5744000 2  595200 2  13861517 .58

A 12601344
1    0.909
R 13861517.58

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

B  5744000
2    0.414
R 13861517.58

C 595200
3    0.043
R 13861517.58

##  1   1   1  0.909    0.414   0.043   0.999526  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

##  x   2   yx  zx  800  1820.4  2000  400 

  xy  y   2   zy    2000  1200  1820.4 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   2    400 1200 200  1820.4

##  1020.4 2000  400 

  2000  3020.4 1200 
  400 1200  1620.4

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   3020.4 1620.4  12002  3454256.16
2

  zy  z   2 

  zy 
B   xy           2000 1620.4   4001200  2760800
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001200   400 3020.4  1191840
y

 xz  yz 

## R  A 2  B2  C 2  3454256 .16 2   2760800 2  1191840 2  4579780

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

A 3454256.16
m1    0.754
R 4579780

B  2760800
m2    0.603
R 4579780

C 1191840
m3    0.260
R 4579780

## m1  m2  m3  0.754    0.603   0.260   0.999725  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

##  x   3   yx  zx  800  732.4  2000  400 

  xy  y   3   zy    2000  1200  732.4 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   3    400 1200 200  732.4

## 1532.4 2000  400

  2000  467.6 1200 
  400 1200 932.4 

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy   467.4932.4  12002  1875803.76
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000932.4   4001200  2344800
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001200   400 467.4  2213040
y

 xz  yz 

## R  A 2  B2  C 2   1875803 .76 2  2344800 2  2213040 2  3229673 .43

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

A  1875803.76
n1    0.503
R 3229673.74

B 2344800
n2    0.629
R 3229673.74

C 2213040
n3    0.593
R 3229673.74

## n1  n2  n3   0.503   0.629   0.593   1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Angles of inclinations

## n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.593)  53.6

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## Show that principle directions of stress and deviatoric stress coincide

Find a relation between the principle values of stress and deviatoric stress

Solution

Stress invariants;

## I1   x   y   z  2400  1200  3600  7200

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

##  x  xy  x z   2400 2000  800

 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000 1200 1600 
 zx  zy  z   800 1600 3600 
 

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (7200) 2
J2   I2   (8.64  106 )  8640000
3 3

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 2(7200) 3 (7200)(8.64  106 )

3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (1.6064  1010 )  9.152  109
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  8640000
  r   3394.113
r2 4 3 3

1  4J 3  1  4  9.152  10 
9
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos    53.144
r 3  r  3  3394.113 

## Principle stresses are as follow

 1   1   m  2035.8 
7200
 4435.8 MPa
3

 2   2   m  1334.03 
7200
 3734.03 MPa
3

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 3   3   m  3369.84 
7200
 969.84 MPa
3

## Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

##  x   1   yx  zx  2400  4435.8 2000  800 

  xy  y  1   zy
 
 2000 1200  4435.8 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   1    800 1600 3600  4435.8

##  2035.8 2000  800 

  2000  3235.8 1600 
  800 1600  835.8

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   3235.8 835.8  16002  144481.64
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 835.8   8001600  391600
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001600   800 3235.8  611360
y

 xz  yz 

## R  A 2  B2  C 2  144481 .64 2   391600 2  611360 2  740261 .14

A 144481.64
1    0.195
R 740261.14

B  391600
2    0.529
R 740261.14

C 611360
3    0.826
R 740261.14

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

##  1   1   1  0.195    0.529   0.826   1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

##  x   2   yx  zx  2400  3734.03 2000  800 

  xy  y   2   zy     
2000 1200  3734.03 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   2    800 1600 3600  3734.03

##  1334.03 2000  800 

  2000  2534.03 1600 
  800 1600  134.03

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   2534.03 134.03  16002  2220363.96
2

 z   2 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 134.03   8001600  1011940
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001600   800 2534.03  1172776
y

 xz  yz 

A  2220363.96
m1    0.820
R 2707294.263

B 1011940
m2    0.37
R 2707294.263

C 1172776
m3    0.433
R 2707294.263

## m1  m2  m3   0.820   0.37   0.433   0.997  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK
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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

##  x   3   yx  zx  2400  969.84 2000  800 

  xy  y   3   zy    2000
 
1200  969.84 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   3    800 1600 3600  969.84

## 3369.84 2000  800 

  2000 2169.84 1600 
  800 1600 4569.84

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy  2169.844569.84  16002  7355821.626
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           20004569.84   8001600  10419680
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001600   8002169.84  4935872
y

 xz  yz 

A 7355821.626
n1    0.538
R 13676281.49

B 10419680
n2    0.762
R 13676281.49

C 4935872
n3    0.361
R 13676281.49

## n1  n2  n3  0.538   0.762   0.361  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Angles of inclinations

## n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.221)  77.23

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2.11 Find the shear stress at the point on the plane whose normal is (8, 8, 4) and the maximum shear

stress at the point if the stress components at that point are given as follow:

##  x  1200;  y  800;  z  1600

 xy  0 ;  yz  0;  zx  0

Solution:

## Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 
  ny  xy y zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  8; y  8; z4

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 8 2  8 2  4 2  R 2

R 2  144  R  12

x 8 2 y 8 2 z 4 1
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 12 3 R 12 3 R 12 3

 nx  1200 0 0 2 3 
 
Therefore,  ny    0  800 0   2 
3
 nz   0 0 1600  1 
 3

##  ny  (800)( 2 3 )   1600 3 MPa ,  nz  (160 \ 00)( 13 )  1600 3 MPa

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 nx   800 MPa 
    1600 MPa 
 ny   3
 nz   1600 MPa 
 3 

## Normal Shear stress

       
 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3  800 2 3   1600 3 2 3  1600 3 13  3200 9 MPa

  
 R 2   nx 2   ny 2   nz 2  8002   1600 3  1600 3  1208888.889 MPa
2 2

2
 3200 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 1208888.889     1040.42 MPa
 9 

## Maximum Shear Stress

Since shear stress in the problem above are all equal to zero so that means the stresses given are

##  1  1600 MPa   2  1200 MPa   3  800 MPa

 12  
 1   2    1600  1200   200 MPa
2 2

 23  
 2   3    1200  800   1000 MPa
2 2

 13  
 1   3    1600  800   1200 MPa
2 2

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2.12 Show that the normal stress on the octahedral plane is given by one third of first invariant of the

stress.

## Show that the shear stress on the octahedral plane is given by

s 
1
3

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 1
2

## Where  1 ,  2 ,  3 are principle stresses?

Solution

  n   nx  1   ny  2   zx  3

  1 1   2  2   3 3
2 2 2
.............................................(1)

 1  1  1  1
2 2 2

Since the octahedral plane is inclined at equal angles to the coordinate axes, hence

1
1   2   3   Then substitute in equation (1)
3

1 2 1 2 1 2
 octa   1 12   2  2 2   3 3 2   1 ( )   2 ( )   3 ( )
3 3 3

  1   2   3   1   2   3 
1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3

## Shear stress on the octahedral plane

 R 2   12  12   2 2  2 2   3 2  3 2 
3

1 2
 1   2 2   32 

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 oct 2   R 2   octa 2

3
 1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   1   2   3 2
1 2

1 2
3
 1
 
 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3
9

3
 1
9
  1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
1 2

9
 1
9

 1   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
2 2

9
 1
9
  1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
1 2

9

1 2 1
9
  1
 
 1  2  1  2   2 2   2 2  2  2 3   3 2   12  2  1  3   3 2
9

1
 1   2 2  1  2   3 2  1  1   3 2
9 9 9

1
9

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 

 oct 
1
3

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 
1
2

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CHAPTER THREE

Strain in Solid

(13 Questions)

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

3.1 If the displacement components of a points (12, 4,-8) are given by the expressions

u  4x 2  4 y;   12  4 z; w  4x 2  8 y

Solution

## u  x  x  x  u  x  4 x 2  4 y  x  4(12) 2  4(4)  12  604

v  y  y  y  v  y  12  4 z  y  12  4(8)  4  16

## The new coordinates of deformation are (604, -16, 600)

3.2 Assuming the displacement field given in problem (3.1), determine the distance between the points

## P (0, 0, 4) and Q (8, 0,-1) after deformation.

u  4x 2  4 y;   12  4 z; w  4x 2  8 y

Solution

## x  u  x  4 x 2  4 y  x  4(12) 2  4(0)  0  576

y  v  y  12  4 z  y  12  4(4)  0  28

## P( x , y  , z  )  P( 576 , 28 , 580 )

 Q( 8 , 0 ,  4 )  Q( x   x , y   y , z   z )

x  x  8   x  8 x Thus ,  x  8  0  8

y y  0  x  0 x Thus ,  x  0  0  0

z   z   4   z  4  z Thus ,  x  4  4  8

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 u u u 
 z    x 
 u   x y   x   u   x 
 v    v v v   
y  y   v   y 
   x And
y z     
w  w w w    z   z    w   z 
 
 x y z 

u u u u
 8x   8(0)  0 ,  4, 0
x x y z
v v v
0 ,  0, 4
x y z
w w w w
 8x   8(0)  0 ,  4, 0
x x y z

 u   0 4 0   8   u  0   x   u   x  0  8  8
      
 v    0 0 4   0   v  32  Therefore,  y   v   y  32  0  32
      
w 0 4 0  8  w  0   z    w   z  0  8  8

## Q( x   x , y   y , z    z  )  Q(576  8 , 28 - 32 , 580 - 8)

 Q(584 , - 4 , 572)

## PQ  S  x2  y2  z2  (8) 2  (32) 2  (8) 2  33.94

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## u  0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z

  0.04 y  0.12 z
w  0.08 x  0.04 z

Determine the increase in the distance between two points (0, 4, 0) and (8,-4, 12). Also find out the

elongation per unit length in y direction of a line segment at (4, 12, 8). Adopt lagrangian description.

