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ENGLISH FOR AIRCRAFT

MODULE I

(AIRFRAME& POWERPLANT)

Flavio E. Hurtado. S
LATACUNGA-ECUADOR
2019

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INTRODUCTION

English for Aircraft I will support you to comprehend and interpret technical documentation
with no trouble at all. Its content is based on Aeronautical English readings, simple and
complex vocabulary structures, examples and exercises to put into practice all the content
learned in class.

This book contains three units, which cover subjects that will help you to understand
Aeronautical terminology in English. This volume may be used as a guide for self-training,
looking for additional examples in the manufacturers’ manuals and putting into practice the
explanations given here.

The content has been prepared as a guide for students of the aeronautical career, who need to
master the English language to develop an understanding of the technical information
regarding aircraft, all this through a collaborative and personal work.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................... 2
UNIT 1 .................................................................................................................................................. 6
AIRCRAFT THEORY OF FLIGHT .................................................................................................. 6
FOUR FORCES OF FLIGHT ......................................................................................................... 6
AERODYNAMICS, AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY, AND RIGGING .......................................................... 10
BASIC AERODYNAMICS ......................................................................................................... 10
THE ATMOSPHERE ................................................................................................................ 11
PRESSURE ............................................................................................................................. 13
DENSITY................................................................................................................................ 13
HUMIDITY............................................................................................................................. 14
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION ........................................................................................................... 14
AIRFOIL................................................................................................................................. 17
THRUST AND DRAG ............................................................................................................... 17
CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) ...................................................................................................... 20
THE AXES OF AN AIRCRAFT .................................................................................................... 20
STABILITY AND CONTROL ...................................................................................................... 20
STATIC STABILITY .................................................................................................................. 20
ADDITIONAL READINGS......................................................................................................... 24
TYPES OF STATIC STABILITY ................................................................................................... 24
UNIT 2 ................................................................................................................................................ 27
GENERAL AND MAJOR STRUCTURAL STRESSES................................................................................. 27
TENSION ............................................................................................................................... 27
FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT .......................................................................................................... 30
FUSELAGE ............................................................................................................................. 30
WINGS .................................................................................................................................. 33
WING CONFIGURATIONS .................................................................................................................. 33
WING STRUCTURE................................................................................................................. 34
EMPENNAGE......................................................................................................................... 36
NACELLES OR PODS ............................................................................................................... 36
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS ...................................................................................................... 40
(SUMMARY) ........................................................................................................................................ 40
AIRCRAFT HARDWARE............................................................................................................... 43

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FASTENERS (THREADED)........................................................................................................ 43
AIRCRAFT BOLTS ................................................................................................................... 43
AIRCRAF NUTS ...................................................................................................................... 44
NONSELF-LOCKING NUTS ............................................................................................................. 44
SELF-LOCKING NUTS ..................................................................................................................... 44
PLAIN HEX NUTS ................................................................................................................... 45
RIVNUTS ............................................................................................................................... 45
WASHERS ............................................................................................................................. 46
TORQUE WRENCH ................................................................................................................. 48
AIRCRAFT SCREWS ................................................................................................................ 48
TYPES OF TORQUE WRENCHES .............................................................................................. 48
SCREWS ................................................................................................................................ 48
CONTROL CABLES.................................................................................................................. 51
WIRE AND CABLE .................................................................................................................. 51
COTTER PINS......................................................................................................................... 52
RIVETS .................................................................................................................................. 52
GASKETS ............................................................................................................................... 53
UNIT 3 ................................................................................................................................................ 56
AIRCRAFT CLEANING AND CORROSION CONTROL .................................................................. 56
INTRODUCTION TO CORROSION CONTROL ............................................................................ 56
TYPES OF CORROSION ........................................................................................................... 59
DIRECT CHEMICAL ATTACK .................................................................................................... 59
ELECTROCHEMICAL ATTACK .................................................................................................. 60
FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION AND REMOVAL ................................................................. 60
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE.................................................................................................. 63
CORROSION PRONE AREAS, ENGINE AND PROPELLER GENERALITIES ...................................... 63
WDM (WIRING DIAGRAM MANUAL) ..................................................................................... 68
PROCESS AND MATERIALS SET IN CORROTION CONTROL ....................................................... 70
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 70
AIRCRAFT CLEANING ............................................................................................................. 71
SOLVENT CLEANERS .............................................................................................................. 72
EMULSION CLEANERS............................................................................................................ 73
SOAPS AND DETERGENT CLEANERS ....................................................................................... 74
MECHANICAL CLEANING MATERIALS ..................................................................................... 74
CHEMICAL CLEANERS ............................................................................................................ 75
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVE .................................................................................................. 78

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AMM (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ATAS) ................................................................................. 79


ATA ...................................................................................................................................... 79
AIRCRAFT GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 80
AIRFRAME SYSTEMS.............................................................................................................. 81
STRUCTURE .......................................................................................................................... 83
PROPELLER/ROTOR ............................................................................................................... 84
POWER PLANT ...................................................................................................................... 84

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UNIT 1
Aircraft Theory of Flight

Before a technician can consider performing maintenance on an aircraft, it is necessary to understand


the pieces that make up the aircraft. Names like fuselage, empennage, wing, and so many others, come
into play when describing what an airplane is and how it operates. For helicopters, names like main
rotor, anti-torque rotor, and autorotation come to mind as a small portion of what needs to be
understood about rotorcraft. The study of physics, which includes basic aerodynamics, is a necessary
part of understanding why aircraft operate the way they do.

Figure 1.1. Four forces acting on an airplane.

Four Forces of Flight

During flight, there are four forces acting on an airplane. These forces are lift, weight, thrust, and
drag. [Figure 3-53] Lift is the upward force created by the wing, weight is the pull of gravity on the
airplane’s mass, thrust is the force created by the airplane’s propeller or turbine engine, and drag is the
friction caused by the air flowing around the airplane.

All four of these forces are measured in pounds. Any time the forces are not in balance, something
about the airplane’s condition is changing. The possibilities are as follows:

1. When an airplane is accelerating, it has more thrust than drag.


2. When an airplane is decelerating, it has less thrust than drag.
3. When an airplane is at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal.
4. When an airplane is climbing, it has more lift than weight.
5. When an airplane is descending, it has more weight than lift.
6. When an airplane is at a constant altitude, lift and weight are equal.

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Aircraft Structures
A brief story of Aircraft structures

The history of aircraft structures underlies the history of aviation in general. Advances in materials
and processes used to construct aircraft have led to their evolution from simple wood truss structures
to the sleek aerodynamic flying machines of today. Combined with continuous powerplant
development, the structures of “flying machines” have changed significantly. The key discovery that
“lift” could be created by passing air over the top of a curved surface set the development of fixed and
rotary-wing aircraft in motion. George Cayley developed an efficient cambered airfoil in the early
1800s, as well as successful manned gliders later in that century. He established the principles of flight,
including the existence of lift, weight, thrust, and drag. It was Cayley who first stacked wings and
created a tri-wing glider that flew a man in 1853.

General Facts

An aircraft is a device that is used for, or is intended to be used for, flight in the air. Major categories
of aircraft are airplane, rotorcraft, glider, and lighter-than-air vehicles. [Figure 1-11] Each of these
may be divided further by major distinguishing features of the aircraft, such as airships and balloons.
Both are lighter-than-air aircraft but have differentiating features and are operated differently. The
concentration of this handbook is on the airframe of aircraft; specifically, the fuselage, booms,
nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces, and landing gear. Also included are the various
accessories and controls that accompany these structures. Note that the rotors of a helicopter are
considered part of the airframe since they are actually rotating wings. By contrast, propellers and
rotating airfoils of an engine on an airplane are not considered part of the airframe.

Figure 1-11. Examples of different categories of aircraft, clockwise from top left: lighter-than-air,
glider, rotorcraft, and airplane.

The most common aircraft is the fixed-wing aircraft. As the name implies, the wings on this type of
flying machine are attached to the fuselage and are not intended to move independently in a fashion
that results in the creation of lift. One, two, or three sets of wings have all been successfully utilized.
[Figure 1-12] Rotary-wing aircraft such as helicopters are also widespread. This handbook discusses
features and maintenance aspects common to both fixedwing and rotary-wing categories of aircraft.
Also, in certain cases, explanations focus on information specific to only one or the other. Glider
airframes are very similar to fixedwing aircraft. Unless otherwise noted, maintenance practices
described for fixed-wing aircraft also apply to gliders. The same is true for lighter-than-air aircraft,
although thorough coverage of the unique airframe structures and maintenance practices for lighter-
than-air flying machines is not included in this handbook.

The airframe of a fixed-wing aircraft consists of five principal units: the fuselage, wings, stabilizers,
flight control surfaces, and landing gear. [Figure 1-13]

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Helicopter airframes consist of the fuselage, main rotor and related gearbox, tail rotor (on helicopters
with a single main rotor), and the landing gear. Airframe structural components are constructed from
a wide variety of materials. The earliest aircraft were constructed primarily of wood. Steel tubing and
the most common material, aluminum, followed. Many newly certified aircraft are built from molded
composite materials, such as carbon fiber. Structural members of an aircraft’s include stringers,
longerons, ribs, bulkheads, and more. The main structural member in a wing is called the wing spar.
The skin of aircraft can also be made from a variety of materials, ranging from impregnated fabric to
plywood, aluminum, or composites. Under the skin and attached to the structural fuselage are the many
components that support airframe function. The entire airframe and its components are joined by rivets,
bolts, screws, and other fasteners. Welding, adhesives, and special bonding techniques are also used.

Figure 1-13. Principal airframe units.

Glossary
Airfoil: any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction or lift from air passing over it. Airplane wings,
propeller blades and helicopter rotors are examples of airfoils.

Airframe: The fuselage, booms, nacelles cowlings fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors, but
excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and langing gear of an aircraft and their
accessories and controls.

Bulkhead: A structural partition that divides the fuselage of an aircrafts into compartments or bays.
A bulkhead strengthens the structure and acts as a wall.

Bulkhead: A structural partition that divides the fuselage of an aircrafts into compartments or bays.
A bulkhead strengthens the structure and acts as a wall.

Cowling Aircraft component: The removable cover, which encloses an aircraft engine.

Drag: An Aerodynamic force acting in the same plane as the relative wind striking and Airfoil two
basic types of drag act on an aircraft in flight: induced drag and parasite drag.

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Fairing: A part of a structure or machine whose primary purpose is to produce a smooth surface or a
smooth junction where two surfaces join.

Glider: An aircraft having no engine, which is capable of free flight only, while, is descending through
the air.

Lift: An Aerodynamic force caused by air flowing over a specially shaped surface called an airfoil.
The airfoil is curved in such a way that the air flowing over the upper surface finds the surface falling
away from it.

Stabilizer (airplane control surface): The fixed horizontal tail surface on an airplane. The stabilizer
is set on the air planes, so it provides the correct amount of stabilizing downward. Aerodynamic force
when the aircraft is flying at its normal course speed.

Thrust: The forward aerodynamic force produced by a propeller, fan or turbojet engine as it forces a
mass of air to the rear, behind the airplane.

Activity 1.
Instructions: Read carefully all the meanings and fill in the crossword with the correct vocabulary
word.

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Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging

Three topics that are directly related to the manufacture, operation, and repair of aircraft are:
aerodynamics, aircraft assembly, and rigging. Each of these subject areas, though studied separately,
eventually connect to provide a scientific and physical understanding of how an aircraft is prepared
for flight. A logical place to start with these three topics is the study of basic aerodynamics. By studying
aerodynamics, a person becomes familiar with the fundamentals of aircraft flight.

Basic Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is the study of the dynamics of gases, the interaction between a moving object and the
atmosphere being of primary interest for this handbook. The movement of an object and its reaction
to the air flow around it can be seen when watching water passing the bow of a ship. The major
difference between water and air is that air is compressible and water is incompressible. The action of
the airflow over a body is a large part of the study of aerodynamics. Some common aircraft terms,
such as rudder, hull, water line, and keel beam, were borrowed from nautical terms. Many textbooks
have been written about the aerodynamics of aircraft flight. It is not necessary for an airframe and
powerplant (A&P) mechanic to be as knowledgeable as an aeronautical engineer about aerodynamics.
The mechanic must be able to understand the relationships between how an aircraft performs in flight
and its reaction to the forces acting on its structural parts. Understanding why
aircraft are designed with particular types of primary and secondary control systems and why the
surfaces must be aerodynamically smooth becomes essential when maintaining today’s complex
aircraft. The theory of flight should be described in terms of the laws of flight because what happens
to an aircraft when it flies is not based upon assumptions, but upon a series of facts. Aerodynamics is
a study of laws which have been proven to be the physical reasons why an airplane flies. The term
aerodynamics is derived from the combination of two Greek words: “aero,” meaning air, and “dyne,”
meaning force of power. Thus, when “aero” joins “dynamics” the result is“aerodynamics”—the study
of objects in motion through the air and the forces that produce or change such motion.
Aerodynamically, an
aircraft can be
defined as an object
traveling through
space that is affected
by the changes in
atmospheric
conditions. To state it
another way,
aerodynamics covers
the relationships
between the aircraft,
relative wind, and
atmosphere.

Figure 2. Basic aerodynamics

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The Atmosphere

Before examining the fundamental laws of flight, several basic facts must be considered, namely that
an aircraft operates in the air. Therefore, those properties of air that affect the control and performance
of an aircraft must be understood. The air in the earth’s atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen
and oxygen. Air is considered a fluid because it fits the definition of a substance that has the ability to
flow or assume the shape of the container in which it is enclosed. If the container is heated, pressure
increases; if cooled, the pressure decreases. The weight of air is heaviest at sea level where it has been
compressed by all of the air above. This compression of air is called atmospheric pressure.

Figure 2-1. Barometer used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Glossary
Aerodynamics: The science of the action of air on an object, and with the motion of air on the other
gases. It deals with the production of lift by the movement of the aircraft, the relative wind, and the
atmosphere.
Aircraft: Any weight-carrying device designed to be supported by the air or intended to be used for
flight in the air.
Airframe: The structure of an aircraft without the powerplant. It is generally considered to consist of
five principles units, the fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control surfaces and landing gear.
Beam: A supporting Structural ember in any construction designed to withstand loads in both shear
and bending.
Bow: Front end of floats or the hull of a flying boat.
Keel: A longitudinal member or ridge along the center bottom, of a seaplane float or hull.
Powerplant: The complete installation an aircraft of the engine, propeller and all of the accessories
and controls needed for its proper operation.
Pressure: A measure of force applied uniformly over a given unit of surface area. It is normally
expressed in such terms as pounds per square inch or grams per square centimeter.

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Rigging: The final adjustment and alignment of an aircraft, and aircraft control systems to provide the
proper aerodynamic reaction.
Rudder: The movable control surface mounted on the trailing edge of the vertical fin of an airplane.
The rudder is moved by foot-operated pedals in the cockpit, and movement of the rudder rotates the
airplane about its vertical axis.

Matching Exercise:

Match the terms in column B with the phrases in column A. Write the letters next to the numbers.

Column A Column B

1.- Front end of floats or the hull of a flying boat. a. Beam

2.- It deals with the production of lift by the movement of the


aircraft, the relative wind and the atmosphere b. Rudder
3.- A supporting structural ember in any construction designed to
withstand loads in both shear and bending. c. Aircraft
4.- It is generally consider to consist of five principles units, the
fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control surfaces and landing gear. d. Keel
5.- A longitudinal member or ridge along the center bottom, of a sea
plane float or hull. e. Powerplant
6.- The complete installation an aircraft of the engine, propeller and
all of the accessories and controls needed for its proper operation. f. Aerodynamics
7.- Any weight-carrying device designed to be supported by the air or
intended to be used for flight in the air. g. Bow
8.- The movable control surface mounted on the trailing edge of the

vertical fin of an airplane. h. Rigging

9.- It is normally expressed in such terms as pounds per square i. Airframe

inch or grams per square centimeter. j. pressure

10.- The final adjustment and alignment of an aircraft, and k. Dynamics


aircraft flight control systems to provide the proper aerodynamic reaction.

