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Department of Civil Engineering


Master of Structural Engineering and Construction

ECV5202– Advance Solid Mechanics


Solved Problems

PREPARED By:

MAGED MOHAMMED

mm.almaged@gmail.com These problems’ solutions are individual attempt, any review or correction is highly appreciated
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

CHAPTER ONE

Beam Deflection by Integration Method

(6 Questions)

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1.1 Find the slope and the deflection of the beams shown following beam subjected to point load at

the mid span using double integration method

Solution
i. Static Equilibrium

P
RA  RC 
2

ii. Establishment the coordinate system for the moment function

This step depends on Discontinuity of the beam

1- Concentrated load or applied moment

2- Beginning and the end of distributed load

3- Changing in the beam geometry

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iii. Moment function

+ M x 0 , M -
p
   0 Therefore , M   1 P
2 2

The governing equation for deflection is:

d2y
EI M
dx 2
d2y 1 L
Therefore, EI  P 0  
dx 2 2 2

iv. Determination the slope and deflection by integration method

First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y 1  dy 1 2
EIθ  EI    Pχ   EIθ  EI  Pχ  C1
2 
2
dx dx 4
Second integration to obtain deflection

dy 1 1
EIy  EI   ( Pχ 2  C1 ) dx EIy  Px3  C1 x  C2
dx 4 12

v. Boundary condition

L dy
1) At   ,  0 substitute in slope equation
2 dx

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2
1 L
EI0 
1
P   C1  C1   PL2
4 2 16
2) At   L , y  0 , substitute in deflection equation

1 1 1 1
EI(0)  PL3  PL3  C2  C 2  PL3  PL3
12 16 16 12

1 3 1 1
C2  PL  PL3   PL3
16 12 48

Slop Equation:
dy 1 2 1 P
EIθ  EI  Pχ  PL2  θ (4X 2  L2 )
dx 4 16 16EI

Deflection Equation:

P
y (4 x 3  3 xL2  L3 )
48EI

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1.2 Determine the slope and the deflection of the beam subjected to Moment at the mid span using

double integration method.

Solution
i. Static equilibrium

Taking moment about C

- M - R A L   0 Therefore , RA 
-M
+ M C 0 ,
L

-M
   Fy  0 , R A  R C  0 Therefore ,  RC  0
L
M
RC 
L

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ii. Moment functions

M Mχ
+ M x 0 , - M 
L
χ  0 Therefore , M  
L

The governing equation for deflection is:

d 2 y Mχ
EI 
dx 2 L
d 2 y Mχ L
Therefore, EI  0  
dx 2 L 2

iii. Determination the slope and deflection by integration method

First integration to obtain the slope equation

2
d2y Mχ dy Mχ
EIθ  EI 2
 dx  EIθ  EI   C1 ............. (1)
dx L dx 2 L
Second integration to obtain deflection

dy  Mχ 2  Mχ
3
EIy  EI    C1  dx  EIy   C1 x  C2 ............. (2)
dx  2L  6L

iv. Boundary condition

L dy
At   ,  0 substitute in equation (1)
2 dx

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2
L
M 
EI0      C1  C1  
2 ML
2L 8
3) At   L , y  0 , substitute in equation (2)

ML ML M  L2 M  L
3 2
EIy    L  C2  C2  
6L 8 8 6

1
C2   M L2
24

Slop Equation:
2
dy Mχ ML M
EI    θ (X 2  4L2 )
dx 2 L 8 8EIL

Deflection Equation:

 
3
Mχ ML 1 M
EIy   x M L2  y  4 x 3  3L2  L3
6L 8 24 24EIL

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1.3 Determine the slope and the deflection of simply supported beam subjected a point load at

distance (a) from support as shown below using double integration method.

Find the reaction at A and C

Pb
  M C  0 , - R A L  Pb  0  R A 
L

Pb Pb  b
  Fy  0 ,  P  RC  0  RC  P   P 1    PL(L - b)
L L  L
Pa
 (L - b)  a Therefore , R C 
L

Moment functions

Segment AB 0  x  a 

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Pb
  M χ  0, - χ  Mχ  0
L

Pb
Mχ  χ
L

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d 2 y Pb
Therefore, EI  χ
dx 2 L
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
χ  C1 ............1
Pb dy Pb 2
EIθ  EI 2
 χ dx  EIθ  EI 
dx L dx 2L
Second integration to obtain deflection

 Pb 2 
χ  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy Pb 3
EIy  EI   χ  C1  dx  EIy 
dx  2L  6L

Segment BC a  x  L 

Pb
  M χ  0, - χ  P(χ  a)  M χ  0
L

Pb
Mχ  χ  P(χ  a)
L

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d 2 y Pb
Therefore, EI  χ  P(χ  a)
dx 2 L
First integration to obtain the slope equation

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d2y  Pb  dy Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2
EIθ  EI   χ  P(χ  a)  dx  EIθ  EI  χ   C3 ......3
 L 
2
dx dx 2L 2
Second integration to obtain deflection

 Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2  Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3
 C3 χ  C4 .....4
dy
EIy  EI
dx   2L
  χ   C3  dx  EIy  χ 
2  6L 6

Applying continuity conditions

 dy   dy 
At χ  a ,     
 dx  AB  dx  BC

 dy  1  Pb 2 
    a  C1  ,
 dx  AB (at x a) EI  2L 

 dy  1  Pb 2 P(a  a)2  1  Pb 2 
    a   C3    a  C3 
 dx  BC (at x a) EI  2L 2  EI  2L 

 dy   dy  1  Pb 2  1  Pb 2 
    Therefore,  a  C1    a  C3 
 dx  AB (at x a)  dx  BC (at x a) EI  2L  EI  2L 

So that C1  C3

At χ  a , y AB  y BC

1  Pb 3 
y AB (at x a)   a  C1a  C2 
EI  6L 

1  Pb 3 P(a  a) 3  1  Pb 3 
y BC (at x a)   a   C3a  C4    a  C3a  C4 
) EI  6L 6  EI  6L 

1  Pb 3  1  Pb 3 
 y AB (at x a)  y BC (at x  a) Therefore,  a  C1a  C2    a  C3a  C4 
EI  6L  EI  6L 
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Since C1  C 3 , then C 2  C 4

Applying the boundary condition

At χ  0 , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)


Pb 3
EI(0)  (0)  C1 (0)  C2  C2  0 Then C 2  C 4  0
6L

At χ  L , y  0 Substitute in equation (4)

Pb 3 P(L  a) 3
EI (0)  L   C3 L  C 4
0
 (L  a )  b
6L 6

0
Pb 2 Pb3
6
L 
6
 C3 L  C3 
Pb3 PbL Pb 2
6L

6

6L
b  L2  

Since C1  C3 , then C1 
Pb 2
6L

b  L2 
The equations for s lop and deflection due bending moment

At 0  x  a  At a  x  L 

 Slope Equation  Slope Equation


Pb 2 P(χ  a) 2
EIθ  χ   C3 
EIθ 
Pb 2
2L
χ  C1  EIθ 
Pb 2 Pb 2
2L
χ 
6L
b  L2   2L 2

EIθ 
Pb
 
3x 2  b 2  L2 
P(χ  a) 2
θ
Pb
6EIL

3x 2  b 2  L2  6EIL 2EI

 Deflection Equation  Deflection Equation


Pb 3 Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3
EIy  χ  C1 x  C 2 EIy  χ   C3 χ  C 0 4
0

6L 6L 6

EIy 
Pb 3 Pb 2
6L
χ 
6L
b  L2 χ   EIy 
Pb 3 P(χ  a) 3 Pb 2
χ   
b  L2 χ 
6L 6 6L

Then , y 
Pb 3
6EIL

χ  b 2  L2 χ  Then , y 
Pb 3
 
χ  b L χ 
2 2

P(χ  a) 3
6EIL 6EI

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1.4 Determine the slope and the deflection of cantilever beam subjected moment at free end as

shown below using double integration method.

Moment function;
The moment function of this cantilever beam is determined as shown below

  M χ  0,  M 0  M χ  0  M χ  M 0

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d2y
Therefore, EI   M0
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
 M 0 χ  C1 ............1
dy
EIθ  EI
dx 2 
  M 0 dx  EIθ  EI
dx
Second integration to obtain deflection

 M0 2
  M 0 χ  C1  dx χ  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI
dx 
 EIy 
2

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Boundary condition
At χ  L , θ  0 Substitute in equation (1)

EI(0)  M 0 L  C1

Then C1  M 0 L

At χ  L , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

 M0 2  M 0 L2 M 0 L2
EI(0)  L  (M 0 L)L  C2 Then , 0   M 0 L  C2  0 
2
 C2
2 2 2

M 0 L2
C2  
2

Slope Equation Deflection Equation

 M0 2 M L2
EIy  χ  M 0 Lx  0
2 2

EIy  
M0 2
2EI

χ  2Lx  L2 
θ
M0
L  χ 
EI
EIy  
M0
χ  L2
2EI

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1.5 Determine the slope and the deflection of cantilever beam subjected a point load at distance (a)

from fixed end as shown below using double integration method.

  M A  0 , M A  Pa  0  M A  Pa

   Fy  0 ,  P  RA  0  RA  P

Moment Functions

Segment AB 0  x  a 

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  M χ  0, - Pχ  Pa  M χ  0

M χ  Px  Pa
M χ  P( x  a)

d2y
 EI M
dx 2
d2y
Therefore, EI  P( x  a)
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y dy P( x  a)2
EIθ  EI  C1 ............1
dx 2 
 P( x  a) dx  EIθ  EI 
dx 2
Second integration to obtain deflection

 P( x  a)2  P( x  a)3
 C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI     C1  dx  EIy 
dx  2  6

Applying the boundary condition

At χ  0 , θ  0 Substitute in equation (1)

P(0  a) 2 Pa 2
EI(0)   C1 Therefore , C1  
2 2
dy P( x  a) 2
dy P( x  a) 2
Pa 2 P( x 2  2ax  a 2 ) Pa 2
EI   C1  EI    
dx 2 dx 2 2 2 2

EI
dy P( x 2  2ax)
dx

2

dy

P
dx 2EI
( x 2  2ax)  
 dy 
  
P

(a 2  2a  a )  
Pa 2

 dx  a 2EI 2EI

At χ  0 , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

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P(0  a)3 Pa 2 Pa 3
EI(0)   (0)  C2  C2 
6 2 6

P( x  a)3 Pa 2 x Pa 3 P( x 3  3 x 2 a  3 xa 2  a 3 ) Pa 2 x Pa 3
EIy     EIy   
6 2 6 6 2 2
P( x 3  3 x 2 a) 3Pxa 2 Pa 3 Pa 2 x Pa 3 P( x 3  3x 2 a) Pa 2 x Pa 3 Pa 2 x Pa 3
EIy          
6 6 6 2 2 6 2 6 2 2
P( x 3  3 x 2 a) P
EIy  y ( x 3  3x 2 a)
6 6 EI
P 2Pa 3 Pa 3
ya  (a 3  3  a 2 a)   
6 EI 6 EI 3 EI

1.6 Formulize the slope and the deflection equation of cantilever beam subjected moment at distance

(a) from fixed end as shown below using double integration method.

Moment Functions

Segment AB 0  x  L 

  M χ  0,  M χ  M  0

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M χ  M

d2y
Therefore, EI  M
dx 2
First integration to obtain the slope equation

d2y
 M x  C1 ............1
dy
EIθ  EI 2
  M dx  EIθ  EI
dx dx
Second integration to obtain deflection

M x2
 M x  C1  dx  C1 x  C2 ............2
dy
EIy  EI
dx 
 EIy  
2

Applying the boundary condition

At χ  l , θ  0 Substitute in equation (1)

EI(0)  ML  C1 Therefore , C1  ML


dy dy
EI   Mx  ML  EI  M(L - x)
dx dx
dy M
 (L - x)
dx EI
 dy  M M Ma
   (L - b)  (a  b  b) 
 dx  b EI EI EI

At χ  a , y  0 Substitute in equation (2)

M L2 M L2 M L2
EI(0)    ( ML) L  C2  C2   ML2  
2 2 2

Therefore , EIy  
M x2
2
 MLx 
M L2
2

M 2
2

x  2Lx  L2 
y
M
 x  L 2
2EI
Ma 2
yb  
M
b  L    b  a  b   
2 M 2

2EI 2EI 2EI

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CHAPTER TWO

Stress in Solid

(12 Questions)

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2.1 At a point in a continuum, the stress components are

 x  12 xy;  y  0; z  0

 xy  20 y 2 ;  yz  8z;  zx  0

X  52 y ; Y  0; Z  0;

State whether equilibrium conditions are satisfied for this state of stress and body forces.

Solution

Equilibrium equations are:

 x  yx  zx
  X0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
  Y0
x y z

 xz  yz  z
  Z0
x y z

Considering the first equilibrium condition, we get:

 x  yx  zx
 12 y  40 y 0 X  -52 y
x y z

Therefore, 12 y  40 y  0  -52 y  0 Satified

Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

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 xy  y  zy
 0;  0;  0; Y  0
x y z

Therefore, 00000 Satified

Considering the third equilibrium condition, we get:

 xz  yz  z
 0;  0;  8; Z  0
x y z

Therefore, 0080  0 Not - Satified

Thus, the above equilibrium conditions are not satisfied by the above equilibrium stress.

2.2 If the state of stress at a point in body is given as follows, determine the components of body

force in order to satisfy the equilibrium equations

 x  80 x 3  4y 2 ;  y  120 x 3  100;  z  40( y 2  z 2 )

 xy  4 z;  yz  x 3 ;  zx  y 3 .

Solution

Equilibrium equations are:

 x  yx  zx
   Bx  0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
   By  0
x y z

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 xz  yz  z
   Bz  0
x y z

Considering the first equilibrium condition, we get:

 x  yx  zx
 240x 2 0 0
x y z

Therefore, 960 x11  0  0  B x  0  B x  -240 x 2


ans

Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

 xy  y  zy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z

Therefore, 0  0  0  By  0  By  0 ans

Considering the third equilibrium condition, we get:

 xz  yz  z
 0;  0;  80 z
x y z

Therefore, 0  0  80 z  B z  0  B z  -80 z ans

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2.3 The state of stress at a point is given as

 x  4 x  4 y;  y  4 x  8 y;  z  4y

 xy  α  f (x , y) ;  yz  0;  zx  0

Determine α for this stress distribution to satisfy equilibrium equations in the absence of body

forces.

Solution

Equilibrium equations in the absence of body forces are:

 x  yx  zx
  0
x y z

 xy  y  zy
  0
x y z

 xz  yz  z
  0
x y z

Considering the first equilibrium condition, we get:

 x  yx  zx
4 ? 0
x y z

 yx  yx
Therefore, 4 00   -4
y y

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 yx    4 dy   yx  4 y  C1

Considering the Second equilibrium condition, we get:

 xy  y  zy
 ?;  8 ;  0;
x y z

 xy  xy
Therefore, 80  0  8
x x

 xy   8 dx   xy  8 x  C2

We find the value of C1 and C2 based on satisfaction of the equilibrium conditions.

C1  8 x and C2  4 y . Hence,   8 x  4 y

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2.4 The stress components at a point with reference to three planes normal to coordinates axes x, y, z

are given as follow

 x  800;  y  1600;  z  400

 xy  400 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200

Determine the stress component at the point through and inclined plane whose normal is (8, 8, 4)

with reference to x, y, z axes. Also determine the normal and shear stresses on the plane.