Solution

## z  w  x  z   0.08 x  0.04 z  z  z   0.08 x  1.04 z

z   0.08(0)  1.04(0)  0

x  u  x and x  8  0  8

y   v  y and y  4  4  8

z   w  z and z  12  0  12

 u u u 
 u    x 
   x y z   
   v v v   
 v     y 
   x y z   
    
w  w w w   
  z 
 x y z 

Done by Maged Mohammed
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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

u  u 
 (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.24 ,  (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.2
x x y y
u 
 (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.04
z z

v  v 
 (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0 ,  (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0.04
x x y y
v 
 (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0.12
z z

w  w 
 (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0.08 ,  (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0
x x y y
w 
 (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0.04
z z

##  u   0.24 0 .2 0.04   8   u  0.08 

      
      
 v    0 0.04  0.12  8   v  1.76 
      
      
w  0.08 0 0.04   12  w  0.16

## x  u  x  0.08  8  8.08

y   v  y  1.76  8  9.76

z   w  z  0.16  12  11.84

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

3.4 The co-ordinates of a point in a structure after deformation due to loading are given by :

x  4 x  12y ; y  4 y  20x

Calculate lagrangian and Eulerian finite strain components. State whether the values obtained on

bases of small deformation theory would have been sufficient in this case.

Solution

## Lagrangian components strain

u  x  x  4 x  12y - x  3x  12 y

v  y  y  4 y  20x - y  3 y  20 x

 u u   u v 
   x 
J    xv yv  J T   ux v 
   
 x y   y y 
u  u 
 (3 x  12 y )  3  (3 x  12 y )  12
x x y y
v  v 
 (3 y  20x )  20  (3 y  20x )  3
x x y y
3 12 3 20 3 12  3 20  6 32
J     J T    J   J   
T
   
20 3  12 3  20 3  12 3  32 6 

## 3 12  3 20 153 96 

J  J T      
20 3  12 3   96 409

##  6 32 153 96   79.5 64 

1
2
 T T 1 
L  J   J   J   J   
2 
 
 
  
 

32 6   96 409 
  64 206

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## Eulerian components strain

u  3 x  12 y
v  3 y  20 x
 u u   u v 
 x   x 
K    v yv  K T   ux v 
   
 x y   y y 
u  u 
 (3 x  12 y)  3  (3 x  12 y)  12
x x y y
v  v 
 (3 y  20x )  20  (3 y  20x )  3
x x y y
3 12 3 20 3 12  3 20  6 32
J     JT    J   J   
T
   
20 3  12 3  20 3  12 3  32 6 

## 3 12  3 20 153 96 

J  JT      
20 3  12 3   96 409

##  6 32 153 96   79.5 64 

L
1
 
J   J T  J  J T  1 
2 32
    
2
 6   96 409   64 206

Based on the values obtained from the small deformation we can conclude that they are sufficient in

this case.

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 3.5 For the displacement field given by:

 
u  4 x 2  8 y 2 z  4 yz  10-2
  4 xy  4 xz  12 x z  10 2 -2

w  16 y  8 z  10
3 2 -2

Determine

Solution

## (a) Lagrangian finite strain components

 u u u 
 x y z 

J    v v v 
x y z 
 w w w 
 
 x y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  102
y
 16 yz  4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y 2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x 2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y 2  16 z  10 2
x x x

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 8x 16 yz  4 z 8y 2  4 y 
 
J  4 y  4 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2   102
 
 0 48 y 2 16 z 

 8x 4 y  4 z  24 xz 0 
 
JT  16 yz  4 z 4x 48 y 2 
 
 8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2 16 z 

 8x 16 yz  4 z 8y 2  4 y   8 x 4 y  4 z  24 xz 0  
    
 
J  JT  4 y  4 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2   16 yz  4 z 4x 48 y 2    10
2

    
 0 48 y 2 16 z   8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2 16 z  

Assuming that A  8 x , B  4 y  4 z  24 xz ; C  16 yz  4 z; D  48 y 2 ; E  8y 2  4 y;
F  4 x  24 x 2 ; G  16 z

A C D  A B 0   2A BC D 
      
J  JT   B 0.5A F   C 0 .5 A E   10  B  C A E  F
      
 0 E G   D F G    D EF 2G 

A C D  A B 0 
    
J JT

  B 0.5A F   C 0 .5 A E   10
2

    
 0 E G   D F G  

 A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG 
 
  AB  0.5 AC  DF 0.5 AE  FG   10 2

B 2  0.5 A2  F 2
 
 CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2 

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L
1
2

K   K T  K  K T 

 2 A BC D   A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG  
1   
E  F    AB  0.5 AC  DF

  B  C A B 2  0.5 A 2  F 2 0.5 AE  FG    10 2
2

 D EF 2G   CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2  

 A 2  2A  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C CE  DG  D 
1  
 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C B 2  0.5A 2  A  F 2 0.5AE  FG  E  F 10 2
2
 CE  DG  D 0.5AE  FG  E  F E 2  G 2  2G 

## (b) Eulerian finite strain components

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz   4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y2  16 z   10 2
x x x

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 8x 16 y z   4 z  8y  2  4 y  
K   4 y   4 z   24 x z  4x

4 x   24 x  2   10  2
 0 48 y  2 16 z  

 8x 4 y   4 z   24 x z  0 
K   16 y z   4 z  4 x 48 y  2 
T

 8y  2  4 y  4 x   24 x  2 16 z  

K   K T
 8x 16 y z   4 z  8y  2  4 y    8x 4 y   4 z   24 x z  0 
  
 4 y   4 z   24 x z  4x 4 x   24 x  2   16 y z   4 z  4x 48 y  2    10  2
 0 48 y  2 16 z    8y  2  4 y  4 x   24 x  2 16 z   


Assuming that A  8 x  , B  4 y   4 z   24 x z  ; C  16 y z   4 z ; D  48 y  2 ; E  8y  2  4 y ;
F  4 x   24 x  2 ; G  16 z 

A C D  A B 0   2A BC D 
 
K   K    B 0.5A F   C 0.5 A E    10   B  C
   E  F 
T
A
 0 G   D G    D EF 2G 
 E F

A C D  A B 0 
 
K   K    B 0.5A F   C 0.5 A E    10 2
 
T 

 0 G   D G  
 E F

 A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG 
  
  AB  0.5 AC  DF B  0.5 A  F
2 2 2
0.5 AE  FG   10 2
 CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2 

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L
1
2

J   J T  J  J T 

 2 A BC D   A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG  
   
1  
E  F    AB  0.5 AC  DF 0.5 AE  FG    10 2

  B  C A B 2  0. 5 A 2  F 2
2    
 D EF 2G   CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2  

 A 2  2A  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C CE  DG  D 
1 
 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C 0.5AE  FG  E  F  10 2

B 2  0.5A 2  A  F 2
2 
 CE  DG  D 0.5AE  FG  E  F E 2  G 2  2G 

## (c) lagrangian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz  4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y 2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x 2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y 2  16 z  10 2
x y z

u v
  (16 yz  4 z  4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2  (16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz)  10 2
y x
v w

z y

 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2 
u w

z x

 8y 2  4 y  10 2 

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 8x 16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz 8y 2  4 y 
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal  16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2   10 2
 
 8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2 16 z 
 
(d) Eulerian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
Eulerian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz   4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z

 4 x  24 x2  10 2
w w w
0  48 y2  16 z   10 2
x y z

u v
  (16 yz   4 z   4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2  (16 yz   4 y  8 z   24 xz )  10 2
y x
v w

z y

 4 x  24 x2  48 y2 
u w

z x

 8y2  4 y  10 2 

##  8 x 16 yz   4 y  8 z   24 xz  8y2  4 y 

 
 Eulerian infinitesi mal  16 yz  4 y  8 z   24 xz  4 x 4 x  24 x2  48 y2   10 2
 
 8y2  4 y 4 x  24 x2  48 y2 16 z  
 

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 3.6 If the displacement field at a point is specified as follows:

u  C 8 x 2  4 xy ;    C4 y2; W 0

Where C is constant

Solution

## (a) Write down the co-ordinates of the point after deformation.

x  u  x  C (8 x 2  4 xy)  x
y  v  y  C 4 y 2  y
z  w  z  z

## (b) Lagrangian finite strain components

 u u u 
 x y z 

J    v v v 
x y z 
 w w w 
 
 x y z 

u u u
 C (16 x  4 y )  4Cy 0
x y z
v v v
0  8Cy 0
x y z
w w w
0 0 0
x x x

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0
   
J   C  0 8y 0 J T  C  4y 8y 0
   
 0 0 0  0 0 0

## 16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0  32 x  8 y 4y 0

      
J   J T  C  0 8y 0   4 y 8y 0   C  4y 16 y 0
      
 0 0 0  0 0 0   0 0 0

 16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0 
     
J  J T  C  0 8y 0  C  4 y 8y 0 
     
  0 0 0  0 0 0 

16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2 32 y 2 0
 
 C2  32 y 2 64 y 2 0
 
 0 0 0

L
1
2

J   J T  J  J T 
 32 x  8 y 4y 0 16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2 32 y 2 0 
     
1 
 C  4 y 16 y 0  C 2  32 y 2 64 y 2 0 
2     
  0 0 0  0 0 0 

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L
1
2
 
J   J T  J  J T 

## C 32 x  8 y   C 2 16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2  32C 2 y 2  4Cy 0

1 
  32C 2 y 2  4 yC 64C 2 y 2  16Cy 0
2 
 0 0 0

## (c) Determine lagrangian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 x  
 E xx E xy E xz  y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesi mal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
 C (16 x  4 y )  4Cy 0
x y z
v v v
0  8Cy 0
x y z
w w w
0 0 0
x x x

u v
  4Cy
y x
v w
 0
z y
u w
 0
z x

C (16 x  4 y ) 4Cy 0
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal   4Cy 8Cy 0
 
 0 0 0

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## (d) State whether compatibility conditions are satisfied

u u v
εx   C (16 x  4 y ) γ xy    4Cy
x y x
v v w
εy   8Cy γ yz   0
y z y
w u w
εz  0 γ xz   0
z z x

## The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y
 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z2  y 2 y z
 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z
 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 
 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 
 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

## By considering equation (1)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε y   ε y  
 
  4C 
  4C   0 ,    16C   16C   0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
 x  x  y
 2 γ xy   γ xy      
     (4cy)   4 y   0
x y  x   y   x   y  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

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## By considering equation (2)

 2ε y   ε y       2ε z   ε z  
     (8Cy )   0  0 ,    0   0  0
z 2
 z  z   z  z y 2
 y y  y
 2 γ yz  γ yz  

  0   0  0
y z  y   z  y
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

## By considering equation (3)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   0  0  0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
z z  z x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   0  0  0
x z  x   z  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

## By considering equation (4)

Left - Side
 2ε x    εx  
2 2   0  2 0  0
y z y  z  y
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
      0  0  0   0  0
x  x y z  x x
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

## By considering equation (5)

Left - Side
 2ε y    εy  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x z x  z  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
y  x y z  y y
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

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## By considering equation (5)

Left - Side
 2ε z    εz  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x y x  y  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
z  x y z  z z
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Thus, the above compatibility conditions are satisfied by the above compatibility equations.

