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Chapter 9 Assignment

Part 1: (31 points)

1. a. What are the four layers of earth's atmosphere?
b. Why is the first layer significant to life on earth?
c. Why is the second layer significant? (4 points)
1. a) The four layer of earth’s atmosphere are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and
b.) The first layer is significant to life on earth because it contains water vapor and without it the
earth would not support life or survival because of extremely cold temperatures similar to Mars;
it also contains the air we breathe in. This air moves in convection currents, and redistributes
heat and moisture around the globe.
C.) The second layer is significant because it is a layer of ozone, and provides UV protection for
the earth by absorbing most of the heat or ultraviolet light, therefore, it reduce health problem to
both humans and species and many other things on earth; it also contains the air we breathe
2. Why is there a "hole" in the ozone layer? Explain how CFCs cause thinning of
the ozone layer. (3 points)
The cause of the hole in the ozone layer is due to chlorofluorocarbons, chlorine based aerosols,
and other halon gases. They name it the “hole” because these poisons deplete the ozone. CFS
such as nontoxic inflammable or cheaply produced products are used for industrial gases, air
conditioners, aerosol sprays, or refrigerators. The chlorine ions bond break down ozone
molecules into oxygen molecules, while thinning the ozone layer.

3. How are heat and water redistributed around the world? Briefly describe how
convection currents operate. (3 points)
The incoming of solar energy evaporates water absorbing 580 calories of energy, and then
transforms from liquid to gas. Latent heat is heat stored in water. Water vapor condenses, and
returns to liquid form, while releasing 580 calories of heat energy. Convection currents or wind
move within(another word) the troposphere. It is the process of redistributing heat and moisture
by air circulating vertically and horizontally and moving from high pressure to low pressure to
fill in what uneven heating.
4. Explain the "Grasshopper Effect," (a.k.a. "Grasshopper Transport" in the
textbook). (3 points)
The Grasshopper Effect is the process where pollutants (mercury, dioxins, pesticides, and PCBs)
travel from a warmer climate to a colder polar climate due to rivers, wind currents, and ocean
currents. Winds travel from high pressure to low pressure because colder regions have higher
concentration of pollutants that contribute in food chains. CHECK ANSWER ON PHONE
5. a. What is the greenhouse effect as it naturally occurs?
The greenhouse effect is heat trapped in the troposphere absorbed by water vapor, methane, and
CO2. What occurs is radiant energy releases and is trapped transforming into heat. Our
atmosphere has tiny leaks where it escapes, while it can affect the earth and its environment if it
reaches severity. CHECK!!!!!
b. How does global warming relate to the earth's natural greenhouse effect?
What are the 4 most abundant human-produced
greenhouse gases? (4 points)
Both global warming and the greenhouse effect distribute higher concentrations of carbon
dioxide causing the globe to become warmer and warmer. Global warming does not naturally
occur as the greenhouse effect does. Human activities cause global warming by releasing
poisonous or toxic gases into the atmosphere, while increasing the greenhouse effect. Gases such
as, burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity; it releases pollutants and carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere. Methane pollutants such as animal waste, landfills, rice paddies, and coal mining
absorb faster than CO2. Nitrous oxide also releases pollutants from burning organic material and
soil denitrification. In addition, 17% of global warming is due to CFCs and N2O releasedby
human activities. REWORD
6. List 3 indicators that the earth's climate is warming. (3 points)
1. More species are disappearing because the habitat and climate they live in is becoming
warmer than before, which they are less likely to adapt or survive during these changes.
2. Areas in the Arctic and Antarctica regions are known for their amazing and imminent icebergs
and glaciers, however due to global warming or earth’s climate change they are melting causing
floods and shorter birthing for mammals.
3. Droughts in some regions are occurring because earth’s climate is increasingly warming in this

7. a. What is a primary pollutant?