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Pressure

Atmospheric pressure is usually defined as the force exerted against the earth’s surface by the weight
of the air above that surface. Weight is force applied to an area that resultsin pressure. Force (F) equals
area (A) times pressure (P), or F = AP. Therefore, to find the amount of pressure, divide area into force
(P = F/A). A column of air (one square
inch) extending from sea level to the top of
the atmosphere weighs approximately 14.7
pounds; therefore, atmospheric pressure is
stated in pounds per square inch (psi).
Thus, atmospheric pressure at sea level is
14.7 psi. Atmospheric pressure is measured
with an instrument called a barometer,
composed of mercury in a tube that records
atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury
("Hg). [Figure 2-1] The standard
measurement in aviation altimeters and
U.S. weather reports has been "Hg.
However, world-wide weather maps and
some non-U.S. manufactured aircraft
instruments indicate pressure in millibars
(mb), a metric unit.

Figure 2-1. Barometer used to measure atmospheric


pressure
.

At sea level, when the average atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi, the barometric pressure is 29.92 "Hg,
and the metric measurement is 1013.25 mb. An important consideration is that atmospheric pressure
varies with altitude. As an aircraft ascends, atmospheric pressure drops oxygen content of the air
decreases, and temperature drops. The changes in altitude affect an aircraft’s performance in such areas
as lift and engine horsepower. The effects of temperature, altitude, and density of air on aircraft
performance are covered in the following paragraphs.

Density

Density is weight per unit of volume. Since air is a mixture of gases, it can be compressed. If the air
in one container is under half as much pressure as an equal amount of air in an identical container, the
air under the greater pressure weighs twice as much as that in the container under lower pressure. The
air under greater pressure is twice as dense as that in the other container. For the equal weight of air,
that which is under the greater pressure occupies only half the volume of that under half the pressure.
The density of gases is governed by the following rules:

1. Density varies in direct proportion with the pressure.


2. Density varies inversely with the temperature.
Thus, air at high altitudes is less dense than air at low altitudes, and a mass of hot air is less dense than
a mass of cool air. Changes in density affect the aerodynamic performance of aircraft with the same
horsepower. An aircraft can fly faster at a high altitude where the density is low than at a low altitude
where the density is greater. This is because air offers less resistance to the aircraft when it contains a
smaller number of air particles per unit of volume.

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Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. The maximum amount of water vapor that air can
hold varies with the temperature. The higher the temperature of the air, the more water vapor it can
absorb.
1. Absolute humidity is the weight of water vapor in a unit volume of air.
2. Relative humidity is the ratio, in percent, of the moisture actually in the air to the moisture it would
hold if it were saturated at the same temperature and pressure.

Assuming that the temperature and pressure remain the same, the density of the air varies inversely
with the humidity. On damp days, the air density is less than on dry days. For this reason, an aircraft
requires a longer runway for takeoff on damp days than it does on dry days. By itself, water vapor
weighs approximately five-eighths as much as an equal amount of perfectly dry air. Therefore, when
air contains water vapor, it is not as heavy as dry air containing no moisture.

Newton’s Laws of Motion

The fundamental laws governing the action of air about a wing are known as Newton’s laws of motion.
Newton’s first law is normally referred to as the law of inertia. It simply means that a body at rest does
not move unless force is applied to it. If a body is moving at uniform speed in a straight line, force
must be applied to increase or decrease the speed. According to Newton’s law, since air has mass, it is
a body. When an aircraft is on the ground with its engines off, inertia keeps the aircraft at rest. An
aircraft is moved from its state of rest by the thrust force created by a propeller, or by the expanding
exhaust, or both. When an aircraft is flying at uniform speed in a straight line, inertia tends to keep the
aircraft moving. Some external force is required to change the aircraft from its path of flight.

Glossary
Barometer: An instrument used to measure the absolute pressure of the atmosphere.
Damp or dampen (verb): To decrease the amplitude of an oscillating reciprocating motion.
Density: A measure of the amount mss in a unit volume. It is usually expressed in such units as pounds
per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeters.
Drop: A small quantity of liquid that falls or its produced in a more or less spherical mass: a liquid
globule
Horsepower: A measure of mechanical power equal to 33.000 foot-pounds of work done in one
minute, 550 foot-pounds of work done in one second or, 746 watts of power.
Humidity: A term used to indicate the presence of water vapor, or moisture, in the air.
Inch: A unit of length, 1/12 (0.0833) foot, equivalent to 2.54 centimeters.
Moisture: Water contained in mass of air. The water may be in the form of vapor, or it may be tiny
droplets of haze, mist or fog.
Runway: A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and take-off run of
aircraft along its length.

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Weight: A measure of the force of gravity acting upon a body. The force by which a body is attracted
toward the center of the earth by gravity. It is equal to the mass of the body time the acceleration due
to gravity.

Matching Exercise:
Match the terms in column B with the phrases in column A. Write the letters next to the numbers.

Column A Column B
1. - A measure of the force of gravity acting upon a body. The force a. Humidity
by which a body is attracted toward the center of the earth by gravity.
2. - A unit of length, 1/12 (0.0833) foot, equivalent to 2.54 centimeters. b. Altitude
3. - An instrument used to measure the absolute pressure of the
atmosphere. c. Moisture
4. - A small quantity of liquid that falls or is produced ina a more or less
spherical mass; a liquid globule. d. Density
5.- A measure of the amount of mss in a unit volume. It is usually
expressed. In such units as pounds per cubic foot or grams per e. Horsepower
cubic centimeter.
6.- A measure of mechanical power equal to 33,000 foot-pounds f. weight
of work done in one minute, 550 foot-pounds of work done in 1 second
or 746 watts of power.
g. Runway
7.- A term used to indicate the precesnce of water vapor, or
moisture, in the air.
8.- To decrease the amplitude of an oscillating or reciprocating motion. h. Drop
9.- A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the i. Barometer
landing and take off run of aircraft along its length.

10.- Water contained in a mass of air. The water may be in the j. Inc
form of vapor, or it may be tiny droplets of haze, mist or fog.
k. Damp or dampen

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Drawing exercise: Draw a barometer and label its parts.

Project 1. How to make a barometer.

To do this project watch the video and follow the process step by step.
Link 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9GXNc3-KJU
Link 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JaPjAb9FylE
Take pictures of all the process and present a write down a report about it using the format
given by the teacher.

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Airfoil

An airfoil is a surface designed to obtain lift from the air through which it moves. Thus, it can be stated
that any part of the aircraft that converts air resistance into lift is an airfoil. The profile of a conventional
wing is an excellent example of an
airfoil. [Figure 2-3] Notice that the
top surface of the wing profile has
greater curvature than the lower
surface. The difference in curvature
of the upper and lower surfaces of the
wing builds up the lift force. Air
flowing over the top surface of the
wing must reach the trailing edge of
the wing in the same amount of time
as the air flowing under the wing.
Figure 2-3. Airflow over a wing section.

To do this, the air passing over the top surface moves at a greater velocity than the air passing below
the wing because of the greater distance it must travel along the top surface. This increased velocity,
according to Bernoulli’s Principle, means a corresponding decrease in pressure on the surface. Thus,
a pressure differential is created between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing, forcing the wing
upward in the direction of the lower pressure. Within limits, lift can be increased by increasing the
angle of attack (AOA), wing area, velocity, density of the air, or by changing the shape of the airfoil.
When the force of lift on an aircraft’s wing equals the force of gravity, the aircraft maintains level
flight.

Thrust and Drag

An aircraft in flight is the center of a


continuous battle of forces. Actually, this
conflict is not as violent as it sounds, but it is
the key to all maneuvers performed in the air.
There is nothing mysterious about these
forces; they are definite and known. The
directions in which they act can be calculated,
and the aircraft itself is designed to take
advantage of each of them. In all types of
flying, flight calculations are based on the
magnitude and direction of four forces:
weight, lift, drag, and thrust. [Figure 2-7]

Figure 2-7. Forces in action during flight.


An aircraft in flight is acted upon by four forces:

1. Gravity or weight—the force that pulls the aircraft toward the earth. Weight is the force of gravity
acting downward upon everything that goes into the aircraft, such as the aircraft itself, crew, fuel, and
cargo.

2. Lift—the force that pushes the aircraft upward. Lift acts vertically and counteracts the effects of
weight.

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3. Thrust—the force that moves the aircraft forward. Thrust is the forward force produced by the
powerplant that overcomes the force of drag.

4. Drag—the force that exerts a braking action to hold the aircraft back. Drag is a backward deterrent
force and is caused by the disruption of the airflow by the wings, fuselage, and protruding objects.

These four forces are in perfect balance only when the aircraft is in straight-and-level unaccelerated
flight. The forces of lift and drag are the direct result of the relationship between the relative wind and
the aircraft. The force of lift always acts perpendicular to the relative wind, and the force of drag
always acts parallel to and in the same direction as the relative wind. These forces are actually the
components that produce a resultant lift force on the wing.

Glossary
Angle of attack (propeller): The acute angle between his cord line of a propeller blade and the relative
wind. The angle of attract is affected by both the engine RPM and the forward speed of the aircraft.
Build up: to establish, increase, or strengthen.
Decrease: To diminish, reduce or lessen in extent, quantity, strength power, etc.
Deterrent: Serving or tending to prevent.
Drag: An aerodynamic force acting in the same plane as the relative wind striking an airfoil.
Forward: Toward or at a place, point or time in advance; onward; ahead.
Fuselage: The body, or central structural component of an airplane
Profile: An outline of an object, as, a molding, formed on a vertical plane passed through the object
at right angles to one of its principal horizontal dimensions.
Protrude (-ing): To thrust forward. To project or cause to project from or as if from a surface.
Trailing edge: The back edge of an airfoil, such as a wing, a helicopter rotor, or a propeller blade. It
is the edge that passes through the air last.

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Matching Exercise:
Match the terms in column B with the phrases in column A. Write the letters next to the numbers.
Column A Column B
1. - Toward or at a place, point or time in advance; onward; ahead. a. Deterrent
2. - to establish, increase, or strengthen. b. Profile
3. - Serving or tending to prevent. c. Build up
4.- An outline of an object, as, a molding, formed on a vertical
plane passed through the object at right angles to one of its principal d. Forward
horizontal dimensions.
5.- To diminish, reduce or lessen in extent, quantity, strength power, etc. e. Key
6.- The back edge of an airfoil, such as a wing, a helicopter rotor, f. Decrease
or a propeller blade. It is the edge that passes through the air last. g. Trailing edge
7.- An aerodynamic force acting in the same plane as the relative h. Drag
wind striking an airfoil. i. Fuselage
8.- The body, or central structural component of an airplane j. Protrude
9.- To thrust forward. To project or cause to project from or
as if from a surface. k. Angle of attack
10.- The acute angle between his cord line of a propeller blade
and the relative wind.

Drawing activity: Represent in a graphic organizer the four forces an aircraft in flight has.

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Center of Gravity (CG)

Gravity is the pulling force that tends to draw all bodies within the earth’s gravitational field to the
center of the earth. The CG may be considered the point at which all the weight of the aircraft is
concentrated. If the aircraft were supported at its exact CG, it would balance in any position. CG is of
major importance in an aircraft, for its position has a great bearing upon stability. The CG is determined
by the general design of the aircraft. The designers estimate how far the CP travels. They then fix the
CG in front of the CP for the corresponding flight speed in order to provide an adequate restoring
moment for flight equilibrium.

The Axes of an Aircraft

Whenever an aircraft changes its attitude in flight, it must turn about one or more of three axis. Figure
2-10 shows the three axes, which are imaginary lines passing through the center of the aircraft. The
axes of an aircraft can be considered as imaginary axles around which the aircraft turns like a wheel.
At the center, where all three axes intersect, each is perpendicular to the other two. The axis that
extends lengthwise through the fuselage from the nose to the tail is called the longitudinal axis. The
axis that extends crosswise from wing tip to wing tip is the lateral, or pitch, axis. The axis that passes
through the center, from top to bottom, is called the vertical, or yaw, axis. Roll, pitch, and yaw are
controlled by three control surfaces. Roll is produced by the ailerons, which are located at the trailing
edges of the wings. Pitch is affected by the elevators, the rear portion of the horizontal tail assembly.
Yaw is controlled by the rudder, the rear portion of the vertical tail assembly.

Stability and Control

An aircraft must have sufficient stability to maintain a uniform flightpath and recover from the various
upsetting forces. Also, to achieve the best performance, the aircraft must have the proper response to
the movement of the controls. Control is the pilot action of moving the flight controls, providing the
aerodynamic force that induces the aircraft to follow a desired flightpath. When an aircraft is said to
be controllable, it means that the aircraft responds easily and promptly to movement of the controls.
Different control surfaces are used to control the aircraft about each of the three axes. Moving the
control surfaces on an aircraft Maneuverability is the characteristic of an aircraft to be directed along
a desired flightpath and to withstand the stresses imposed. Controllability is the quality of the response
of an aircraft to the pilot’s commands while maneuvering the aircraft.

Static Stability

An aircraft is in a state of equilibrium when the sum of all the forces acting on the aircraft and all the
moments is equal to zero. An aircraft in equilibrium experiences no accelerations, and the aircraft
continues in a steady condition of flight. A gust of wind or a deflection of the controls disturbs the
equilibrium, and the aircraft experiences acceleration due to the unbalance of moment or force.

Glossary
Axes of an aircraft: Three mutually perpendicular imaginary lines about which an aircraft is free to
rotate.
Axis: A straight line about which a body can rotate.
Draw: To cause to move in a particular direction by or as if by a pulling force; pull; drag (often
followed by along away in, out, or off)

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Elevators: The horizontal, movable control surface in the tail section or empennage of an airplane.
The elevator is hinged to the trailing age of the fixed horizontal stabilizer.
Flightpath: The line, course or track along which an aircraft is flying or is intended to be flown.
Gust (wind): A temporary increase in the speed of the wind. It lasts for a very short period of time,
an it is usually followed by a wind whose speed is lower than normal.
Pitch (aircraft maneuver): Rotation of an aircraft about its lateral axis.
Roll (aircraft flight maneuver): Rotation of an aircraft about its longitudinal axis.
Tail: The after portion of an airplane or the like.
Yaw (aircraft flight condition): A flight condition of an aircraft in which the aircraft rotates about
its vertical axis.

Matching Exercise:
Match the terms in column B with the phrases in column A. Write the letters next to the numbers.
Column A Column B
1.- A temporary increase in the speed of the wind. a. Gust

2.- Rotation of an aircraft about its lateral axis. b. Roll

3.- Rotation of an aircraft about its longitudinal axis. c. Pitch

4.- A flight condition of an aircraft in which the aircraft d. Airflow

otates about its vertical axis. e. Yaw

5.- The horizontal, movable control surface in the tail f. Elevators

section or empennage of an airplane. g. Axis

6.- To cause to move in a particular direction by or as if by a

pulling force; pull; drag (often followed by along away in, out, or off) h. Draw

7.- A straight line about which a body can rotate. i. Axes of an

8.- Three mutually perpendicular imaginary lines about aircraft

which an aircraft is free to rotate. j.

9.- The after portion of an airplane or the like.

10.- The line, course or track along which an aircraft is

flying or is intended to be flown.

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Figure 2-10. Motion of an aircraft about its axes.

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Labeling exercise:
Instructions: Label the picture with the vocabulary learned in class.

Project 2. How to make a plane out of cardboard.