Solution

Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 ny   xy  y  zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  8; y  8; z4

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 8 2  8 2  4 2  R 2

R 2  144  R  12

x 8 2 y 8 2 z 4 1
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 12 3 R 12 3 R 12 3

 nx   800  400 1200   3 


2
 
Therefore,  ny    400 1600 0   2 
3
 nz   1200 0  400  1 
 3
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 nx  (800)( 2 3 )  (400)( 2 3 )  (1200)( 13 )  2000 3 MPa

 ny  (400)( 2 3 )  (1600)( 2 3 )  (0)( 13 )  800 3 MPa ,

 nz  (1200)( 2 3 )  (0)( 2 3 )  (400)( 13 )  2000 3 MPa

 nx  
2000 MPa 
    800 MPa 
3
 ny   3
 nz  2000 MPa 
 3 

Shear stresses

      
 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3  2000 3 2 3  800 3 2 3  2000 3 13  7600 9 MPa  
2
 2
 
2
 
 R 2   nx 2   ny 2   nz 2  2000 3  800 3  2000 3  960000 MPa 
2
 7600 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 960000     496.904 MPa
 9 

2.5 The stress components at a point with reference to x, y, z co-ordinate system are

 x  400;  y  400;  z  400

 xy  0 ;  yz  1600 x;  zx  800 y

Find the stress components at a point (4, 8, 12) on a plane whose equation is given by x  y  z  24 .

Solution

Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

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 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 
  ny  xy y zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  4; y  8; z  12

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 4 2  8 2  12 2  R 2

R 2  224  R  4 14

x 4 1 y 8 2 z 12 3
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 4 14 14 R 4 14 14 R 4 14 14

1 
 nx   400 0 800 y   14 
    
Therefore,  ny    0 400 1600 x   2 
 14 
 nz  800 y 1600 x 400  3
 
 14 

1
 nx  (400)( 2 )  (0)( 2 )  (800 y )( 3 ) (800  2400 y) MPa
14 14 14 14

1 20000
 (800  2400  8)  MPa
14 14

1
 ny  (0)( 1 )  (400)( 2 )  (1600 x)( 3 ) (800  4800x) MPa ,
14 14 14 14

1 20000
 (800  4800  4)  MPa
14 14

1
 nz  (800 y)( 1 )  (1600x)( 2 )  (400)( 3 ) (800 y  3200x  1200) MPa
14 14 14 14

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1 19600
 (800  8  3200  4  400)  MPa
14 14

  20000 MPa 
  
 
 nx   14

    20000  MPa 
 ny   
14  
 nz  
19600  MPa 
  
14  
 

Shear stresses

 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3   20000  1

   20000
 
 2

  19600
 
 3



 14  14   14  14   14  14 

20000  40000  58800 59400


   8485.71 MPa
14 7

2 2 2
 R   nx   ny   nz   20000    8000   19600   84582857.14 MPa
2 2 2 2
    
 14   14   14 

2
 59400 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 84582857.14     3546.2 MPa
 7 

2.6 The state of stress at a point for the reference system of co-ordinates x, y, z is given by

 x  800;  y  0;  z  2000

 xy  400 ;  yz  0;  zx  0

If the new set of axes x ' ; y ' ; z ' is formed by rotating x; y; z 60  about z axis. What are the

components of stress in the new system?

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Solution

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
1 3
x'  1  cos(60)   2  sin( 60)   3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
 3
m2  cos(60) 
1
m3  cos(90)  0
y' m1  cos(  60)  
2 2 2
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

 1 3 0  1  3 0
 2 2  2 2 800 400 0 
aij   3
2
1
2

0 , aij T 
 3
2
1
2
 
0 and ij  400 0
 0 
 0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 2000
   
   

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  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

 1 3 0 800 400  1  3 0


  x  xy  xz   2 2  0   2 2
     
 yx  y  yz   
3 1 0  400 0 0    3 1 0
2 2 2 2
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  0 0 2000  0 0 1
     
   

 1  3 0
 746.41 200 0   2 2  1546.41  546.4 0 
  
  492.82  346.4 0    3 1 0   546.41 253.6 0 
2 2
 0 0 2000  0 0 1  0 0 2000
 
 

  x  xy  xz   1546.41  546.4 0 


  
 yx  y  yz    546.41 253.6 0  Mpa
 zx  zy  z   0 0 2000
 

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2.7 The stress components at point with reference to x, y , z co-ordinate axes are specified as

x  0;  y  2000 ;  z  2400

 x y  800 ;  yz  0 ;  zx  1200

Determine the stress components in x  y z co-ordinate system which is obtaining by rotating x, y , z


about x axis by 30 
Solution

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 
m3  , aij    2 m2 n2 
T
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(90 )  0
3 1
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos(30)  m3  sin(30) 
2 2
1 3
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90  30)   n3  cos(30) 
2 2

   
1 0 0  1 0 0   0 800 1200 
 0 
aij  0 3 1  , aij T  0 3  1  and ij   800 2000
 2 2   2 2
0 3  0 3  1200 0 2400
 1 1
 2 2  2 2

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  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

   
  x  xy  xz  1 0 0   0 800 1200  1 0 0 
   1    800 2000
 yx  y  yz   0
3 0   0 3 1 
2 2    2 2
 zx  zy  z   3  1200 0 2400 0 3 
  0  1 1
 2 2  2 2

 
  x  xy  xz   0 800 1200  1 0 0 
  
 yx  y  yz    0 1292.82 1732.05   0 3 1 
 2 2
 zx  zy  z  639.23  1000 2078.46  3 
  0 1
 2 2

  x  xy  xz   0 1292.82 639.23 


   
 yx  y  yz   1292.82 2100 173.205
 zx  zy  z   639.23 173.205 2300 
 

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2.8 Determine the values and the directions of principle stresses for the following state of stress at a

point

 x  800;  y  1200;  z  200

 xy  2000 ;  yz  1200 ;  zx  400

Solution

Stress invariants;

I1   x   y   z  800  1200  200  200

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

 (800)(1200)  (1200)(200)  (800)(200)  (2000) 2  (1200) 2  (400) 2  6.64  106

 x  xy  x z   800 2000  400


 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000  1200 1200 

 zx  zy  z   400 1200 200 
 

 800 (1200)(200)  (1200)(1200) 

2000 (2000)(200)  (1200)(400) 

400 (2000)(1200)  (1200)(400)  3.872  109

The invariants of deviatoric stress

(200) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (6.64  106 )  6, 653, 333.333
3 3

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2(200) 3 (200)(6.64  106 )


3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (3.872  109 )  4315259259
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  6653333.333
  r   2978.441
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  4315259259 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    43.6
r3 3  r  3  2978.4413 

σ1  r  cosθ   2978 .441 cos43 .6   2157 MPa

σ 2  r  cosθ  120   2978 .441 cos43 .6  120   700 .3 MPa

σ 3  r  cosθ  120   2978 .441 cos43 .6  120    - 2857 .28 MPa

We can check by using the following quadratic equation

 '3 J 2 'J 3  0   '3 6653333.333  '4315259259  0

 1  2157.02 MPa ;  2  700.3 MPa ;  3  2857.208 MPa OK

Principle stresses are as follow

 1   1   m  2157 
200
 2090.33 MPa
3

 2   2   m  700.3 
200
 633.63 MPa
3

 3   3   m  2857.28 
200
 2923.95 MPa
3

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Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

 x   1   yx  zx  800  2090.33 2000  400 



  xy  y  1   zy
 
 2000  1200  2090.33 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   1    400 1200 200  2090.33

 1290.33 2000  400 



  2000  3290.33 1200 
  400 1200  1890.33

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   3290.33 1890.33  12002  4779809.509
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 1890.33   4001200  3300660
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001200   400 3290.33  1076132
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  4779809 .509 2   3300660 2  1076132 2  5907537 .174

A 4779809.509
1    0.809
R 5907537.174

B  3300660
2    0.559
R 5907537.174

C  1076132
3    0.182
R 5907537.174

 1   1   1  0809    0.559    0.182   1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

 x   2   yx  zx  800  633.63 2000  400 



  xy  y   2   zy    2000  1200  633.63 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   2    400 1200 200  633.63

166.37 2000  400 



  2000  1833.63 1200 
  400 1200  433.63

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   1833.63 433.63  12002  644883.023
2

 z   2 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 433.63   4001200  387260
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001200   400 1833.63  1666548
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2   644883 .023 2   387260 2  1666548 2  1828449 .249

A  644883.023
m1    0.353
R 1828449.249

B  387260
m2    0.212
R 1828449.249

C 1666548
m3    0.911
R 1828449.249

m1  m2  m3   0.353    0.212   0.911  0.999474  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

 x   3   yx  zx  800  2923.95 2000  400 



  xy  y   3   zy    2000  1200  2923.95 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   3    400 1200 200  2923.95

3723.95 2000  400 


  2000 1723.95 1200 

  400 1200 3123.95

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy  1723.953123.95  12002  3945533.603
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           20003123.95   4001200  1104790
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001200   4001723.95  929580
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  3945533 .603 2  1104790 2  929580 2  4201418 .253

A 3945533.603
n1    0.939
R 4201418.253

B 1104790
n2    0.263
R 4201418.253

C 929580
n3    0.221
R 4201418.253

n1  n2  n3  0.939   0.263   0.221  0.999843  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Angles of inclinations

 1  cos α1  α1  cos-1 ( 1 ) Therefore, α1  cos-1 (0.809)  36

m1  cos β1  β1  cos-1 (m1 ) Therefore, β1  cos-1 (0.353)  110.67

n1  cos γ1  γ1  cos-1 (n1 ) Therefore, γ11  cos-1 (0.939)  20.12

 2  cos α 2  α 2  cos-1 ( 2 ) Therefore, α 2  cos-1 (0.559)  124

m2  cos β 2  β 2  cos-1 (m2 ) Therefore, β 2  cos-1 (0.212)  102.24

n2  cos γ 2  γ 2  cos-1 (n2 ) Therefore, γ 2  cos-1 (0.263)  74.75

 3  cos α 3  α 3  cos-1 ( 3 ) Therefore, α 3  cos-1 (0.182)  100.5

m3  cos β 3  β 3  cos-1 (m3 ) Therefore, β 3  cos-1 (0.911)  24.36

n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.221)  77.23

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2.9 If stress components in x, y, z system are

 x  0;  y  2000;  z  2400

 xy  800 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200

Calculate the principle stresses and the angle of inclinations of the principle planes on which

they act.

Solution

Stress invariants;

I1   x   y   z  0  2000  2400  4400

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

 (0)(2000)  (2000)(2400)  (0)(200)  (800) 2  (0) 2  (1200) 2  2.72  10 6

 x  xy  xz   0 800 1200 
   
I 3  det  yx y  yz   det  800 2000 0 
   
 zx  zy  z  1200 0 2400

 0 (2000)(2400) 
800 (800)(2400)  (1200)(0) 
1200 (800)(0)  (1200)(2000)  4.416  109

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The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (4400) 2
J2   I2   (2.72  106 )  4183333.333
3 3

2(4400) 3 (4400)(2.72  106 )


3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (4.416  109 )  1435407407
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  4183333.333
  r   2361.732
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  1435407407 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    38.61
r3 3  r  3  2361.7323 

σ1  r  cosθ   2361 .732 cos38 .61  1845 .408 MPa

σ 2  r  cosθ  120   2361 .732 cos38 .61  120   353 .7 MPa

σ 3  r  cosθ  120   2361 .732 cos30  120   -2199.1 MPa

We can check by using the following quadratic equation

 '3 J 2 'J 3  0   '3 4183333.333  '1435407407  0

 1  1845.40 MPa ;  2  353.7 MPa ;  3  2199.1 MPa OK

Principle stresses are as follow

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1   1   m  1845.408 
4400
 3312 MPa
3

 2   2   m  353.7 
4400
 1820.4 MPa
3

 3   3   m  2199.1 
4400
 732.4 MPa
3

Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

 x   1   yx  zx  800  3312 2000  400 



  xy  y  1   zy
 
   2000  1200  3312 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   1    400 1200 200  3312

 2512 2000  400 


  2000  4512 1200 

  400 1200  3112

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   4512 3112  12002  12601344
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 3112   4001200  5744000
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001200   400 4512  595200
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  12601344 2   5744000 2  595200 2  13861517 .58

A 12601344
1    0.909
R 13861517.58

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

B  5744000
2    0.414
R 13861517.58

C 595200
3    0.043
R 13861517.58

 1   1   1  0.909    0.414   0.043   0.999526  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

 x   2   yx  zx  800  1820.4  2000  400 



  xy  y   2   zy    2000  1200  1820.4 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   2    400 1200 200  1820.4

 1020.4 2000  400 


  2000  3020.4 1200 
  400 1200  1620.4

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   3020.4 1620.4  12002  3454256.16
2

  zy  z   2 

  zy 
B   xy           2000 1620.4   4001200  2760800
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001200   400 3020.4  1191840
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  3454256 .16 2   2760800 2  1191840 2  4579780

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A 3454256.16
m1    0.754
R 4579780

B  2760800
m2    0.603
R 4579780

C 1191840
m3    0.260
R 4579780

m1  m2  m3  0.754    0.603   0.260   0.999725  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

 x   3   yx  zx  800  732.4  2000  400 



  xy  y   3   zy    2000  1200  732.4 1200 

  xz
  yz  z   3    400 1200 200  732.4

1532.4 2000  400


  2000  467.6 1200 
  400 1200 932.4 

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy   467.4932.4  12002  1875803.76
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000932.4   4001200  2344800
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001200   400 467.4  2213040
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2   1875803 .76 2  2344800 2  2213040 2  3229673 .43

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A  1875803.76
n1    0.503
R 3229673.74

B 2344800
n2    0.629
R 3229673.74

C 2213040
n3    0.593
R 3229673.74

n1  n2  n3   0.503   0.629   0.593   1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Angles of inclinations

 1  cos α1  α1  cos-1 ( 1 ) Therefore, α1  cos-1 (0.909)  24.63

m1  cos β1  β1  cos-1 (m1 ) Therefore, β1  cos-1 (0.754)  41

n1  cos γ1  γ1  cos-1 (n1 ) Therefore, γ1  cos-1 (0.503)  120.2

 2  cos α 2  α 2  cos-1 ( 2 ) Therefore, α 2  cos-1 (0.414)  114.5

m2  cos β 2  β 2  cos-1 (m2 ) Therefore, β 2  cos-1 (0.603)  127

n2  cos γ 2  γ 2  cos-1 (n2 ) Therefore, γ 2  cos-1 (0.629)  51

 3  cos α 3  α 3  cos-1 ( 3 ) Therefore, α 3  cos-1 (0.043)  87.54

m3  cos β 3  β 3  cos-1 (m3 ) Therefore, β 3  cos-1 (0.260)  75

n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.593)  53.6

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2.10 At a point the stress components are

 x  2400;  y  1200;  z  3600

 xy  2000 ;  yz  1600 ;  zx  800

Show that principle directions of stress and deviatoric stress coincide

Find a relation between the principle values of stress and deviatoric stress

Solution

Stress invariants;

I1   x   y   z  2400  1200  3600  7200

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

 (2400)(1200)  (1200)(3600)  (2400)(3600)  (2000) 2  (1600) 2  (800) 2  8.64  106

 x  xy  x z   2400 2000  800


 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000 1200 1600 
 zx  zy  z   800 1600 3600 
 

 800 (1200)(3600)  (1600)(1600) 

2000 (2000)(3600)  (1600)(800) 

800 (2000)(1600)  (1200)(800)  1.6064  1010

The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (7200) 2
J2   I2   (8.64  106 )  8640000
3 3

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2(7200) 3 (7200)(8.64  106 )


3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (1.6064  1010 )  9.152  109
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  8640000
  r   3394.113
r2 4 3 3

1  4J 3  1  4  9.152  10 
9
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos    53.144
r 3  r  3  3394.113 