Primary pollutants are forms of harmful pollutants released into the air from a specific source.
For example, industrial gases, like burning of fossil fuels.
b. What is a secondary pollutant?
Secondary pollutants are released, but are only harmful when the air reacts to it.
c. How does the process of photochemical oxidation change a primary
pollutant into a secondary pollutant? (table 9.2 p. 219 may
help you) (4 points)
The process of photochemical oxidation changes a primary pollutant into a secondary pollutant
because the primary pollutant is affected or reacts to the UV light or solar energy, which make it
a secondary pollutant because it’s driven by another source rather than its own. ASK
8. What is acid rain (a.k.a. deposition, precipitation)? (2 points)
Acid rain consists of pollutants, such as, sulfur oxides-plants that burn coal or nitrogen oxides-
released from cars, that remain in the air and continue rise up to several thousand miles. They
collide and form or react with water vapor, oxygen, and other chemical creating acids that
eventually precipitate as acid or “acid precipitation.” Dry deposition is another form of acid rain,
and occurs when acid chemicals form in smoke or dust and fall on land, vegetation, or on
9. Do a web search for the term, "polluter pays principle." Explain the principle
and how the polluter covers the cost of its pollution. (3 points)
The polluter pays principle is a principle of an environmental law that states the polluter must
pay the cost of damage it created. It aims to encourage polluters to improve production such as,
recycling and reusing to minimize waste. In additions, they must internalize the environmental
externalities, so that both prices of goods and services equal cost of production, The concept is to
be responsible for your own actions. Obviously, the polluter covers the cost of its pollution by
cleaning up, which is a high cost.
10. Do a web search for "carbon offset." Describe one program that helps
consumers offset their carbon output. (2 pts)
Carbon offsets are programs or instruments that reduce and fight greenhouse gas emissions on
earth. It helps people become aware if their endangered environment from these gases. One
program that helps consumers offset their carbon output is methane collection and combustion is
aimed to reduce global warming. Landfills, animals and other industrial waste generate it. The
process is called combustion and occurs when each of the methane molecules are converted into
one molecule of CO2, this decreases global warming by 96%. MORE RESEARCH!!!

Part 2: (6 points)
Read the ABC News article, "What is a Feedback Loop?" and answer the
following questions:
1. How does a feedback loop affect the temperature of the ocean water? (3 points)
The feedback loop is a cause of more warmer weather, and affecting global warming. The
increase warming of the earth rises temperatures affecting and melting ice caps and glaciers,
while decreasing white or bright light to reflect sun’s heat. If there is less sun’s heat than open
water becomes darker, and absorbs more heat causing warmer temperature of water.
2. How is CO2 being emitted from the tundra and boreal forests? (3 points)
In result, global warming causes the tundra and boreal forests to thaw and dry up. Then old
decayed vegetation reappears and releases extra carbon dioxide, which warms the atmosphere
more; it is also, gases released from power plants, cars, and plane exhausts

Chapter 9 summarized terms and processes

• Convection currents
• Why does it rain? Air rises with convection currents. The process is condensation. As air
cools and rises water condenses, which can form rain, clouds or snow. The air cools
because altitude pressure. Air rises when encounters mountains. Areas with high pressure
is less likely to have rain.
Another is condensation nuclei, where water vapor contains particles such as, sea salts,
dust, and volcanic rush, that initiate condensation.

• Jet streams are found at the top of the troposphere, that circles the earth. They benefit us
because they affect weather patterns.
• Monsoons are regular rains and winds that occur during certain seasons due to rotation of
earths axis around the sun
• Coriolis effect is the direction of the winds current controlled by the earth’s spin. For
instance, the Northern hemisphere 9high pressure) receives spiral clockwise winds and
the lower pressure receives counterclockwise winds, also called cyclonic winds.
• Climate ocean: ocean currents that are warm or cold influenced climate on land. The
surface ocean currents are pushed by wind; it depends on the saltiness, density, and the
circulation of the water.

• Thermonaline ocean conveyor: is the system of surface and deep water


• Milankovitch cycles are the cycles that state the periodic changes due to
sunlight intensity. They are describes as 1.) the size of the earth elongates
and shortens in a 100,00yr cycle, as it orbits the sun 2.) 40,000 yr cycles
changes of its angle tilt. 3) 26,000 yrs period axis wobbles out of balance
spinning top.