## 3.7 At a point in a continuum, the deformation are given as:

u  12 x 2 z ;   16 y 3 z; w  4 x 3  4 y 4

Determine the strain components based on infinitesimal strain theory and explain the state of the
strain.

## Check whether the compatibility conditions are satisfied

Solution

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 
u u u u v
 24 xz 0  12 x 2  0
x y z y x
v v v v w
0  48 y 2 z  16 y 3   16 y 3  16 y 3  0
x y z z y
w w w u w
 12 x 2  16 y 3 0   12 x 2  12 x 2  0
x y z z x

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24 xz 0 0
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal   0 48 y 2 z 0
 
 0 0 0

Based on the determined strains, we can see that the shear strains are zeros as well as the strain

component at z direction.

## Check for the compatibility conditions

u u v
εx   24 xz γ xy   0
x y x
v v w
εy   48 y 2 z γ yz    16 y 3  16 y 3  0
y z y
w u w
εz  0 γ xz    12 x 2  12 x 2  0
z z x

## The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y
 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z 2  y 2 y z
 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z
 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 
 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2 
    ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 
 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

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## By considering equation (1)

    2ε y
 2ε x
  24 xz    0  0 , 
  
    
48 y 2 z   0  0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xy   γ xy      

    (0)   0  0
x y  x   y   x   y   x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

## By considering equation (2)

 2ε y   ε y        2ε z   ε z  
 z2
    
 z  z   z z
(48 y 2 z )   
48 y 2  0 ,     0   0  0
 z y  y y  y
2

 2 γ yz  γ yz  

  0   0  0
y z  y   z   y
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

## By considering equation (3)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   24 x   24 x   0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
z z  z x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   0  0  0
x z  x   z  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

## By considering equation (4)

Left - Side
 2ε x    εx  
2 2   24 x   2 24 x   0
y z y  z  y
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
      0  0  0   0  0
x  x y z  x x
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## By considering equation (5)

Left - Side
 2ε y    εy  
2
x z
2
x


 48 y 2   2

48 y 2  0 
 z  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
y  x y z  y y
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

## By considering equation (5)

Left - Side
 2ε z    εz  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x y x  y  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
z  x y z  z z
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Thus, the above compatibility conditions are satisfied by the above compatibility equations.

Done by Maged Mohammed
mm.almaged@gmail.com Page 75
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 3.8 The infinitesimal strain component at a point are given as

ε x  4x2 ; εy  0; εz  4y2 ;

γ xy  4 y 2 ; γ yz  4 x ; γ xz  4 x z ;

Solution

## The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y

 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z2  y 2 y z

 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z

 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 

 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 

 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

## By considering equation (1)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε y   ε y  
   0   0  0 ,    0   0  0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
xx  y

 2 γ xy   γ xy  
   8 y   8 y   0
x y x  y  x

Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## By considering equation (2)

 2ε y   ε y    2ε z   ε z  
   0   0  0 ,    8 y   8 y   8
 z2 zz  z y 2
 y y  y

 2 γ yz   γ yz  
   0   0  0
y z  y z  y

## Therefore , 080 Not - Satisfied 

By considering equation (3)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   0  0  0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
zz  z x 2
xx  x

 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   4x   4 x   4
x z  x   z  x

## Therefore , 08 4 Not - Satisfied 

By considering equation (4)

Left - Side

 2ε x    εx  
2 2   0  2 0  0
y z y  z  y

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
       4  0  0    4  0
x  x y z  x x

## Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## By considering equation (5)

Left - Side

 2ε y    εy  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x z x  z  x

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     4  0  0   4  0
y  x y z  y y

## Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

By considering equation (5)

Left - Side

 2ε z    εz  
2 2   8 y   2 8 y   0
x y x  y  x

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     4  0  0   4  0
z  x y z  z z

## Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Thus, the above compatibility conditions are not satisfied by the above equilibrium Strain.

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

3.9 The strain components at a point in a continuum with respect to co-ordinates system are given as

follows

ε x  0.08 ; ε y  0.12 ; εz  0 ;

γ xy  0.04; γ yz  0.016 ; γ xz  0 ;

Determine the strain components in a different co-ordinates system x ' ; y ' ; z ' which was obtained

## through rotating xyz system about y axis by an angle of 45 

Solution

   aij    aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 
m3  , aij    2 m2 n2 
T
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(45)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(45)  1
2 2
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos(0)  1 m3  cos(90 )  0

## z' n1  cos(135)   1 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(45)  1

2 2

 1 0 1  1 0  1 
 2 2  2 2
aij    0 1 0  , aij T  0 1 0 
 1 1  1 
 0 0 1
2 2   2 2 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   1 1  1 0  1 
2  0.08 0.02 0 
2 2 0
1   2 2 2
0   0.02 0.12 0   0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0 1 1 0 
2 2   1 1   0  
 0   0.08 0  1 0 1
1 γ ε z    2 
1
γ zy 2 2  2
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 0.0566  0.0424 0   1 2 0  1 2 
1 
γ yz    0.02  0.08   0
1
 γ yx ε y 0.12 1 0 
2 2   1 
 0.0566  0.071 0   0 1
1 γ  2 
1
γ zy ε z  2
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
 0.042  0.04
 
2 2 0.04
1
 0.07
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.042 0.12
2 2  
1 γ   0.04  0.07 0.04 
ε z 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

1
ε x  0.04 γ xy  0.042  γ xy  0.084
2

1
ε y  0.12 γ xz  0.04  γ xy  0.08
2

1
ε z  0.04 γ yz  0.07  γ xy  0.14
2

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## 3.10 The strain components at a point are:

ε x  12  10 3 ; ε y  4  10 3 ; ε z  8  10 3 ;

γ xy  20  10 3 ; γ yz  0 ; γ xz  40  10 3 ;

Determine

Solution

## (a) Stress invariants;

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  12  10 3  4  10 3  8  10 3  24  10 3

1
I2  ε xε y  ε yε z  ε xε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

##  (12  10 3 )(4  10 3 )  (4  10 3 )(8  10 3 )  (12  10 3 )(8  10 3 )

1
4
 
(20  10 3 ) 2  (0) 2  (40  10 3 ) 2  3.24  10 4

 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz 
0.012 0.01 0.02 
1 
γ yz   det  0.01 0.004 0 
1
I 3  det  γ yx εy
2 2   0.02
1 γ 0 0.008
εz 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 0.012 (0.004)(0.008)) 

## 0.02 (0.01)(0)  (0.02)(0.004)  2.016  10 6

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

(24  10 3 ) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (3.24  10 4 )  5.16  10 4
3 3

## 2(24  10 3 ) 3 (24  10 3 )(3.24  10 4 )

3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (2.016  10 6 )  1.6  10 6
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  5.16  10 4
  r   0.02622975
r2 4 3 3

1  4  1.6  10 
6
1  4J 3 
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos    23.08
3 
r 3  r  3  0.02622975 

## (b) Principle Strains

 24  10 3
ε1  ε1  ε m  0.02413   0.03213
3

 24  10 3
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  0.00316   4.838  10 3
3

 24  10 3
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  0.02097   0.01297
3

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## (c) Maximum shear strain

γ12  ε1  ε 2    0.03213  4.838  10 3   0.027292
 
γ 23  ε 2  ε 3    4.838  10 3  0.01297   0.017808

## γ13  ε1  ε 3   0.03213  0.01297    0.0451

3.11 Determine the principle strains and the directions of principle axes for the following state of

strain at a point.

ε x  4  10 3 ; ε y  4.8  10 3 ; ε z  14  10 3 ;

Solution

## (d) Stress invariants;

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  4  10 3  4.8  10 3  14  10 3  13 .2  10 3

1
I 2  ε x ε y  ε y ε z  ε x ε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

##  (4  10 3 )(4.8  10 3 )  (4.8  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (4  10 3 )(14  10 3 )

1
4
 
(6.8  10 3 ) 2  (3.2  10 3 ) 2  (9.2  10 3 ) 2  6.568  10 5

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz 
 4  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
1 1   
I 3  det  γ yx εy γ yz   det 3.4  10 3  4.8  10 3 1.6  10 3 
2 2  4.6  10 3
1 γ  1.6  10 3 14  10 3 
εz 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 4  10 3 (4.8  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (1.6  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 )  
 
3.4  10 3 (3.4  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (4.6  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 ) 

 
4.6  10 3 (3.4  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 )  (4.6  10 3 )(4.8  10 3 )  2.89264  10 7

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

(13.2  10 3 ) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (6.568  10 5 )  1.2376  10 4
3 3
3
2 I1 I I
J3   1 2  I3
27 3

## 2(13.2  10 3 ) 3 (13.2  10 3 )(6.568  10 5 )

   (2.89264  10 7 )  1.70096  10 7
27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  1.2376  10 4
  r   0.01284575
r2 4 3 3

1  4  1.70096  10 
7
1  4J 3 
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos     23.8
 r  3
3
r 3  0.01284575 

## ε3  r  cosθ  120   0.01284575 cos23 .8  120   0.01037

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## (e) Principle Strains

3
 24  10
ε1  ε1  ε m  0.02413   0.03213
3

 24  10 3
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  0.00316   4.838  10 3
3

 24  10 3
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  0.02097   0.01297
3

Direction cosines of ε 1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

 
 x   1 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  32.13)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  1 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  32.13)  10 3
1.6  10 3

 2 2   3 
 1γ   4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  32.13)  10 
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   1 
2 

##  28.13  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 

 
  3.4  10 3  36.93  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  18.13  10 3 

 y   1 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   1   z   1   γ zy
2 1 2
A
1
 γ zy  z   1  4
 2 

