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PREPARATION #14: COD LIVER OIL EMULSION, NON-OFFICIAL is needed to ensure proper grinding action and

reduction of globule size.


GUIDE QUESTION  Purified water is added all at once to ensure
1. Official title, category, synonyms, uses and official definition of CLOE uniform distribution.
 Official title: Cod Liver Oil Emulsion, Non-Official  Other ingredients soluble in the external phase
 Category: Vitamin Supplement are then added with trituration to disperse them
 Synonyms: Emulsion Olei Morrhuae evenly.
 Uses: To supply Vit A & D  Substances that can precipitate the gum (e.g.
2. Review of basic concepts alcohol) however must not be added directly to
a) Dispersed Systems (Emulsions): the primary emulsion.
b) Primary Emulsions:  Water should be swirled in the mortar to remove
 In adding gums, oil-in-water emulsions are the remaining portions of the emulsion.
produced. b) English/Wet Gum Method:
 A primary emulsion must be formed as alcohols  Triturate mucilage with the oil.
are good precipitant of gums. This method is similar to the Dry Gum Method
 Emulsions mask the taste of the drug substance but instead 1 part of the gum is first mixed with 2
and protect the drug. parts of water. The 4 parts of oil is then added
slowly in parts and the mixture is triturated to
c) Acacia mucilage:
make the emulsion.
 Acacia dissolved in water by trituration.
c) Bottle/Forbes Method:
 Used as a demulcent and a suspending agent.
 Powdered acacia is placed in a dry bottle, 2 parts
 Also used as an excipient in making pills and of oil are added , and the mixture is thoroughly
troches and is used as an emulsifying agent for shaken in the capped container. 2 parts of water
cod liver oil and other substances. is then added in parts with shaking after each
3. Use of each ingredient in the preparation. addition, forming the primary emulsion. Other
 cod liver oil = internal phase, active ingredient ingredients in an aqueous solution are then
 acacia = emulsifying agent added.
 purified water = external phase  This method is useful for preparing emulsion
4. 3 small scale extemporaneous methods of preparing emulsions from volatile oils or oleaginous substances of low
a) Continental/Dry Gum Method: viscosity. However, this method is not suited for
 Trituration with the gum. viscous oils because they cannot be thoroughly
4 parts of oil is first mixed with 1 part of gum. 2 agitated in the bottle when mixed with the
parts of water is then added all at once. The emulsifying agents.
mixture is then triturated immediately, rapidly and 5. Quality control parameters (see QC sheet)
continuously until a creamy white primary a) Theoretical Results
emulsion is formed and a crackling sound to the  Appearance : White, milky opaque, homogenous
movement of the pestle is heard. liquid
 A perfectly dry wedgwood or porcelain mortar is  pH: 4.5 to 5
to be used for trituration because a rough surface  Pourability: Easily poured

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 Redispersability: Easily dispersed upon shaking
 Particle size - Appearance relationship: >1 um,
milky
b) Definition of terms:
 Creaming: UPWARD movement of the dispersed
droplets due to a difference in density between
the internal and external phase
 Sedimentation: DOWNWARD movement of the
dispersed droplets due to a difference in density
between the internal and external phase.
 Flocculation: AGGREGATION of the dispersed
droplets due to intermolecular attraction
 Coalescence: SEPARATION of the dispersed
and continuous phase
 Phase Inversion: Changing of an emulsion from
one type to another
c) Results in tests:
 Dilution test: Miscible in water.
 Conductivity test: Lamp will light
 Dye-solubility test: Colorless globules against
colored background
 Filter paper test: CoCl2 turns blue filter paper to
pink
 Fluorescence test: Spotty fluorescence
6. Packaging, labeling and storage requirements
 The emulsion must be preserved in tight
containers .
 Label: Shake well before use.

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