σ1  r  cosθ   3394 .11 cos53   2035 .81 MPa

σ 2  r  cosθ  120   3394 .11 cos53  120   1334 . 03MPa

σ 3  r  cosθ  120   3394 .11 cos30  120   3369.84 MPa

We can check by using the following quadratic equation

 '3 J 2 'J 3  0   '3 8640000  '9.152  109  0

 1  2035.8 MPa ;  2  1334.05 MPa ;  3  3369.84 MPa OK

Principle stresses are as follow

 1   1   m  2035.8 
7200
 4435.8 MPa
3

 2   2   m  1334.03 
7200
 3734.03 MPa
3

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 3   3   m  3369.84 
7200
 969.84 MPa
3

Direction of principle stresses

Direction cosines of  1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

 x   1   yx  zx  2400  4435.8 2000  800 



  xy  y  1   zy
 
 2000 1200  4435.8 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   1    800 1600 3600  4435.8

 2035.8 2000  800 



  2000  3235.8 1600 
  800 1600  835.8

 y   1   zy 
A   y   1   z   1    zy   3235.8 835.8  16002  144481.64
2

 z   1 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 835.8   8001600  391600
 xz  z   1  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    1 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   1   20001600   800 3235.8  611360
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  144481 .64 2   391600 2  611360 2  740261 .14

A 144481.64
1    0.195
R 740261.14

B  391600
2    0.529
R 740261.14

C 611360
3    0.826
R 740261.14

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 1   1   1  0.195    0.529   0.826   1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

 x   2   yx  zx  2400  3734.03 2000  800 



  xy  y   2   zy     
2000 1200  3734.03 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   2    800 1600 3600  3734.03

 1334.03 2000  800 



  2000  2534.03 1600 
  800 1600  134.03

 y   1   zy 
A   y   2   z   2    zy   2534.03 134.03  16002  2220363.96
2

 z   2 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           2000 134.03   8001600  1011940
 xz  z   2  xy z 1 xz zy

 xy    2 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   2   20001600   800 2534.03  1172776
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2   2220363 .96 2  1011940 2  1172776 2  2707294 .263

A  2220363.96
m1    0.820
R 2707294.263

B 1011940
m2    0.37
R 2707294.263

C 1172776
m3    0.433
R 2707294.263

m1  m2  m3   0.820   0.37   0.433   0.997  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK
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Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

 x   3   yx  zx  2400  969.84 2000  800 



  xy  y   3   zy    2000
 
1200  969.84 1600 

  xz
  yz  z   3    800 1600 3600  969.84

3369.84 2000  800 



  2000 2169.84 1600 
  800 1600 4569.84

 y   3   zy 
A   y   3   z   3    zy  2169.844569.84  16002  7355821.626
2

 z   3 
  zy

  zy 
B   xy           20004569.84   8001600  10419680
 xz  z   3  xy z 3 xz zy

 xy    3 
C   xy  yz   xz  y   3   20001600   8002169.84  4935872
y

 xz  yz 

R  A 2  B2  C 2  7355821 .626 2  10419680 2  493872 2  13676281 .49

A 7355821.626
n1    0.538
R 13676281.49

B 10419680
n2    0.762
R 13676281.49

C 4935872
n3    0.361
R 13676281.49

n1  n2  n3  0.538   0.762   0.361  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Angles of inclinations

 1  cos α1  α1  cos-1 ( 1 ) Therefore, α1  cos-1 (0.809)  36

m1  cos β1  β1  cos-1 (m1 ) Therefore, β1  cos-1 (0.353)  110.67

n1  cos γ1  γ1  cos-1 (n1 ) Therefore, γ11  cos-1 (0.939)  20.12

 2  cos α 2  α 2  cos-1 ( 2 ) Therefore, α 2  cos-1 (0.559)  124

m2  cos β 2  β 2  cos-1 (m2 ) Therefore, β 2  cos-1 (0.212)  102.24

n2  cos γ 2  γ 2  cos-1 (n2 ) Therefore, γ 2  cos-1 (0.263)  74.75

 3  cos α 3  α 3  cos-1 ( 3 ) Therefore, α 3  cos-1 (0.182)  100.5

m3  cos β 3  β 3  cos-1 (m3 ) Therefore, β 3  cos-1 (0.911)  24.36

n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.221)  77.23

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2.11 Find the shear stress at the point on the plane whose normal is (8, 8, 4) and the maximum shear

stress at the point if the stress components at that point are given as follow:

 x  1200;  y  800;  z  1600

 xy  0 ;  yz  0;  zx  0

Solution:

Stresses on normal plane can be determined using the following equation:

 nx   x  yx  zx    1 
     
 
  ny  xy y zy   2 
 nz   xz  yz  z   3 

x  8; y  8; z4

x 2  y 2  z 2  R 2 Therefore, 8 2  8 2  4 2  R 2

R 2  144  R  12

x 8 2 y 8 2 z 4 1
1    ; 2    ; 3   
R 12 3 R 12 3 R 12 3

 nx  1200 0 0 2 3 
 
Therefore,  ny    0  800 0   2 
3
 nz   0 0 1600  1 
 3

 nx  (1200)( 2 3 )  800 MPa

 ny  (800)( 2 3 )   1600 3 MPa ,  nz  (160 \ 00)( 13 )  1600 3 MPa

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 nx   800 MPa 
    1600 MPa 
 ny   3
 nz   1600 MPa 
 3 

Normal Shear stress

       
 n   nx  1   ny  2   nz  3  800 2 3   1600 3 2 3  1600 3 13  3200 9 MPa

  
 R 2   nx 2   ny 2   nz 2  8002   1600 3  1600 3  1208888.889 MPa
2 2

2
 3200 
 R  n      R n
2 2 2 2 2 2
  R n
2 2
 1208888.889     1040.42 MPa
 9 

Maximum Shear Stress

Since shear stress in the problem above are all equal to zero so that means the stresses given are

principle stress, hence we don’t need to find them.

 1  1600 MPa   2  1200 MPa   3  800 MPa

 12  
 1   2    1600  1200   200 MPa
2 2

 23  
 2   3    1200  800   1000 MPa
2 2

 13  
 1   3    1600  800   1200 MPa
2 2

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2.12 Show that the normal stress on the octahedral plane is given by one third of first invariant of the

stress.

Show that the shear stress on the octahedral plane is given by

s 
1
3

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 1
2

Where  1 ,  2 ,  3 are principle stresses?

Solution

  n   nx  1   ny  2   zx  3

  1 1   2  2   3 3
2 2 2
.............................................(1)

 1  1  1  1
2 2 2

Since the octahedral plane is inclined at equal angles to the coordinate axes, hence

1
1   2   3   Then substitute in equation (1)
3

1 2 1 2 1 2
 octa   1 12   2  2 2   3 3 2   1 ( )   2 ( )   3 ( )
3 3 3

  1   2   3   1   2   3 
1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3

Shear stress on the octahedral plane

 R 2   12  12   2 2  2 2   3 2  3 2 
3

1 2
 1   2 2   32 

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 oct 2   R 2   octa 2


3
 1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   1   2   3 2
1 2


1 2
3
 1
 
 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3
9


3
 1
9
  1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
1 2


9
 1
9

 1   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
2 2


9
 1
9
  1
9

 1   2 2   3 2   12   2 2   3 2  2  1  2  2  2 3  2  1  3 
1 2


9

1 2 1
9
  1
 
 1  2  1  2   2 2   2 2  2  2 3   3 2   12  2  1  3   3 2
9


1
 1   2 2  1  2   3 2  1  1   3 2
9 9 9


1
9

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 

 oct 
1
3

 1   2 2   2   3 2   1   3 2 
1
2

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CHAPTER THREE

Strain in Solid

(13 Questions)

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3.1 If the displacement components of a points (12, 4,-8) are given by the expressions

u  4x 2  4 y;   12  4 z; w  4x 2  8 y

Write down the coordinates after deformation in lagrangian description

Solution

u  x  x  x  u  x  4 x 2  4 y  x  4(12) 2  4(4)  12  604

v  y  y  y  v  y  12  4 z  y  12  4(8)  4  16

w  z  z  z  w  z  4 x 2  8 y  x  4(12) 2  8(4)  8  600

The new coordinates of deformation are (604, -16, 600)

3.2 Assuming the displacement field given in problem (3.1), determine the distance between the points

P (0, 0, 4) and Q (8, 0,-1) after deformation.

u  4x 2  4 y;   12  4 z; w  4x 2  8 y

Solution

x  u  x  4 x 2  4 y  x  4(12) 2  4(0)  0  576

y  v  y  12  4 z  y  12  4(4)  0  28

z  w  z  4 x 2  8 y  x  4(12) 2  8(0)  4  580

P( x , y  , z  )  P( 576 , 28 , 580 )

 Q( 8 , 0 ,  4 )  Q( x   x , y   y , z   z )

x  x  8   x  8 x Thus ,  x  8  0  8

y y  0  x  0 x Thus ,  x  0  0  0

z   z   4   z  4  z Thus ,  x  4  4  8

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 u u u 
 z    x 
 u   x y   x   u   x 
 v    v v v   
y  y   v   y 
   x And
y z     
w  w w w    z   z    w   z 
 
 x y z 

u u u u
 8x   8(0)  0 ,  4, 0
x x y z
v v v
0 ,  0, 4
x y z
w w w w
 8x   8(0)  0 ,  4, 0
x x y z

 u   0 4 0   8   u  0   x   u   x  0  8  8
      
 v    0 0 4   0   v  32  Therefore,  y   v   y  32  0  32
      
w 0 4 0  8  w  0   z    w   z  0  8  8

Q( x   x , y   y , z    z  )  Q(576  8 , 28 - 32 , 580 - 8)

 Q(584 , - 4 , 572)

PQ  S  x2  y2  z2  (8) 2  (32) 2  (8) 2  33.94

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3.3 The displacement field at a point in a body is specified as follows :

u  0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z

  0.04 y  0.12 z
w  0.08 x  0.04 z

Determine the increase in the distance between two points (0, 4, 0) and (8,-4, 12). Also find out the

elongation per unit length in y direction of a line segment at (4, 12, 8). Adopt lagrangian description.

Solution

x  u  x  x  0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z  x  x  1.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z

x  1.24(0)  0.2(4)  0.04(0)  0.8

y  v  x  x  0.04 y  0.12 z  y  y   1.04 y  0.12 z

y   1.04(4)  0.12(0)  4.16

z  w  x  z   0.08 x  0.04 z  z  z   0.08 x  1.04 z

z   0.08(0)  1.04(0)  0

x  u  x and x  8  0  8

y   v  y and y  4  4  8

z   w  z and z  12  0  12

 u u u 
 u    x 
   x y z   
   v v v   
 v     y 
   x y z   
    
w  w w w   
  z 
 x y z 

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u  u 
 (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.24 ,  (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.2
x x y y
u 
 (0.24 x  0.2 y  0.04 z )  0.04
z z

v  v 
 (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0 ,  (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0.04
x x y y
v 
 (0.04 y  0.12 z )  0.12
z z

w  w 
 (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0.08 ,  (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0
x x y y
w 
 (0.08 x  0.04 z )  0.04
z z

 u   0.24 0 .2 0.04   8   u  0.08 


      
      
 v    0 0.04  0.12  8   v  1.76 
      
      
w  0.08 0 0.04   12  w  0.16

Thus , the incrase in distance is as follow

x  u  x  0.08  8  8.08

y   v  y  1.76  8  9.76

z   w  z  0.16  12  11.84

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3.4 The co-ordinates of a point in a structure after deformation due to loading are given by :

x  4 x  12y ; y  4 y  20x

Calculate lagrangian and Eulerian finite strain components. State whether the values obtained on

bases of small deformation theory would have been sufficient in this case.

Solution

Lagrangian components strain

u  x  x  4 x  12y - x  3x  12 y

v  y  y  4 y  20x - y  3 y  20 x

 u u   u v 
   x 
J    xv yv  J T   ux v 
   
 x y   y y 
u  u 
 (3 x  12 y )  3  (3 x  12 y )  12
x x y y
v  v 
 (3 y  20x )  20  (3 y  20x )  3
x x y y
3 12 3 20 3 12  3 20  6 32
J     J T    J   J   
T
   
20 3  12 3  20 3  12 3  32 6 

3 12  3 20 153 96 


J  J T      
20 3  12 3   96 409

 6 32 153 96   79.5 64 


1
2
 T T 1 
L  J   J   J   J   
2 
 
 
  
 


32 6   96 409 
  64 206

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Eulerian components strain

u  3 x  12 y
v  3 y  20 x
 u u   u v 
 x   x 
K    v yv  K T   ux v 
   
 x y   y y 
u  u 
 (3 x  12 y)  3  (3 x  12 y)  12
x x y y
v  v 
 (3 y  20x )  20  (3 y  20x )  3
x x y y
3 12 3 20 3 12  3 20  6 32
J     JT    J   J   
T
   
20 3  12 3  20 3  12 3  32 6 

3 12  3 20 153 96 


J  JT      
20 3  12 3   96 409

 6 32 153 96   79.5 64 


L
1
 
J   J T  J  J T  1 
2 32
    
2
 6   96 409   64 206

Based on the values obtained from the small deformation we can conclude that they are sufficient in

this case.

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3.5 For the displacement field given by:

 
u  4 x 2  8 y 2 z  4 yz  10-2
  4 xy  4 xz  12 x z  10 2 -2

w  16 y  8 z  10
3 2 -2

Determine

(a) Lagrangian finite strain components

(b) Eulerian finite strain components

(c) lagrangian infinitesimal strains

(d) Eulerian infinitesimal strains

Solution

(a) Lagrangian finite strain components

 u u u 
 x y z 

J    v v v 
x y z 
 w w w 
 
 x y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  102
y
 16 yz  4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y 2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x 2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y 2  16 z  10 2
x x x

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 8x 16 yz  4 z 8y 2  4 y 
 
J  4 y  4 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2   102
 
 0 48 y 2 16 z 

 8x 4 y  4 z  24 xz 0 
 
JT  16 yz  4 z 4x 48 y 2 
 
 8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2 16 z 

 8x 16 yz  4 z 8y 2  4 y   8 x 4 y  4 z  24 xz 0  
    
 
J  JT  4 y  4 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2   16 yz  4 z 4x 48 y 2    10
2

    
 0 48 y 2 16 z   8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2 16 z  

Assuming that A  8 x , B  4 y  4 z  24 xz ; C  16 yz  4 z; D  48 y 2 ; E  8y 2  4 y;
F  4 x  24 x 2 ; G  16 z

A C D  A B 0   2A BC D 
      
J  JT   B 0.5A F   C 0 .5 A E   10  B  C A E  F
      
 0 E G   D F G    D EF 2G 

A C D  A B 0 
    
J JT

  B 0.5A F   C 0 .5 A E   10
2

    
 0 E G   D F G  

 A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG 
 
  AB  0.5 AC  DF 0.5 AE  FG   10 2

B 2  0.5 A2  F 2
 
 CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2 

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L
1
2

K   K T  K  K T 

 2 A BC D   A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG  
1   
E  F    AB  0.5 AC  DF

  B  C A B 2  0.5 A 2  F 2 0.5 AE  FG    10 2
2

 D EF 2G   CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2  

 A 2  2A  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C CE  DG  D 
1  
 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C B 2  0.5A 2  A  F 2 0.5AE  FG  E  F 10 2
2
 CE  DG  D 0.5AE  FG  E  F E 2  G 2  2G 

(b) Eulerian finite strain components

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz   4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y2  16 z   10 2
x x x

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 8x 16 y z   4 z  8y  2  4 y  
K   4 y   4 z   24 x z  4x

4 x   24 x  2   10  2
 0 48 y  2 16 z  

 8x 4 y   4 z   24 x z  0 
K   16 y z   4 z  4 x 48 y  2 
T

 8y  2  4 y  4 x   24 x  2 16 z  

K   K T
 8x 16 y z   4 z  8y  2  4 y    8x 4 y   4 z   24 x z  0 
  
 4 y   4 z   24 x z  4x 4 x   24 x  2   16 y z   4 z  4x 48 y  2    10  2
 0 48 y  2 16 z    8y  2  4 y  4 x   24 x  2 16 z   