To do this project watch the video and follow the process step by step.
Link 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGvmr9xpv-M

Make a list of all the Materials needed to do the project.

Take pictures of all the process and present a write down a report about it using the format
given by the teacher.

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Additional Readings

Types of static stability

The three types of static stability are defined by the character of movement following some disturbance
from equilibrium. Positive static stability exists when the disturbed object tends to return to
equilibrium. Negative static stability, or static instability, exists when the disturbed object tends to
continue in the direction of disturbance. Neutral static stability exists when the disturbed object has
neither tendency, but remains in equilibrium in the direction of disturbance. These three
types of stability are illustrated in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-11. Three types of stability.

Dynamic Stability

While static stability deals with the tendency of a displaced body to return to equilibrium, dynamic
stability deals with the resulting motion with time. If an object is disturbed from equilibrium, the time
history of the resulting motion defines the dynamic stability of the object. In general, an object
demonstrates positive dynamic stability if the amplitude of motion decreases with time. If the
amplitude of motion increases with time, the object is said to possess dynamic instability. Any aircraft
must demonstrate the required degrees of static and dynamic stability. If an aircraft were designed with
static instability and a rapid rate of dynamic instability, the aircraft would be very difficult, if not
impossible, to fly. Usually, positive dynamic stability is required in an aircraft design to prevent
objectionable continued oscillations of the aircraft.

Longitudinal Stability

When an aircraft has a tendency to keep a constant AOA with reference to the relative wind (i.e., it
does not tend to put its nose down and dive or lift its nose and stall); it is said to have longitudinal
stability. Longitudinal stability refers to motion in pitch. The horizontal stabilizer is the primary
surface which controls longitudinal stability. The action of the stabilizer depends upon the speed and
AOA of the aircraft.

Directional Stability

Stability about the vertical axis is referred to as directional stability. The aircraft should be designed
so that when it is in straight-and-level flight it remains on its course heading even though the pilot

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takes his or her hands and feet off the controls. If an aircraft recovers automatically from a skid, it has
been well designed for directional balance. The vertical stabilizer is the primary surface that controls
directional stability. Directional stability can be designed into an aircraft, where appropriate, by using
a large dorsal fin, a long fuselage, and sweptback wings.

Lateral Stability

Motion about the aircraft’s longitudinal (fore and aft) axis is a lateral, or rolling, motion. The tendency
to return to the original attitude from such motion is called lateral stability.

Dutch Roll
A Dutch Roll is an aircraft motion consisting of an out-of phase combination of yaw and roll. Dutch roll
stability can be artificially increased by the installation of a yaw damper.

Rigging

Rigging the helicopter coordinates the movements of the flight controls and establishes the relationship
between the main rotor and its controls, and between the tail rotor and its controls. Rigging is not a
difficult job, but it requires great precision and attention to detail. Strict adherence to rigging
procedures described in the manufacturer’s maintenance manuals and service instructions is a must.
Adjustments, clearances, and tolerances must be exact. Rigging of the various flight control systems
can be broken down into the following three major steps:

1. Placing the control system in a specific position—holding it in position with pins, clamps, or
jigs, then adjusting the various linkages to fit the immobilized control component.
2. Placing the control surfaces in a specific reference position—using a rigging jig, a precision
bubble protractor, or a spirit level to check the angular difference between the control surface
and some fixed surface on the aircraft. [Figure 2-23]
3. Setting the maximum range of travel of the various components—this adjustment limits the
physical movement of the control system.

After completion of the static rigging, a functional check of the flight control system must be
accomplished. The nature of the functional check varies with the type of helicopter and system
concerned, but usually includes determining that:

1. The direction of movement of the main and tail rotor blades is correct in relation to movement of
the pilot’s controls.
2. The operation of interconnected control systems (engine throttle and collective pitch) is properly
coordinated.
3. The range of movement and neutral position of the pilot’s controls are correct.
4. The maximum and minimum pitch angles of the main rotor blades are within specified limits. This
includes checking the fore-and-aft and lateral cyclic pitch and collective pitch blade angles.
5. The tracking of the main rotor blades is correct.
6. In the case of multirotor aircraft, the rigging and movement of the rotor blades are synchronized.
7. When tabs are provided on main rotor blades, they are correctly set.
8. The neutral, maximum, and minimum pitch angles and coning angles of the tail rotor blades are
correct.
9. When dual controls are provided, they function correctly and in synchronization. Upon completion
of rigging, a thorough check should be made of all attaching, securing, and pivot points. All bolts,
nuts, and rod ends should be properly secured and safetied as specified in the manufacturers’
maintenance and service instructions.

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Auxiliary Lift Devices

Included in the auxiliary lift devices group of flight control surfaces are the wing flaps, spoilers, speed
brakes, slats, leading edge flaps, and slots. The auxiliary groups may be divided into two subgroups:
those whose primary purpose is lift augmenting and those whose primary purpose is lift decreasing. In
the first group are the flaps, both trailing edge and leading edge (slats), and slots. The lift decreasing
devices are speed brakes and spoilers. The trailing edge airfoils (flaps) increase the wing area, thereby
increasing lift on takeoff, and decrease the speed during landing. These airfoils are retractable and fair
into the wing contour. Others are simply a portion of the lower skin which extends into the airstream,
thereby slowing the aircraft. Leading edge flaps are airfoils extended from and retracted into the
leading edge of the wing. Some installations create a slot (an opening between the extended airfoil and
the leading edge). The flap (termed slat by some manufacturers) and slot create additional lift at the
lower speeds of takeoff and landing. [Figure 2-14] Other installations have permanent slots built in
the leadingedge of the wing. At cruising speeds, the trailing edge and leading edge flaps (slats) are
retracted into the wing proper. Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edges of the
wings. When the slat is closed, it forms the leading edge of the wing. When in the open position
(extended forward), a slot is created between the slat and the wing leading edge. At low airspeeds, this
increases lift and improves handling characteristics, allowing the aircraft to be controlled at airspeeds
below the normal landing speed. [Figure 2-15] Lift decreasing devices are the speed brakes (spoilers).
In some installations, there are two types of spoilers. The ground spoiler is extended only after the
aircraft is on the ground, thereby assisting in the braking action. The flight spoiler assists in lateral
control by being extended whenever the aileron on that wing is rotated up. When actuated as speed
brakes, the spoiler panels on both wings raise up. In-flight spoilers may also be located along the sides,
underneath the fuselage, or back at the tail. [Figure 2-16] In some aircraft designs, the wing panel on
the up aileron side rises more than the wing panel on the down aileron side. This provides speed brake
operation and lateral control simultaneously.

Figure 2-15. Wing slots.

Figure 2-14. Types of wing flaps.

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UNIT 2
GENERAL AND MAJOR STRUCTURAL STRESSES

Aircraft structural members are designed to carry a load or to resist stress. In designing an aircraft,
every square inch of wing and fuselage, every rib, spar, and even each metal fitting every part of the
aircraft must be planned to carry the load to be imposed upon it. The determination of such loads is
called stress analysis. Although planning the design is not the function of the aircraft technician, it is,
nevertheless, important that the technician understand and appreciate the stresses involved in order to
avoid changes in the original design through improper repairs.
The term “stress” is often used interchangeably with the word “strain.” While related, they are not the
same thing. External loads or forces cause stress. Stress is a material’s internal resistance, or
counterforce, that opposes deformation. The degree of deformation of a material is strain. When a
material is subjected to a load or force, that material is deformed, regardless of how strong the material
is or how light the load is. There are five major stresses [Figure 1-14] to which all aircraft are
subjected:

• Tension • Shear
• Compression • Bending
• Torsion

Tension is the stress that resists a force that tends to pull something apart. [Figure 1-14A] The engine
pulls the aircraft forward, but air resistance tries to hold it back. The result is tension, which stretches
the aircraft. The tensile strength of a material is measured in pounds per square inch (psi) and is
calculated by dividing the load (in pounds) required to pull the material apart by its cross-sectional
area (in square inches).Compression is the stress that resists a crushing force. [Figure 1-14B] The
compressive strength of a material is also measured in psi. Compression is the stress that tends to
shorten or squeeze aircraft parts. Torsion is the stress that produces twisting. [Figure 1-14C] While
moving the aircraft forward, the engine also tends to twist it to one side, but other aircraft components
hold it on course. Thus, torsion is created. The torsion strength of a material is its resistance to twisting
or torque. Shear is the stress that resists the force tending to cause one layer of a material to slide over
an adjacent layer.[Figure 1-14D] Two riveted plates in tension subject the rivets to a shearing force.
Usually, the shearing strength of a material is either equal to or less than its tensile or compressive
strength. Aircraft parts, especially screws, bolts,and rivets, are often subject to a shearing force.
Bending stress is a combination of compression and tension. The rod in Figure 1-14E has been
shortened (compressed) on the inside of the bend and stretched on the outside of the bend.

Figure 1-14. The five stresses that may act on an aircraft and its parts.

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A single member of the structure may be subjected to a combination of stresses. In most cases,
the structural members are designed to carry end loads rather than side loads. They are designed
to be subjected to tension or compression rather than bending. Strength or resistance to the
external loads imposed during operation may be the principal requirement in certain structures.
However, there are numerous other characteristics in addition to designing to control the five
major stresses that engineers must consider. For example, cowling, fairings, and similar parts may
not be subject to significant loads requiring a high degree of strength. However, these parts must
have streamlined shapes to meet aerodynamic requirements, such as reducing drag or directing
airflow.

Glossary
Bending: To curve from a straight shape. To turn or incline in a particular direction.
Compression (physical force): A resultant of two forces acting in the same place, but in opposite
directions toward each other. A compression or compressive force tries to mash the ends of an
object together.
Layer: One horizontal part A thickness of something.
Rib (aircraft structure): The part of an aircraft wing structure that gives the wing its
aerodynamic cross section. Sheet metal or fabric covers the ribs and gives the wing its
airfoilshape.er each other
Shear: To cut by causing the parts to slide over each other
Spar (Airplane wing component): The main spanwise, load-carrying structural member in an
airplane.
Strain: A deformation or physical change, in a material caused by a stress. According to Hooke’s
law the strain in material, the amount it stretches or compresses, is directly proportional to the
stress, until the elastic limit of the material is researched.
Streamlined: Having a contour designed to offer the least possible resistance to a current of air,
water, etc.; optimally shaped for motion or conductivity. Designed or organized to give maximum
efficiency; compact.
Strength: The ability of a material to resist distortion or deformation caused by an external force
acting on it.
Tension: A strained condition resulting from forces acting in opposition to each other.

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Activity 2
Write your own definition of the following words.
Control:________________________________________________________________
Compression:___________________________________________________________
Force:_________________________________________________________________
Structural:______________________________________________________________
Aircraft:_______________________________________________________________

Matching exercise:
Match the terms in column B with the phrases in Column A. Write the letters in the blanks:

Column A Column B
1.- The ability of a material to resist distortion or deformation caused a. Shear
by an external force acting on it.
2.- The main spanwise, load-carrying structural member in an airplane wing. b. Booms
3.- To cut by causing the parts to slide over each other c. Strength
4.- To curve from a straight shape. To turn or incline in a particular direction d. Tension
5.- having a contour designed to offer the least possible resistance to a current
air, water, etc.; optimally shaped for motion or conductivity. e. rib
6.-One horizontal part. A thickness of something. f. spar
7.- The part of an aircraft structure that gives the wind its aerodynamic cross
Direction. g. layer
8.- A deformation or physical change, in a material caused by a stress. h. bending
9.- A resultant of two forces acting in the same plane, but in opposite i.
Compression
directions, toward each other.
10.- A strained condition resulting from forces acting in opposition to each other. k.
Streamlined

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Fixed-Wing Aircraft

Fuselage
The fuselage is the main structure or body of the fixed-wing aircraft. It provides space for cargo,
controls, accessories, passengers, and other equipment. In single-engine aircraft, the fuselage
houses the powerplant. In multiengine aircraft, the engines may be either in the fuselage, attached
to the fuselage, or suspended from the wing structure. There are two general types of fuselage
construction: truss and monocoque.
Truss Type
A truss is a rigid framework made up of members,
such as beams, struts, and bars to resist deformation
by applied loads. The truss-framed fuselage is
generally covered with fabric. The truss-type
fuselage frame is usually constructed of steel
tubing welded together in such a manner that all
members of the truss can carry both tension and
compression loads. [Figure 1-15] In some aircraft,
principally the light, single-engine models, truss
fuselage frames may be constructed of aluminum
alloy and may be riveted or bolted into one piece,
with cross-bracing achieved by using solid rods or
tubes.
Figure 1-15. A truss-type fuselage. A Warren
truss uses mostly diagonal bracing
.
Monocoque Type

The monocoque (single shell) fuselage relies largely on the strength of the skin or covering to
carry the primary loads. The design may be divided into two classes:
1. Monocoque
2. Semimonocoque
Different portions of the same fuselage may belong to either of the two classes, but most modern
aircraft are considered to be of semimonocoque type construction. The true monocoque
construction uses formers, frame assemblies,
and bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage.
[Figure 1-16] The heaviest of these structural
members are located at intervals to carry
concentrated loads and at points where
fittings are used to attach other units such as
wings, powerplants, and stabilizers. Since no
other bracing members are present, the skin
must carry the primary stresses and keep the
fuselage rigid. Thus, the biggest problem
involved in monocoque construction is
maintaining enough strength while keeping
the weight within allowable limits. Figure 1-16. An airframe using monocoque
construction.

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Semimonocoque Type

To overcome the strength/weight problem of monocoque construction, a modification called


semimonocoque construction was developed. It also consists of frame assemblies, bulkheads, and
formers as used in the monocoque design but, additionally, the skin is reinforced by longitudinal
members called longerons. Longerons usually extend across several frame members and help the
skin support primary bending loads. They
are typically made of aluminum alloy either
of a single piece or a built-up construction.
Stringers are also used in the
semimonocoque fuselage. These
longitudinal members are typically more
numerous and lighter in weight than the
longerons. They come in a variety of shapes
and are usually made from single piece
aluminum alloy extrusions or formed
aluminum. Stringers have some rigidity but
are chiefly used for giving shape and for
attachment of the skin. Stringers and
longerons together prevent tension and
compression from bending the fuselage.
[Figure 1-17]
Figure 1-17. The most common airframe construction is
Semi monocoque.

To summarize, in semimonocoque fuselages, the strong, heavy longerons hold the bulkheads and
formers, and these, in turn, hold the stringers, braces, web members, etc. All are designed to be
attached together and to the skin to achieve the full strength benefits of semimonocoque design.
It isImportant to recognize that the metal skin or covering carries part of the load. The fuselage
skin thickness can vary with the load carried and the stresses sustained at a particular location.

Glossary
Beam (structural member): A long heavy, metal or wood member in any type or structure used
to support both bending and shear loads.
Fitting: An attachment device that is used to connect components to an aircraft structure.
Former (aircraft structural member): An aircraft structural member used to give a fuselage its
shape. The truss structure of an aircraft fuselage provides the necessary strength but its cross
section is usually square or triangular and does not have the clean an aerodynamic shape needed
for streamlining
Fuselage (aircraft component): The body or central structural component of an airplane. The
passengers and the flight crew are housed in the fuselage and the wings and tail attach to it. In
most single engine airplanes, the engine and landing gear are attached to the fuselage.
Longeron (aircraft structural component): The main longitudinal, load-bearing members of a
truss-type aircraft fuselage.

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Monocoque (aircraft structure): A single-shell type of aircraft structure in which all of the flight
loads are carried in its outside skin. Modern aircrafts have skin made of aluminum alloy, formed
into compound curves and riveted together into a structure.
Rod: A thin straight piece of metal.
Stringer (aircraft structure): A part of an aircraft fuselage structure used to give the fuselage
its shape and in some types of structure, to provide a small portion of the fuselage strength.
Strut (aircraft component): A general term used in a structural brace.
Truss: Any or various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and
composed of straight members subject only to a longitudinal compression, tension, or both:
functions as a beam.