  
  36.93  10 3  18.13  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  6.67  10 4

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1 1 
 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   1   γ xz γ zy
1
B  2 2
1
 γ xz  z   1  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3  18.3  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  6.9002  10 5

1
 γ xy    1  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   1 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3  36.93  10 3  1.7532  10 4

## R  A 2  B2  C 2  6.67  10    6.9002  10   1.7532  10 

4 2 5 2 4 2
 6.931  10 4

A 6.67  10 4
1    0.962
R 6.931 10 4

B  6.9002  10 5
2    0.099
R 6.931  10 4

C 1.7532  10 4
3    0.253
R 6.931  10 4

##  1   1   1  0.962    0.099   0.253   0.999254  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

 
 x   2 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  4.838)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  2 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  4.838)  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 2 2   3 
 1γ   4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  4.838)  10 
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   2 
2 

##  0.838  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 

 
  3.4  10 3  9.638  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 9.162  10 3 

 y   2 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   2   z   2   γ zy
2 1 2
A

1
γ zy  z   2  4
 2 

  
  9.638  10 3 9.162  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  9.086  10 5

1 1 
 2 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   2   γ xz γ zy
2 1
B
1
 γ xz  z   2  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3 9.162  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  2.37908  10 5

1
 γ xy    2  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   2 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3  9.638  10 3  4.97748  10 5

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## R  A 2  B2  C 2   9.086  10   2.37908  10   4.97748  10 

5 2 5 2 5 2
 1.062971 10 4

A  9.086  10 5
m1    0.855
R 1.062971 10 4

B 2.37908  10 5
m2    0.224
R 1.062971 10 4

C 4.97748  10 5
m3    0.468
R 1.062971 10 4

## m1  m1  m1   0.855   0.224   0.468   1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

 
 x   3 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  10.37)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  3 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  10.37)  10 3
1.6  10 3

 2 2  
4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  10.37)  10 3 
 1γ
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   3  
2 

## 14.37  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 

 
  3.4  10 3 5.57  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 24.37  10 3 

 y   3 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   3   z   3   γ zy
2 1 2
A
1
 γ zy  z   3  4
 2 

  
 5.57  10 3 24.37  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  1.331809  10 4

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1 1 
 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   3   γ xz γ zy
1
B  2 2
1
 γ xz  z   3  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3 24.37  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  7.5498  10 5

1
 γ xy    3  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   3 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3 5.57  10 3  2.0182  10 5

## R  A 2  B2  C 2  1.331809  10   7.5498  10    2.0182  10 

4 2 5 2 5 2
 1.544164  10 4

A 1.331809  10 4
n1    0.862
R 1.544164  10 4

B 7.5498  10 5
n2    0.489
R 1.544164  10 4

C  2.0182  10 5
n3    0.131
R 1.544164  10 4

## n1  n2  n3  0.862   0.489    0.131  0.996  1

2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Angles of inclinations

## n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.131)  98

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## ε x  0.08 ; ε y  0.08 ; ε z  0.16 ;

γ xy  0.04; γ yz  0.12; γ xz  0 ;

Determine the octahedral normal strain and the octahedral shear strain.

Solution:

## εx  εy  εz 0.08  0.08  0.16

ε oct    0.053
3 3

γ oct 
2
3
 
ε x - ε y 2  ε y - ε z 2  ε x - ε z 2  6 γ xy 2  γ yz 2  γ xz 2 
1
2

2
3
 
0.8  0.82  - 0.8 - 0.162  0.08 - 0.162  6 0.04 2  0.12 2  0 2 
1
2

 0.2872

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## 3.13 Strain at a point (8, 4,-4 ) are giving by:

εx  4 ; εy  8; ε z  4 ;

γ xy  0; γ yz  2; γ xz  0.4 ;

Determine
(a) Strain components after rotation

## (d) Octahedral strain

Solution

   aij    aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 m3  , aij T   2 m2 n2 
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos( 20 )  0.94 m3  cos(70 )  0.34
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(110 )  0.34 n3  cos( 20 )  0.94

1 0 0  1 0 0 
   
aij   0 0.94 0.34  , aij T  0 0.94  0.34 
   
0  0.34 0.94  0 0.34 0.94 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   
1 2 3   εx 2
γ xy γx
2 z   1 m1 n1 
1 1    1 1   
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 m3    γ yx εy γ yz    2 m2 n2 
2 2    2 2   
1 γ ε z   n1 n3   1 γ ε z   3 n3 
1 n2 1 n3
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz  1 0 0   4 0  0.2 1 0 0 
1 1       
 γ yx ε y γ yz   0 0.94 0.34   0 8 1   0 0.94  0.34
2 2       
1 γ ε z  0  0.34 0.94  0.2  4  0 0.94 
1 1 0.34
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   4 0  0.2  1 0 0 
1 1     
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.068 7.86  0.42  0 0.94  0.34
2 2     
1 γ ε z   0.188  1.78  4.1  0 0.94 
1 0.34
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   4  0.068  0.188
1 1   
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.068 7.246  3.067
2 2   
1 γ ε z   0.188  3.067  3.248
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 
1
ε x  4 γ xy  0.068  γ xy  0.136
2
1
ε y  7.246 γ xz  0.188  γ xy  0.376
2
1
ε z  3.248 γ yz  3.067  γ xy  6.134
2

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Principle Strain

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  4  8  4  8

1
I 2  ε x ε y  ε y ε z  ε x ε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

4
 (4)(8)  (8)(4)  (4)(4)

1
4
 
(2) 2  (0.4) 2  17.04

 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz   4 0  0 .2 
1 1   
I 3  det  γ yx εy γ yz   det  0 8 1 
2 2   
1 γ 1
γ zy εz   0.2 1  4 
 2 zx 2 

 
 4 (8)(4)  (1) 2  0.02 (0)(1)  (0.02)(8)  132.32

## The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (8) 2
J2   I2   (17.04)  38.373
3 3

2(8)3 (8)(17.04)
3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (132.32)  48.954
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  38.373
  r   7.153
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  48.954 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    40.78
r3  r  3  7.153 
3
3

## ε3  r  cosθ  120   7.153 cos40 .78  120   6.754

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## ε'3 J 2ε'J 3  0  ε'3 17.04ε'132.32  0

ε1  5.416 ; ε2  1.338 ; ε3  6.754 OK

## Thus, the principle strains are:

 8
ε1  ε1  ε m  5.416   8.083
3

 8
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  1.338   4
3

 8
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  6.754   4.087
3

## γ12  ε1  ε 2   8.083  4   4.083

γ 23  ε 2  ε 3   4  4.087  8.087
γ13  ε1  ε 3   8  4.087  12.087

## Octahedral normal strain and the octahedral shear strain.

εx  εy  εz 484
ε oct    2.67
3 3

γ oct 
2
3
 
ε x - ε y 2  ε y - ε z 2  ε x - ε z 2  6 γ xy 2  γ yz 2  γ xz 2 
1
2

1
2 
  4  8  8  4  4  4  12  0.4 2   
2
2 2 2 6
3 4 
 10.02

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CHAPTER FOUR

Stress-Strain Relationship

(6 Questions)

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4.1 From the general elasticity matrix (6 × 6) for anisotropic material, obtain the reduced number of

elasticity constants (2) for an isotropic material using symmetry conditions and rotations of axes

Solution

##  x   D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16   ε x 

  D D 22 D 23 D 24 D 25 D 26   ε y 
 y   21
 z  D 31 D 32 D 33 D 34 D 35 D 36   ε x 
   
 xy  D 41 D 42 D 43 D 44 D 45 D 46   γ xy 
 yz  D 51 D 52 D 53 D 54 D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz  D 61 D 62 D 63 D 64 D 65 D 66   γ xz 

## I. Case 1(Potential Energy )

  δ
1  1
ω   F dx   kx dx   kx 2   k 2
0 0 2 0 2
1
ω  k 2
2
ω
x  by differentiating  x with respect  y
 x
 

 x     ω    x   ω
2

 y  y   x   y  x  y
ω
y  by differentiating  y with respect  x
 y
    y
 y     ω  

2ω
 x  x   y   x  x  y
Thus, D12  D 21
D13  D 31
D 23  D 21

D ij  D ji

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Therefore, the elasticity matrix will become symmetric matrix and the number of unknown

##  x  D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16   ε x 

   D 22 D 23 D 24 D 25 D 26   ε y 
 y 
 z   D 33 D 34 D 35 D 36   ε x 
   
 xy   D 44 D 45 D 46   γ xy 
 yz   D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz   D 66   γ xz 

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(180 )  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(180 )  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

  1 0 0   1 0 0  x  xy  xz 
 
aij   0  1 0 , aij T  
  0  1 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 0 0 1  0 0 1  zx  zy  z 

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  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

  x  xy  xz   1 0 0  x  xy  x z   1 0 0
       
 yx  y  yz    0  1 0   yx  y  yz    0  1 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  zy  z   0 0 1
 

  x   xy   x z    1 0 0   x  xy  xz 
   
   yx  y   yz    0  1 0    yx y   yz 
  zx  zy  z   0 0 1   zx   zy  z 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   y  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   xz

## Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
  1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
  1 0 0
1  1 1  
γ yz    0  1 0   γ yx γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2    2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ  0 0 1 
ε z  1 γ εz 
1 1
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz    ε x  γ xy  γxz 
1
2 2
  1
2 2   1 0 0
1  
 γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx  εy
2 2   2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1 1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xy  γxz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx εy  γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1

1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz

a)  x

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

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## From (1) and (2)

 11ε x  D
D  12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D
 14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz  D
 11ε x  D
 12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D
 14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz

b)  y

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 y   y
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

##  y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz ....................................(2)

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## From (1) and (2)

 12 ε x  D
D  22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D
 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  D
 12 ε x  D
 22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D
 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz

D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  2D 25 γ yz  2D 26 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 25  D 26  0

c)  z

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 z   z
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

## From (1) and (2)

 31ε x  D
D  32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D
 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz  D
 31ε x  D
 32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D
 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz

D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz  D 35 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  2D 35 γ yz  2D 36 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 35  D 36  0

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d)  xy

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 xy   xy
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

## From (1) and (2)

 41ε x  D
D  42 ε y  D
 43ε z  D
 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  D
 41ε x  D
 42 ε y  D
 43ε z  D
 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz

D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  2D 45 γ yz  2D 46 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 45  D 46  0

Therefore, number of unknown variables in the elasticity matrix will be reduced to 13.