Assuming that A  8 x  , B  4 y   4 z   24 x z  ; C  16 y z   4 z ; D  48 y  2 ; E  8y  2  4 y ;
F  4 x   24 x  2 ; G  16 z 

A C D  A B 0   2A BC D 
 
K   K    B 0.5A F   C 0.5 A E    10   B  C
   E  F 
T
A
 0 G   D G    D EF 2G 
 E F

A C D  A B 0 
 
K   K    B 0.5A F   C 0.5 A E    10 2
 
T 

 0 G   D G  
 E F

 A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG 
  
  AB  0.5 AC  DF B  0.5 A  F
2 2 2
0.5 AE  FG   10 2
 CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2 

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L
1
2

J   J T  J  J T 

 2 A BC D   A2  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5 AC  DF CE  DG  
   
1  
E  F    AB  0.5 AC  DF 0.5 AE  FG    10 2

  B  C A B 2  0. 5 A 2  F 2
2    
 D EF 2G   CE  DG 0.5 AE  FG E 2  G 2  

 A 2  2A  C 2  D 2 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C CE  DG  D 
1 
 AB  0.5AC  DF  B  C 0.5AE  FG  E  F  10 2

B 2  0.5A 2  A  F 2
2 
 CE  DG  D 0.5AE  FG  E  F E 2  G 2  2G 

(c) lagrangian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz  4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y 2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z
 
 4 x  24 x 2  10 2

w w w
0  48 y 2  16 z  10 2
x y z

u v
  (16 yz  4 z  4 y  4 z  24 xz)  10 2  (16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz)  10 2
y x
v w

z y

 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2 
u w

z x

 8y 2  4 y  10 2 

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 8x 16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz 8y 2  4 y 
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal  16 yz  4 y  8 z  24 xz 4x 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2   10 2
 
 8y 2  4 y 4 x  24 x 2  48 y 2 16 z 
 
(d) Eulerian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
Eulerian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
x
 8 x  10 2
y
 16 yz   4 z   10 2
z
 
 8y2  4 y  10 2

v v v
x
 (4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2
y
 4 x  10 2
z

 4 x  24 x2  10 2
w w w
0  48 y2  16 z   10 2
x y z

u v
  (16 yz   4 z   4 y  4 z   24 xz )  10 2  (16 yz   4 y  8 z   24 xz )  10 2
y x
v w

z y

 4 x  24 x2  48 y2 
u w

z x

 8y2  4 y  10 2 

 8 x 16 yz   4 y  8 z   24 xz  8y2  4 y 


 
 Eulerian infinitesi mal  16 yz  4 y  8 z   24 xz  4 x 4 x  24 x2  48 y2   10 2
 
 8y2  4 y 4 x  24 x2  48 y2 16 z  
 

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3.6 If the displacement field at a point is specified as follows:


u  C 8 x 2  4 xy ;    C4 y2; W 0

Where C is constant

(a) Write down the co-ordinates of the point after deformation.

(a) Determine lagrangian finite strains

(a) Determine lagrangian infinitesimal strains

(b) State whether compatibility conditions are satisfied

Solution

(a) Write down the co-ordinates of the point after deformation.

x  u  x  C (8 x 2  4 xy)  x
y  v  y  C 4 y 2  y
z  w  z  z

(b) Lagrangian finite strain components

 u u u 
 x y z 

J    v v v 
x y z 
 w w w 
 
 x y z 

u u u
 C (16 x  4 y )  4Cy 0
x y z
v v v
0  8Cy 0
x y z
w w w
0 0 0
x x x

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0
   
J   C  0 8y 0 J T  C  4y 8y 0
   
 0 0 0  0 0 0

16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0  32 x  8 y 4y 0


      
J   J T  C  0 8y 0   4 y 8y 0   C  4y 16 y 0
      
 0 0 0  0 0 0   0 0 0

 16 x  4 y 4y 0 16 x  4 y 0 0 
     
J  J T  C  0 8y 0  C  4 y 8y 0 
     
  0 0 0  0 0 0 

16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2 32 y 2 0
 
 C2  32 y 2 64 y 2 0
 
 0 0 0

L
1
2

J   J T  J  J T 
 32 x  8 y 4y 0 16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2 32 y 2 0 
     
1 
 C  4 y 16 y 0  C 2  32 y 2 64 y 2 0 
2     
  0 0 0  0 0 0 

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L
1
2
 
J   J T  J  J T 

C 32 x  8 y   C 2 16 x 2  64 xy  48 y 2  32C 2 y 2  4Cy 0


1 
  32C 2 y 2  4 yC 64C 2 y 2  16Cy 0
2 
 0 0 0

(c) Determine lagrangian infinitesimal strains

 u u v u w 
 x  
 E xx E xy E xz  y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesi mal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 

u u u
 C (16 x  4 y )  4Cy 0
x y z
v v v
0  8Cy 0
x y z
w w w
0 0 0
x x x

u v
  4Cy
y x
v w
 0
z y
u w
 0
z x

C (16 x  4 y ) 4Cy 0
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal   4Cy 8Cy 0
 
 0 0 0

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(d) State whether compatibility conditions are satisfied

u u v
εx   C (16 x  4 y ) γ xy    4Cy
x y x
v v w
εy   8Cy γ yz   0
y z y
w u w
εz  0 γ xz   0
z z x

The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y
 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z2  y 2 y z
 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z
 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 
 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 
 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

By considering equation (1)


 2ε x   ε x    2ε y   ε y  
 
  4C 
  4C   0 ,    16C   16C   0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
 x  x  y
 2 γ xy   γ xy      
     (4cy)   4 y   0
x y  x   y   x   y  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

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By considering equation (2)


 2ε y   ε y       2ε z   ε z  
     (8Cy )   0  0 ,    0   0  0
z 2
 z  z   z  z y 2
 y y  y
 2 γ yz  γ yz  

  0   0  0
y z  y   z  y
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

By considering equation (3)


 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   0  0  0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
z z  z x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   0  0  0
x z  x   z  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

By considering equation (4)


Left - Side
 2ε x    εx  
2 2   0  2 0  0
y z y  z  y
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
      0  0  0   0  0
x  x y z  x x
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

By considering equation (5)


Left - Side
 2ε y    εy  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x z x  z  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
y  x y z  y y
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

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By considering equation (5)


Left - Side
 2ε z    εz  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x y x  y  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
z  x y z  z z
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Thus, the above compatibility conditions are satisfied by the above compatibility equations.

3.7 At a point in a continuum, the deformation are given as:

u  12 x 2 z ;   16 y 3 z; w  4 x 3  4 y 4

Determine the strain components based on infinitesimal strain theory and explain the state of the
strain.

Check whether the compatibility conditions are satisfied

Solution

 u u v u w 
 
 E xx E xy E xz   x y x z x 
   u v v v w 
lagrangian infinitesimal strains   E xy E yy E yz     
   y x y z y 
 E xz
 E yz E zz   u w v w w 
   
 z x z y z 
u u u u v
 24 xz 0  12 x 2  0
x y z y x
v v v v w
0  48 y 2 z  16 y 3   16 y 3  16 y 3  0
x y z z y
w w w u w
 12 x 2  16 y 3 0   12 x 2  12 x 2  0
x y z z x

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24 xz 0 0
 
 lagrangian infinitesi mal   0 48 y 2 z 0
 
 0 0 0

Based on the determined strains, we can see that the shear strains are zeros as well as the strain

component at z direction.

Check for the compatibility conditions

u u v
εx   24 xz γ xy   0
x y x
v v w
εy   48 y 2 z γ yz    16 y 3  16 y 3  0
y z y
w u w
εz  0 γ xz    12 x 2  12 x 2  0
z z x

The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y
 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z 2  y 2 y z
 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z
 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 
 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2 
    ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 
 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

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By considering equation (1)


    2ε y
 2ε x
  24 xz    0  0 , 
  
    
48 y 2 z   0  0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xy   γ xy      

    (0)   0  0
x y  x   y   x   y   x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

By considering equation (2)


 2ε y   ε y        2ε z   ε z  
 z2
    
 z  z   z z
(48 y 2 z )   
48 y 2  0 ,     0   0  0
 z y  y y  y
2

 2 γ yz  γ yz  

  0   0  0
y z  y   z   y
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

By considering equation (3)


 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   24 x   24 x   0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
z z  z x 2
 x x  x
 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   0  0  0
x z  x   z  x
Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

By considering equation (4)


Left - Side
 2ε x    εx  
2 2   24 x   2 24 x   0
y z y  z  y
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
      0  0  0   0  0
x  x y z  x x
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

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By considering equation (5)


Left - Side
 2ε y    εy  
2
x z
2
x


 48 y 2   2


48 y 2  0 
 z  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
y  x y z  y y
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

By considering equation (5)


Left - Side
 2ε z    εz  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x y x  y  x
Right - Side
γ yz γ xz γ xy
 0;  0;  0;
x y z
  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     0  0  0   0  0
z  x y z  z z
Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

Thus, the above compatibility conditions are satisfied by the above compatibility equations.

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3.8 The infinitesimal strain component at a point are given as

ε x  4x2 ; εy  0; εz  4y2 ;

γ xy  4 y 2 ; γ yz  4 x ; γ xz  4 x z ;

Check whether this state of strain satisfies the compatibility conditions.

Solution

The compatibility equations are as follow:

 2 ε x  ε y  γ xy
2 2

  ............................................ (1)
 y 2  x 2 x y

 2ε y  2 ε z  γ yz
2

  ............................................ (2)
 z2  y 2 y z

 2 ε x  2 ε z  2 γ xz
  ............................................ (3)
 z 2  x 2 x z

 2ε x   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (4)
y z x  x y z 

 2ε y   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (5)
x z y  x y z 

 2ε z   γ yz γ zx γ xy 
2      ............................................ (6)
x y z  x y z 

By considering equation (1)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε y   ε y  
   0   0  0 ,    0   0  0
y 2
 y y  y x 2
xx  y

 2 γ xy   γ xy  
   8 y   8 y   0
x y x  y  x

Therefore , 0  0  0 Satisfied 

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By considering equation (2)

 2ε y   ε y    2ε z   ε z  
   0   0  0 ,    8 y   8 y   8
 z2 zz  z y 2
 y y  y

 2 γ yz   γ yz  
   0   0  0
y z  y z  y

Therefore , 080 Not - Satisfied 


By considering equation (3)

 2ε x   ε x    2ε z   ε z  
   0  0  0 ,    0  0  0
z 2
zz  z x 2
xx  x

 2 γ xz   γ xz  
   4x   4 x   4
x z  x   z  x

Therefore , 08 4 Not - Satisfied 


By considering equation (4)

Left - Side

 2ε x    εx  
2 2   0  2 0  0
y z y  z  y

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
       4  0  0    4  0
x  x y z  x x

Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 

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By considering equation (5)

Left - Side

 2ε y    εy  
2 2   0   2 0  0
x z x  z  x

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     4  0  0   4  0
y  x y z  y y

Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 


By considering equation (5)

Left - Side

 2ε z    εz  
2 2   8 y   2 8 y   0
x y x  y  x

Right - Side

γ yz γ xz γ xy
 4;  0;  0;
x y z

  γ yz γ xz γ xy  
     4  0  0   4  0
z  x y z  z z

Therefore , Left - Side  Right - Side Satisfied 


Thus, the above compatibility conditions are not satisfied by the above equilibrium Strain.

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

3.9 The strain components at a point in a continuum with respect to co-ordinates system are given as

follows

ε x  0.08 ; ε y  0.12 ; εz  0 ;

γ xy  0.04; γ yz  0.016 ; γ xz  0 ;

Determine the strain components in a different co-ordinates system x ' ; y ' ; z ' which was obtained

through rotating xyz system about y axis by an angle of 45 

Solution

   aij    aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 
m3  , aij    2 m2 n2 
T
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(45)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(45)  1
2 2
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos(0)  1 m3  cos(90 )  0

z' n1  cos(135)   1 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(45)  1


2 2

 1 0 1  1 0  1 
 2 2  2 2
aij    0 1 0  , aij T  0 1 0 
 1 1  1 
 0 0 1
2 2   2 2 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   1 1  1 0  1 
2  0.08 0.02 0 
2 2 0
1   2 2 2
0   0.02 0.12 0   0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0 1 1 0 
2 2   1 1   0  
 0   0.08 0  1 0 1
1 γ ε z    2 
1
γ zy 2 2  2
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 0.0566  0.0424 0   1 2 0  1 2 
1 
γ yz    0.02  0.08   0
1
 γ yx ε y 0.12 1 0 
2 2   1 
 0.0566  0.071 0   0 1
1 γ  2 
1
γ zy ε z  2
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
 0.042  0.04
 
2 2 0.04
1
 0.07
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.042 0.12
2 2  
1 γ   0.04  0.07 0.04 
ε z 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

1
ε x  0.04 γ xy  0.042  γ xy  0.084
2

1
ε y  0.12 γ xz  0.04  γ xy  0.08
2

1
ε z  0.04 γ yz  0.07  γ xy  0.14
2

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

3.10 The strain components at a point are:

ε x  12  10 3 ; ε y  4  10 3 ; ε z  8  10 3 ;

γ xy  20  10 3 ; γ yz  0 ; γ xz  40  10 3 ;

Determine

(a) Strain Invariants.

(b) Principle Strains.

(c) Maximum Shear Strain

Solution

(a) Stress invariants;

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  12  10 3  4  10 3  8  10 3  24  10 3

1
I2  ε xε y  ε yε z  ε xε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

 (12  10 3 )(4  10 3 )  (4  10 3 )(8  10 3 )  (12  10 3 )(8  10 3 )


1
4
 
(20  10 3 ) 2  (0) 2  (40  10 3 ) 2  3.24  10 4

 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz 
0.012 0.01 0.02 
1 
γ yz   det  0.01 0.004 0 
1
I 3  det  γ yx εy
2 2   0.02
1 γ 0 0.008
εz 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 0.012 (0.004)(0.008)) 

0.01 (0.01)(0.008)  (0.02)(0) 

0.02 (0.01)(0)  (0.02)(0.004)  2.016  10 6


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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

The invariants of deviatoric stress

(24  10 3 ) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (3.24  10 4 )  5.16  10 4
3 3

2(24  10 3 ) 3 (24  10 3 )(3.24  10 4 )


3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (2.016  10 6 )  1.6  10 6
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  5.16  10 4
  r   0.02622975
r2 4 3 3

1  4  1.6  10 
6
1  4J 3 
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos    23.08
3 
r 3  r  3  0.02622975 

ε1  r  cosθ   0.02622975 cos23 .08   0.02413

ε2  r  cosθ  120   0.02622975 cos23.08  120   0.00316

ε3  r  cosθ  120   0.02622975 cos23 .08  120   0.02097

We can check by using the following quadratic equation

ε '3 J 2 ε 'J 3  0  ε '3 (5.16  10 4 ) ε '1.6  10 6  0

ε1  0.0241 ; ε2  0.003162 ; ε3  0.02097 OK

(b) Principle Strains

 24  10 3
ε1  ε1  ε m  0.02413   0.03213
3

 24  10 3
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  0.00316   4.838  10 3
3

 24  10 3
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  0.02097   0.01297
3

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(c) Maximum shear strain


γ12  ε1  ε 2    0.03213  4.838  10 3   0.027292
 
γ 23  ε 2  ε 3    4.838  10 3  0.01297   0.017808

γ13  ε1  ε 3   0.03213  0.01297    0.0451

3.11 Determine the principle strains and the directions of principle axes for the following state of

strain at a point.