Labeling exercise:
Instructions: Label the pictures with the vocabulary learned in class.

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Pressurization
Many aircraft are pressurized. This means that air is pumped into the cabin after takeoff and a
difference in pressure between the air inside the cabin and the air outside the cabin is established.
This differential is regulated and maintained. In this manner, enough oxygen is made available
for passengers to breathe normally and move around the cabin without special equipment at high
altitudes. Pressurization causes significant stress on the fuselage structure and adds to the
complexity of design. In addition to withstanding, the difference in pressure between the air inside
and outside the cabin, cycling from unpressurized to pressurized and back again each flight causes
metal fatigue. To deal with these impacts and the other stresses of flight, nearly all pressurized
aircraft are semimonocoque in design. Pressurized fuselage structures undergo extensive periodic
inspections to ensure that any damage is discovered and repaired. Repeated weakness or failure
in an area of structure may require that section of the fuselage be modified or redesigned.

Wings

Wing Configurations

Wings are airfoils that, when moved rapidly through the air, create lift. They are built in many
shapes and sizes. Wing design can vary to provide certain desirable flight characteristics. Control
at various operating speeds, the amount of lift generated, balance, and stability all change as the
shape of the wing is altered. Both the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wing may be
straight or curved, or one edge may be straight and the other curved. One or both edges may be
tapered so that the wing is narrower at the tip than at the root where it joins the fuselage. The wing
tip may be square, rounded, or even pointed. Figure 1-19 shows a number of typical wing leading
and trailing edge shapes. The wings of an aircraft can be attached to the fuselage at the top, mid-
fuselage, or at the bottom. They may extend perpendicular to the horizontal plain of the fuselage
or can angle up or down slightly.

Figure 1-19. Various wing design shapes yield different performance.

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Wing Structure
The wings of an aircraft are designed to lift it into the air. Their particular design for any given
aircraft depends on a number of factors, such as size, weight, use of the aircraft, desired speed in
flight and at landing, and desired rate of climb. The wings of aircraft are designated left and right,
corresponding to the left and right sides of the operator when seated in the cockpit. [Figure 1-21]

Figure 1-21. “Left” and “right” on an aircraft are oriented to the perspective of a pilot sitting
in the cockpit.

Often wings are of full cantilever design. This means they are built so that no external bracing is
needed. They are supported internally by structural members assisted by the skin of the aircraft.
Other aircraft wings use external struts or wires to assist in supporting the wing and carrying the
Aerodynamic and landing loads. Wing support cables and struts are generally made from steel.
Many struts and their attach fittings have fairings to reduce drag. Short, nearly vertical supports
called jury struts are found on struts that attach to the wings a great distance from the fuselage.
This serves to subdue strut movement and oscillation caused by the air flowing around the strut
in flight. Figure 1-22 shows samples of wings using external bracing, also known as semi
cantilever wings. Cantilever wings built with no external bracing are also shown. Aluminum is
the most common material from which to construct wings, but they can be wood covered with
fabric, and occasionally a magnesium alloy has been used. Moreover, modern aircraft are tending
toward lighter and stronger materials throughout the airframe and in wing construction. Wings
made entirely of carbon fiber or other composite materials exist, as well as wings made of a
combination of materials for maximum strength to weight performance.

Glossary
Airfoil: Any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction or lift from air passing over it. Airplane
wings propeller blades and helicopter rotors are examples of airfoils.
Cantilever: A beam fixed and supported at one end only.
Cockpit: The portion of an aircraft or spacecraft from which the flight crew controls the vehicle.
Dihedral: The positive angle formed between the lateral axis of an airplane and a line, which
passes through the center of the wing or the horizontal stabilizer. Dihedral is used to increase the
lateral stability of an airplane.
Fabric: A cloth produced by interlacing two yarns at right angles to each other.

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Leading edge: The edge of a moving object that reaches a point in space or time ahead of the rest
of the object. In an airplane wing or helicopter rotor, the leading edge is the part of the wing or
rotor the moving air touches first.
Performance: The ability of a system such as an aircraft or an engine to function as required.
Semimonocoque: A form of stressed skin structure used in the construction of an aircraft. Most
of the strength of a semimonocoque structure is in the skin but the skin is supported on a structure
of formers and stringers that gives the skin its shape and increases its rigidity.
Trailing edge: The back edge of an airfoil, such as wing, a helicopter rotor or a propeller blade.
It is the edge that passes through the air last.
Wing: The part of a heavier-that aircraft that produces aerodynamic lift to support the aircraft in
the air against the force of gravity.

Matching exercise

Mach the terms in column B with the phrases in column A .Write the letters next to the numbers.

Column A Column B

1.- The part of a heavier-that aircraft that produces aerodynamic a.


lift to support the aircraft in the air against the force of gravity. b.
2.- A form of stressed skin structure used in the construction of c.
an aircraft.
3.- The portion of an aircraft or spacecraft from which the flight c d.
crew controls the vehicle. e.
4.- The positive angle formed between the lateral axis of an airplane and a line,

which passes through the center of the wing or the horizontal stabilizer. f.

5.- The edge of a moving object that reaches a point in space or time
ahead of the rest of the object. g.
6.- Any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction or lift from air passing
over it. h.
7.- The ability of a system such as an aircraft or an engine to function

as required. i.

8.- A cloth produced by interlacing two yarns at right angles to each other. j.

9.- The back edge of an airfoil, such as wing, a helicopter rotor or a k.


propeller blade.
10.- A beam fixed and supported at one end only.

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Empennage

The empennage of an aircraft is also known as the tail section. Most empennage designs consist
of a tail cone, fixed aerodynamic surfaces or stabilizers, and movable aerodynamic surfaces. The
tail cone serves to close and streamline the aft end of most fuselages. The cone is made up of
structural members like those of the fuselage; however, cones are usually of lighter construction
since they receive less stress than the fuselage. [Figure 1-46] The other components of the typical
empennage are of heavier construction than the tail cone. These members include fixed surfaces
that help stabilize the aircraft and movable surfaces that help to direct an aircraft during flight.
The fixed surfaces are the horizontal stabilizer and vertical stabilizer. The movable surfaces are
usually a rudder located at the aft edge of the vertical stabilizer and an elevator located at the aft
edge the horizontal stabilizer. [Figure 1-47] The structure of the stabilizers is very similar to that
which is used in wing construction. Figure 1-48 shows a typical vertical stabilizer. Notice the use
of spars, ribs, stringers, and skin like those found in a wing. They perform the same functions
shaping and supporting the stabilizer and transferring stresses. Bending, torsion, and shear created
by air loads in flight pass from one structural member to another. Each member absorbs some of
the stress and passes the remainder on to the others. Ultimately, the spar transmits any overloads
to the fuselage. A horizontal stabilizer is built the same way. The rudder and elevator are flight
control surfaces that are also part of the empennage.

Figure 1-47. Components of a typical empennage. Figure 1-48. Vertical stabilizer.

Nacelles or pods

Nacelles (sometimes called “pods”) are streamlined enclosures used primarily to house the engine
and its components. They usually present a round or elliptical profile to the wind thus reducing
aerodynamic drag. On most single-engine aircraft, the engine and nacelle are at the forward end
of the fuselage. On multiengine aircraft, engine nacelles are built into the wings or attached to the
fuselage at the empennage (tail section). Occasionally, a multiengine aircraft is designed with a
nacelle in line with the fuselage aft of the passenger compartment. Regardless of its location, a
nacelle contains the engine and accessories, engine mounts, structural members, a firewall, and
skin and cowling on the exterior to fare the nacelle to the wind. Some aircraft have nacelles that
are designed to house the landing gear when retracted. Retracting the gear to reduce wind
resistance is standard procedure on high-performance/high-speed aircraft. The wheel well is the
area where the landing gear is attached and stowed when retracted. Wheel wells can be located in
the wings and/or fuselage when not part of the nacelle. Figure 1-40 shows an engine nacelle
incorporating the landing gear with the wheel well extending into the wing root.

The framework of a nacelle usually consists of structural members similar to those of the fuselage.
Lengthwise members, such as longerons and stringers, combine with horizontal/vertical
members, such as rings, formers, and bulkheads, to give the nacelle its shape and structural
integrity. A firewall is incorporated to isolate the engine compartment from the rest of the aircraft.

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This is basically a stainless steel or titanium bulkhead that contains a fire in the confines of the
nacelle rather than letting it spread throughout the airframe. [Figure 1-41] Engine mounts are also
found in the nacelle. These are the structural assemblies to which the engine is fastened. They are
usually constructed from chrome/molybdenum steel tubing in light aircraft and forged
chrome/nickel/molybdenum assemblies in larger aircraft. [Figure 1-42] The exterior of a nacelle
is covered with a skin or fitted with a cowling which can be opened to access the engine and
components inside. Both are usually made of sheet aluminum or magnesium alloy with stainless
steel or titanium alloys being used in high-temperature areas, such as around the exhaust exit.
Regardless of the material used, the skin is typically attached to the framework with rivets.
Cowling refers to the detachable panels covering those areas into which access must be gained
regularly, such as the engine and its accessories. It is designed to provide a smooth airflow over
the nacelle and to protect the engine from damage. Cowl panels are generally made of aluminum
alloy construction. However, stainless steel is often used as the inner skin aft of the power section
and for cowl flaps and near cowl flap openings. It is also used for oil cooler ducts. Cowl flaps are
moveable parts of the nacelle cowling that open and close to regulate engine temperature.

Figure 1-41. An engine nacelle firewall. Figure 1-42. Various aircraft engine
mounts.

Glossary
Cones: A solid shape formed by rotating a right triangle about one of the legs, which forms the
right angle.
Elevator (airplane control): The horizontal movable control surface in the tail section or
empennage of an airplane. The elevator is hinged to the trailing edge of the fixed horizontal
stabilizer. Moving the elevator up or down by force- and- aft movement of the control yoke or
stick, changes the aerodynamic force produced by the horizontal tail surface
Empennage (aircraft structure): The tail section of an airplane. The empennage stabilizes the
airplane in flight and causes it rotates about its vertical and lateral axis.
Firewall (aircraft structural component): A bulkhead made of fireproof material used to
separate the engine compartment from the rest of the aircraft.

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Flap (helicopter rotor blade movement): Up-and-down movement of the tip of an helicopter
rotor blade.
Gear: A special wheel with notched teeth on its periphery. Gears transmit power from the shaft
to another without slippage by meshing the teeth of the gear on one shaft with the teeth of the
gear on the other.
Landing gear (aircraft component): the part of an aircraft structure that supports the aircraft
when it is not flying It can be either fixed so it is always extended in the airstream or retractable.
Nacelle: An enclosed compartment in an aircraft in which an engine in mounted. Most
multiengine propeller-driven airplanes have engine nacelles mounted on the leading edge of the
wings far enough out that the propellers clear the fuselage.
Rivet: A small pin-type fastener, used to fasten pieces of sheet metal together. Most aircraft rivets
are made of aluminum alloy and are driven cold.
Rudder (airplane control surface): The movable control surface Mounted on the trailing edge
of the vertical fin of an airplane. The rudder is moved by foot-operated pedals in the cockpit and
the movement of the rudder rotates the airplane about its vertical axis.

Matching exercise:
Match the terms in column with the phrases in Column A. Write the letters next to the numbers.

Column A Column B
1. - A solid shape formed by rotating a right triangle about one of the legs a. Rudder
which forms the right angle.
2. - the part of an aircraft structure that supports the aircraft when it is not flying b. Cowling
3.- he horizontal movable control surface in the tail section or empennage of an c. Gear
airplane.
4.- An enclosed compartment in an aircraft in which an engine in mounted. d. Flap
5.- The tail section of an airplane. e. Nacelle
6.- A small pin-type fastener, used to fasten pieces of sheet metal together. f. Cones
7.- The movable control surface Mounted on the trailing edge
of the vertical fin of an airplane. h. Elevator
8.- A special wheel with notched teeth on its periphery. i. Firewall

9.- A bulkhead made of fireproof material used to separate the engine compartment j. Rivet
from the rest of the aircraft.
10.- Up-and-down movement of the tip of an helicopter rotor blade. k. Landing
Gear

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Labeling exercise:
Instructions: Label the pictures with the vocabulary learned in class.

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GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

(SUMMARY)

Bending: To curve from a straight shape. To turn or incline in a particular direction.


Compression (physical force): A resultant of two forces acting in the same place, but in opposite
directions toward each other. A compression or compressive force tries to mash the ends of an
object together.
Layer: One horizontal part A thickness of something.
Rib (aircraft structure): The part of an aircraft wing structure that gives the wing its
aerodynamic cross section. Sheet metal or fabric covers the ribs and gives the wing its
airfoilshape.er each other
Shear: To cut by causing the parts to slide over each other
Spar (Airplane wing component): The main spanwise, load-carrying structural member in an
airplane.
Strain: A deformation or physical change, in a material caused by a stress. According to Hooke’s
law the strain in material, the amount it stretches or compresses, is directly proportional to the
stress, until the elastic limit of the material is researched.
Streamlined: Having a contour designed to offer the least possible resistance to a current of air,
water, etc.; optimally shaped for motion or conductivity. Designed or organized to give maximum
efficiency; compact.
Strength: The ability of a material to resist distortion or deformation caused by an external force
acting on it.
Tension: A strained condition resulting from forces acting in opposition to each other.
Beam (structural member): A long heavy, metal or wood member in any type or structure used
to support both bending and shear loads.
Fitting: An attachment device that is used to connect components to an aircraft structure.
Former (aircraft structural member): An aircraft structural member used to give a fuselage its
shape. The truss structure of an aircraft fuselage provides the necessary strength but its cross
section is usually square or triangular and does not have the clean an aerodynamic shape needed
for streamlining
Fuselage (aircraft component): The body or central structural component of an airplane. The
passengers and the flight crew are housed in the fuselage and the wings and tail attach to it. In
most single engine airplanes, the engine and landing gear are attached to the fuselage.
Longeron (aircraft structural component): The main longitudinal, load-bearing members of a
truss-type aircraft fuselage.
Monocoque (aircraft structure): A single-shell type of aircraft structure in which all of the flight
loads are carried in its outside skin. Modern aircrafts have skin made of aluminum alloy, formed
into compound curves and riveted together into a structure.
Rod: A thin straight piece of metal.