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##  x   D11 D12 D13 D14 0 0   εx 

  D D 22 D 23 D 24 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z   D 31 D 32 D 33 D 34 0 0   εx 
   
 xy  D 41 D 42 D 43 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 D 56 D 66   γ xz 

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(180 )  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(180 )  1

1 0 0 1 0 0  x  xy  xz 
 
aij  0  1 0 
 , aij T  
 0  1 0  and ij   yx  y  yz 
0 0  1 0 0  1  zx  zy  z 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

  x  xy  xz  1 0 0   x  xy  x z  1 0 0
       
 yx  y  yz   0  1 0    yx  y  yz   0  1 0 
 zx  zy  z  0 0  1  zx  zy  z  0 0  1
   

 x  xy  x z  1 0 0    x   xy  xz 
   
   yx  y   yz   0  1 0     yx y  yz 
   zx   zy   z  0 0  1    zx  zy  z 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   y  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   xz

## Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
1 0 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz   0  1 0    γ yx γ yz   0  1 0 
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2    2 2 
0 0  1
1 γ  0 0  1
ε z  1 γ εz 
1 1
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

Done by Maged Mohammed
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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   ε x
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
  1 0 0
1   1 1  
 γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx  εy
2 2   2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z    γ zx
1

1
γ zy  εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x  γ xy  γxz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx εy γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z    γ zx
1 1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz  γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz

a) x

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## From (1) and (2)

 11ε x  D
D  12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D14 γ xy  D
 11ε x  D
 12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D14 γ xy

b)  y

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

##  y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy ....................................(2)

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## From (1) and (2)

 21ε x  D
D  22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D
 21ε x  D
 22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D 24 γ xy

D 24 γ xy  D 24 γ xy  2D 24 γ xy  0

where γ xy  0 , Therefore, D 24  0

c)  z

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

## From (1) and (2)

 31ε x  D
D  32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D 34 γ xy  D
 31ε x  D
 32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D 34 γ xy

D 34 γ xy  D 34 γ xy  2D 34 γ xy  0

where γ xy  0 , Therefore, D 34  0

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

d)  xy

Before Rotation;

 yz  D 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 xy   xy , γ yz  γ yz , γ xz   γ xz
it will result out in equation (2)

 yz  D 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz ....................................(2)

## From (1) and (2)

 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz  D
D  55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz

D 56 γ xz  D 56 γ xz  2D 56 γ xz  0

where γ xz  0 Therefore, D 56  0

##  x   D11 D12 D13 0 0 0   εx 

  D D 22 D 23 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z   D 31 D 32 D 33 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 66   γ xz 

## The stress-strain relationship is specified for orthotropic materials

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(90 )  0 m3  cos(0)  1
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(180 )  1 n3  cos(90 )  0

1 0 0 1 0 0   x  xy  xz 
 
aij  0 0 1 , aij T  
 0 0  1 and ij   yx  y  yz 
0  1 0 0 1 0   zx  zy  z 

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz  1 0 0  x  xy  x z  1 0 0 
       
 yx  y  yz   0 0 1   yx  y  yz   0 0  1
 zx  zy  z  0  1 0  zx  zy  z  0 1 0 
   

 x  xy  x z  1 0 0    x  xz  x y 
   
   xz  yz  z   0 0  1    xz z   yz 
  xy  y   yz  0 1 0    xy   yz  y 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   z  yz   yz
 z   y  xz   xy

## Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
1 0 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz   0 0 1   γ yx γ yz   0 0  1
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2   2 2 
1 γ  0  1 0  1 0 1 0 
εz 
1 1
γ zy ε z γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xy γxz 
 
2 2 2 2 1 0 0
1   1
ε z   0 0  1
1 1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xz γ yz
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1  0 1 0 
ε z   γ xy
1 1
γ zy  εy  γ yz
 2 zx 2   2 2 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xz  γ xy
2 2 2 2 
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xz εz  γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1

1
γ yz εy 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xz
ε y  ε z γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε y γ xz   γ xy

a)  x

Before Rotation;

After Rotation;

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 x   x , ε x  ε x , ε y  ε z , ε z  ε y
It will result out in equation (2)

##  11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D

D  11ε x  D12 ε z  D13ε y
D12 ε y  D13ε z  D12 ε z  D13ε y
D12 - D13  ε y  D12 - D13  ε z 0
where ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D12  D13  0  D12  D13

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

b)  y

Before Rotation;

##  y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 y   z , ε x  ε x , ε y  ε z , ε z  ε y
It will result out in equation (2)

## D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε z  D 33ε y

D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε z  D 33ε y
D 21 - D 31  ε x  D 22 - D 33  ε y  D 23 - D 32  ε z 0
where ε x  0, ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D 21  D 31  0  D 21  D 31
D 22  D 22  0  D 22  D 33
D 23  D 32  0  D 23  D 32

c)  xy

Before Rotation;

 xy  D 44 γ xy ....................................(1)

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

After Rotation;

 xz  D 66 γ xz

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 xy   xy , γ xz   γ xy
it will result out in equation (2)

 xy  D 66 γ xy ....................................(2)

## From (1) and (2)

D 44 γ xy  D 66 γ xy

D 44  D 66 γ xy  0  D 44  D 66  0

where γ xy  0 Therefore, D 44  D 66

##  x   D11 D12 D12 0 0 0   εx 

  D D 22 D 23 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z  D 21 D 23 D 22 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 44   γ xz 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(90 )  0  2  sin( 0)  1  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(180 )  1 m2  cos(90 )  0 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(180 )  1 n3  cos(0)  1

 0 1 0 0  1 0   x  xy  xz 
 
aij   1 0 0 , aij T  
 1 0 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 0 0 1 0 0 1  zx  zy  z 

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz   0 1 0  x  xy  x z  0  1 0
       
 yx  y  yz    1 0 0   yx  y  yz   1 0 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  zy  z  0 0 1
   

  xy y  yz  0  1 0   y   xy  yz 
   
   x   xy   xz   1 0 0    xy x   xz 
  xz  yz  z  0 0 1   yz   xz  z 

 x   y  xy   xy
 y   x  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   yz

## Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 0 1 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
0  1 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz    1 0 0   γ yx γ yz   1 0 0
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2   2 2 
1 γ   0 0 1  1 0 0 1
εz 
1 1
γ zy ε z γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1  1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   γ xy
2
εy
2
γ yz 
0  1 0 
1   1  
 γ xz   1 0 0
1 1
 γ yx ε y γ yz     ε x  γ xy
2 2   2 2 
0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ xz
1 1
γ yz εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε y  γ xy γ yz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xy εx  γ xz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ yz
1

1
γ xz εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε y γ xy   γ xz
ε y  ε x γ yz   γ xz
ε z  ε z γ xz  γ yz

a)  x

Before Rotation;

##  x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 y   x , ε x  ε y , ε y  ε x , ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

## D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D 21ε y  D 22 ε x  D 23ε z

D11  D 22 ε x  D12 - D 21  ε y  D13 - D 23  ε z 0
where ε z  0 , , ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D11  D 22  0  D11  D 22
D12  D 21  0  D12  D 21
D13  D 23  0  D13  D 23

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

b)  yz

Before Rotation;

 yz  D 55 γ yz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 xz  D 44 γ xz

## By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation

 yz   yz , γ yz  γ yz
it will result out in equation (2)

 yz  D 44 γ yz ....................................(2)

## From (1) and (2)

D 55 γ yz  D 44 γ yz

D 55  D 44 γ xy  0  D 55  D 44  0

where γ yz  0 Therefore, D 55  D 44

##  x   D11 D12 D12 0 0 0   εx 

  D D11 D12 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   12
 z  D12 D12 D11 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 44 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 44   γ xz 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

## σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(45)  1  2  sin( 45)  1  3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
y' m1  cos(135)   1 m2  cos(45)  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

 1 1 0 1  1 0  x  xy  x z 
 2 2   2 2   
     
aij   1 1 0 , aijT 1 1 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 2 2   2 2   
 0 0 1  0 0 1  zx  zy  z 
     

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
       
       
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
       
 zx  zy  z   n1 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 
   n2 n3

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz   1 1 0  x  xy  x z   1  1 0
   2 2     2 2 
   1    1 
 yx  y  yz    0   xy  y  yz   
1 1 0
2 2 2 2
       
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  yz  z   0 0 1
     

  x   xy  y   xy  yz   xz 
  1  1 0
 2 2 2   2 2 
  x   xy  y   xy  yz   xz   1 
  1 0
 2   2 2

2 2
 
  xz  yz  z   0 0 1

 

 x   y  2 xy  y x  yz   xz 
 
 2 2 2 
 y x  x   y  2 xy  yz   xz 

 2 2 2 
    yz   xz 
 yz xz
z 
 2 2 

 x   y  2 xy  y x
 x   xy 
2 2
 x   y  2 xy  yz   xz
 y   yz 
2 2
 yz   xz
 z   z  xz 
2

## Similarly with strain

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   1 1 0  ε x γ xy γxz   1  1 0
2 2  2 2  2 2  2 2 
    1 
 1 γ yx 1 1  1 
ε y γ yz    1 1 0   γ yx εy γ yz   1 0
2 2   2 2  2 2   2 2 
1   1  
1  γ zx 1
1 1
 γ zx γ zy ε z  0 0 γ zy εz  0 0
2 2    2 2   

 1 1   2ε x  γ xy 2ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz 
 ε x γ xy γ xz    1  1 0
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2   2 2 
    2ε  γ 2ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz   
 1 γ yx γ yz   
1
 1 1
x xy
ε y 0
2 2   2 2  2 2
  