ε x  4  10 3 ; ε y  4.8  10 3 ; ε z  14  10 3 ;

γ xy  6.8  10 3 ; γ yz  3.2  10 3 ; γ xz  9.2  10 3 ;

Solution

(d) Stress invariants;

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  4  10 3  4.8  10 3  14  10 3  13 .2  10 3

1
I 2  ε x ε y  ε y ε z  ε x ε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

 (4  10 3 )(4.8  10 3 )  (4.8  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (4  10 3 )(14  10 3 )


1
4
 
(6.8  10 3 ) 2  (3.2  10 3 ) 2  (9.2  10 3 ) 2  6.568  10 5

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 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz 
 4  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
1 1   
I 3  det  γ yx εy γ yz   det 3.4  10 3  4.8  10 3 1.6  10 3 
2 2  4.6  10 3
1 γ  1.6  10 3 14  10 3 
εz 
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 


 4  10 3 (4.8  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (1.6  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 )  
 
3.4  10 3 (3.4  10 3 )(14  10 3 )  (4.6  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 ) 

 
4.6  10 3 (3.4  10 3 )(1.6  10 3 )  (4.6  10 3 )(4.8  10 3 )  2.89264  10 7

The invariants of deviatoric stress

(13.2  10 3 ) 2
2
I1
J2   I2   (6.568  10 5 )  1.2376  10 4
3 3
3
2 I1 I I
J3   1 2  I3
27 3

2(13.2  10 3 ) 3 (13.2  10 3 )(6.568  10 5 )


   (2.89264  10 7 )  1.70096  10 7
27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  1.2376  10 4
  r   0.01284575
r2 4 3 3

1  4  1.70096  10 
7
1  4J 3 
cos3θ   33
4J 1 1
 θ  cos  3    cos     23.8
 r  3
3
r 3  0.01284575 

ε1  r  cosθ   0.01284575 cos23 .8  0.011753

ε2  r  cosθ  120   0.01284575 cos23.8  120   0.001387

ε3  r  cosθ  120   0.01284575 cos23 .8  120   0.01037

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We can check by using the following quadratic equation

ε '3 J 2 ε 'J 3  0  ε '3 (5.16  10 4 ) ε '1.6  10 6  0

ε1  0.0241 ; ε2  0.003162 ; ε3  0.02097 OK

(e) Principle Strains

3
 24  10
ε1  ε1  ε m  0.02413   0.03213
3

 24  10 3
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  0.00316   4.838  10 3
3

 24  10 3
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  0.02097   0.01297
3

Direction cosines of ε 1 (  1 ,  2 ,  3 )

 
 x   1 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  32.13)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  1 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  32.13)  10 3
1.6  10 3

 2 2   3 
 1γ   4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  32.13)  10 
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   1 
2 

 28.13  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 


 
  3.4  10 3  36.93  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  18.13  10 3 

 y   1 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   1   z   1   γ zy
2 1 2
A
1
 γ zy  z   1  4
 2 

  
  36.93  10 3  18.13  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  6.67  10 4

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1 1 
 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   1   γ xz γ zy
1
B  2 2
1
 γ xz  z   1  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3  18.3  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  6.9002  10 5

1
 γ xy    1  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   1 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3  36.93  10 3  1.7532  10 4

R  A 2  B2  C 2  6.67  10    6.9002  10   1.7532  10 


4 2 5 2 4 2
 6.931  10 4

A 6.67  10 4
1    0.962
R 6.931 10 4

B  6.9002  10 5
2    0.099
R 6.931  10 4

C 1.7532  10 4
3    0.253
R 6.931  10 4

 1   1   1  0.962    0.099   0.253   0.999254  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Direction cosines of  2 ( m1 , m2 , m3 )

 
 x   2 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  4.838)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  2 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  4.838)  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 2 2   3 
 1γ   4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  4.838)  10 
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   2 
2 

 0.838  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 


 
  3.4  10 3  9.638  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 9.162  10 3 

 y   2 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   2   z   2   γ zy
2 1 2
A

1
γ zy  z   2  4
 2 

  
  9.638  10 3 9.162  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  9.086  10 5

1 1 
 2 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   2   γ xz γ zy
2 1
B
1
 γ xz  z   2  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3 9.162  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  2.37908  10 5

1
 γ xy    2  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   2 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3  9.638  10 3  4.97748  10 5

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R  A 2  B2  C 2   9.086  10   2.37908  10   4.97748  10 


5 2 5 2 5 2
 1.062971 10 4

A  9.086  10 5
m1    0.855
R 1.062971 10 4

B 2.37908  10 5
m2    0.224
R 1.062971 10 4

C 4.97748  10 5
m3    0.468
R 1.062971 10 4

m1  m1  m1   0.855   0.224   0.468   1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

Direction cosines of  3 ( n1 , n2 , n3 )

 
 x   3 
1 1
γ yx γ zx  (4  10.37)  10 3
2 2 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 
 1   
 γ xy  y  3 
1
γ zy  3.4  10 3 (4.8  10.37)  10 3
1.6  10 3

 2 2  
4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 (14  10.37)  10 3 
 1γ
 2 xz
1
γ yz  z   3  
2 

14.37  10 3 3.4  10 3 4.6  10 3 


 
  3.4  10 3 5.57  10 3 1.6  10 3 
 4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3 24.37  10 3 

 y   3 
 1 
γ zy 
   y   3   z   3   γ zy
2 1 2
A
1
 γ zy  z   3  4
 2 

  
 5.57  10 3 24.37  10 3  (1.6  10 3 ) 2  1.331809  10 4

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1 1 
 γ xy γ zy  1
  γ xy  z   3   γ xz γ zy
1
B  2 2
1
 γ xz  z   3  2 4
2 

     
 3.4  10 3 24.37  10 3  4.6  10 3 1.6  10 3  7.5498  10 5

1
 γ xy    3  1

 γ xy γ yz  γ xz  y   3 
y 1
C  2 
1 1
 γ xz γ yz  4 2
2 2 

     
 3.4  10 3 1.6  10 3  4.6  10 3 5.57  10 3  2.0182  10 5

R  A 2  B2  C 2  1.331809  10   7.5498  10    2.0182  10 


4 2 5 2 5 2
 1.544164  10 4

A 1.331809  10 4
n1    0.862
R 1.544164  10 4

B 7.5498  10 5
n2    0.489
R 1.544164  10 4

C  2.0182  10 5
n3    0.131
R 1.544164  10 4

n1  n2  n3  0.862   0.489    0.131  0.996  1


2 2 2 2 2 2
OK

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Angles of inclinations

 1  cos α1  α1  cos-1 ( 1 ) Therefore, α1  cos-1 (0.962)  15.85

m1  cos β1  β1  cos-1 (m1 ) Therefore, β1  cos-1 (0.855)  148.76

n1  cos γ1  γ1  cos-1 (n1 ) Therefore, γ11  cos-1 (0.862)  30.5

 2  cos α 2  α 2  cos-1 ( 2 ) Therefore, α 2  cos-1 (0.099)  95.68

m2  cos β 2  β 2  cos-1 (m2 ) Therefore, β 2  cos-1 (0.224)  77

n2  cos γ 2  γ 2  cos-1 (n2 ) Therefore, γ 2  cos-1 (0.489)  60.73

 3  cos α 3  α 3  cos-1 ( 3 ) Therefore, α 3  cos-1 (0.253)  75

m3  cos β 3  β 3  cos-1 (m3 ) Therefore, β 3  cos-1 (0.468)  62

n3  cos γ 3  γ 3  cos-1 (n3 ) Therefore, γ 3  cos-1 (0.131)  98

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3.12 The state of strain at a point in a continuum is specified as :

ε x  0.08 ; ε y  0.08 ; ε z  0.16 ;

γ xy  0.04; γ yz  0.12; γ xz  0 ;

Determine the octahedral normal strain and the octahedral shear strain.

Solution:

εx  εy  εz 0.08  0.08  0.16


ε oct    0.053
3 3

γ oct 
2
3
 
ε x - ε y 2  ε y - ε z 2  ε x - ε z 2  6 γ xy 2  γ yz 2  γ xz 2 
1
2


2
3
 
0.8  0.82  - 0.8 - 0.162  0.08 - 0.162  6 0.04 2  0.12 2  0 2 
1
2

 0.2872

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3.13 Strain at a point (8, 4,-4 ) are giving by:

εx  4 ; εy  8; ε z  4 ;

γ xy  0; γ yz  2; γ xz  0.4 ;

Determine
(a) Strain components after rotation

(b) Principle strain

(c) Maximum shear strain

(d) Octahedral strain

Solution

   aij    aij T

 1 2 3    1 m1 n1 
aij   m1 m2 m3  , aij T   2 m2 n2 
 
 n1 n2 n3   3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  cos(90)  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90)  0 m2  cos( 20 )  0.94 m3  cos(70 )  0.34
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(110 )  0.34 n3  cos( 20 )  0.94

1 0 0  1 0 0 
   
aij   0 0.94 0.34  , aij T  0 0.94  0.34 
   
0  0.34 0.94  0 0.34 0.94 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   
1 2 3   εx 2
γ xy γx
2 z   1 m1 n1 
1 1    1 1   
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 m3    γ yx εy γ yz    2 m2 n2 
2 2    2 2   
1 γ ε z   n1 n3   1 γ ε z   3 n3 
1 n2 1 n3
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz  1 0 0   4 0  0.2 1 0 0 
1 1       
 γ yx ε y γ yz   0 0.94 0.34   0 8 1   0 0.94  0.34
2 2       
1 γ ε z  0  0.34 0.94  0.2  4  0 0.94 
1 1 0.34
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   4 0  0.2  1 0 0 
1 1     
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.068 7.86  0.42  0 0.94  0.34
2 2     
1 γ ε z   0.188  1.78  4.1  0 0.94 
1 0.34
γ zy
 2 zx 2 

 1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   4  0.068  0.188
1 1   
 γ yx ε y γ yz    0.068 7.246  3.067
2 2   
1 γ ε z   0.188  3.067  3.248
1
γ zy
 2 zx 2 
1
ε x  4 γ xy  0.068  γ xy  0.136
2
1
ε y  7.246 γ xz  0.188  γ xy  0.376
2
1
ε z  3.248 γ yz  3.067  γ xy  6.134
2

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Principle Strain

I1  ε x  ε y  ε z  4  8  4  8

1
I 2  ε x ε y  ε y ε z  ε x ε z  (γ xy  γ yz  γ xz )
2 2 2

4
 (4)(8)  (8)(4)  (4)(4)


1
4
 
(2) 2  (0.4) 2  17.04

 1 1 
 εx 2
γ xy
2
γxz   4 0  0 .2 
1 1   
I 3  det  γ yx εy γ yz   det  0 8 1 
2 2   
1 γ 1
γ zy εz   0.2 1  4 
 2 zx 2 

 
 4 (8)(4)  (1) 2  0.02 (0)(1)  (0.02)(8)  132.32

The invariants of deviatoric stress

2
I1 (8) 2
J2   I2   (17.04)  38.373
3 3

2(8)3 (8)(17.04)
3
2 I1 I1 I 2
J3    I3    (132.32)  48.954
27 3 27 3

cosθ   cos θ   33  0
J2 J
2
r r

J2 3 4 J2 4  38.373
  r   7.153
r2 4 3 3

 4J  1  4  48.954 
cos3θ  
4J 3 1
 θ  cos1  33    cos1    40.78
r3  r  3  7.153 
3
3

ε1  r  cosθ   7.153 cos40 .78   5.416

ε2  r  cosθ  120   7.153 cos40.78  120   1.338

ε3  r  cosθ  120   7.153 cos40 .78  120   6.754


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We can check by using the following quadratic equation

ε'3 J 2ε'J 3  0  ε'3 17.04ε'132.32  0


ε1  5.416 ; ε2  1.338 ; ε3  6.754 OK

Thus, the principle strains are:

 8
ε1  ε1  ε m  5.416   8.083
3

 8
ε 2  ε 2  ε m  1.338   4
3

 8
ε 3  ε 3  ε m  6.754   4.087
3

Maximum shear strain are:

γ12  ε1  ε 2   8.083  4   4.083


γ 23  ε 2  ε 3   4  4.087  8.087
γ13  ε1  ε 3   8  4.087  12.087

Octahedral normal strain and the octahedral shear strain.

εx  εy  εz 484
ε oct    2.67
3 3

γ oct 
2
3
 
ε x - ε y 2  ε y - ε z 2  ε x - ε z 2  6 γ xy 2  γ yz 2  γ xz 2 
1
2

1
2 
  4  8  8  4  4  4  12  0.4 2   
2
2 2 2 6
3 4 
 10.02

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CHAPTER FOUR

Stress-Strain Relationship

(6 Questions)

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4.1 From the general elasticity matrix (6 × 6) for anisotropic material, obtain the reduced number of

elasticity constants (2) for an isotropic material using symmetry conditions and rotations of axes

with reference to the original system.

Solution

 x   D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16   ε x 


  D D 22 D 23 D 24 D 25 D 26   ε y 
 y   21
 z  D 31 D 32 D 33 D 34 D 35 D 36   ε x 
   
 xy  D 41 D 42 D 43 D 44 D 45 D 46   γ xy 
 yz  D 51 D 52 D 53 D 54 D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz  D 61 D 62 D 63 D 64 D 65 D 66   γ xz 

I. Case 1(Potential Energy )

  δ
1  1
ω   F dx   kx dx   kx 2   k 2
0 0 2 0 2
1
ω  k 2
2
ω
x  by differentiating  x with respect  y
 x
 

 x     ω    x   ω
2

 y  y   x   y  x  y
ω
y  by differentiating  y with respect  x
 y
    y
 y     ω  


2ω
 x  x   y   x  x  y
Thus, D12  D 21
D13  D 31
D 23  D 21

D ij  D ji

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Therefore, the elasticity matrix will become symmetric matrix and the number of unknown

variable will be reduced to 21.

 x  D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16   ε x 


   D 22 D 23 D 24 D 25 D 26   ε y 
 y 
 z   D 33 D 34 D 35 D 36   ε x 
   
 xy   D 44 D 45 D 46   γ xy 
 yz   D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz   D 66   γ xz 

II. Case 2 (Rotating The Axes a 180° about Z-axis)

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(180 )  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(180 )  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

  1 0 0   1 0 0  x  xy  xz 
 
aij   0  1 0 , aij T  
  0  1 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 0 0 1  0 0 1  zx  zy  z 

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  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

  x  xy  xz   1 0 0  x  xy  x z   1 0 0
       
 yx  y  yz    0  1 0   yx  y  yz    0  1 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  zy  z   0 0 1
 

  x   xy   x z    1 0 0   x  xy  xz 
   
   yx  y   yz    0  1 0    yx y   yz 
  zx  zy  z   0 0 1   zx   zy  z 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   y  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   xz

Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
  1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
  1 0 0
1  1 1  
γ yz    0  1 0   γ yx γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2    2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ  0 0 1 
ε z  1 γ εz 
1 1
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz    ε x  γ xy  γxz 
1
2 2
  1
2 2   1 0 0
1  
 γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx  εy
2 2   2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1 1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xy  γxz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx εy  γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1

1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz

a)  x

Before Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 11ε x  D
D  12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D
 14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz  D
 11ε x  D
 12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D
 14 γ xy  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz

D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz  D15 γ yz  D16 γ xz  2D15 γ yz  2D16 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D15  D16  0

b)  y

Before Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 y   y
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz ....................................(2)

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From (1) and (2)

 12 ε x  D
D  22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D
 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  D
 12 ε x  D
 22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D
 24 γ xy  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz

D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  D 25 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  2D 25 γ yz  2D 26 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 25  D 26  0

c)  z

Before Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 z   z
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 31ε x  D
D  32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D
 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz  D
 31ε x  D
 32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D
 34 γ xy  D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz

D 35 γ yz  D 36 γ xz  D 35 γ yz  D 26 γ xz  2D 35 γ yz  2D 36 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 35  D 36  0

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d)  xy

Before Rotation;

 xy  D 41ε x  D 42 ε y  D 43ε z  D 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 xy  D 41ε x  D 42 ε y  D 43ε z  D 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 xy   xy
ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz
It will result out in equation (2)

 xy  D 41ε x  D 42 ε y  D 43ε z  D 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 41ε x  D
D  42 ε y  D
 43ε z  D
 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  D
 41ε x  D
 42 ε y  D
 43ε z  D
 44 γ xy  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz

D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  D 45 γ yz  D 46 γ xz  2D 45 γ yz  2D 46 γ xz  0

where γ yz  0 , γ xz  0 Therefore, D 45  D 46  0

Therefore, number of unknown variables in the elasticity matrix will be reduced to 13.