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Stringer (aircraft structure): A part of an aircraft fuselage structure used to give the fuselage
its shape and in some types of structure, to provide a small portion of the fuselage strength.
Strut (aircraft component): A general term used in a structural brace.
Truss: Any or various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and
composed of straight members subject only to a longitudinal compression, tension, or both:
functions as a beam.
Airfoil: Any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction or lift from air passing over it. Airplane
wings propeller blades and helicopter rotors are examples of airfoils.
Cantilever: A beam fixed and supported at one end only.
Cockpit: The portion of an aircraft or spacecraft from which the flight crew controls the vehicle.
Dihedral: The positive angle formed between the lateral axis of an airplane and a line, which
passes through the center of the wing or the horizontal stabilizer. Dihedral is used to increase the
lateral stability of an airplane.
Fabric: A cloth produced by interlacing two yarns at right angles to each other.
Leading edge: The edge of a moving object that reaches a point in space or time ahead of the rest
of the object. In an airplane wing or helicopter rotor, the leading edge is the part of the wing or
rotor the moving air touches first.
Performance: The ability of a system such as an aircraft or an engine to function as required.
Semimonocoque: A form of stressed skin structure used in the construction of an aircraft. Most
of the strength of a semimonocoque structure is in the skin but the skin is supported on a structure
of formers and stringers that gives the skin its shape and increases its rigidity.
Trailing edge: The back edge of an airfoil, such as wing, a helicopter rotor or a propeller blade.
It is the edge that passes through the air last.
Wing: The part of a heavier-that aircraft that produces aerodynamic lift to support the aircraft in
the air against the force of gravity.
Cones: A solid shape formed by rotating a right triangle about one of the legs, which forms the
right angle.
Elevator (airplane control): The horizontal movable control surface in the tail section or
empennage of an airplane. The elevator is hinged to the trailing edge of the fixed horizontal
stabilizer. Moving the elevator up or down by force- and- aft movement of the control yoke or
stick, changes the aerodynamic force produced by the horizontal tail surface
Empennage (aircraft structure): The tail section of an airplane. The empennage stabilizes the
airplane in flight and causes it rotates about its vertical and lateral axis.
Firewall (aircraft structural component): A bulkhead made of fireproof material used to
separate the engine compartment from the rest of the aircraft.
Flap (helicopter rotor blade movement): Up-and-down movement of the tip of an helicopter
rotor blade.
Gear: A special wheel with notched teeth on its periphery. Gears transmit power from the shaft
to another without slippage by meshing the teeth of the gear on one shaft with the teeth of the
gear on the other.

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Landing gear (aircraft component): the part of an aircraft structure that supports the aircraft
when it is not flying It can be either fixed so it is always extended in the airstream or retractable.
Nacelle: An enclosed compartment in an aircraft in which an engine in mounted. Most
multiengine propeller-driven airplanes have engine nacelles mounted on the leading edge of the
wings far enough out that the propellers clear the fuselage.
Rivet: A small pin-type fastener, used to fasten pieces of sheet metal together. Most aircraft rivets
are made of aluminum alloy and are driven cold.
Rudder (airplane control surface): The movable control surface Mounted on the trailing edge
of the vertical fin of an airplane. The rudder is moved by foot-operated pedals in the cockpit and
the movement of the rudder rotates the airplane about its vertical axis.

ACTIVITY
Reorganize the glossary in alphabetical order and write next to each vocabulary word from one
to three key words that help you to remember that word. E.g:
NACELLE. - Enclosed compartment.
RIVET. - Small pin, etc.

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AIRCRAFT HARDWARE

Because of the small size of most hardware items, their importance is often overlooked. The safe
and efficient operation of any aircraft is greatly dependent upon correct selection and use of
aircraft structural hardware and seals.
Aircraft hardware is usually identified by its specification number or trade name. Threaded
fasteners and rivets are usually identified by AN (Air Force-Navy), NAS (National Aircraft
Standard), and MS (Military Standard) numbers. Quick-release fasteners are usually identified by
factory trade names and size designations.

FASTENERS (THREADED)

Although thousands of rivets are used in aircraft construction, many parts require frequent
dismantling or replacement. For these parts, use some form of threaded fastener. Furthermore,
some joints require greater strength and rigidity than can be provided by riveting. Manufacturers
solve this problem by using various types of screws, bolts, nuts, washers, and fasteners. Bolts and
screws are similar in that both have a head at one end and a screwthread at the other, but there are
several differences between them. The threaded end of a bolt is always relatively blunt, while that
of a screw may be either blunt or pointed. The threaded end of a bolt must be screwed into a nut,
but the threaded end of the screw may fit into a nut or other female arrangement, or directly into
the material being secured. A bolt has a fairly short threaded section and a comparatively long
grip length (the unthreaded part); a screw may have a longer threaded section and no clearly
defined grip length. A bolt assembly is generally tightened by turning its nuts. Its head may or
may not be designed to be turned. A screw is always designed to be turned by its head. Another
minor but frequent difference between a screw and a bolt is that a screw is usually made of lower
strength materials. Threads on aircraft bolts and screws are of the American National Standard
type. This standard contains two series of threads: national course (NC) and national fine (NF).
Most aircraft threads are of the NF series.

AIRCRAFT BOLTS

Many types of bolts are used on aircraft. Before discussion of some of these types, it might be
helpful to view a list containing information about commonly used bolt terms. Important
information about the names of bolt parts and bolt dimensions that must be considered in selecting
a bolt is shown in Figure 6-10. The three principal parts of a bolt are the head, thread, and grip.
The head is the larger diameter of the bolt and may be one of many shapes or designs. The head
keeps the bolt in place in one direction, and the nut used on the threads keeps it in place in the
other direction.
To choose the correct replacement, several bolt dimensions must be considered. One is the length
of the bolt. Note in Figure 6-10 that the bolt length is the distance from the tip of the threaded
end to the head of the bolt. Correct length selection is indicated when the chosen bolt extends
through the nut at least two full threads. In the case of flat-end bolts or chamfered (rounded) end
bolts, at least the full chamfer plus one full thread should extend through the nut. See Figure 6-
10. If the bolt is too short, it may not extend out of the bolt hole far enough for the nut to be
securely fastened. If it is too long, it may extend so far that it interferes with the movement of
nearby parts. Unnecessarily long bolts can affect weight and balance and reduce the aircraft
payload capacity.

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Figure 6-10 — Bolt terms and dimensions.

AIRCRAF NUTS
Aircraft nuts differ in design and material, just as bolts do, because they are designed to do a
specific job with the bolt. For instance, some of the nuts are made of cadmium-plated carbon steel,
stainless steel, brass, or aluminum alloy. The type of metal used is not identified by markings on
the nuts themselves. Instead, the material must be recognized from the luster of the metal. Nuts
also differ greatly in size and shape. In spite of these many and varied differences, they all fall
under one of two general groups: self-locking and nonself-locking. Nuts are further divided into
types such as plain nuts, castle nuts, check nuts, plate nuts, channel nuts, barrel nuts, internal-
wrenching nuts, external-wrenching nuts, shear nuts, sheet spring nuts, wing nuts, and Klincher
locknuts.

NONSELF-LOCKING NUTS
Nonself-locking nuts require the use of a separate locking device for security of installation. There
are several types of these locking devices mentioned in the following paragraphs in connection
with the nuts on which they are used. Since no single locking device can be used with all types of
nonself-locking nuts, one must be selected that is suitable for the type of nut being used.

SELF-LOCKING NUTS
Self-locking nuts provide tight connections that will not loosen under vibrations. Self-locking
nuts approved for use on aircraft meet critical strength, corrosion-resistance, and temperature
specifications. The two major types of self-locking nuts are prevailing torque and free spinning.
The two general types of prevailing torque nuts are the all-metal nuts and the nonmetallic insert
nuts. New self-locking nuts must be used each time components are installed in critical areas
throughout the entire aircraft, including all flight, engine, and fuel control linkage and
attachments.

Figure 6-17—Nuts.

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PLAIN HEX NUTS

These nuts are available in self-locking or nonself-locking styles. When the nonself-locking nuts
are used, they should be locked with an auxiliary locking device such as a check nut or lock
washer. See Figure 6-17.

CASTLE NUTS

These nuts are used with drilled shank bolts, hex-head bolts, clevis bolts, eyebolts, and drilled-
head studs. These nuts are designed to be secured with cotter pins or safety wire.

CASTELLATED NUTS

Like the castle nuts, these nuts are castellated for safetying. They are not as strong or cut as deep
as the castle nuts.

CHECK NUTS

These nuts are used in locking devices for nonself-locking plain hex nuts, setscrews, and
threaded rod ends.

PLATE NUTS

These nuts are used for blind mounting in inaccessible locations and for easier maintenance. They
are available in a wide range of sizes and shapes. One-lug, two-lug, and right-angle shapes are
available to accommodate the specific physical requirements of nut locations. Floating nuts
provide a controlled amount of nut movement to compensate for subassembly misalignment.
They can be either self-locking or nonself-locking. See Figure 6-18.

Figure 6-18—Self-locking plate nuts.

RIVNUTS
The rivnut is a hollow rivet made of 6063 aluminum alloy, counterbored and threaded on the
inside. It is manufactured in two head styles—flat and countersunk—and in two shank
designs—open and closed ends. See Figure 6-6. Each of these rivets is available in three sizes:

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6-32, 8-32, and 10-32. These numbers indicate the nominal diameter and the actual number of
threads per inch of the machine screw that fits into the rivnut.
Open-end rivnuts are more widely used and are generally the recommended and preferred type.
However, in sealed flotation or pressurized compartments, the closed-end rivnut must be used.

Figure 6-6 — Rivnut fastener.

CHANNEL NUTS
These nuts are used in applications requiring anchored nuts equally spaced around openings such
as access and inspection doors and removable leading edges. Straight or curved channel nut strips
offer a wide range of nut spacing and provide a multinut unit that has all the advantages of floating
nuts. They are usually self-locking.

BARREL NUTS
These nuts are installed in drilled holes. The round portion of the nut fits in the drilled hole and
provides a self-wrenching effect. They are usually self-locking.

WASHERS
Washers such as ball socket and seat washers, taper pin washers, and washers for internal-
wrenching nuts and bolts have been designed for special applications. See Figure 6-22. Ball
socket and seat washers are used where a bolt is installed at an angle to the surface, or where
perfect alignment with the surface is required at all times. These washers are used together.Taper
pin washers are used in conjunction with threaded taper pins. They are installed under the nut to
effect adjustment where a plain washer would distort. Washers for internal-wrenching nuts and
bolts are used in conjunction with NAS internal-wrenching bolts. The washer used under the head
is countersunk to seat the bolt head or shank radius. A plain washer is used under the nut.

Figure 6-22 — various types of special washers.

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GLOSSARY

Fastener. (US English) or fastening (UK English) is a hardware device that mechanically joins
or affixes two or more objects together. In general, fastenersare used to create non-permanent
joints; that is, joints that can be removed or dismantled without damaging the joining components.

Bolt. Used in aircraft construction in which the shank is ground to a tolerance of +0.000, -0.0005
inch. Close-tolerance bolts are identified by a triangle around the mark on the bolt head that
identifies the material of which the bolt is made.

Aircraft Nuts. Aircraft nuts are made in a variety of shapes and sizes. They are made of
cadmium plated carbon steel, stainless steel, or anodized 2024T aluminum alloy, and may
be obtained with either right- or left-hand threads.

Washers. A small flat ring made of metal, rubber, or plastic fixed under a nut or the head of a
bolt to spread the pressure when tightened or between two joining surfaces as a spacer or seal.

Screw. a short, slender, sharp-pointed metal pin with a raised helical thread running
around it and a slotted head, used to join things together by being rotated so that it pierces
wood or other material and is held tightly in place.

Eyebolts. A bolt or bar with an eye at the end for attaching a hook or ring to.

ACTIVITY

 Make a graphic organizer about Aircraft Hardware.

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TORQUE WRENCH
A torque wrench is a tool used to apply precisely a specific torque to a fastener such as
a nut or bolt. It is usually in the form of a socket wrench with special internal mechanisms. It was
invented by Conrad Bahr in 1918 while working for the New York City Water Department. It
was designed to prevent overtightening bolts on water main and steam pipe repairs underground.
A torque wrench is used where the tightness of screws and bolts is crucial. It allows the operator
to measure the torque applied to the fastener so it can be matched to the specifications for a
particular application. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts. A torque wrench
measures torque as a proxy for bolt tension. The technique suffers from inaccuracy due to
inconsistent or uncalibrated friction between the fastener and its mating hole. Measuring bolt
tension (indirectly via bolt stretch) is actually what is desired, but often torque is the only
practical measurement which can be made.Torque screwdrivers and torque wrenches have similar
purposes and mechanisms.

AIRCRAFT SCREWS

Screws are the most commonly used threaded fastening devices on aircraft. They differ from bolts
inasmuch as they are generally made of lower strength materials. They can be installed with a
loose fitting thread, and the head shapes are made to engage a screwdriver or wrench. Some
screws have a clearly defined grip or unthreaded portion while others are threaded along their
entire length.

Several types of structural screws differ from the standard structural bolts only in head style. The
material in them is the same, and a definite grip length is provided. The AN525 washer head
screw and the NAS220 through NAS227 series are such screws.

Commonly used screws are classified in three groups: (1) Structural screws which have the same
strength as equal size bolts; (2) machine screws, which include the majority of types used for
general repair; and (3) selftapping screws, which are used for attaching lighter parts. A fourth
group, drive screws, are not actually screws but nails. They are driven into metal parts with a
mallet or hammer and their heads are not slotted or recessed.

TYPES OF TORQUE WRENCHES


The two most commonly used torque wrenches are the dial indicating type and the setting
or click type.

DIAL INDICATING TYPE


This torque wrench measures change in applied torque through a deflecting member. A
dial or digital readout is located below the handle to permit convenient and accurate
reading. Indicating torque wrenches operate in clockwise and counterclockwise
directions.

SETTING OR CLICK TYPE


This type of wrench compares the applied load to a self-contained standard. Reset is
automatic upon release of applied load.

SCREWS
The most common threaded fastener used in aircraft construction is the screw. The three
most used types are the structural screw, machine screw, and the self-tapping screw.

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STRUCTURAL SCREWS
Structural screws are used for assembling structural parts. They are made of alloy steel
and are heat-treated. Structural screws have a definite grip length and the same shear and
tensile strengths as the equivalent size bolt. They differ from structural bolts only in the
type of head. These screws are available in round-head, countersunk-head, and brazier-
head types, either slotted or recessed for the various types of screwdrivers. See Figure 6-
21.

MACHINE SCREWS
The commonly used machine screws are the flush-head, round-head, fillister-head,
socket-head, pan-head, and truss-head types

Figure 6-21 — Structural screws.

ACTIVITY

 Answer the following questions.

1.) What is a torque wrench?

a) A tool used to apply precisely a specific to a fastener


b) A special Machine to destroy metal
c) A tool to measure the pressure and torque

2.) A torque wrench allows the operator to.

a) measure temperatura of the engine


b) measure the torque of the plane
c) measure the torque applied to the fastener

3.) Aircraft screws are generally made of:


a) are generally made of lower strength materials
b) are generally made of higher strength materials
c) are generally made of electronic materials

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4.) The two most commonly used torque wrenches are:


_________________________and__________________________

5.) Mention three of the most common used machine screws.


________________, _______________and_______________

 Summarize this chapter in 120 words and present it in class.

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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CONTROL CABLES

A cable is a group of wires or a group of strands of wires twisted together into a strong wire rope.
The wires or strands may be twisted in various ways. The relationship of the direction of twist of
each strand to each other and to the cable as a whole is called the lay. The lay of the cable is an
important factor in its strength. If the strands are twisted in a direction opposite to the twist of the
strands around the center strand or core, the cable will not stretch (or set) as much as one in which
they are all twisted in the same direction. This direction of twist (in opposite direction) is most
commonly adopted, and it is called a regular or an ordinary lay. Cables may have a right regular
lay or a left regular lay. If the strands are twisted in the direction of twist around the center strand
or core, the lay is called a lang lay. There is a right and left lang lay. The only other twist
arrangement—twisting the strands alternately right and left, and then twisting them all either to
the right or to the left about the core—is called a reverse lay. Most aircraft cables have a right
regular lay.When aircraft cables are manufactured, each strand is first formed to the spiral or
helical shape to fit the position it is to occupy in the finished cable. The process of such forming
is called preforming, and cables made by such a process are said to be preformed. The process of
preforming is adopted to ensure flexibility in the finished cable and to relieve bending and
twisting stresses in the strands as they are woven into the cable. It also keeps the strands from
spreading when the cable is cut. All aircraft cables are internally lubricated during construction.
Aircraft control cables are fabricated either from flexible, preformed carbon steel wire or from
flexible, preformed, corrosion-resistant steel wire. The small corrosion-resistant steel cables are
made of steel containing not less than 17 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel, while the larger
ones (those of the 5/16-, 3/8-, and 7/16-inch diameters) are made of steel that, in addition to the
amounts of chromium and nickel just mentioned, also contains not less than 1.75 percent
molybdenum.

