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Curriculum Design

Diana Dubisky
Components of Design

“ To design a curriculum, we must consider how


its parts interrelate,”( Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p.153).
The question, why do we educate, allows one to
examine their own visions and philosophies.
Curriculum design today has been molded by our
past and has intentions to shape our future.


David Orr: 4 Myths about Education

 Many educators and the general public have there own regard to
curriculum design; Our regards come from our own personal experiences.
David Orr identified the 4 myths that are society seem to believe.
 Myth 1: “Education-the right curriculum and curriculum design can
eliminate ignorance.”(Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p.151).
 Myth 2: “education and well-designed curricula can supply all the
knowledge needed to manage society and the Earth,”(Ornstein & Hunkins,
2014,p.151).
 Myth 3: “educational curricula are increasing human goodness: "Well
designed curricula instill wisdom,”(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014,p. 151).
 Myth 4: “Education’s primary purpose is to enable students to be upwardly
mobile and economically successful,(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014,p. 151).
The Three Big Ideas

 According to Ornstein & Hunkins Ron Ritchhart stated, “we educate, create
and teach curricula to create intelligence,”(2014,p.152). Many pose the
question, What is the purpose of education and is there a way as a society
we can agree on the purpose? Kieran Egan noted, “that the difficulty lies in
the fact that “our minds are both a part of the world while also being our
means of viewing the world.”(Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p.152).
 The following , “three base ideas have been woven into our educational
fabric and have influenced our perceptions as to the nature and purpose
of education.”(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014,p.153).
 1. Socialization: producing productive citizens in our society
 2. Plato’s academic idea: “knowledge is of most worth,” (Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p.152).
 Rousseau’s development idea: “Maturing of the individual, specifically the growth of the mind,”(Ornstein &
Hunkins, 2014,p.152).
Components of Curriculum design

 Designing curriculum comes from a starting point of a plethora of philosophical,


theoretical and practical points of views. Curriculum design has four major
components that began with Harry Giles’s “Eight Year Study”.
 4 Components Questions
1. Objectives 1. What should be done?
2. Content 2. What subject matter should be included?
3. Learning experiences 3. What instructional strategies , resources, and
4. Evaluation activities should be employed?
4.What methods of instruments should be used to
appraise the results of the curriculum?
According to Ornstein &Hunkins, Ronald
Doll’s view, “Curriculum design draws from
curriculum theory, knowledge theory, social
theory, political theory and learning
theory,’(2014, 154).
Sources of Curriculum Design

 Science as a source

 Society as a source

 Moral doctrine as a source

 Knowledge as a source

 The learner as a source


Science as a Source

 Scientific method
 Observable/quantifiable
 Problem solving
 Thinking strategies
 Focus on the consistency of the process of knowledge
Society as a Source

 Agent of society
 Focus on socialization ( Egan’s idea)
 Analysis of social situation
 Collaboration of Conservative, Liberal and Radical views
 Local communities, larger society, academics/development
 Future society at a local national and global level
 Examples: NCLB and Race to the Top


Moral Doctrine as a Source

 Look to the past


 Lasting truths/great thinkers
 Stress content
 Rank subject by importance
 Guided by views of religion
 Dwayne Huebner, James Moffett and William Pinar are curriculum designers
that focus on spirituality
Knowledge as a source

 Primary source
 Plato's academic idea
 Teaching valued knowledge
 Developing the minds of learners
 Real world connections
 Herbert Spencer: “What knowledge is of most worth”
 Extending boundaries
The Learner as a Source
 Derives from knowledge of student: how they learn, form attitudes,
generate interests, and develop values
 Roussears theory
 Student learning
 Environment influences student learning
 The quality or lack of quality of instruction can affect child development
Horizontal and Vertical Organization

 “Horizontal organization blends  Vertical organization, “refers to


curriculum elements for example, the sequencing of curriculum
by combining history, elements.”(Ornstein & Hunkins,
anthropology, and sociology 2014,p.157).
content to create a
 Sequencing content
contemporary studies course or
by combining math and science  Focus on family values first and
content,”(Ornstein& community second
Hunkin,2014,p.157).  The vertical progression of
 Combination and blend content continued deeper and
deeper each year.
Curriculum design’s relationship with its
components.
 SCOPE
 Ornstein & Hunkins stated, “most consider a curriculum’s breadth and
depth of content-that is , its scope,”(2014,p.158).
 Scope is the horizontal organization of the depth of content. Affective
domain focuses on values and attitudes while the psychomotor domain
focuses on motor skills and coordination. The emphasis is on what should be
covered and in what amount of detail. This design could take a year long
or be chunked into smaller organized units dived into lessons and activities.
Sequence

 The focus is on cumulative and continuous learning; the debate lies between
which comes first experience or content. Brain development has proven
through observations of nerve cells that at birth we are born with more
unconnected nerve cells. Our experiences throughout our life build connection
within our nerve cells building life long connection.
 Ornstein & Hunkins stated, “Curricular experiences should increase brain
development,”(2014,p. 159). Rousseau’s third big idea developmental theory
and Piagets theory focused on cognitive development and its affects.
 Orthanel Smith, William Stanley and Harlan Shores developed the Four Principals
of Sequencing
 1. simple to complex learning
 Pre-requisite learning
 Whole-to part learning
 Chronological learning
Continuity

 “Brain research suggests that the amount of brain employed in performing


a process may explain somewhat how well an individuals perform
particular task, ( Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014, p.160).