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 x   D11 D12 D13 D14 0 0   εx 


  D D 22 D 23 D 24 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z   D 31 D 32 D 33 D 34 0 0   εx 
   
 xy  D 41 D 42 D 43 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 D 56   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 D 56 D 66   γ xz 

III. Case 3 (Rotating the Axes a 180° about Z-axis)

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(180 )  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(180 )  1

1 0 0 1 0 0  x  xy  xz 
 
aij  0  1 0 
 , aij T  
 0  1 0  and ij   yx  y  yz 
0 0  1 0 0  1  zx  zy  z 

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  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

  x  xy  xz  1 0 0   x  xy  x z  1 0 0
       
 yx  y  yz   0  1 0    yx  y  yz   0  1 0 
 zx  zy  z  0 0  1  zx  zy  z  0 0  1
   

 x  xy  x z  1 0 0    x   xy  xz 
   
   yx  y   yz   0  1 0     yx y  yz 
   zx   zy   z  0 0  1    zx  zy  z 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   y  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   xz

Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
1 0 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz   0  1 0    γ yx γ yz   0  1 0 
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2    2 2 
0 0  1
1 γ  0 0  1
ε z  1 γ εz 
1 1
γ zy γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   ε x
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
  1 0 0
1   1 1  
 γ yz    0  1 0
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx  εy
2 2   2 2 
 0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z    γ zx
1

1
γ zy  εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x  γ xy  γxz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ yx εy γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z    γ zx
1 1
γ zy εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y γ yz  γ yz
ε z  ε z γ xz   γ xz

a) x

Before Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

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 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D14 γ xy ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 11ε x  D
D  12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D14 γ xy  D
 11ε x  D
 12 ε y  D
 13ε z  D14 γ xy

D14 γ xy  D14 γ xy  2D14 γ xy  0

where γ xy  0 , Therefore, D14  0

b)  y

Before Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 24 γ xy ....................................(2)


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From (1) and (2)

 21ε x  D
D  22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D 24 γ xy  D
 21ε x  D
 22 ε y  D
 23ε z  D 24 γ xy

D 24 γ xy  D 24 γ xy  2D 24 γ xy  0

where γ xy  0 , Therefore, D 24  0

c)  z

Before Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 x   x
ε x  ε x γ xy   γ xy
ε y  ε y
ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z  D 34 γ xy ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 31ε x  D
D  32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D 34 γ xy  D
 31ε x  D
 32 ε y  D
 33ε z  D 34 γ xy

D 34 γ xy  D 34 γ xy  2D 34 γ xy  0

where γ xy  0 , Therefore, D 34  0

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d)  xy

Before Rotation;

 yz  D 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 xy  D 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 xy   xy , γ yz  γ yz , γ xz   γ xz
it will result out in equation (2)

 yz  D 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz  D
D  55 γ yz  D 56 γ xz

D 56 γ xz  D 56 γ xz  2D 56 γ xz  0

where γ xz  0 Therefore, D 56  0

Therefore, number of unknown variables in the elasticity matrix will be reduced to 9.

 x   D11 D12 D13 0 0 0   εx 


  D D 22 D 23 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z   D 31 D 32 D 33 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 66   γ xz 

The stress-strain relationship is specified for orthotropic materials

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IV. Case 4 (Rotating the Axes a 90° about X-axis)

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(0)  1  2  sin(90 )  0  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(90 )  0 m2  cos(90 )  0 m3  cos(0)  1
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(180 )  1 n3  cos(90 )  0

1 0 0 1 0 0   x  xy  xz 
 
aij  0 0 1 , aij T  
 0 0  1 and ij   yx  y  yz 
0  1 0 0 1 0   zx  zy  z 

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

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  x  xy  xz  1 0 0  x  xy  x z  1 0 0 
       
 yx  y  yz   0 0 1   yx  y  yz   0 0  1
 zx  zy  z  0  1 0  zx  zy  z  0 1 0 
   

 x  xy  x z  1 0 0    x  xz  x y 
   
   xz  yz  z   0 0  1    xz z   yz 
  xy  y   yz  0 1 0    xy   yz  y 

 x   x  xy   xy
 y   z  yz   yz
 z   y  xz   xy

Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
1 0 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
1 0 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz   0 0 1   γ yx γ yz   0 0  1
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2   2 2 
1 γ  0  1 0  1 0 1 0 
εz 
1 1
γ zy ε z γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xy γxz 
 
2 2 2 2 1 0 0
1   1
ε z   0 0  1
1 1
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xz γ yz
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1  0 1 0 
ε z   γ xy
1 1
γ zy  εy  γ yz
 2 zx 2   2 2 

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 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε x γ xz  γ xy
2 2 2 2 
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xz εz  γ yz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ zx
1

1
γ yz εy 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε x γ xy  γ xz
ε y  ε z γ yz   γ yz
ε z  ε y γ xz   γ xy

a)  x

Before Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 x   x , ε x  ε x , ε y  ε z , ε z  ε y
It will result out in equation (2)

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε z  D13ε y ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

 11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D


D  11ε x  D12 ε z  D13ε y
D12 ε y  D13ε z  D12 ε z  D13ε y
D12 - D13  ε y  D12 - D13  ε z 0
where ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D12  D13  0  D12  D13

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b)  y

Before Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε y  D 33ε z

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 y   z , ε x  ε x , ε y  ε z , ε z  ε y
It will result out in equation (2)

 y  D 31ε x  D 32 ε z  D 33ε y ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε z  D 33ε y


D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z  D 31ε x  D 32 ε z  D 33ε y
D 21 - D 31  ε x  D 22 - D 33  ε y  D 23 - D 32  ε z 0
where ε x  0, ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D 21  D 31  0  D 21  D 31
D 22  D 22  0  D 22  D 33
D 23  D 32  0  D 23  D 32

c)  xy

Before Rotation;

 xy  D 44 γ xy ....................................(1)

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After Rotation;

 xz  D 66 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 xy   xy , γ xz   γ xy
it will result out in equation (2)

 xy  D 66 γ xy ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

D 44 γ xy  D 66 γ xy

D 44  D 66 γ xy  0  D 44  D 66  0

where γ xy  0 Therefore, D 44  D 66

Therefore, number of unknown variables in the elasticity matrix will be reduced to 7.

 x   D11 D12 D12 0 0 0   εx 


  D D 22 D 23 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   21
 z  D 21 D 23 D 22 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 55 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 44   γ xz 

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

V. Case 5 (Rotating the Axes a 90° about Z-axis)

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(90 )  0  2  sin( 0)  1  3  cos(90 )  0
y' m1  cos(180 )  1 m2  cos(90 )  0 m3  cos(90 )  0
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(180 )  1 n3  cos(0)  1

 0 1 0 0  1 0   x  xy  xz 
 
aij   1 0 0 , aij T  
 1 0 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 0 0 1 0 0 1  zx  zy  z 

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
    
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
 zx  zy  z   n1 n2 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 n3 
 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz   0 1 0  x  xy  x z  0  1 0
       
 yx  y  yz    1 0 0   yx  y  yz   1 0 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  zy  z  0 0 1
   

  xy y  yz  0  1 0   y   xy  yz 
   
   x   xy   xz   1 0 0    xy x   xz 
  xz  yz  z  0 0 1   yz   xz  z 

 x   y  xy   xy
 y   x  yz   yz
 z   z  xz   yz

Similarly with strain

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 0 1 0 
εx
2
γ xy
2
γxz 
0  1 0 
1  1 1  
γ yz    1 0 0   γ yx γ yz   1 0 0
1
 γ yx ε y εy
2 2   2 2 
1 γ   0 0 1  1 0 0 1
εz 
1 1
γ zy ε z γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1  1 1 
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz   γ xy
2
εy
2
γ yz 
0  1 0 
1   1  
 γ xz   1 0 0
1 1
 γ yx ε y γ yz     ε x  γ xy
2 2   2 2 
0 0 1
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ xz
1 1
γ yz εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   ε y  γ xy γ yz 
2 2 2 2
1 1   1 1 
 γ yx ε y γ yz    γ xy εx  γ xz 
2 2   2 2 
1 γ 1
γ zy ε z   γ yz
1

1
γ xz εz 
 2 zx 2   2 2 

ε x  ε y γ xy   γ xz
ε y  ε x γ yz   γ xz
ε z  ε z γ xz  γ yz

a)  x

Before Rotation;

 x  D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 y  D 21ε x  D 22 ε y  D 23ε z

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 y   x , ε x  ε y , ε y  ε x , ε z  ε z
It will result out in equation (2)

 x  D 21ε y  D 22 ε x  D 23ε z ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

D11ε x  D12 ε y  D13ε z  D 21ε y  D 22 ε x  D 23ε z


D11  D 22 ε x  D12 - D 21  ε y  D13 - D 23  ε z 0
where ε z  0 , , ε y  0 , ε z  0 Therefore, D11  D 22  0  D11  D 22
D12  D 21  0  D12  D 21
D13  D 23  0  D13  D 23

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

b)  yz

Before Rotation;

 yz  D 55 γ yz ....................................(1)

After Rotation;

 xz  D 44 γ xz

By substituting the following variables in the equation after deformation


 yz   yz , γ yz  γ yz
it will result out in equation (2)

 yz  D 44 γ yz ....................................(2)

From (1) and (2)

D 55 γ yz  D 44 γ yz

D 55  D 44 γ xy  0  D 55  D 44  0

where γ yz  0 Therefore, D 55  D 44

Therefore, number of unknown variables in the elasticity matrix will be reduced to 3.

 x   D11 D12 D12 0 0 0   εx 


  D D11 D12 0 0 0   ε y 
 y   12
 z  D12 D12 D11 0 0 0   εx 
   
 xy   0 0 0 D 44 0 0   γ xy 
 yz   0 0 0 0 D 44 0   γ yz 
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 D 44   γ xz 

(ECV5202)– Advance Solid Mechanics


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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

VI. Case 5 (Rotating the Axes a 45° about Z-axis)

σij  aij  ij aij T

 1 2 3 
aij   m1 m2 m3 
 n1 n2 n3 

1 m1 n1 
aij   2 n2 
T
m2
 3 n3 n3 

x y z
x'  1  cos(45)  1  2  sin( 45)  1  3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
y' m1  cos(135)   1 m2  cos(45)  1 m3  cos(90 )  0
2 2
z' n1  cos(90 )  0 n2  cos(90 )  0 n3  cos(0)  1

 1 1 0 1  1 0  x  xy  x z 
 2 2   2 2   
     
aij   1 1 0 , aijT 1 1 0 and ij   yx  y  yz 
 2 2   2 2   
 0 0 1  0 0 1  zx  zy  z 
     

  x  xy  xz    1 2  3   x  xy  x z    1 m1 n1 
       
       
 yx  y  yz   m1 m2 m3    yx  y  yz    2 m2 n2 
       
 zx  zy  z   n1 n3   zx  zy  z   3 n3 
   n2 n3

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

  x  xy  xz   1 1 0  x  xy  x z   1  1 0
   2 2     2 2 
   1    1 
 yx  y  yz    0   xy  y  yz   
1 1 0
2 2 2 2
       
 zx  zy  z   0 0 1  zx  yz  z   0 0 1
     

  x   xy  y   xy  yz   xz 
  1  1 0
 2 2 2   2 2 
  x   xy  y   xy  yz   xz   1 
  1 0
 2   2 2

2 2
 
  xz  yz  z   0 0 1

 

 x   y  2 xy  y x  yz   xz 
 
 2 2 2 
 y x  x   y  2 xy  yz   xz 

 2 2 2 
    yz   xz 
 yz xz
z 
 2 2 

 x   y  2 xy  y x
 x   xy 
2 2
 x   y  2 xy  yz   xz
 y   yz 
2 2
 yz   xz
 z   z  xz 
2

Similarly with strain

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz 
3  
εx γ xy γxz 
  1 1
2 2  2 2 2 m1 n1 
1 1 1  
m3    γ yx n2 
1
 γ yx ε y γ yz   m1 m2 εy γ yz    2 m2
2 2   2 2  
1 γ  n1 n2 n3   1  3 n3 n3 
ε z  εz 
1 1
γ zy γ γ zy
 2 zx 2   2 zx 2 

 1 1   1 1 
 ε x γ xy γ xz   1 1 0  ε x γ xy γxz   1  1 0
2 2  2 2  2 2  2 2 
    1 
 1 γ yx 1 1  1 
ε y γ yz    1 1 0   γ yx εy γ yz   1 0
2 2   2 2  2 2   2 2 
1   1  
1  γ zx 1
1 1
 γ zx γ zy ε z  0 0 γ zy εz  0 0
2 2    2 2   

 1 1   2ε x  γ xy 2ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz 
 ε x γ xy γ xz    1  1 0
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2   2 2 
    2ε  γ 2ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz   
 1 γ yx γ yz   
1
 1 1
x xy
ε y 0
2 2   2 2  2 2
  
2 2 2 2
1   1
εz   0 1
1 1
 γ zx γ zy ε z   γ xz γ yz 0
2 2   2 2   

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 ε  ε y  γ xy εy  εx 1  γ yz γ xz 
 1 1   x  
 ε x 2
γ xy
2
γ xz 
 2 2 2  2 
   ε ε ε x  ε y  γ xy  γ xz  
 1 γ yx 1 1  γ yz
γ yz     
y x
ε y
2 2   2 2 2  2  
1 
ε z   1  γ yz  γ xz  1  γ yz  γ xz  
1
 γ zx γ zy   εz
2 2  2  2  2 

  2  

ε x  ε y  γ xy εy  εx
ε x  γ xy 
2 2
ε x  ε y  γ xy γ yz  γ xz
ε y  γ yz 
2 2
γ yz  γ xz
ε z  ε z γ xz 
2

 x   y  2 xy
 x  .......................................(1)
2

 x  D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z 


 y  D11 ε y  D12 ε x  ε z  .........................................(2)

 xy  D 44 γ xy 

Substitute Equations (2) in Equation (1)

(ECV5202)– Advance Solid Mechanics


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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x 
1
2

D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z   D11 ε y  D12 ε x  ε z   2D 44 γ xy 

1
2

D11 ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   2D 44 γ xy 
 x 
D11
ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   D 44 γ xy .......................................(3)
2 2

Stress after Rotation

 x  D11 ε x  D12 ε y  ε z 


D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12  ε x  ε y  γ xy  ε z 
2  2 


D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12  ε x  ε y  2ε z  γ xy 

2  2 


D11
ε x  ε y  γ xy   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z  γ xy 
2 2

 x 
D11
ε x  ε y   D12 ε x  ε y  2ε z   1 D11  D12  γ xy ...............................(4)
2 2 2

From equation (3) and (4)

1
D11  D12   D 44  D11  D12  2D 44
2
D11  D12  2D 44

where , D11 is lames constant and 2D 44 is shear modulus

D11    2G

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

The above equation matrix is the stress- strain relationship for elasticity

 61  D66  61

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Master of structural Engineering and Construction

4.2 The state of stress at a point is given as :

 x  400 kN/m 2 ;  y  2000 kN/m 2 ; z  0

 xy  800 kN/m 2 ;  yz  800 kN/m 2 ;  zx  0

Determine the state of the strain at that point, assuming E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.2