Figure 6-22 — Structural screws.

WIRE AND CABLE

For purposes of electrical installations, a wire is defined as a stranded conductor covered with an
insulating material. The term cable, as used in aircraft electrical installations, includes the
following:

 Two or more insulated conductors contained in the same jacket (multiconductor cable)
 Two or more insulated conductors twisted together (twisted pair)

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 One or more insulated conductors covered with a metallic braided shield (shielded cable)

 A single insulated conductor with a metallic braided outer conductor (RF cable)

For wire replacement work, the aircraft MIM should be consulted first. The manual should list
the wire used in a given aircraft.

COTTER PINS
Cotter pins are used to secure bolts, screws, nuts, and pins. Some cotter pins are made of low-
carbon steel, while others consist of stainless steel and are more resistant to corrosion. Also,
stainless steel cotter pins may be used in locations where nonmagnetic material is required.
Regardless of shape or material, all cotter pins are used for the same general purpose—safetying.
Figure 6-46 shows three types of cotter pins and how their size is determined.

RIVETS
The fact that there are thousands of rivets in an airframe is an indication of how important
riveting is. A glance at any aircraft will show the thousands of rivets in the outer skin alone.
Besides the riveted skin, rivets are also used for joining spar sections, for holding rib sections in
place, for securing fittings to various parts of the aircraft, and for fastening bracing members and
other parts together. Rivets that are satisfactory for one part of the aircraft are often unsatisfactory
for another part. Therefore, it is important that you know the strength and driving properties of
the various types of rivets and how to identify, drive, or install them.

SOLID RIVETS
Solid rivets are classified by their head shape, by the material from which they are manufactured,
and by their size. Rivet head shapes and their identifying code numbers are shown in Figure 6-1.
The prefix MS identifies hardware that conforms to written military standards. The prefix AN
identifies specifications that are developed and issued under the joint authority of the Air Force
and the Navy.

PRESSURE SEALS
Pressure seals are used on cables or rods that must move through pressurized bulkheads.
They fit tightly enough to prevent air pressure loss, but not so tightly as to hinder movement
of the unit.

RIVET IDENTIFICATION CODE


The rivet codes shown in Figure 6-1 are sufficient to identify rivets only by head shape. To be
meaningful and precisely identify a rivet, certain other information is encoded and added to the
basic code. A letter, or letters, following the head-shaped code identify the material or alloy from
which the rivet was made. Table 6-1 includes a listing of the most common of these codes. The
alloy code is followed by two numbers separated by a dash. The first number is the numerator of
a fraction, which specifies the shank diameter in thirty-seconds of an inch. The second number
is the numerator of a fraction in sixteenths of an inch, and identifies the length of the rivet.

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Figure 6-1 — Rivet head shapes and code numbers.

TAPER PINS
Taper pins are used in joints that carry shear loads and where the absence of clearance is
essential. See Figure 6-30. The threaded taper pin is used with a taper pin washer and a shear
nut if the taper pin is drilled, or with a self-locking nut if undrilled. When a shear nut is used
with the threaded taper pin and washer, the nut is secured with a cotter pin.

GASKETS

A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces,
generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression. Gaskets
allow for "less-than-perfect" mating surfaces on machine parts where they can fill irregularities.
Gaskets are commonly produced by cutting from sheet materials. Gaskets for specific
applications, such as high pressure steam systems, may contain asbestos. However, due to health
hazards associated with asbestos exposure, non-asbestos gasket materials are used when practical.
It is usually desirable that the gasket be made from a material that is to some degree yielding such
that it is able to deform and tightly fill the space it is designed for, including any slight
irregularities. A few gaskets require an application of sealant directly to the gasket surface to
function properly.
Some (piping) gaskets are made entirely of metal and rely on a seating surface to accomplish the
seal; the metal's own spring characteristics are utilized (up to but not passing or the material's yield
strength.
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Compressed fiber gasket

Gaskets are normally made from a flat material, a sheet such as paper, rubber, silicone, metal,
cork, felt, neoprene, nitrile rubber, fiberglass, polytetrafluoroethylene(otherwise known as PTFE
or Teflon) or a plastic polymer (such as polychlorotrifluoroethylene).
One of the more desirable properties of an effective gasket in industrial applications for
compressed fiber gasket material is the ability to withstand high compressive loads. Most
industrial gasket applications involve bolts exerting compression well into the 14 MPa (2000 psi)
range or higher. Generally speaking, there are several truisms that allow for better gasket
performance. One of the more tried and tested is: "The more compressive load exerted on the
gasket, the longer it will last".
There are several ways to measure a gasket material's ability to withstand compressive loading.
The "hot compression test" is probably the most accepted of these tests. Most manufacturers of
gasket materials will provide or publish the results of these tests. Gaskets come in many different
designs based on industrial usage, budget, chemical contact and physical parameters:
SHEET GASKETS
When a sheet of material has the gasket shape "punched out" of it, it is a sheet gasket. This can
lead to a crude, fast and cheap gasket. In previous times the material was compressed asbestos,
but in modern times a fibrous material or matted graphite is used. These gaskets can fill various
different chemical requirements based on the inertness of the material used. Non-asbestos gasket
sheet is durable, of multiple materials, and thick in nature. Material examples are mineral, carbon
or nitrile synthetic rubber. Applications using sheet gaskets involve acids, corrosive chemicals,
steam or mild caustics. Flexibility and good recovery prevent breakage during installation of a
sheet gasket.
SOLID MATERIAL GASKETS
The idea behind solid material is to use metals which cannot be punched out of sheets but are still
cheap to produce. These gaskets generally have a much higher level of quality control than sheet
gaskets and generally can withstand much higher temperatures and pressures. The key downside
is that a solid metal must be greatly compressed in order to become flush with the flange head
and prevent leakage. The material choice is more difficult; because metals are primarily used,
process contamination and oxidation are risks. An additional downside is that the metal used must
be softer than the flange in order to ensure that the flange does not warp and thereby prevent
sealing with future gaskets. Even so, these gaskets have found a niche in industry.

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GLOSSARY ACTIVITY

Instructions: Find out the meaning of all vocabulary words in bold and underlined from this
chapter and classify them I alphabetical order.

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UNIT 3
AIRCRAFT CLEANING AND CORROSION CONTROL

INTRODUCTION TO CORROSION CONTROL

All designers, maintainers, inspectors and owners have a part to play in preventing aircraft
being adversely affected by metallic corrosion. They must think about different types of
corrosion and those factors that need to be considered during design, design approval and
subsequent maintenance. Pilots, aircraft owners and inspectors should also be aware of the
possible effects that corrosion might have on an aircraft, what to look for during their routine
checks and the potential safety impact if corrosion is overlooked. Aircraft designers and
inspectors should also be aware of the relevant corrosion protection, inspection and related
inspection access design requirements of BCAR Section S, EASA CS-VLA and Acceptable
Means of Compliance, (that achieve an equivalent level of safety), when undertaking design
approval and acceptance inspections respectively – references are included in the following text.
General guidance is provided in this publication on the design, assembly and inspection of
various parts of an aircraft structure. Those areas that because of their remoteness, complexity
or boxed-in nature and are not readily accessible during routine maintenance or require attention
in the light of operational experience are highlighted.

Corrosion can result in a significant decrease in the thickness of original load bearing material
that can lead to a loss of structural integrity and potentially to catastrophic failure. In the case of
more highly stressed parts, finding and rectifying corrosion damage can help to prevent the early
initiation of fatigue cracking from corrosion pits that can also lead to premature structural and
catastrophic failures. This has been observed in aluminium alloy forgings and light aircraft
landing gear components, where a mixture of exfoliation and pitting corrosion on the flash line
initiated stress corrosion cracking that then lead to corrosion fatigue, normal fatigue and
exfoliation. Routine in-service inspections that lead to the early detection of corrosion and
consequent rectification can also prevent more costly, extensive and invasive repair actions later.
This can be achieved on Primary structures that are not concealed and can be easily inspected for
condition in-service. Deterioration of aircraft structure may arise from various causes and can
affect all parts of the structure according to the design of the aircraft and the uses to which it is
put.

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Although guidance may be given in publications as to suitable opportunities for inspecting


normally inaccessible structures (e.g. when a wing tip is removed permitting access to the adjacent
wing structure) experience should indicate to the operator further opportunities for such
inspections which can be included in the Maintenance Programme. Apart from the airworthiness
aspects, these combined inspections could often be to the operator’s advantage, since they could
reduce or remove the need for future dismantling that might otherwise be dedicated to periodic
corrosion driven inspections. Thus when access has been gained to a part of the airframe which
is normally inaccessible, advantage should be taken of this dismantling to inspect all parts of
systems and structures thus exposed. When evidence of corrosion is found it is critical that the
full extent and nature of the corrosion be established and repaired, even if these means additional
access, dismantling or a special inspection technique to facilitate such deeper inspection and
subsequent rectification actions. The presence of corrosion in aircraft will lead to deterioration in
the aircraft’s structure which may eventually lead to catastrophic failure. It is therefore essential
that any signs of corrosion are detected in the earliest stages of its development, assessed and
addressed as appropriate. Development of corrosion over time is influenced by a variety of factors
as will be described subsequently. Prevention is always better than cure, and by ensuring suitable
corrosion protection on individual detail parts prior to and during assembly the onset of corrosion
can be prevented or significantly delayed.

ACTIVITY 1
Instructions:
1. Create a Graphic organizer and use no more than 30 words.

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2. Find the meaning of all words in bold in the text. Write down on a separate paper
and present it in class.
3. Translate into Spanish the paragraph that is in italics. Write down on a separate
paper and present it in class.
4. Summarize all the previous information in 100 words.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

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TYPES OF CORROSION

There are two general classifications of corrosion that cover most of the specific forms: direct
chemical attack and electrochemical attack. In both types of corrosion, the metal is converted into
a metallic compound such as an oxide, hydroxide, or sulphate. The corrosion process always
involves two simultaneous changes: The metal that is attacked or oxidized suffers what may be
called anodic change, and the corrosive agent is reduced and may be considered as undergoing
cathodic change.

Diagram 1. Electrochemical attack

DIRECT CHEMICAL ATTACK

Direct chemical attack, or pure chemical corrosion, is an attack resulting from a direct expo-sure
of a bare surface to caustic liquid or gaseous agents. Unlike electrochemical attack where the
anodic and cathodic changes may be taking place a measurable distance apart, the changes in
direct chemical attack are occurring simultaneously at the same point. The most common agents
causing direct chemical attack on aircraft are: Spilled battery acid or fumes from batteries;
Residual flux deposits resulting from inadequately cleaned, welded, brazed, or soldered joints;
and Entrapped caustic cleaning solutions.

With the introduction of sealed lead-acid batteries and the use of nickel-cadmium batteries,
spilled battery acid is becoming less of a problem. The use of these closed units lessens the hazards
of acid spillage and battery fumes. Many types of fluxes used in brazing, soldering, and welding
are corrosive, and they chemically attack the metals or alloys with which they are used.
Therefore, it is important to remove residual flux from the metal surface immediately after the
joining operation. Flux residues are hygroscopic in nature; that is, they absorb moisture, and
unless carefully removed, tend to cause severe pitting. Caustic cleaning solutions in concentrated
form should be kept tightly capped and as far from aircraft as possible. Some cleaning solutions
used in corrosion removal are, in themselves, potentially corrosive agents; therefore, particular
attention should be directed toward their complete removal after use on aircraft. Where
entrapment of the cleaning solution is likely to occur, use a noncorrosive cleaning agent, even
though it is less efficient.

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ELECTROCHEMICAL ATTACK

An electrochemical attack may be likened chemically to the electrolytic reaction that takes place
in electroplating, anodizing, or in a dry cell battery. The reaction in this corrosive attack requires
a medium, usually water, which is capable of conducting a tiny current of electricity. When a
metal comes in contact with a corrosive agent and is also connected by a liquid or gaseous path
through which electrons may flow, corrosion begins as the metal decays by oxidation. During the
attack, the quantity of corrosive agent is reduced and, if not renewed or removed, may completely
react with the metal, becoming neutralized. Different areas of the same metal surface have
varying levels of electrical potential and, if connected by a conductor, such as salt water, will set
up a series of corrosion cells and corrosion will commence.

All metals and alloys are electrically active and have a specific electrical potential in a given
chemical environment. This potential is commonly referred to as the metal’s “nobility.” The less
noble a metal is, the more easily it can be corroded. The metals chosen for use in aircraft structures
are a studied compromise with strength, weight, corrosion resistance, workability, and cost
balanced against the structure’s needs. The constituents in an alloy also have specific electrical
potentials that are generally different from each other. Exposure of the alloy surface to a
conductive, corrosive medium causes the more active metal to become anodic and the less active
metal to become cathodic, thereby establishing conditions for corrosion. These are called local
cells. The greater the difference in electrical potential between the two metals, the greater will be
the severity of a corrosive attack, if the proper conditions are allowed to develop. The conditions
for these corrosion reactions are the presence of a conductive fluid and metals having a difference
in potential. If, by regular cleaning and surface refinishing, the medium is removed and the minute
electrical circuit eliminated, corrosion cannot occur. This is the basis for effective corrosion
control. The electrochemical attack is responsible for most forms of corrosion on aircraft structure
and component parts.

FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION AND REMOVAL

The following text that comprises Chapter 4 has been extracted from the US Department of
Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Flight Standards Service FAA8083-30
Aviation Maintenance Technical Handbook, Chapter 6 Aircraft Cleaning and Corrosion Control
(2008) - the FAA text has not been revised save for spelling changes to UK English: Many factors
affect the type, speed, cause, and seriousness of metal corrosion. Some of these factors can be
controlled and some cannot.

CLIMATE

The environmental conditions under which an aircraft is maintained and operated greatly affect
corrosion characteristics. In a predominately marine environment (with exposure to sea water and
salt air), moisture-laden air is considerably more detrimental to an aircraft than it would be if all
operations were conducted in a dry climate. Temperature considerations are important because
the speed of electrochemical attack is increased in a hot, moist climate.

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FOREIGN MATERIAL

Among the controllable factors which affect the onset and spread of corrosive
attack is foreign material that adheres to the metal surfaces. Such foreign
material includes:

ation.

It is important that aircraft be kept clean. How often and to what extent an aircraft should be
cleaned depends on several factors, including geographic location, model of aircraft, and type of
operation.

ACTIVITY 2
Instructions:
5. Create a Graphic organizer and use no more than 50 words.

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6. Find the meaning of all words in bold in the text. Write down on a separate paper
and present it in class.

7. Translate into Spanish the paragraph that is in italics and underlined. Write down
on a separate paper and present it in class.

8. Summarize all the previous information in 120 words.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

The manufacturer’s publications may give general guidance on the inspection of those parts of
the structure which are most likely to be attacked by corrosion. Nevertheless, it should be noted
that, in the light of operational experience, other parts of the structure may require special
attention. Engineers and Inspectors should be on the alert for any signs of corrosion in parts of
the structure not specifically mentioned in the manufacturer’s publications or instructions.
Amateur builders/designers may not always be fully aware of the BCAR Section S609, 611 and
EASA CS VLA 609, 611, 627 design requirements, and therefore those organizations charged
with Inspecting and approving those designs as suitable for the issue of a Permit to Fly should
check to ensure compliance with those requirements particularly with respect to Primary Structure
items. Where direct compliance with the design requirements cannot be shown an Alternative
Means of Compliance which has a comparable level of safety should be established.