2 2 2 2
1   1
εz   0 1
1 1
 γ zx γ zy ε z   γ xz γ yz 0
2 2   2 2   

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 ε  ε y  γ xy εy  εx 1  γ yz γ xz 
 1 1   x  
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 2 2 2  2 
   ε ε ε x  ε y  γ xy  γ xz  
 1 γ yx 1 1  γ yz
γ yz     
y x
ε y
2 2   2 2 2  2  
1 
ε z   1  γ yz  γ xz  1  γ yz  γ xz  
1
 γ zx γ zy   εz
2 2  2  2  2 

  2  

ε x  ε y  γ xy εy  εx
ε x  γ xy 
2 2
ε x  ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz
ε y  γ yz 
2 2
γ yz  γ xz
ε z  ε z γ xz 
2

 x   y  2 xy
 x  .......................................(1)
2

 x  D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z 

 y  D11 ε y  D12 ε x  ε z  .........................................(2)

 xy  D 44 γ xy 

## Substitute Equations (2) in Equation (1)

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 x 
1
2

D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z   D11 ε y  D12 ε x  ε z   2D 44 γ xy 

1
2

D11 ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   2D 44 γ xy 
 x 
D11
ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   D 44 γ xy .......................................(3)
2 2

## Stress after Rotation

 x  D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z 

D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12  ε x  ε y  γ xy  ε z 
2  2 

D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12  ε x  ε y  2ε z  γ xy 

2  2 

D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z  γ xy 
2 2

 x 
D11
ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   1 D11  D12  γ xy ...............................(4)
2 2 2

## From equation (3) and (4)

1
D11  D12   D 44  D11  D12  2D 44
2
D11  D12  2D 44

## where , D11 is lames constant and 2D 44 is shear modulus

D11    2G

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

The above equation matrix is the stress- strain relationship for elasticity

##  61  D66  61

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##  xy  800 kN/m 2 ;  yz  800 kN/m 2 ;  zx  0

Determine the state of the strain at that point, assuming E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.2

Solution

x 
1

 
 x    y   z   7 400  0.2 2000  0
1
10

y 
1

 1
10

 y    x   z   7 2000  0.2 400  1.92  10 4

z 
1

 
 z    x   y   7 0  0.2 400  2000  4.8  10 5
1
10
 xy
γ xy 
G

1

 
21    xy  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 yz
γ yz 
G

1

 
21    yz  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 xz
γ xz  
1
21    xz   17 21  0.2  0  0
G  10

## Another method to solve that unknown variables

υE  υ   0.2  5
 E E  E
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.21  2  0.2 18

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.2 12

5 5  5 5 10
  2G    2  E     E  E
 18 12   18 6  9

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

## By substituting all values in the D matrix, we will get

10 5 5 
 400  9 0 0 0   εx 
   
18 18

  5 10 5  
 2000  18 0 0 0   εy 
   9 18  
  5 5 10  
 0   0 0 0   εx 
  18 18 9  
     
 800  0   γ xy 
5
0 0 0 0
   12  
    
 800 0   γ yz 
5
0 0 0 0
   12 
    
  0 5 
 0  
0 0 0 0  γ xz 
12 

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400 10 5 5
 x  y  y
 9 18 18
10 5 5 400
x  y  y  7  0 ...........................................(1)
9 18 18 10
2000 5 10 5
 x  y  y
 18 9 18
5 10 5 2000
x  y  y  7  0 ...........................................(2)
18 9 18 10
0 5 10 5
 x  y  y
 18 9 18
5 10 5
x  y  y  0 ...........................................(3)
18 9 18
by solving Equation (1) , (2) and (3) simulatanously we find ,

x  0

 y  1.92  10 4

 z  4.8  10 5
800 5 12  800
 γ xy  γ xy   1.92  10 4
 12 5  10 7
- 800 5  12  800
 γ yz  γ yz   1.92  10 4
 12 5  10 7

5
0 γ xz  γ xz  0
12

##  xy  800 kN/m 2 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200 kN/m 2

Determine the state of the strain at that point, assuming E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.2

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Solution

x 
1

 
 x    y   z   7 4000  0.2  4800 - 1600  5.28  10 4
1
10

y 
1

 
 y    x   z   7  4800  0.2 4000 - 1600  5.28  10 4
1
10

z 
1

 
 z    x   y   7  1600  0.2 4000  4800  1.44  10 4
1
10
 xy
γ xy 
G

1

 
21    xy  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 yz
γ yz 
G

1

 
21    yz  7 21  0.2   0  0
1
10
 xz
γ xz  
1
21    xz   17 21  0.2  1200  2.88  10 4
G  10

4.4 For the state of strain specified below, determine the stress component at a point in the

## continuum assuming value of E  20  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.3 .

 x  2  10 3 ;  y  1.2  10 3 ; z  0

## γ xy  0.8  10 3 ; γ yz  1.6  10 3 ; γ zx  0.4  10 3

Solution

υE  υ   0.3  15
 E E 
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.31  2  0.3 26
 E

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.3  13

 15 5  15 10  35
  2G    2  E     E  E
 26 13   26 13  26

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

 35 15 15 
 x   26 0 0 0   2  10 3 
   
26 26

   15 35 15   
 y   26 0 0 0   1.2  10 3 
   26 26  
   15   
 z  15 35  
 0 0 0 0
   26 26 26   
      
  0 0 0
5
0 
0  0.8  10 3 
 xy   13  
     
  0
5  
 yz 0 0 0 0   1.6  10 3 
 13 
    
  0 5 
 xz  0 0 0 0  0.4  10 3 
 13 

 35 15 15 
40000 kN/m 2
 26 26 26 

 15 35 15 
 26 26 26 

##  z  20  106  2  10 3    1.2  10 3   0  9230.77 kN/m 2

 15 15 35 
 26 26 26 

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5
 xy  (20  10 6 )(0.8  10 3 )  6153.85 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(1.6  10 3 )  12307.7 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(0.4  10 3 )  3076.92 kN/m 2
13

## E  20  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.3 .

Solution

υE  υ   0.3  15
 E E 
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.31  2  0.3 26
 E

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.3  13

 15 5  15 10  35
  2G    2  E     E  E
 26 13   26 13  26

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

 35 15 15 
 x   26 0 0 0   1.6  10 3 
   
26 26

   15 35 15   
 y   26 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
   26 26  
   15   
 z  15 35  3 
 0 0 0   1.2  10
   26 26 26  
      
  0 0 0
5
0 
0   0.4  10 3 
 xy   13  
     
  0
5  
 yz 0 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
 13 
    
  0 5 
 xz  0 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
 13 

 35 15 15 
 26 26 26 

 15 35 15 
 26 26 26 

##  z  20  106  1.6  10 3   0.8  10 3    1.2  10 3   4615.38 kN/m 2

 15 15 35 
 26 26 26 

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5
 xy  (20  10 6 )(0.4  10 3 )  3076.92 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(0.8  10 3 )  6153.85 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(-0.8  10 3 )   6153.85 kN/m 2
13

##  z  6000 kN/m 2 ;  xy  800 kN/m 2 ;

If the modulus of elasticity of material is E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and the Poisson’s ratio is υ  0.3 ,

## determine the dilatation of the block due to the applied load.

Solution

x 
1

 1
10

 x    y   z   7 8000  0.3 10000  6000  3.2  10  4
1

 1
10

 y   y    x   z   7 10000  0.3 8000  6000  5.8  10  4

1
 1
10

 z   z    x   y   7 6000  0.3 10000  8000   6  10 5
 xy 1
γ xy 
G 
 1
10

 21    xy  7 21  0.3  800  2.08  10  4

  x  y  z
Block Dilatation,
     
 3.2  10 4  5.8  10 4  6  10 5  9.6  10 4

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

CHAPTER FIVE

Stress-Strain Relationship
(6 Questions)

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

5.1 In an elastic body was subjected to body force of B z  40 G xy , the displacement components

are found to be

u  4Ax 2 yz ; v  4B xy 2 z ; w  4Cxyz 2

Determine the constants A, B and C in order to satisfy Navier equations, for the case of

Solution

## Navier equation are

3 ε m B x 3 ε m B y 3 ε m B z
 2x    0 ;  2y    0 ;  2z   0
1  2υ x G 1  2υ y G 1  2υ z G
For Case   0.3 , thus

15 ε m B x 15 ε m B y 15 ε m B z
 2x    0 ;  2y    0 ;  2z   0
2 x G 2 y G 2 z G
For Case   0 , thus

ε m B x ε B ε B
 2x  3   0 ;  2y  3 m  y  0 ;  2z  3 m  z  0
x G y G z G

m 
1
 x   y   z  and  x  u ;  y  v ; z 
w
3 x y z
u  v  w 
 (4Ax 2 yz)  8Axyz ;  (4B xy 2 z )  8Bxyz ;  (4C xyz2 )  8Cxyz ;
x x y y z z

1  u v w 
  8Axyz  8Bxyz  8Cxyz  A  B  C
1 8 xyz
 m    
3  x y z  3 3

 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C 
8 yz
x 3 x 3
 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C
8 xz
y 3 y 3
 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C
8 xy
z 3 z 3

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Determination of  2x ;  2y and  2z

##  2u  2u  2u  2v  2v  2v 2w 2w 2w

 2x    ;  2
   ;  2
  
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
y z

u   2u   u  

x x

4Ax 2 yz  8Axyz      8Axyz   8Ayz
x 2 x  x  x

u   2u   u  

y x

4Ax 2 yz  4Ax 2 z    
y 2 y  y  y

4Ax 2 z  0
u   2u   u  

z z

4Ax 2 yz  4Ax 2 y  y 2
  
z  z  z

4Ax 2 y  0
 2x  8Ayz

v   2v   v  

x x

4B xy 2 z  4B y 2 z  x 2
  
x  x  x

4B y 2 z  0
v   2v   v  

y x

4B xy 2 z  8B xyz      8B xyz   8Bxz
y 2 y  y  y

v   2v   v  

z z

4Ax 2 yz  4B xy 2    
y 2 z  z  z

4B xy 2  0 
 2y  8Bxz

w   2 w   w  

x x

4Cxyz2  4Cyz 2  x 2
  
x  x  x

4Cyz 2  0
w   2 w   w  

y x

4Cxyz2  4Cxz 2    
y 2 y  y  y

4Cxz 2  0 
w   2v   w  

z z

4Cxyz2  8Cxyz      8Cxyz  8Cxy
y 2 z  z  z

 2z  8Cxy

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## For Case   0.3

15 ε m
Bx  0   2x  0
2 x

8Ayz 
15 8 yz
 A  B  C  0  8Ayz  5  4 yzA  B  C   0
2 3
2Ayz  5 yzA  B  C   0  yz 2A  5A  5B  5C   0