Solution

x 
1

 
 x    y   z   7 400  0.2 2000  0
1
10

y 
1

 1
10

 y    x   z   7 2000  0.2 400  1.92  10 4

z 
1

 
 z    x   y   7 0  0.2 400  2000  4.8  10 5
1
10
 xy
γ xy 
G

1

 
21    xy  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 yz
γ yz 
G

1

 
21    yz  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 xz
γ xz  
1
21    xz   17 21  0.2  0  0
G  10

Another method to solve that unknown variables

υE  υ   0.2  5
 E E  E
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.21  2  0.2 18

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.2 12

5 5  5 5 10
  2G    2  E     E  E
 18 12   18 6  9

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 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

By substituting all values in the D matrix, we will get

10 5 5 
 400  9 0 0 0   εx 
   
18 18

  5 10 5  
 2000  18 0 0 0   εy 
   9 18  
  5 5 10  
 0   0 0 0   εx 
  18 18 9  
     
 800  0   γ xy 
5
0 0 0 0
   12  
    
 800 0   γ yz 
5
0 0 0 0
   12 
    
  0 5 
 0  
0 0 0 0  γ xz 
12 

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

400 10 5 5
 x  y  y
 9 18 18
10 5 5 400
x  y  y  7  0 ...........................................(1)
9 18 18 10
2000 5 10 5
 x  y  y
 18 9 18
5 10 5 2000
x  y  y  7  0 ...........................................(2)
18 9 18 10
0 5 10 5
 x  y  y
 18 9 18
5 10 5
x  y  y  0 ...........................................(3)
18 9 18
by solving Equation (1) , (2) and (3) simulatanously we find ,

x  0

 y  1.92  10 4

 z  4.8  10 5
800 5 12  800
 γ xy  γ xy   1.92  10 4
 12 5  10 7
- 800 5  12  800
 γ yz  γ yz   1.92  10 4
 12 5  10 7

5
0 γ xz  γ xz  0
12

4.3 If the stress components at a point in elastic medium are given as :

 x  4000 kN/m 2 ;  y  4800 kN/m 2 ;  z  1600 kN/m 2

 xy  800 kN/m 2 ;  yz  0;  zx  1200 kN/m 2

Determine the state of the strain at that point, assuming E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.2

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

Solution

x 
1

 
 x    y   z   7 4000  0.2  4800 - 1600  5.28  10 4
1
10

y 
1

 
 y    x   z   7  4800  0.2 4000 - 1600  5.28  10 4
1
10

z 
1

 
 z    x   y   7  1600  0.2 4000  4800  1.44  10 4
1
10
 xy
γ xy 
G

1

 
21    xy  7 21  0.2   800  1.92  10 4
1
10
 yz
γ yz 
G

1

 
21    yz  7 21  0.2   0  0
1
10
 xz
γ xz  
1
21    xz   17 21  0.2  1200  2.88  10 4
G  10

4.4 For the state of strain specified below, determine the stress component at a point in the

continuum assuming value of E  20  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.3 .

 x  2  10 3 ;  y  1.2  10 3 ; z  0

γ xy  0.8  10 3 ; γ yz  1.6  10 3 ; γ zx  0.4  10 3

Solution

υE  υ   0.3  15
 E E 
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.31  2  0.3 26
 E

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.3  13

 15 5  15 10  35
  2G    2  E     E  E
 26 13   26 13  26

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

 35 15 15 
 x   26 0 0 0   2  10 3 
   
26 26

   15 35 15   
 y   26 0 0 0   1.2  10 3 
   26 26  
   15   
 z  15 35  
 0 0 0 0
   26 26 26   
      
  0 0 0
5
0 
0  0.8  10 3 
 xy   13  
     
  0
5  
 yz 0 0 0 0   1.6  10 3 
 13 
    
  0 5 
 xz  0 0 0 0  0.4  10 3 
 13 

 x  20  106  2  10 3    1.2  10 3   0 


 35 15 15 
40000 kN/m 2
 26 26 26 

 y  20  106  2  10 3    1.2  10 3   0  9230.77 kN/m 2


 15 35 15 
 26 26 26 

 z  20  106  2  10 3    1.2  10 3   0  9230.77 kN/m 2


 15 15 35 
 26 26 26 

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5
 xy  (20  10 6 )(0.8  10 3 )  6153.85 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(1.6  10 3 )  12307.7 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(0.4  10 3 )  3076.92 kN/m 2
13

4.5 If the strain components at point are

 x  1.6  10 3 ;  y  0.8  10 3 ;  z  1.2  10 3

γ xy  0.4  10 3 ; γ yz  0.8  10 3 ; γ zx  0.8  10 3

Determine the stress component at a point in the continuum assuming values of

E  20  10 6 kN/m 2 and υ  0.3 .

Solution

υE  υ   0.3  15
 E E 
1  υ1  2υ  1  υ1  2υ  1  0.31  2  0.3 26
 E

E  1   1  5
G E  E  E
21  υ   21  υ   21  0.3  13

 15 5  15 10  35
  2G    2  E     E  E
 26 13   26 13  26

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Department of Civil Engineering
Master of structural Engineering and Construction

 x    2G   0 0 0 εx 
    
    
 y      2G  0 0 0 εy 
    
    
 z       2G 0 0 0 εx 
    
   
   0 0 0 G 0 0   γ xy 
 xy    
    
   0 0 0 0 G 0   γ yz 
 yz    
    
    
 xz   0 0 0 0 0 G   γ xz 

 35 15 15 
 x   26 0 0 0   1.6  10 3 
   
26 26

   15 35 15   
 y   26 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
   26 26  
   15   
 z  15 35  3 
 0 0 0   1.2  10
   26 26 26  
      
  0 0 0
5
0 
0   0.4  10 3 
 xy   13  
     
  0
5  
 yz 0 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
 13 
    
  0 5 
 xz  0 0 0 0   0.8  10 3 
 13 

 x  20  106  1.6  10 3   0.8  10 3    1.2  10 3   38461.54 kN/m 2


 35 15 15 
 26 26 26 

 y  20  106  1.6  10 3   0.8  10 3    1.2  10 3   26153.85 kN/m 2


 15 35 15 
 26 26 26 

 z  20  106  1.6  10 3   0.8  10 3    1.2  10 3   4615.38 kN/m 2


 15 15 35 
 26 26 26 

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5
 xy  (20  10 6 )(0.4  10 3 )  3076.92 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(0.8  10 3 )  6153.85 kN/m 2
13
5
 yz  (20  10 6 )(-0.8  10 3 )   6153.85 kN/m 2
13

4.6 A block of material was subjected to a state of stress as given below:

 x  8000 kN/m 2 ;  y  10000 kN/m 2 ;

 z  6000 kN/m 2 ;  xy  800 kN/m 2 ;

If the modulus of elasticity of material is E  10  10 6 kN/m 2 and the Poisson’s ratio is υ  0.3 ,

determine the dilatation of the block due to the applied load.

Solution

x 
1

 1
10

 x    y   z   7 8000  0.3 10000  6000  3.2  10  4
1

 1
10

 y   y    x   z   7 10000  0.3 8000  6000  5.8  10  4


1
 1
10

 z   z    x   y   7 6000  0.3 10000  8000   6  10 5
 xy 1
γ xy 
G 
 1
10

 21    xy  7 21  0.3  800  2.08  10  4

  x  y  z
Block Dilatation,
     
 3.2  10 4  5.8  10 4  6  10 5  9.6  10 4

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CHAPTER FIVE

Stress-Strain Relationship
(6 Questions)

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5.1 In an elastic body was subjected to body force of B z  40 G xy , the displacement components

are found to be

u  4Ax 2 yz ; v  4B xy 2 z ; w  4Cxyz 2

Determine the constants A, B and C in order to satisfy Navier equations, for the case of

Poisson’s ratio being 0.3 and 0.

Solution

Navier equation are

3 ε m B x 3 ε m B y 3 ε m B z
 2x    0 ;  2y    0 ;  2z   0
1  2υ x G 1  2υ y G 1  2υ z G
For Case   0.3 , thus

15 ε m B x 15 ε m B y 15 ε m B z
 2x    0 ;  2y    0 ;  2z   0
2 x G 2 y G 2 z G
For Case   0 , thus

ε m B x ε B ε B
 2x  3   0 ;  2y  3 m  y  0 ;  2z  3 m  z  0
x G y G z G

m 
1
 x   y   z  and  x  u ;  y  v ; z 
w
3 x y z
u  v  w 
 (4Ax 2 yz)  8Axyz ;  (4B xy 2 z )  8Bxyz ;  (4C xyz2 )  8Cxyz ;
x x y y z z

1  u v w 
  8Axyz  8Bxyz  8Cxyz  A  B  C
1 8 xyz
 m    
3  x y z  3 3

 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C 
8 yz
x 3 x 3
 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C
8 xz
y 3 y 3
 m 8 
 A  B  C   xyz  A  B  C
8 xy
z 3 z 3

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Determination of  2x ;  2y and  2z

 2u  2u  2u  2v  2v  2v 2w 2w 2w


 2x    ;  2
   ;  2
  
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
y z

u   2u   u  

x x

4Ax 2 yz  8Axyz      8Axyz   8Ayz
x 2 x  x  x

u   2u   u  

y x

4Ax 2 yz  4Ax 2 z    
y 2 y  y  y

4Ax 2 z  0
u   2u   u  

z z

4Ax 2 yz  4Ax 2 y  y 2
  
z  z  z

4Ax 2 y  0
 2x  8Ayz

v   2v   v  

x x

4B xy 2 z  4B y 2 z  x 2
  
x  x  x

4B y 2 z  0
v   2v   v  

y x

4B xy 2 z  8B xyz      8B xyz   8Bxz
y 2 y  y  y

v   2v   v  

z z

4Ax 2 yz  4B xy 2    
y 2 z  z  z

4B xy 2  0 
 2y  8Bxz

w   2 w   w  

x x

4Cxyz2  4Cyz 2  x 2
  
x  x  x

4Cyz 2  0
w   2 w   w  

y x

4Cxyz2  4Cxz 2    
y 2 y  y  y

4Cxz 2  0 
w   2v   w  

z z

4Cxyz2  8Cxyz      8Cxyz  8Cxy
y 2 z  z  z

 2z  8Cxy

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For Case   0.3

15 ε m
Bx  0   2x  0
2 x

8Ayz 
15 8 yz
 A  B  C  0  8Ayz  5  4 yzA  B  C   0
2 3
2Ayz  5 yzA  B  C   0  yz 2A  5A  5B  5C   0

7A  5B  5C   0 ......................................................(1)

15 ε m
By  0   2y  0
2 y

8Bxz 
15 8 xz
 A  B  C   0  8Bxz  5  4 xzA  B  C   0
2 3
2Bxz  5 xzA  B  C   0  xz 2B  5A  5B  5C   0

5A  7B  5C   0 ......................................................(2)

15 ε m
B z  40Gxy   2z  0
2 y

8Cxy 
15 8 xy
 A  B  C  B z  0  8Cxy  5  4 xyA  B  C   B z
2 3 G G

2Cxy  5 xyA  B  C    xy 2C  5A  5B  5C   


Bz Bz

4G 4G

2C  5A  5B  5C   Bz
 5A  5B  7C   
40Gxy
4Gxy 4Gxy
5A  5B  7C   10 ......................................................(3)

By solving the three equation simulatanously, we found

25 25 60
A  1.47 ; B  1.47 ; C  3.53
17 17 17
Therefore the displacement equations are as follows :

25 2
u  4 x yz  5.88x 2 yz ; v  5.88 xy 2 z ; w  14.12Cxyz2
17

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For Case   0

ε m
Bx  0   2u  3 0
x

8Ayz  3 
8 yz
A  B  C  0  8Ayz  8 yzA  B  C  0
3
8Ayz  8 yzA  B  C   0  8 yz A  A  B  C   0
2A  B  C  0 ......................................................(4)

ε m
By  0   2v  3 0
y

8Bxz  3 
8 xz
A  B  C  0  8Bxz  8 xzA  B  C  0
3
8Bxz  8 xzA  B  C   0  8 xz B  A  B  C   0
A  2B  C  0 ......................................................(5)

ε m
B z  40Gxy   2v  3 0
y

8Cxy  3 
8 xy
A  B  C  B z  0  8Cxy  8 xyA  B  C   B z
3 G G

8Cxy  8 xyA  B  C     8 xy C  A  B  C    z
Bz B
G G

C  A  B  C   Bz
 A  B  2C   
40Gxy
8Gxy 8Gxy
A  B  2C  5 ......................................................(6)

By solving the equation (4) , (5) and (6) simulatanously, we found

60
A  1.25 ; B  1.25 ; C  3.75
17
Therefore the displacement equations are as follows :

u  4  1.25x 2 yz  5x 2 yz ; v  5 xy 2 z ; w  15Cxyz2

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5.2 For the case stated in problem 5.1, if the stress components are found to be:

 x  4Axyz;  y  4Bxyz;  z  4Cxyz;


 xy  4(Ax  By ) z ;
2 2
 yz  4(By  Cz ) x;
2 2
 zx  4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y
B x  0; B y  0; B z  40Gxy

Determine the constants A, B and C so that Beltrami-Michell equations can be satisfied. Assume

two values of Poisson’s ratio, 0.3 and 0.

Solution

Beltrami-Michell equations

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 x        2 x .......................(I)
1   x 2
1    x y z  x

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 y        2 y .......................(II)
1   y 2
1    x y z  y

1  2   B x B y B z  B
2 z        2 z .......................(III)
1   z 2
1    x y z  z

1  2  B B 
2xy    x  y  ......................(IV)
1   xy  y x 

1  2  B B 
2yz    y  z  ......................(V)
1   yz  z y 
1  2  B B 
2xz    x  z  ......................(VI)
1   xz  z x 
where

 2 x  2 x  2 x  2 y  2 y  2 y  2 z  2 z  2 z
  2
  ;   2
  ;  2z   
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
x y

 2 xy  2 xy  2 xy  2 yz  2 yz  2 yz  2 xz  2 xz  2 xz
  2
  ;   2
  ;  2xz   
x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
xy yz

  x  y z

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  4Axyz  4Bxyz  4Cxyz  4 xyz(A  B  C )

   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 yz(A  B  C ) , 0
x x x 2
   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 xz(A  B  C ) , 0
y y y 2

   2
 4(A  B  C ) ( xyz)  4 xy(A  B  C ) , 0
z z z 2
 2  2  2
 4 z (A  B  C ) ,  4 x(A  B  C ) ,  4 y (A  B  C )
xy yz xz

 2 x  2 x  2 x
 2x    ;
x 2 y 2 z 2

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Ayz,     4Ayz   0
x x x 2 x  x  x

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Axz,     4Axz   0
y y y 2 y  y  z

 x   2 x    x  
 (4Axyz)  4Axy,     4Axy   0
z z z 2 z  z  z

Thus  2x  0

 2 y  2 y  2 y
 2y   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 y   2 y    y  
 (4Bxyz)  4Byz,     4Byz   0
x x x 2
x  x  x
 y   2 y    y  
 (4Bxyz)  4Bxz,     4Bxz   0
y y y 2
y  y  z
 y   2 y    y  
 (4Axyz)  4Bxy,     4Bxy   0
z z z 2
z  z  z
Thus  2y  0

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 2 z  2 z  2 z
 2z   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 z   2 Z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cyz,   Z   4Cyz   0
x x x 2
x  x  x

 z   2 z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cxz,   Z   4Cxz   0
y y y 2
y  y  z
 z   2 Z     
 (4Cxyz)  4Cxy,   Z   4Cxy   0
z z z 2
z  z  z