GRP bonding to painted surfaces should be avoided as the painted surface may be adversely
affected during the subsequent GRP resin cure with the resultant bond strength restricted to that
provided by the impaired painted surface.Where primary structural items are bonded (for example
metallic fittings attached to Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP) structural assemblies), it is essential
that precautions are taken to ensure all surfaces within bonded areas comply with suitable and
compatible corrosion protection procedures.

In 'blind' or boxed-in structures where accessibility is difficult and where cleaning and
maintenance are awkward, swarf, dirt and dust tend to collect and lodge in various parts. This
material can act as a 'wick' resulting in capillary action for moisture which, in the course of time,
will work through any inadequate protective treatment and penetrate to the metal to act as an
electrolyte. Even on new aircraft the problem is still present in some boxed-in or intricate
structures. Note: Protective treatments with a rough surface finish, such as primer paints, tend to
hold dust and dirt and cleaning is rendered more difficult because of this tendency of swarf, dust
and dirt to adhere to such surfaces. Dust allows a Wick effect to collect condensate, which is why
steel tubes corrode on the top surfaces first. Hard gloss finishes, such as epoxy resin paints, will
provide a more effective and lasting protection. Water based paints by their very nature are less
tolerant of joint sealant and oils and grease on surfaces, and they may also not be compatible with
previous coats of paint on the structure such as acid etch primer or cellulose-based primers. In
addition water based paints tend to have lower joint penetration capability due to water surface
tension. Therefore it is preferred that after structural assembly that further corrosion protection is
provided by acid etch and cellulose based paints, this will allow joint penetration by capillary
action of that corrosion preventive and will therefore be more effective.

Completely boxed-in structures should be adequately vented to prevent stagnation of the internal
air. It is important to ensure that vents and drain holes are clear, are of the correct size and are
unobstructed by ice in freezing conditions on the ground, nor obstructed by any dirt or debris,
excess paint or protective compounds. Designs should aim if possible, to provide positive
ventilation to reduce condensation.

CORROSION PRONE AREAS, ENGINE AND PROPELLER GENERALITIES

The following text has been extracted from the US Department of Transportation, Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA), Flight Standards Service FAA-8083-30 Aviation Maintenance
Technical Handbook, Chapter 6 Aircraft Cleaning and Corrosion Control (2008) - the FAA text

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has not been revised save for spelling changes to UK English and in order to provide correct
cross-references in the text to embedded photographs and diagrams.
Metal corrosion is the deterioration of the metal by chemical or electrochemical attack. This type
of damage can take place internally as well as on the surface. As in the rotting of wood, this
deterioration may change the smooth surface, weaken the interior, or damage or loosen adjacent
parts.

Water or water vapour containing salt combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce the
main source of corrosion in aircraft. Aircraft operating in a marine environment, or in areas where
the atmosphere contains industrial fumes that are corrosive, are particularly susceptible to
corrosive attacks.

Photograph 1. Direct chemical attack in a battery compartment

If left unchecked, corrosion can cause eventual structural failure. The appearance of corrosion
varies with the metal. On the surface of aluminum alloys and magnesium, it appears as pitting
and etching, and is often combined with a grey or white powdery deposit. On copper and copper
alloys, the corrosion forms a greenish film; on steel, a reddish corrosion by-product commonly
referred to as rust. When the grey, white, green, or reddish deposits are removed, each of the
surfaces may appear etched and pitted, depending upon the length of exposure and severity of
attack. If these surface pits are not too deep, they may not significantly alter the strength of the
metal; however, the pits may become sites for crack development, particularly if the part is highly
stressed. Some types of corrosion burrow between the inside of surface coatings and the metal
surface, and can spread until the part fails.

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Honeycomb structures, especially those in components of small cross-sectional area (e.g. wing
flaps, rudders, ailerons and spoilers), are often prone to the collection of water if careful attention
has not been given to the sealing around attachment screw holes and at skin joints to prevent the
ingress of moisture. Water can also accumulate from condensation of moist air when drawn into
the structure by changes in operating altitude and pressure, when sealing of the structure has not
been initially achieved or as a result of deterioration of that sealing, Cases are known where the
trapped water in the structure has frozen and caused distortion of the outer skin of the component
due to internal expansion – both this expansion and internal corrosion can lead to separation of
the skin from the internal honeycomb which means that the sandwich panel loses structural
stiffness and structural integrity can be lost leading to component failure. In addition it should be
noted that water trapped inside trailing edges can affect the balance of control surfaces that could
potentially lead to control flutter, surface failure and loss of control. Similarly it should be noted
that GRP covered foam core structures and control surfaces can also be susceptible to water
ingress particularly when the surface protection is damaged or degraded and when aircraft are
stored outside

Fuselage keel areas, structures concealed by upholstery and the double skin of baggage or freight
bay floors, are typical areas liable to corrosion. Special attention should be given to all faying
surfaces in these areas where layers of material are nested together in a joint and particularly the
faying surfaces of bulkheads and stringers to skin panels and skin lap joints. In general, visual
inspection supplemented by radiological methods of examination is a satisfactory way of
detecting corrosion, provided it is expertly carried out and proper correlation between the findings
of each method is maintained. In some instances, however, normal methods of visual inspection
supplemented by radiological examination have not proved satisfactory and dismantling of parts
of the structure may be required to verify the condition of the faying surfaces.

Structures manufactured from light gauge materials which are spot-welded together, such as the
faying surfaces of stringers mentioned in the previous paragraph, are liable to serious and rapid
corrosion as this method of attachment precludes the normal anti-corrosive treatments (e.g.
jointing compound) at the joined surfaces. Cases of serious corrosion have also been found in
similar structures riveted together where the jointing compound has been found to be inadequate
or non-existent. It is recommended that all mechanically fastened joints should be assembled with
a surplus of approved jointing compound, and after compression of the joint upon assembly any
surplus jointing compound is then wiped away, to leave a small bead of jointing compound around
the joint, this will have an added protection for any Alclad sheet exposed alloy material edges on
items forming the structure. The application of acid etch paint by spraying after assembly is
recommended; this paint penetrates by capillary action into joint gaps, filling voids and protecting
any untreated edges. Acid etch primer will also provide a strong key to secure further paint
coatings.
In some instances, where stringers are of top-hat section and are bonded to the panel by a
thermosetting adhesive, corrosion has been known to affect the stringers, the panel and the
bonding medium; such stringers are often sealed at their ends to prevent the ingress of moisture.
Unfortunately moisture can be drawn and trapped inside these components This can trap water
inside the stringer and corrosion can develop should any breach of protection occur, Where
adhesive is used to attach a doubler to a skin, corrosion can occur between the surfaces and will
eventually be indicated by a quilted appearance. It is preferable for designers to use L or Z section
stringers for structural support which do not have internal cavities

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ACTIVITY 3
Instructions:
9. Create a Graphic organizer and use no more than 40 words.

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10. Find the meaning of all words in bold in the text. Write down on a separate paper
and present it in class.

11. Translate into Spanish the paragraph that is in italics and underlined. Write down
on a separate paper and present it in class.

12. Summarize all the previous information in 120 words.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

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WDM (WIRING DIAGRAM MANUAL)

A wiring diagram is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. It


shows the components of the circuit as simplified shapes, and the power and signal connections
between the devices.
A wiring diagram usually gives information about the relative position and arrangement of
devices and terminals on the devices, to help in building or servicing the device. This is unlike
a schematic diagram, where the arrangement of the components' interconnections on the
diagram usually does not correspond to the components' physical locations in the finished
device. A pictorial diagram would show more detail of the physical appearance, whereas a wiring
diagram uses a more symbolic notation to emphasize interconnections over physical
appearance.
A wiring diagram is often used to troubleshoot problems and to make sure that all the
connections have been made and that everything is present.
Architectural wiring diagrams show the approximate locations and interconnections of
receptacles, lighting, and permanent electrical services in a building. Interconnecting wire routes
may be shown approximately, where particular receptacles or fixtures must be on a common
circuit.
Wiring diagrams use standard symbols for wiring devices, usually different from those used
on schematic diagrams. The electrical symbols not only show where something is to be installed,
but also what type of device is being installed. For example, a surface ceiling light is shown by
one symbol, a recessed ceiling light has a different symbol, and a surface fluorescent light has
another symbol. Each type of switch has a different symbol and so do the various outlets. There
are symbols that show the location of smoke detectors, the doorbell chime, and thermostat. On
large projects symbols may be numbered to show, for example, the panel board and circuit to
which the device connects, and also to identify which of several types of fixture are to be
installed at that location.
A set of wiring diagrams may be required by the electrical inspection authority to approve
connection of the residence to the public electrical supply system.
Wiring diagrams will also include panel schedules for circuit breaker panel boards, and riser
diagrams for special services such as fire alarm or closed circuit television or other special
services.

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ACTIVITY 4
Instructions:
13. Create a Graphic organizer and use no more than 25 words including the title.

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PROCESS AND MATERIALS SET IN CORROTION CONTROL

INTRODUCTION
Aircraft cleaning and corrosion control is carried out to maintain aircraft in a satisfactory
materiel condition. This is achieved through the maintenance and application of aircraft cleaning
programs, corrosion prevention and removal processes and protective surface finishes.

ADF aircraft are very susceptible to corrosion due to the materials from which they are
constructed and the environment in which they operate. All aircraft have scheduled
maintenance operations designed to preserve their condition and to rectify minor defects
resulting from the operating environment.

This chapter prescribes the AMO procedures to be followed when performing cleaning and
corrosion control activities on aircraft and aeronautical product.

EXTERNAL SURFACE OF AIRCRAFT

In order to minimize damage to the external surface of an aircraft, rubber soled footwear is to
be worn when carrying out servicing operations. Wing mats are to be used when it is necessary
to stand on a wing, unless using existing non-slip walkways. Tools, other hard objects and
servicing equipment are not to be rested directly on or dragged over the surface of an aircraft.

All cowlings and removable panels are to be handled with care to prevent damage and to ensure
contour and accuracy of fit is not impaired. Cowlings and removable panels must not be placed
directly onto a hard surface. They are to be placed on padded trestles or suitably padded to
provide protection from damage.

All repairs to an aircraft or aeronautical product finish must be executed with care. Complete
re-finishing of aircraft or aeronautical product is only to be done where approved paint shop
facilities are available.

CLEANLINESS OF AIRCRAFT

Areas of the aircraft structure in the wake of exhaust gas flow are liable to rapid corrosion if the
exhaust gas deposits are not removed regularly and the aircraft finish is not maintained in good
condition.

Cleanliness of aircraft is important, as dirt particles impair the efficiency of aerodynamic surfaces
and aircraft working parts. When mixed with oil or grease, dirt is a dangerous abrasive. Dirt
particles absorb fuel and oil, prolonging vaporization, and thereby increasing the fire risk. Dirt
particles also absorb moisture and other matter which may cause corrosion. Dirt particles and
other matter may conceal defects and may compromise the technical airworthiness of an
aircraft. Aircraft are to be cleaned regularly to remove dirt particles, oil, grease, and exhaust gas
stains.

CLEANING OF AIRCRAFT AND AERONAUTICAL PRODUCT

The periodicity and/or procedures to be followed for the cleaning of aircraft and aeronautical
product are detailed in the relevant aircraft publications or other approved instructions.
Blanking plugs/covers are to be applied to all intakes, vents, pilot heads and any other points
considered necessary to prevent the ingress of cleaning materials or water into the interior of
the aircraft/aeronautical product. On completion of the cleaning process, all blanks/covers fitted

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at the start of the cleaning operation are to be removed and the interior of the aircraft checked
for the ingress of cleaning materials or water.

AIRCRAFT CLEANING

In order to minimize the likelihood of corrosion occurring it is important that aircraft should be
thoroughly cleaned periodically to remove damaging contaminants and restore a moisture-
resistant finish. Reference should be made to CAP 562 Leaflet 12–10 “Cleanliness of Aircraft”.
It is important that all cleaning mediums should not have any adverse effect on the structural items
being cleaned, for example avoid using aviation fuel on rubber and on Lexan windscreens, and
avoidance of thinners etc., (however white spirit is benign to most rubber and structural items,
and leaves a dry surface upon evaporation).

Care should be taken not to damage protective treatments when using scrubbing brushes or
scrapers. Significant scribe damages can be introduced by the use of inappropriately hard scrapers
and one should the avoid use of wire brushes or metal scrubbers to prevent surface contamination
with dissimilar metals, and any cleaning fluids used should have been approved by the aircraft
manufacturer. Damage to surface cladding of Alclad materials and deeper scribe damages can
promote both fatigue and corrosion failures subsequently. For final cleaning of a boxed-in type
of structure an efficient vacuum cleaner, provided with rubberprotected adaptors to prevent
surface damage, should be used. However electrical vacuum cleaners which could provide an
ignition source should be avoided where any inflammable fluids may be present. The use of air
jets should also be avoided as this may lead to dirt, the products of corrosion, or loose articles,
being blown from one part of the structure to another.

The sections 9.3 to 9.47 inclusive that follow are reproduced from the US Department of
Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Flight Standards Service FAA8083-30
Aviation Maintenance Technical Handbook, Chapter 6 Aircraft Cleaning and Corrosion Control
(2008) with spelling changes to UK English. References within the text are specific to the FAA
text and are retained to maintain the integrity of the text. The references should not be regarded
as mandatory in the UK.
Cleaning an aircraft and keeping it clean are extremely important. From an aircraft maintenance
technician’s viewpoint, it should be considered a regular part of aircraft maintenance. Keeping
the aircraft clean can mean more accurate inspection results, and may even allow a flight
crewmember to spot an impending component failure. A cracked landing gear fitting covered
with mud and grease may be easily overlooked. Dirt can hide cracks in the skin. Dust and grit
cause hinge fittings to wear excessively. If left on the aircraft’s outer surface, a film of dirt reduces
flying speed and adds extra weight. Dirt or trash blowing or bouncing around the inside of the
aircraft is annoying and dangerous. Small pieces of dirt blown into the eyes of the pilot at a critical
moment can cause an accident. A coating of dirt and grease on moving parts makes a grinding
compound that can cause excessive wear. Salt water has a serious corroding effect on exposed
metal parts of the aircraft, and should be washed off immediately
There are many different kinds of cleaning agents approved for use in cleaning aircraft. It is
impractical to cover each of the various types of cleaning agents since their use varies under
different conditions, such as the type of material to be removed, the aircraft finish, and whether
the cleaning is internal or external. 9.5 In general, the types of cleaning agents used on aircraft
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are solvents, emulsion cleaners, soaps, and synthetic detergents. Their use must be in accordance
with the applicable maintenance manual. The types of cleaning agents named above are also
classed as light or heavy duty cleaners. The soap and synthetic detergent type cleaners are used
for light duty cleaning, while the solvent and emulsion type cleaners are used for heavy duty
cleaning. The light duty cleaners, which are nontoxic and non-flammable, should be used
whenever possible. As mentioned previously, cleaners that can be effectively rinsed and
neutralized must be used, or an alkaline cleaner may cause corrosion within the lap joints of
riveted or spot-welded sheet metal components.

SOLVENT CLEANERS

In general, solvent cleaners used in aircraft cleaning should have a flashpoint of not less than 105
°F / 41 °C if explosion proofing of equipment and other special precautions are to be avoided.
Chlorinated solvents of all types meet the nonflammable requirements but are toxic, and safety
precautions must be observed in their use. Use of carbon tetrachloride should be avoided. The
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each solvent should be consulted for handling and safety
information.

AMT’s should review the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) available for any chemical, solvent
or other materials they may come in contact with during the course of their maintenance activities.
In particular, solvents and cleaning liquids, even those considered “environmentally friendly” can
have varied detrimental effects on the skin, internal organs and/or nervous system. Active solvents
such as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and acetone can be harmful or fatal if swallowed, and can be
harmful when inhaled or absorbed through the skin in sufficient quantities.
Particular attention should be paid to recommended protective measures including gloves,
respirators and face shields. A regular review of the MSDS will keep the AMT updated on any
revisions that may be made by chemical manufacturers or government authorities.