 Continuity is the vertical repetition of continuous instruction to increase


depth and breadth of knowledge.
 The myriad experiences allow problematic thinking, fuels enriched rigor
within the interrelationships between basic ideas and structure.
Integration

 “Integration refers to linking all types of knowledge and experiences


contained within the curriculum plan,”(Ornstein& Hunkins, 2014,p.160).
 The unified horizontal alignment throughout all subject matter
 Organized around real world issues and concerns
 “1960 Hilda Taba pointed out that the curriculum was disjointed,
fragmented, segmented, and detached from reality,” (Ornstein & Hunkins,
2014,p.160).
Articulation vs. Balance

 Vertical and Horizontal  Appropriate weight of delivery


interrelatedness. and acknowledgement of
personal, social and intellectual
 Vertical Articulation, “sequencing
goals.
of content from one grade level
to another,”(Ornstein& Hunkins,
2014,p.160).

 Horizontal Articulation:
(correlation), “refers to the
association among simultaneous
elements,”(Ornstein & Hunkins,
2014,p.160).
Representative Curriculum Designs

 Subject Centered Design: focus is on knowledge and content, most widely used design , subject
centered ( Plato’s academic theory).
 Subject Design: Oldest and best known According to Ornstein & Hunkins, “In subject matter
design, the curriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has developed in
various subject areas.”(2014,p.162).
 Discipline Design: Separate subject design, “Students experience the disciplines so that they can
comprehend and conceptualize , with the subject-matter design, students ae considered to
have learned if they simply acquire information,”(Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p. 163).
 Broad Field Design: ( Interdisciplinary design: The collaboration and integration of content
multiple subject matter.
 Correlation Design: All subjects linked together however still emphasis the importance of each
subject matter.
 Process Design: Emphasizes teaching for intelligence, The procedural knowledge of all subject
matter


Learner-Centered Designs
 Child Centered design: Progressivism approach that emphasized the child's
interest and needs.
 Experience centered design: Progressivism philosophy that focuses on the
students interest and experiences
 Romantic Radical design: A Reconstructionism approach that focuses on
the child experiences and interest and the society.
 Humanistic design: Existentialism emphasizing on the psychology, child and
society impacted from the experiences , interest and needs of others.
(Ornstein& Hunkins, 2014,p. 175).
Problem-Centered Designs:

 “Some problem-centered designs focus on persistent life situations. Others center on


contemporary social problems,”(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014,p. 172).
 Life-Situations Design:
 1. Dealing with persistent life situations is crucial to a society successful functioning, and it
makes educational sense to organize a curriculum around them.
 2. Students see the relevance of content if it is organized around aspects of community life
 3. Having students study social or life situations will directly involve them in improving society.

 Reconstruction Design: Reconstructionist or Re-conceptualist view that curriculum should


be able to engage & Hunkins, “George Counts believed that society must be totally
recognized to promote the students thinking analytically to help enhance social order.
According to Ornstein the common god,”(2014,p.173).
Which curriculum model: technical, scientific, or non-
technical, do you believe has greater relevance in the
21st century? Explain.
 Today’s 21st century leaners need an environment that is flexible and
adaptable. This type of environment will allow innovative methods of
instruction that are scientific, technology and nontechnology to occur. “The
technical-scientific approach to education and curriculum stresses students
learning specific subject matter with specific outputs,”(Ornstein &
Hunkins,2014,p.184). “Non-technical curriculum developers stress the
subjective, personal aesthetic heuristic, and transactional,”(Ornstein &
Hunkins, 2014,p.190). The stress is the leaner not the subject matter. I think
in this day in time all three are extremely important. Promoting critical thinking
and problem solving skills are skills needed in today’s society. The
collaborative efforts from the community between the school and students are
as equally important. Building relationships and the exposure to the real world
allows students to obtain a deeper understanding of the world in which they
live in. I say educate the student not just school the student.
What dangers are there in equating goals
and standards?
 According to Ornstein and Hunkins, “Curriculum development begins with a
realization of the major challenges involved,”(2014,p.193). Generating aims,
goals and objectives are the major challenges involved. Curriculum aims all are
directed from ones personal view and own philosophies, which can be
dangerous because it should be more focus don the current social issues at
hand. “Aims deal with the general process of education, such as building world
mindedness or creating technical literacy,”(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2014, p.195).
“Goals and standards seem to have melded together in educational
dialogue,”(Ornstein & Hunkins,2014,p.195). “ We take exception to equation a
standard to a goal. A goal does indicate what could or should be learned, but
it is much more general than a standard,”(Ornstein & Hunkins,
2014,p.195).Standard focus more on ,”What students are to learn,”(Ornstein &
Hunkins,2014,p.195). There are content and performance standards and the
dangers arise when there is not a separations and understanding or
implementation of the goal and not being able to be measured. Goals and
standards are not the same.
Selecting Curriculum in 21st Century
 Identifying big Ideas for 21st century skills
 Encourage Community collaboration
 Data driven
 Educators collaborate with curriculum specialist
 Must be on going changing with our changing
society: emphasis on global connection
 Promote critical thinking
 Engaging rigorous material
 Technology driven
 Focus on understanding, give real world
opportunities.
Bibliography

 Ornstein, A.C., & Hunkins, F.P. (2014). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles,


and Issues (6th edition). Pearson Education Limited, Inc.
 Plato,(1999).Education Planet Inc.[quote]. Retrieved from:
http://www.lessonplanet.com/
 Rousseau,J.J,(2015)The Social Contract.[picture image]. Retrieved from:
http://izquotes.com/quote/158948
 Swan, M. ( 2015). The Edge.[image].Retrieved from:
http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/swan20150524
 Zipkin,A.(2015). Special Education Legislative: A Synopsis of Federal and
State Policies[image]. Retrieved from:
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.zipkin/no_child_left_behind_act