Thus  2z  0

 2 xy  2 xy  2 xy
 2
 
x 2 y 2 z 2
xy

 xy  2 xy    xy
x


x

4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  8Axz  x
 
x  x
 
  8Axz   8Az
 x
2

 xy  2 xy    xy  
y


y

4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  8Byz,  y 2
    8Byz   8Bz
y  y  z

 xy  2 xy    xy  
z


z
 
4(Ax 2  By 2 ) z  4(Ax 2  By 2 ),
z 2
    4(Ax 2  By 2 )  0
z  z  z

Thus  2xy  8 z A  B

 2 yz  2 yz  2 yz
 2yz   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 yz  2 zy    zy
x


x
 
4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  4(By 2  Cz 2 )
x 2
 
x  x
 
 

 
4(By 2  Cz 2 )  0
 x

 yz  2 zy    zy  
y


y

4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  8Bxy,  y
 
y  y
  8Bxy   8Bx
 z
2

 yz  2 zy    zy  
z


z

4(By 2  Cz 2 ) x  8Cxz ,  z
 
z  z
  (8Cxz )  8Cx
 z
2

Thus  2yz  8 xB  C 

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 2 xz  2 xz  2 ‫ءئ‬
 2xz   
x 2 y 2 z 2

 xz   2 xz    xz  
x

x

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  8Axy  x 2
    8Axy   8Ay
x  x  x

 xz  2 xz     
y


y
 
4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ),
y 2
  xz  
y  y  z

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 )  0 
 xz   2 xz    xz  
z

z

4(Ax 2  Cz 2 ) y  8Cyz ,  z 2
    (8Cyz )  8Cy
z  z  z

Thus  2xz  8 xA  C 

B x B y B z B x B x B B y
 0;  0;  0;  0;  0; y  0; 0
x y z y z x z
B z  B z 
 40Gxy   40Gy;  40Gxy   40Gx
x x y y

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 x 
2
       2 x .......................(I)
1   x 1    x y z  x
x 2

00

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 2y y        2 y .......................(II)
1   y 2
1    x y z  y

00

1  2   B x B y B z  B
 2z z        2 z .......................(III)
1   z 2
1    x y z  z

00

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For Case   0.3

1  2  B B y 
2xy    x   ......................(IV)
1   xy  y x 

40 z (A  B  C )
8 z A  B   0  13A  B  5(A  B  C )  0
13
13A  13B  5A  5B  5C  0

18A  18B  5C  0 .......................(1)

1  2  B B 
2yz    y  z  ......................(V)
1   yz  z y 
40 x(A  B  C )
8 xB  C    40Gx  13B  C   5(A  B  C )  65G
13
5A  13B  13C  5B  5C  65G

5A  18B  18C  65G .......................(2)

1  2  B B 
 xz
2
   x  z  ......................(VI)
1   xz  z x 
40 y (A  B  C )
8 y A  C    40Gy  13A  C   5(A  B  C )  65G
13
13A  5A  13C  5B  5C  65G

18A  5B  18C  65G ......................(3)

From equation (2) and (3)

18A  5B  18C  5A  18B  18C  A  B .......................(4)

Subsitute Equation (4) in (1)

18A  18B  5C  0  18A  18A  5C  0

36A
C .......................(5)
5
Subsitute Equation (4) and (5) in (2)

 36A 
5A  18B  18C  0  5A  18A  18      65G
 5 

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533A 25 25 36A 180


 65G  A  G ,BA G , C  G
5 41 41 5 41
For Case   0

8 z A  B  4 z (A  B  C )  0  4A  B  (A  B  C )  0

4A  4B  A  B  C  0

5A  5B  C  0 .......................(4)

8 xB  C   4 x(A  B  C )  40Gx  4B  C   (A  B  C )  65G

A  4B  4C  B  C  10G

A  5B  5C  10G .......................(5)

8 y A  C   4 y (A  B  C )  40Gy  4A  C   (A  B  C )  10G

4A  A  4C  B  C  10G

5A  B  5C  10G ......................(6)

From equation (5) and (6)

A  5B  5C  5A  B  5C  A  B .......................(7)

Subsitute Equation (7) in (4)

5A  5B  C  0  5A  5A  C  0

C  10A .......................(8)

Subsitute Equation (7) and (8) in (5)

A  5B  5C  0  A  5A  5   10A   10G
10 10 25
 44A  10G  A  G ,BA G , C  10A   G
44 44 11

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5.3 A thin square plate whose sides are parallel to x and y axes has the following stress distribution :

 x  4Ay;  y  4Ax; And some shear stress

Where A is constant.

Find the suitable stress function and the nature of shear stress which can be associated with given

normal stresses. Also obtain the strains and displacement.

Solution

From Airy’s function applications

a 3 3 b3 2 c d
3  x  x y  3 xy 2  3 y 3
6 2 2 2
2
 x  23  c 3 x  d 3 y compare wit given  x  Ay
y
c3  0
 23
 y  2  c 3 x  b 3 y compare wit given  y  Ax
x
b3  0
 23
 xy  2  b 3 x  c 3 y where c 3  0 and b 3  0
xy
therefore  xy  0
a 3 3 d3 3 A 3 A 3
3  x  y  x  y
6 2 6 2

Therefore nature of the function is in principle stress state in which the shear stress is equal to

zero.

Strain

x 
1

 

 x   y  Ay  Ax   y  x 
1 A


 1


 y   y   x  Ax  Ay   x  y 
1 A

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Displacement

u A
  y  x   u   y  x x
A
x  
u    y  x x 
A

2A


2 xy  x 2  C1 
v A
  x  y   v   x  y y
A
y  

v    x  y y 
A

2A


2 xy  y 2  C 2 
5.4 The stress distribution in an elastic medium is found to be as follows:

 x  4Axy;  y  4Ax;  z  Ax(1  y);


 xy  2 Ay 2 ;  yz   zx  0

Where A is constant.

Establish that this stress distribution represents a solution to a plane strain with no body forces

and the displacement component at the origin of zero. Determine the displacement components

and the reactions in Z

Solution

Components are the reaction in Z direction

z 
1

 

 z   ( x   y )   4 Ax (1  y )   (4Axy  4Ax)  4Ax  4Axy   4Axy  4Ax)  0
1 1

 z  0 Therefore , it is Plane Strain Problem
 z   (4Axy  4Ax)

x 
1

 1

 1


 x   ( y   z )  4Axy   (4Ax   (4Axy  4Ax))  4Axy  4Ax  4 2 Axy  4Ax 
x 
4A


xy  2x   2 xy 
1

 1

 1


 y   y   ( x   z )  4Ax   (4Axy   (4Axy  4Ax))  4Ax  4Axy  4 2 Axy  4Ax 
x 
4A


x  xy   2 xy   x 

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u 4A
x



xy  2x   2 xy  u  4A


xy  2x   2 xy x 
u
4A
  
xy  2x   2 xy x 
2A 2

 
x y  2x 2   2 x 2 y  C1
v 4A
y 
 
x  xy   2 xy   x  v 
4A

 
x  xy   2 xy   x y 
v
4A
  
x  xy   2 xy   x y 
2A

  
2 xy  xy 2   2 xy 2  2 xy  C 2

at origin (0,0,0)

0
2A
0  0  0  C1  C1  0

0
2A
0  0  0  0  C 2  C 2  0

u
2A 2


x y  2x 2   2 x 2 y 
v
2A


2 xy  xy 2   2 xy 2  2 xy 

z  0
w    z   0  C3
at origin (0,0,0)
C3  0
w0
Fz  kw  0

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CHAPTER SIX

Plasticity
(6 Questions)

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6.1 Show that the equivalent stress for the state of principle stress system ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) is always

between bounds obtained for case of uniaxial and pure loading.

Solution

2
I
 J 2  1  I 2 and J1  0
3
I1   1   2   3 by considering the principle stress
I 2   1 2   2 3   1 3

( 1   2   3 ) 2
J2    1 2   2 3   1 3
3
 12  2 1 2   2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3   3 2
   1 2   2 3   1 3
3
 2  2 1 2   2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3   3 2  3 1 2  3 2 3  3 1 3
 1
3
1
 (2 1  2 1 2  2 2  2 2 3  2 1 3  2 3 )
2 2 2

6
1 2 1 1 2
 ( 1  2 1 2   2 )  ( 2  2 2 3   3 )  ( 1  2 1 3   3 )
2 2 2 2

6 6 6
1 1
6
1
6
1

 ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2
6 6

Yield criterion according to Van Mises
f (J 2 )  Constant

Therefore
1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  Constant

Basically the constant can be determined based on either simple Tension in which
 1   y and  2   3  0
 y2
Hence J 2 
6
 
 K or ( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  6K

The equivalent stress due to Tension is


 y2
  3J 2  3(6 K )  3(6  )    3y
6

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It also can be determined based on pure Shear in which


 1   2  K  3  0
1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  Constant

1
6
 
( K ) 2  ( K ) 2  ( K ) 2  Constant 
K2
2
 Constant

 y2
K2  y2
J2     K2
6 2 3
Therefore the equivalent stress due to pure shear is

K2  2
y
  3J 2  3  3 y   
2 6 2

6.2 The state of the stress at a point is given by

 x  4000 kPa;  y  -8000 kPa;  xy  2000 kPa

If the yield stress for material under uniaxial test is12000 kPa, state weather will be yielding as

per Tresca criterion and Von Mises criterion.

Solution

Principle can be determined

x  y  y  4000  8000  4000  8000 


2

 1, 2    x 2   xy 2      2000
2

2  2  2  2 
 1  4324.56 MPa and  2  8324.56 MPa

Tresca yield criterion

K
1
 1   2   K  1 4324.56  8324.56  6324.56 kPa
2 2
K yeild stress  6324.56 kPa  K uniaxial text  12000 kPa
Therefore , there will no be yielding occured to Tresca yeild criterion

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Von Mises

1
6
 
( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  K 2

K
1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2 
K
1
6
 
(4324.56  8324.56) 2  (8324.56) 2  (4324.56) 2  6429.105 kPa

K yeild stress  6429.105 kPa  K uniaxial text  12000 kPa

Therefore , there will no be yielding occured to Von Mises yeild criterion

6.3 The principle stress at a pint are given as follows:

 2  20000 kPa;  3  40000 kPa;

If the yield stress for the material is 4000 kPa, what is the minimum value of  1 for yielding to

occur as per

(a) Tresca yielding criterion

(b) von Mises criterion

Solution

(a) Tresca yielding criterion

K
1
 1   3  where K  4000 kPa , then 4000  1  1  40000  8000   1  40000
2 2
 1  8000  40000  48000 kPa

Thus, the minimum value of  1 for yielding to occur as per Tresca yielding criterion is equal to

48000 kPa .

(a) von Mises criterion

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( 1 
  2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  6K 2
( 1 
 20000) 2  (20000  40000) 2  ( 1  40000) 2  6(4000) 2
 12  40000 1  4  108  4  108   12  80000  1  16  108  96  106
2 1  120000  1  32  108  96  106
2

 12  60000  1  16  108  48  106


 12  60000  1  16  108  48  106  0

 12  60000  1  15.52  106  0


 1  30000 kPa

(b) Thus, the minimum value of  1 for yielding to occur as per von Mises criterion is equal to

30000 kPa .

6.4 The state of stress at a point in a C   material is given as

 x  3600 kPa;  y  2000 kPa;  z  3200 kPa


 xy  800 kPa

If the value of C  4000 kPa and   0 , will there be yielding at that point?

Solution

Mohr- Coulomb Yield Criterion

 1   2  2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin 

I1   x   y   z  3600  2000  3200  8800

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

 (3600)(2000)  (2000)(3200)  (3600)(3200)  (800) 2  (0) 2  (0) 2  24.48  106

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 x  xy  x z  3600 800 0 
  
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  800 2000 0 
 zx  zy  z   0 0 3200
 

 2.0992  1010

Principle stress  3  I1 2  I 2  I 3  0

 3  8800 2  (24.48  10 6 )  2.0992  1010  0


 1  3931.37 kPa
 2  3200 kPa
 3  1668.63 kPa

 1   2  3931.37  3200  731.37 kPa


2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin   2(4000) cos(0)  (3931.37  1668.63) sin(0)  8000 kPa

Since  1   2  2C cos  ( 1   3 ) sin  , then yielding will not occur

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6.5 At a point in a material , the state of stress is given by:

 x  4000 kPa;  y  8000 kPa;  xy  2000kPa

If the yield stress for the material is 10000 kPa, modulus of elasticity is 30000 kPa and the

passion’s ration is 0.3, determine the strain components.

If the point is in plastic range assume work hardening parameter (plastic modulus) to be 1/10 of

the modulus of elasticity. Use von Mises yield criterion and Prandt1-Reuss equations.

Solution

x 
1


 x    y   z  
1

3  10 4
4000  0.38000  0.0533
1


 y   y    x   z   
1
3  10 4
8000  0.3 4000  0.227
1


 z   z    x   y  
1

3  10 4
0  0.3 4000  8000  0.12
 xy 1
γ xy 
G 

 21    xy 
1

3  10 4
21  0.3  2000  0.173

Von Mises

I1   x   y   z  4000  8000  12000

I 2   x y   y z   x z   xy   yz   xz
2 2 2

 (4000)(8000)  (2000) 2  28  106

 x  xy  x z   4000  2000 0
 
I 3  det  yx  y  yz   det  2000 8000 0
 zx  zy  z   0 0 0
 

0

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Principle stress  3  I1 2  I 2  I 3  0

 3  12000 2  (28  10 6 )  0
 1  8828.43 kPa
 2  3171.57 kPa
 3  0 kPa

1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2  K 2 

K
1
6

( 1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 1   3 ) 2 
K
1
6
 
(8828.43  3171.57) 2  (3171.57) 2  (8828.43) 2  4472.14 kPa

K yeild stress  4472.14 kPa  K uniaxial text  10000 kPa

Therefore , there will no be yielding occured to Von Mises yeild criterion

Prandt1-Reuss equations

2 1 1
Ep  dλ   Ee   30000  3000 kPa
3 10 10

 dλ  x   y   z   dλ  4000  8000  0
2  1  2  1 
d x
p

3  2  3  2 
2   2  
 dλ  y   x   z   dλ  8000  4000  4000dλ
1 1
d y
p

3  2  3  2 

dλ  z   x   y   dλ  0  0.5 4000  8000  4000dλ


2  1  2
d z 
p

3  2  3
 xy
γ xy 
p

G

2
3
 
dλ 21  0.5 xy  dλ  21  0.5 2000  4000dλ
2
3
1
2 p p
 p p p p p p

p 2
d p   (d x  d y ) 2  (d y  d z ) 2  (d x  d z ) 2  6( γ 2 xy  γ 2 yz  γ 2 xz ) 
9 
1
2
 2
d   (4000dλ) 2  (8000dλ) 2  (4000dλ) 2  6(4000dλ ) 2   6531.97dλ
p

9 

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1
1
  2
   ( x   y ) 2  ( y   z ) 2  ( x   z ) 2  6( 2 xy   2 yz   2 xz ) 
2 
1
1
 2

   (4000  8000) 2  (8000 z ) 2  (4000) 2  6(2000) 2   7745.97 kPA
2 

9
(d p ) 2  2(dλ ) 2  2
2
9
6531.97dλ 2  191999844.4(dλ) 2
2
2(dλ ) 2 (7745.97) 2  120000102.5(dλ ) 2
9
(d p ) 2  2(dλ ) 2  2 Not yeilded yet
2
3 d p 3 6531.97 2 d p 6531.97
dλ     1.265 and also dλ    0.843
2  2 7745.97 3  7745.97

d p
1 1 1
  
 Ep 0.1  30000 3000

d p 
 x   y   z  
  
 4000  8000  0
1 1 1
d x 
p

   2  3000  2 
d 
p
  
 y   x   z    8000  4000  1.33
1 1 1
d y 
p

   2  3000  2 
d 
 
p

 3000  0  0.5 4000  8000  2


1 1
d z       
p

 
z x y
2 
 xy 3 d p
γ xy 
p

G

2 
 
21  0.5 xy 
1
3000
 21  0.5  2000  2

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