Dry Cleaning Solvent. Stoddard solvent is the most common petroleum base solvent used in
aircraft cleaning. Its flashpoint is slightly above 105 °F (41 °C) and can be used to remove grease,
oils, or light soils. Dry cleaning solvent is preferable to kerosene for all cleaning purposes, but
like kerosene, it leaves a slight residue upon evaporation, which may interfere with the application
of some final paint films.

Aliphatic and Aromatic Naphtha. Aliphatic naphtha is recommended for wipe down of cleaned
surfaces just before painting. This material can also be used for cleaning acrylics and rubber. It
flashes at approximately 80 °F (21 °C) and must be used with care.
Aromatic naphtha should not be confused with the aliphatic material. It is toxic and attacks
acrylics and rubber products, and must be used with adequate controls.

Safety Solvent. Safety solvent, trichloroethane (methyl chloroform), is used for general cleaning
and grease removal. It is non-flammable under ordinary circumstances, and is used as a
replacement for carbon tetrachloride. The use and safety precautions necessary when using

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chlorinated solvents must be observed. Prolonged use can cause dermatitis on some persons. CAP
1570 Chapter 9: In-service aspects July 2017 Page 43
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK). MEK is also available as a solvent cleaner for metal surfaces and
paint stripper for small areas. This is a very active solvent and metal cleaner, with a flashpoint of
about 24 °F, (-4 °C). It is toxic when inhaled, and safety precautions must be observed during its
use. In most instances, it has been replaced with safer to handle and more environmentally friendly
cleaning solvents.
Kerosene. Kerosene is mixed with solvent emulsion type cleaners for softening heavy
preservative coatings. It is also used for general solvent cleaning, but its use should be followed
by a coating or rinse with some other type of protective agent. Kerosene does not evaporate as
rapidly as dry cleaning solvent and generally leaves an appreciable film on cleaned surfaces,
which may actually be corrosive. Kerosene films may be removed with safety solvent, water
emulsion cleaners, or detergent mixtures.

Cleaning Compound for Oxygen Systems. Cleaning compounds for use in the oxygen system are
anhydrous (waterless) ethyl alcohol or isopropyl (anti-icing fluid) alcohol. These may be used to
clean accessible components of the oxygen system such as crew masks and lines. Fluids should
not be put into tanks or regulators.
Do not use any cleaning compounds which may leave an oily film when cleaning oxygen
equipment. Instructions of the manufacturer of the oxygen equipment and cleaning compounds
must be followed at all times.

EMULSION CLEANERS

Solvent and water emulsion compounds are used in general aircraft cleaning. Solvent emulsions
are particularly useful in the removal of heavy deposits, such as carbon, grease, oil, or tar. When
used in accordance with instructions, these solvent emulsions do not affect good paint coatings or
organic finishes.
Water Emulsion Cleaner. Material available under Specification MIL-C22543A is a water
emulsion cleaning compound intended for use on both painted and unpainted aircraft surfaces.
This material is also acceptable for cleaning fluorescent painted surfaces and is safe for use on
acrylics. However, these properties will vary with the material available, and a sample application
should be checked carefully before general uncontrolled use.
Solvent Emulsion Cleaners. One type of solvent emulsion cleaner is nonphenolic and can be
safely used on painted surfaces without softening the base paint. Repeated use may soften acrylic
nitrocellulose lacquers. It is effective, however, in softening and lifting heavy preservative
coatings. Persistent materials should be given a second or third treatment as necessary.
Another type of solvent emulsion cleaner has a phenolic base that is more effective for heavy duty
application, but it also tends to soften paint coatings. It must be used with care a round rubber,
plastics, or other non-metallic materials. Wear rubber gloves and goggles for protection when
working with phenolic base cleaners.

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SOAPS AND DETERGENT CLEANERS

A number of materials are available for mild cleaning use. In this section, some of the more
common materials are discussed.
Cleaning Compound, Aircraft Surfaces. Specification MIL-C-5410 Type I and II materials are
used in general cleaning of painted and unpainted aircraft surfaces for the removal of light to
medium soils, operational films, oils, or greases. They are safe to use on all surfaces, including
fabrics, leather, and transparent plastics. Non-glare (flat) finishes should not be cleaned more than
necessary and should never be scrubbed with stiff brushes.
Non-ionic Detergent Cleaners. These materials may be either water soluble or oil soluble. The
oil-soluble detergent cleaner is effective in a 3 to 5 percent solution in dry cleaning solvent for
softening and removing heavy preservative coatings. This mixture’s performance is similar to the
emulsion cleaners mentioned previously.

MECHANICAL CLEANING MATERIALS

Mechanical cleaning materials must be used with care and in accordance with directions given, if
damage to finishes and surfaces is to be avoided. Mild Abrasive Materials. No attempt is made
in this section to furnish detailed instructions for using various materials listed. Some do’s and
don’ts are included as an aid in selecting materials for specific cleaning jobs. The introduction of
various grades of nonwoven abrasive pads (a common brand name produced by the 3M Company
is Scotch-Brite™) has given the aircraft maintenance technician a clean, inexpensive material for
the removal of corrosion products and for other light abrasive needs. The pads can be used on
most metals (although the same pad should not be used on different metals) and are generally the
first choice when the situation arises. A very open form of this pad is also available for paint
stripping, when used in conjunction with wet strippers. Powdered pumice can be used for cleaning
corroded aluminium surfaces. Similar mild abrasives may also be used. Impregnated cotton
wadding material is used for removal of exhaust gas stains and polishing corroded aluminium
surfaces. It may also be used on other metal surfaces to produce a high reflectance.
Aluminium metal polish is used to produce a high lustre, long lasting polish on unpainted
aluminium clad surfaces. It should not be used on anodized surfaces because it will remove the
oxide coat.
Three grades of aluminium wool, coarse, medium, and fine, are used for general cleaning of
aluminium surfaces. Impregnated nylon webbing material is preferred over aluminium wool for
the removal of corrosion products and stubborn paint films and for the scuffing of existing paint
finishes prior to touch-up. Lacquer rubbing compound material can be used to remove engine
exhaust residues and minor oxidation. Avoid heavy rubbing over rivet heads or edges where
protective coatings may be worn thin.
Abrasive Papers. Abrasive papers used on aircraft surfaces should not contain sharp or needle like
abrasives which can imbed themselves in the base metal being cleaned or in the protective coating
being maintained. The abrasives used should not corrode the material being cleaned. Aluminium
oxide paper, 300 grit or finer, is available in several forms and is safe to use on most surfaces.
Type I, Class 2 material under Federal Specification P-C451 is available in 11⁄2 and 2 inch widths.

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Avoid the use of carborundum (silicon carbide) papers, particularly on aluminium or magnesium.
The grain structure of carborundum is sharp, and the material is so hard that individual grains will
penetrate and bury themselves even in steel surfaces. The use of emery paper or crocus cloth on
aluminium or magnesium can cause serious corrosion of the metal by imbedded iron oxide.

CHEMICAL CLEANERS

Chemical cleaners must be used with great care in cleaning assembled aircraft. The danger of
entrapping corrosive materials in faying surfaces and crevices counteracts any advantages in
their speed and effectiveness. Any materials used must be relatively neutral and easy to remove.
It is emphasized that all residues must be removed. Soluble salts from chemical surface
treatments, such as chromic acid or dichromate treatment, will liquefy and promote blistering in
the paint coatings.
Phosphoric-Citric Acid. A phosphoric-citric acid mixture (Type I) for cleaning aluminum surfaces
is available and is ready to use as packaged. Type II is a concentrate that must be diluted with
mineral spirits and water. Wear rubber gloves and goggles to avoid skin contact. Any acid burns
may be neutralized by copious water washing, followed by treatment with a diluted solution of
baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Baking Soda. Baking soda may be used to neutralize acid
deposits in lead acid battery compartments and to treat acid burns from chemical cleaners and
inhibitors.

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ACTIVITY 5
Instructions:
14. Create a Graphic organizer and use no more than 50 words.

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15. Find the meaning of all words in bold in the text. Write down on a separate paper
and present it in class.
16. Translate into Spanish the paragraph that is in italics and underlined.

17. Summarize all the previous information in 120 words.

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

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AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVE

An airworthiness directive (commonly abbreviated as AD) is a notification to owners and


operators of certified aircraft that a known safety deficiency with a particular model of aircraft,
engine, avionics or other system exists and must be corrected. If a certified aircraft has outstanding
airworthiness directives that have not been complied with, the aircraft is not considered airworthy.
Thus, it is mandatory for an aircraft operator to comply with an AD. ADs usually result from
service difficulty reporting by operators or from the results of aircraft accident investigations.
They are issued either by the national civil aviation authority of the country of aircraft
manufacture or of aircraft registration. When ADs are issued by the country of registration they
are almost always coordinated with the civil aviation authority of the country of manufacture to
ensure that conflicting ADs are not issued.

In detail, the purpose of an AD is to notify aircraft owners:

1. The aircraft may have an unsafe condition,


2. The aircraft may not be in conformity with its basis of certification or of other conditions
That affect the aircraft's airworthiness,
3. There are mandatory actions that must be carried out to ensure continued safe operation
4. In some urgent cases, the aircraft must not be flown until a corrective action plan is
designed and carried out.
ADs are mandatory in most jurisdictions and often contain dates or aircraft flying hours by which
compliance must be completed.

ADs may be divided into two categories:


Those of an emergency nature requiring immediate compliance prior to further flight, and those
of a less urgent nature requiring compliance within a specified period of time.

Issuance
ADs are issued by most civil aviation regulatory authorities, including:

Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia)


European Aviation Safety Agency
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India)
Federal Aviation Administration (USA)
New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority

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Transport Canada
National procedures
United States
The FAA issues ADs by three different processes:

Standard AD process: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), followed by a Final Rule


Final Rule and Request for Comments
Emergency airworthiness directives - issued without time for comment. This is only used issued
"when an unsafe condition exists that requires immediate action by an owner/operator...to rapidly
correct an urgent safety of flight situation."

AMM (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ATAS)

The formal document which details the way in which all maintenance tasks carried out on an
aircraft shall be accomplished. This includes items such as lubrication system functional checks
and servicing of the airplane but usually excludes structural repairs and modifications. In short
words it is bible for an aircraft maintenance engineer. All the procedures for the desired
maintenance tasks are given in maintenance manual .All the component maintenance procedure
is given in the manual chapter wise these chapters are k/a ATA chapters (Air transport
association).

ATA
ATA chapters (sometimes called "ATA 100 System Codes") are a way of categorizing the various
systems that are on a plane, originally created by the Air Transport Association in 1956. Look at
any Component Maintenance Manual (CMM) for any civilian aircraft.

For example if an AME wants to replace the wheel assembly of landing gear then he will refer
the ATA chapter of landing gear hence, A maintenance manual is the guidance for the desired
maintenance task .

TA 100 contains the reference to the ATA numbering system which is a common referencing
standard for commercial aircraft documentation. This commonality permits greater ease of
learning and understanding for pilots, aircraft maintenance technicians, and engineers alike. The
standard numbering system was published by the Air Transport Association on June 1, 1956.
While the ATA 100 numbering system has been superseded, it continued to be widely used until
it went out of date back in 2015, especially in documentation for general aviation aircraft, on
aircraft Fault Messages (for Post Flight Troubleshooting and Repair) and the electronic and
printed manuals.

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AIRCRAFT GENERAL

ATA Number ATA Chapter name

ATA 00 GENERAL

ATA 01 MAINTENANCE POLICY

ATA 02 OPERATIONS

ATA 03 SUPPORT

ATA 04 AIRWORTHINESS LIMITATIONS

ATA 05 TIME LIMITS/MAINTENANCE CHECKS

ATA 06 DIMENSIONS AND AREAS

ATA 07 LIFTING AND SHORING

ATA 08 LEVELING AND WEIGHING

ATA 09 TOWING AND TAXIING

ATA 10 PARKING, MOORING, STORAGE AND RETURN TO SERVICE

ATA 11 PLACARDS AND MARKINGS

ATA 12 SERVICING

ATA 14 HARDWARE AND GENERAL TOOLS

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ATA 18 VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS (HELICOPTER ONLY)

AIRFRAME SYSTEMS

ATA
ATA Chapter name
Number

ATA 20 STANDARD PRACTICES - AIRFRAME

ATA 21 AIR CONDITIONING

ATA 22 AUTO FLIGHT

ATA 23 COMMUNICATIONS

ATA 24 ELECTRICAL POWER

ATA 25 EQUIPMENT /FURNISHINGS

ATA 26 FIRE PROTECTION

ATA 27 FLIGHT CONTROLS

ATA 28 FUEL

ATA 29 HYDRAULIC POWER

ATA 30 ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

ATA 31 INDICATING / RECORDING SYSTEM

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ATA 32 LANDING GEAR

ATA 33 LIGHTS

ATA 34 NAVIGATION

ATA 35 OXYGEN

ATA 36 PNEUMATIC

ATA 37 VACUUM

ATA 38 WATER / WASTE

ELECTRICAL - ELECTRONIC PANELS AND MULTIPURPOSE


ATA 39
COMPONENTS

ATA 40 MULTISYSTEM

ATA 41 WATER BALLAST

ATA 42 INTEGRATED MODULAR AVIONICS

ATA 44 CABIN SYSTEMS

ATA 45 ONBOARD MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS (OMS)

ATA 46 INFORMATION SYSTEMS

ATA 47 INERT GAS SYSTEM

ATA 48 IN FLIGHT FUEL DISPENSING

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ATA 49 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER

STRUCTURE

ATA Number ATA Chapter name

ATA 50 CARGO AND ACCESSORY COMPARTMENTS

ATA 51 STANDARD PRACTICES AND STRUCTURES - GENERAL

ATA 52 DOORS

ATA 53 FUSELAGE

ATA 54 NACELLES/PYLONS

ATA 55 STABILIZERS

ATA 56 WINDOWS

ATA 57 WINGS

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PROPELLER/ROTOR

ATA Number ATA Chapter name

ATA 60 STANDARD PRACTICES - PROP./ROTOR

ATA 61 PROPELLORS/ PROPULSORS

ATA 62 MAIN ROTOR(S)

ATA 63 MAIN ROTOR DRIVE(S)

ATA 64 TAIL ROTOR

ATA 65 TAIL ROTOR DRIVE

ATA 66 FOLDING BLADES/PYLON

ATA 67 ROTORS FLIGHT CONTROL

POWER PLANT

ATA Number ATA Chapter name

ATA 70 STANDARD PRACTICES ENGINE

ATA 71 POWER PLANT

ATA 72 ENGINE

ATA 73 ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL

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ATA 74 ENGINE IGNITION

ATA 75 ENGINE AIR

ATA 76 ENGINE CONTROLS

ATA 77 ENGINE INDICATING

ATA 78 ENGINE EXHAUST

ATA 79 ENGINE OIL

ATA 80 STARTING

ATA 81 TURBOCHARGING

ATA 82 WATER INJECTION

ATA 83 ACCESSORY GEARBOXES

ATA 84 PROPULSION AUGMENTATION

ATA 85 FUEL CELL SYSTEMS

ATA 91 CHARTS

ATA 92 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSTALLATION

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ACTIVITY 6
Instructions:
5. Create a power point or prezi presentation with no more than 10 slides about
AMM (AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ATAS).

6. USE KEY WORDS

7. NO COMPLETE SENTENCES ARE ALLOWED

8. USE REALIA TO REPRESENT EACH ITEM

9. BE READY FOR A 5 TO 8 MINUTES ORAL PRESENTATION

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