7A  5B  5C   0 ......................................................(1)

15 ε m
By  0   2y  0
2 y

8Bxz 
15 8 xz
 A  B  C   0  8Bxz  5  4 xzA  B  C   0
2 3
2Bxz  5 xzA  B  C   0  xz 2B  5A  5B  5C   0

5A  7B  5C   0 ......................................................(2)

15 ε m
B z  40Gxy   2z  0
2 y

8Cxy 
15 8 xy
 A  B  C  B z  0  8Cxy  5  4 xyA  B  C   B z
2 3 G G

## 2Cxy  5 xyA  B  C    xy 2C  5A  5B  5C   

Bz Bz

4G 4G

2C  5A  5B  5C   Bz
 5A  5B  7C   
40Gxy
4Gxy 4Gxy
5A  5B  7C   10 ......................................................(3)

## By solving the three equation simulatanously, we found

25 25 60
A  1.47 ; B  1.47 ; C  3.53
17 17 17
Therefore the displacement equations are as follows :

25 2
u  4 x yz  5.88x 2 yz ; v  5.88 xy 2 z ; w  14.12Cxyz2
17

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For Case   0

ε m
Bx  0   2u  3 0
x

8Ayz  3 
8 yz
A  B  C  0  8Ayz  8 yzA  B  C  0
3
8Ayz  8 yzA  B  C   0  8 yz A  A  B  C   0
2A  B  C  0 ......................................................(4)

ε m
By  0   2v  3 0
y

8Bxz  3 
8 xz
A  B  C  0  8Bxz  8 xzA  B  C  0
3
8Bxz  8 xzA  B  C   0  8 xz B  A  B  C   0
A  2B  C  0 ......................................................(5)

ε m
B z  40Gxy   2v  3 0
y

8Cxy  3 
8 xy
A  B  C  B z  0  8Cxy  8 xyA  B  C   B z
3 G G

8Cxy  8 xyA  B  C     8 xy C  A  B  C    z
Bz B
G G

C  A  B  C   Bz
 A  B  2C   
40Gxy
8Gxy 8Gxy
A  B  2C  5 ......................................................(6)

## By solving the equation (4) , (5) and (6) simulatanously, we found

60
A  1.25 ; B  1.25 ; C  3.75
17
Therefore the displacement equations are as follows :

u  4  1.25x 2 yz  5x 2 yz ; v  5 xy 2 z ; w  15Cxyz2

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5.2 For the case stated in problem 5.1, if the stress components are found to be:

##  x  4Axyz;  y  4Bxyz;  z  4Cxyz;

 xy  4(Ax  By ) z ;
2 2
 yz  4(By  Cz ) x;
2 2
 zx  4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y
B x  0; B y  0; B z  40Gxy

Determine the constants A, B and C so that Beltrami-Michell equations can be satisfied. Assume

## two values of Poisson’s ratio, 0.3 and 0.

Solution

Beltrami-Michell equations

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 x        2 x .......................(I)
1   x 2
1    x y z  x

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 y        2 y .......................(II)
1   y 2
1    x y z  y

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 z        2 z .......................(III)
1   z 2
1    x y z  z

1  2  B B 
2xy    x  y  ......................(IV)
1   xy  y x 

1  2  B B 
2yz    y  z  ......................(V)
1   yz  z y 
1  2  B B 
2xz    x  z  ......................(VI)
1   xz  z x 
where

 2 x  2 x  2 x  2 y  2 y  2 y  2 z  2 z  2 z
  2
  ;   2
  ;  2z   
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
x y

 2 xy  2 xy  2 xy  2 yz  2 yz  2 yz  2 xz  2 xz  2 xz
  2
  ;   2
  ;  2xz   
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
xy yz

  x  y z

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##   4Axyz  4Bxyz  4Cxyz  4 xyz(A  B  C )

   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 yz(A  B  C ) , 0
x x x 2
   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 xz(A  B  C ) , 0
y y y 2

   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 xy(A  B  C ) , 0
z z z 2
 2  2  2
 4 z (A  B  C ) ,  4 x(A  B  C ) ,  4 y (A  B  C )
xy yz xz

 2 x  2 x  2 x
 2x    ;
x 2 y 2 z 2

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Ayz,     4Ayz   0
x x x 2 x  x  x

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Axz,     4Axz   0
y y y 2 y  y  z

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Axy,     4Axy   0
z z z 2 z  z  z

Thus  2x  0

 2 y  2 y  2 y
 2y   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 y   2 y    y  
 (4Bxyz)  4Byz,     4Byz   0
x x x 2
x  x  x
 y   2 y    y  
 (4Bxyz)  4Bxz,     4Bxz   0
y y y 2
y  y  z
 y   2 y    y  
 (4Axyz)  4Bxy,     4Bxy   0
z z z 2
z  z  z
Thus  2y  0

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 2 z  2 z  2 z
 2z   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 z   2 Z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cyz,   Z   4Cyz   0
x x x 2
x  x  x

 z   2 z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cxz,   Z   4Cxz   0
y y y 2
y  y  z
 z   2 Z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cxy,   Z   4Cxy   0
z z z 2
z  z  z

Thus  2z  0

 2 xy  2 xy  2 xy
 2
 
x 2 y 2 z 2
xy

 xy  2 xy    xy
x

x

4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  8Axz  x
 
x  x
 
  8Axz   8Az
 x
2

 xy  2 xy    xy  
y

y

4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  8Byz,  y 2
    8Byz   8Bz
y  y  z

 xy  2 xy    xy  
z

z
 
4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  4(Ax 2  By 2 ),
z 2
    4(Ax 2  By 2 )  0
z  z  z

Thus  2xy  8 z A  B

 2 yz  2 yz  2 yz
 2yz   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 yz  2 zy    zy
x

x
 
4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  4(By 2  Cz 2 )
x 2
 
x  x
 
 

 
4(By 2  Cz 2 )  0
 x

 yz  2 zy    zy  
y

y

4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  8Bxy,  y
 
y  y
  8Bxy   8Bx
 z
2

 yz  2 zy    zy  
z

z

4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  8Cxz ,  z
 
z  z
  (8Cxz )  8Cx
 z
2

## Thus  2yz  8 xB  C 

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 2 xz  2 xz  2 ‫ءئ‬
 2xz   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 xz   2 xz    xz  
x

x

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  8Axy  x 2
    8Axy   8Ay
x  x  x

 xz  2 xz     
y

y
 
4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ),
y 2
  xz  
y  y  z

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 )  0 
 xz   2 xz    xz  
z

z

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  8Cyz ,  z 2
    (8Cyz )  8Cy
z  z  z

## Thus  2xz  8 xA  C 

B x B y B z B x B x B B y
 0;  0;  0;  0;  0; y  0; 0
x y z y z x z
B z  B z 
 40Gxy   40Gy;  40Gxy   40Gx
x x y y

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 x 
2
       2 x .......................(I)
1   x 1    x y z  x
x 2

00

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 2y y        2 y .......................(II)
1   y 2
1    x y z  y

00

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 2z z        2 z .......................(III)
1   z 2
1    x y z  z

00

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## For Case   0.3

1  2  B B y 
2xy    x   ......................(IV)
1   xy  y x 

40 z (A  B  C )
8 z A  B   0  13A  B  5(A  B  C )  0
13
13A  13B  5A  5B  5C  0

## 18A  18B  5C  0 .......................(1)

1  2  B B 
2yz    y  z  ......................(V)
1   yz  z y 
40 x(A  B  C )
8 xB  C    40Gx  13B  C   5(A  B  C )  65G
13
5A  13B  13C  5B  5C  65G

## 5A  18B  18C  65G .......................(2)

1  2  B B 
 xz
2
   x  z  ......................(VI)
1   xz  z x 
40 y (A  B  C )
8 y A  C    40Gy  13A  C   5(A  B  C )  65G
13
13A  5A  13C  5B  5C  65G

## 18A  18B  5C  0  18A  18A  5C  0

36A
C .......................(5)
5
Subsitute Equation (4) and (5) in (2)

 36A 
5A  18B  18C  0  5A  18A  18      65G
 5 

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## 533A 25 25 36A 180

 65G  A  G ,BA G , C  G
5 41 41 5 41
For Case   0

8 z A  B  4 z (A  B  C )  0  4A  B  (A  B  C )  0

4A  4B  A  B  C  0

5A  5B  C  0 .......................(4)

## 8 xB  C   4 x(A  B  C )  40Gx  4B  C   (A  B  C )  65G

A  4B  4C  B  C  10G

A  5B  5C  10G .......................(5)

## 8 y A  C   4 y (A  B  C )  40Gy  4A  C   (A  B  C )  10G

4A  A  4C  B  C  10G

5A  B  5C  10G ......................(6)

## From equation (5) and (6)

A  5B  5C  5A  B  5C  A  B .......................(7)

## Subsitute Equation (7) in (4)

5A  5B  C  0  5A  5A  C  0

C  10A .......................(8)

## Subsitute Equation (7) and (8) in (5)

A  5B  5C  0  A  5A  5   10A   10G
10 10 25
 44A  10G  A  G ,BA G , C  10A   G
44 44 11

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5.3 A thin square plate whose sides are parallel to x and y axes has the following stress distribution :

##  x  4Ay;  y  4Ax; And some shear stress

Where A is constant.

Find the suitable stress function and the nature of shear stress which can be associated with given

Solution

## From Airy’s function applications

a 3 3 b3 2 c d
3  x  x y  3 xy 2  3 y 3
6 2 2 2
2
 x  23  c 3 x  d 3 y compare wit given  x  Ay
y
c3  0
 23
 y  2  c 3 x  b 3 y compare wit given  y  Ax
x
b3  0
 23
 xy  2  b 3 x  c 3 y where c 3  0 and b 3  0
xy
therefore  xy  0
a 3 3 d3 3 A 3 A 3
3  x  y  x  y
6 2 6 2

Therefore nature of the function is in principle stress state in which the shear stress is equal to

zero.