• El Nino is an ocean current that affects the climate and weather located throughout the Pacific
ocean and perhaps around the world; its huge amount of warm surface water that moves back and
forth between Indonesia and South America.
An El Nino occurred one year causing the polar jet stream to gather moist air from the Pacific onto the
U.S; It created intense storms and heavy rains.
Global warming can also contribute with el Nino because it strengthens its force and frequency.
Or Global warming can increase global albedo-more clouds and heat in the stratosphere.

• The surfaces of earth reflect solar energy, which is albedo (high albedo). Bright surfaces also
reflect solar energy such as sand, snow, ice. However, a surface that absorbs solar energy haslow
albedo. Such as dark forests, parking lots,…. (204 and lecture

• The United nations environment programme and world meteorologist organization formed the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a panel of scientist from worldwide that
inform us of climate change. They state that temperature has risen .06 C over the past century and
most occurred within the last two decades due mostly from human activity. (210)

• CFC producers have declined and been banned because of toxic releases in
atmosphere increasing global warming. 17% global warming is CFCs and
N2O combined caused by humans.

• PAGE 211 evidence of global warming

• Who wins and who loses when global warming occurs? Well colder areas such
as Canada, Siberia, and Alaska canbenefit from global warming because it
can provide these areas with warmer weather resulting with longer growing
seasons and longer period s for shipping products because the water is ice-
free. However, areas like Greenland and Antarctica hold large amounts of
water in glaciers and ice caps, and if global warming takes effect they melt,
causing rising sea levels and floods. Areas with hot temperature may get
extremely hot unable to sustain life or vegetation concluding in a drought.

• Kyoto Protocol is a treaty that aims to deplete or reduce greenhouse gas

emissions; it aims to install industrial equipment that diminishes emissions.
They want to convert gases to electricity and sell the energy.
The U.S. disapproved because Bush states it’s to costly and the focus should
be on our own. However, voluntary help is acceptable. MORE!!!! (215)

• Ways to control greenhouse emissions. The United kingdom has reduced

greenhouse emissions. Britain substitutes natural gas for coal, promote
energy efficiency in homes and industry and raise gas prices. Germany
switched from coal to gas and encouraging energy efficiency. Renewable
resources also provide a solution for climate problems such as, solar panels,
solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and fuel cells. Options for capturing CO2
buliding synthetic trees to capture CO2 from air-calcium hydroxide solution
absorb CO2.
Carbon management: believe cleaning up fossil fuels is more efficient and
less expensive than renewable resources.

Air Pollution
• Environmental Protection Agency states Americans release 147 million metric
tons of air pollution not counting carbon dioxide or windblown soil each year.

• Clean Air Act of 1970 (U.S.) identify and regulate principal pollutants.

• Point Source is concentrated pollution origin. (smokestack)

• Fugitive and non-point source emissions don’t go through a smokestack.

Usually emitted from oil refineries and chemical plants. Examples: soil
erosion, strip mining, rock crushing, building construction, leaking valves, and
pipe joints.

• Conventional or criteria, pollutants are the most severe seven pollutants

in the air, which are sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, volatile
organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and lead. These are harm to
human health and welfare.

• Ambient air is the air around us or the air we breathe in. (218)

• Unconventional pollutants are extremely toxic and hazardous, and known

as anthropogenic origin meaning coming from an unnatural source; asbestos,
benzene, beryllium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and vinyl chloride.

• Aesthetic degradation is a form of pollution caused by noise, odors, and

light pollution, however they don’t threaten our lives but can decrease it.