Strain

x 
1

 

 x   y  Ay  Ax   y  x 
1 A

 1

 y   y   x  Ax  Ay   x  y 
1 A

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Displacement

u A
  y  x   u   y  x x
A
x  
u    y  x x 
A

2A

2 xy  x 2  C1 
v A
  x  y   v   x  y y
A
y  

v    x  y y 
A

2A

2 xy  y 2  C 2 
5.4 The stress distribution in an elastic medium is found to be as follows:

##  x  4Axy;  y  4Ax;  z  Ax(1  y);

 xy  2 Ay 2 ;  yz   zx  0

Where A is constant.

Establish that this stress distribution represents a solution to a plane strain with no body forces

and the displacement component at the origin of zero. Determine the displacement components

Solution

## Components are the reaction in Z direction

z 
1

 

 z   ( x   y )   4 Ax (1  y )   (4Axy  4Ax)  4Ax  4Axy   4Axy  4Ax)  0
1 1

 z  0 Therefore , it is Plane Strain Problem
 z   (4Axy  4Ax)

x 
1

 1

 1

 x   ( y   z )  4Axy   (4Ax   (4Axy  4Ax))  4Axy  4Ax  4 2 Axy  4Ax 
x 
4A

xy  2x   2 xy 
1

 1

 1

 y   y   ( x   z )  4Ax   (4Axy   (4Axy  4Ax))  4Ax  4Axy  4 2 Axy  4Ax 
x 
4A

x  xy   2 xy   x 

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u 4A
x

xy  2x   2 xy  u  4A

xy  2x   2 xy x 
u
4A
  
xy  2x   2 xy x 
2A 2

 
x y  2x 2   2 x 2 y  C1
v 4A
y 
 
x  xy   2 xy   x  v 
4A

 
x  xy   2 xy   x y 
v
4A
  
x  xy   2 xy   x y 
2A

  
2 xy  xy 2   2 xy 2  2 xy  C 2

at origin (0,0,0)

0
2A
0  0  0  C1  C1  0

0
2A
0  0  0  0  C 2  C 2  0

u
2A 2

x y  2x 2   2 x 2 y 
v
2A

2 xy  xy 2   2 xy 2  2 xy 

z  0
w    z   0  C3
at origin (0,0,0)
C3  0
w0
Fz  kw  0

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CHAPTER SIX

Plasticity
(6 Questions)

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6.1 Show that the equivalent stress for the state of principle stress system ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) is always

Solution

2
I
 J 2  1  I 2 and J1  0
3
I1   1   2   3 by considering the principle stress
I 2   1 2   2 3   1 3

( 1   2   3 ) 2
J2    1 2   2 3   1 3
3
 12  2 1 2   2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3   3 2
   1 2   2 3   1 3
3
 2  2 1 2   2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3   3 2  3 1 2  3 2 3  3 1 3
 1
3
1
 (2 1  2 1 2  2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3  2 3 )
2 2 2

6
1 2 1 1 2
 ( 1  2 1 2   2 )  ( 2  2 2 3   3 )  ( 1  2 1 3   3 )
2 2 2 2

6 6 6
1 1
6
1
6
1

 ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2
6 6

Yield criterion according to Van Mises
f (J 2 )  Constant

Therefore
1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  Constant

Basically the constant can be determined based on either simple Tension in which
 1   y and  2   3  0
 y2
Hence J 2 
6
 
 K or ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  6K

## The equivalent stress due to Tension is

 y2
  3J 2  3(6 K )  3(6  )    3y
6

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## It also can be determined based on pure Shear in which

 1   2  K  3  0
1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  Constant

1
6
 
( K ) 2  ( K ) 2  ( K ) 2  Constant 
K2
2
 Constant

 y2
K2  y2
J2     K2
6 2 3
Therefore the equivalent stress due to pure shear is

K2  2
y
  3J 2  3  3 y   
2 6 2

##  x  4000 kPa;  y  -8000 kPa;  xy  2000 kPa

If the yield stress for material under uniaxial test is12000 kPa, state weather will be yielding as

Solution

## x  y  y  4000  8000  4000  8000 

2

 1, 2    x 2   xy 2      2000
2

2  2  2  2 
 1  4324.56 MPa and  2  8324.56 MPa

## Tresca yield criterion

K
1
 1   2   K  1 4324.56  8324.56  6324.56 kPa
2 2
K yeild stress  6324.56 kPa  K uniaxial text  12000 kPa
Therefore , there will no be yielding occured to Tresca yeild criterion

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Von Mises

1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  K 2

K
1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2 
K
1
6
 
(4324.56  8324.56) 2  (8324.56) 2  (4324.56) 2  6429.105 kPa

##  2  20000 kPa;  3  40000 kPa;

If the yield stress for the material is 4000 kPa, what is the minimum value of  1 for yielding to

occur as per

Solution

## (a) Tresca yielding criterion

K
1
 1   3  where K  4000 kPa , then 4000  1  1  40000  8000   1  40000
2 2
 1  8000  40000  48000 kPa

Thus, the minimum value of  1 for yielding to occur as per Tresca yielding criterion is equal to

48000 kPa .

## (a) von Mises criterion

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( 1 
  2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  6K 2
( 1 
 20000) 2  (20000  40000) 2  ( 1  40000) 2  6(4000) 2
 12  40000 1  4  108  4  108   12  80000  1  16  108  96  106
2 1  120000  1  32  108  96  106
2

##  12  60000  1  16  108  48  106

 12  60000  1  16  108  48  106  0

##  12  60000  1  15.52  106  0

 1  30000 kPa

(b) Thus, the minimum value of  1 for yielding to occur as per von Mises criterion is equal to

30000 kPa .

##  x  3600 kPa;  y  2000 kPa;  z  3200 kPa

 xy  800 kPa

If the value of C  4000 kPa and   0 , will there be yielding at that point?

Solution

## Mohr- Coulomb Yield Criterion

 1   2  2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin 

## I1   x   y   z  3600  2000  3200  8800

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

##  (3600)(2000)  (2000)(3200)  (3600)(3200)  (800) 2  (0) 2  (0) 2  24.48  106

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 x  xy  x z  3600 800 0 
  
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  800 2000 0 
 zx  zy  z   0 0 3200
 

 2.0992  1010

##  3  8800 2  (24.48  10 6 )  2.0992  1010  0

 1  3931.37 kPa
 2  3200 kPa
 3  1668.63 kPa

##  1   2  3931.37  3200  731.37 kPa

2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin   2(4000) cos(0)  (3931.37  1668.63) sin(0)  8000 kPa

## Since  1   2  2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin  , then yielding will not occur

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##  x  4000 kPa;  y  8000 kPa;  xy  2000kPa

If the yield stress for the material is 10000 kPa, modulus of elasticity is 30000 kPa and the

## passion’s ration is 0.3, determine the strain components.

If the point is in plastic range assume work hardening parameter (plastic modulus) to be 1/10 of

the modulus of elasticity. Use von Mises yield criterion and Prandt1-Reuss equations.

Solution

x 
1

 x    y   z  
1

3  10 4
4000  0.38000  0.0533
1

 y   y    x   z   
1
3  10 4
8000  0.3 4000  0.227
1

 z   z    x   y  
1

3  10 4
0  0.3 4000  8000  0.12
 xy 1
γ xy 
G 

 21    xy 
1

3  10 4
21  0.3  2000  0.173

Von Mises

## I1   x   y   z  4000  8000  12000

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

##  (4000)(8000)  (2000) 2  28  106

 x  xy  x z   4000  2000 0
 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000 8000 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 0
 

0

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## Principle stress  3  I1 2  I 2  I 3  0

 3  12000 2  (28  10 6 )  0
 1  8828.43 kPa
 2  3171.57 kPa
 3  0 kPa

1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  K 2 

K
1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2 
K
1
6
 
(8828.43  3171.57) 2  (3171.57) 2  (8828.43) 2  4472.14 kPa

## Therefore , there will no be yielding occured to Von Mises yeild criterion

Prandt1-Reuss equations

2 1 1
Ep  dλ   Ee   30000  3000 kPa
3 10 10

 dλ  x   y   z   dλ  4000  8000  0
2  1  2  1 
d x
p

3  2  3  2 
2   2  
 dλ  y   x   z   dλ  8000  4000  4000dλ
1 1
d y
p

3  2  3  2 

## dλ  z   x   y   dλ  0  0.5 4000  8000  4000dλ

2  1  2
d z 
p

3  2  3
 xy
γ xy 
p

G

2
3
 
dλ 21  0.5 xy  dλ  21  0.5 2000  4000dλ
2
3
1
2 p p
 p p p p p p

p 2
d p   (d x  d y ) 2  (d y  d z ) 2  (d x  d z ) 2  6( γ 2 xy  γ 2 yz  γ 2 xz ) 
9 
1
2
 2
d   (4000dλ) 2  (8000dλ) 2  (4000dλ) 2  6(4000dλ ) 2   6531.97dλ
p

9 

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1
1
  2
   ( x   y ) 2  ( y   z ) 2  ( x   z ) 2  6( 2 xy   2 yz   2 xz ) 
2 
1
1
 2

   (4000  8000) 2  (8000 z ) 2  (4000) 2  6(2000) 2   7745.97 kPA
2 

9
(d p ) 2  2(dλ ) 2  2
2
9
6531.97dλ 2  191999844.4(dλ) 2
2
2(dλ ) 2 (7745.97) 2  120000102.5(dλ ) 2
9
(d p ) 2  2(dλ ) 2  2 Not yeilded yet
2
3 d p 3 6531.97 2 d p 6531.97
dλ     1.265 and also dλ    0.843
2  2 7745.97 3  7745.97

d p
1 1 1
  
 Ep 0.1  30000 3000

d p 
 x   y   z  
  
 4000  8000  0
1 1 1
d x 
p

   2  3000  2 
d 
p
  
 y   x   z    8000  4000  1.33
1 1 1
d y 
p

   2  3000  2 
d 
 
p

##  3000  0  0.5 4000  8000  2

1 1
d z       
p

 
z x y
2 
 xy 3 d p
γ xy 
p

G

2 
 
21  0.5 xy 
1
3000
 21  0.5  2000  2