Sources and problems of major pollutants

• Sulfur dioxide is a pollutant from processing oil, burning fossil fuels, natural gas; it’s a gas that
damages animals and plants. This pollutant can form in water vapor and transforms into sulfur
trioxide. Then it dissolves in water droplets, as sulfuric acid and lessens visibility, also called acid
rain. (218)
• Nitrogen oxide is another pollutant from processing oil, burning fossil fuels, and natural gas,
which are highly reactive gases. It also combines with water vapor transforming into nitric acids;
also acid rain. It initiates eutrophication of inland waters and coastal areas and red-brown smog.
• Carbon monoxide is highly toxic caused failure of incomplete production of fuel such as coal, oil,
charcoal, wood, or gas. Increases ozone in the air and limits respiration for animals. (218)
• Particulate material is air pollution that makes reduces visibility and debris usually spotted on
windows. This pollution consists of dust, soot, smoke, lint, ash, spores, pollen, algal cells and
other suspended material. They can damage the lung tissue if the particulates are smaller than 2.5
m. 218
• Volatile organic compounds are organic gases, also called hydrocarbons. These organic gases are
released from human activity such as, paints, oils refineries, gasoline fumes, and solvents. The
gases combine with nitrogen dioxide to produce ozone.
• Lead and other metals are toxins released in the environment (lead, mercury, arsenic, nickel,
beryllium, cadmium, thallium, uranium, cesium, and plutonium). The damages result in the
nervous system and affecting the aquatic ecosystem.
• Halogens consist of CFCs pollutants that are released from refrigerators, aerosol sprays, while
increasing the greenhouse effect and deplete the ozone in stratosphere that is needed and
beneficial to earth.
• Indoor pollutants are more harmful than outside pollution because a home lacks much circulation
of air. Components such as carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, styrene, chloroform, and benzene
can be70% higher indoor sir. Also, pathogens and other biohazards. Cigarette smoking is another
pollutant in a home.

• Air pollutants can travel due to grasshopper transport is the process where volatile compounds
evaporate occurs from warm areas that travel through the atmosphere, and eventually precipitate
and condense in cooler regions. (221)
• Ozone thinning (221)
• To stop thinning of Ozone- banning CFCs
• Temperature inversions capture or concentrate high harmful levels of pollutants within cities. It
doesn’t allow air temperature to decrease with elevation. 223 MORE!!!
• Synergistic effects is an injury exposed from two factors combined rather than individually. 224
• Smog and haze reduce visibility studies say if all pollutants were removed from air then
pollution would clear up in few days.
• Acid precipitation are either dry depositions or wet acdicparticles form the air. In terms pH
subsatances below pH 7= acidic
Affecting areas: decreasing forest, aquatic effects, buildings and monuments 225

• Particulate removal Most effective pollution control is to minimize production: filtering

emissions by trapping particulates in mesh of cotton cloth, spun glass fibers, or asbestos-
cellulose. What it does: The filters consist of giant bags-effluent gas is blown inside and is
opened every few days to dispose of dust cakes. Ash particles become charged and collect
particulates (99% collected). The components must be buried in landfills or solid waste disposal
• Sulfur removal: very important because most harmful pollutant to human health: High
sulfur coal reduces sulfaur emissoion rather than using low sulfur coal. People mainly need to be
aware of products they use, which are made from low sulfur coal and increase sulfur oxides. 226
• Nitrogen oxides removal two ways: both internal combustion engines and industrial boilers by
mushc as 50%. These removals control the flow of fuel and air; they are usually built in your car
or other items. Staged burners. 226

• Hydrocarbon controls-have complete control over combustion and evaporation. Systems must
be closed in order to prevent escape of harmful gases. Some use afterburners as a method to
destroy these gases.

• Clean air legislation: Clean Air Act of 1963 is the primary national legislation in the U.S. to
control air pollution. It act was provided with federal grants to promote and encourage regulations
on air quality. In 1970 the act was rewritten or modified, it included a primary and secondary
standards. The primary standard focuses to protect human health, and secondary standards are to
protect the environment. However, in 1990 the act was most significant. 227

• Page 227 more on act: arguments

• Current conditions and future prospects: Reduction of pollution has improved, though it has
has not completely removed pollution. Areas still extremely affected are developing countries due
continuous development and high number of industries. In addition, these countries are poorer
and deal with government corruption decreasing availability for help. 228-229