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Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions are represented by chemical


equations

2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) ⇄ 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)

• On the left are the reactants


• On the right are the products
• The states of each chemical are indicated
• Each chemical has a stoichiometric coefficient
• The number of elements are equal on both sides
Chemical Reactions
• (s) stands for solid
• (l) stands for liquid
• (g) stands for gas
• (aq) stands for aqueous
• Means dissolved in water
• Ionic compounds in the aqueous state exist as their
separate component ions in the aqueous state
Ca(NO3)2(aq) = Ca2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)
AlCl3(aq) = Al3+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq)
Chemical Reactions
• Chemical equations may be simplified by removing
components which do not really participate in the
reaction (spectator ions)
• The resulting equation is the net ionic equation

2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) ⇄ 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)


2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) + 6Cl-(aq) ⇄ 2Al3+(aq) + 6Cl-(aq) + 3H2(g)
2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) ⇄ 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2(g)
Spectator ions
6Cl-(aq) appears on both sides
and does not participate in the reaction
Chemical Reactions
• Chemical equations must contain the same number
of elements on both sides (conservation of mass)
• Chemical equations must also have the same net
charge on both sides (conservation of charge)
• Chemical equations must be balanced

2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) ⇄ 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2(g) Correct


v.s.
Al(s) + 2H+(aq) ⇄ Al3+(aq) + H2(g) Incorrect
Chemical Reactions
Balancing equations is a skill acquired only with lots of
practice. To practice balancing:
• Pick 2 ionic compounds
• differently charged ions are a plus
• the charges must not change from reactants to products
• Swap the cations
• Balance the resulting equation

Al2O3 +3CaCl2 → 2AlCl3 +3CaO


6Bi2S5 +5Cr3N4 →15CrS2 +4Bi3N5
Chemical Reactions
Types of chemical reactions
• Formation (aka combination)
• Decomposition
• Combustion
• Displacement
• Single displacement
• Double displacement
• Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX)
Chemical Reactions
Formation reactions – make a compound from
elements in their standard states

P4(s) + 5O2(g) → P4O10(s)


H2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2HCl(g)
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s)

• Standard state denotes the form of the element at


room temperature (298 K) and atmospheric
pressure (1 atm)
Chemical Reactions
Combination reactions – making a compound from other
compounds

SF4(g) + F2(g) → SF6(g)


CaO(s) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s)
HCl(g) + NH3(g) → NH4Cl(s)

• Formation reactions are combination reactions but not


the other way around
• For both formation and combination reactions, there is
only one product
Chemical Reactions
Decomposition reactions – making two or more
products from a single reactant

H2CO3(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)


2KClO3(s) → 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
2NaN3(s) → 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)
Chemical Reactions
Combustion reactions – reaction with oxygen to form
stable oxides

2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)


C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)
2CH4(g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
YBa2Cu3O6(s) + O2(g) → Y2O3(s) + 2BaO(s) + 3CuO(s)

• Typically, the most stable oxide is the one with the


highest charge on the cation (but not always)
• Combustion of elements are also formation reactions
Chemical Reactions
Displacement reactions – reactions which exchange
cations
• Single displacement – charges change
• Double displacement – charges unchanged

Ca(s) + SnCl2(aq) → Sn(s) + CaCl2(aq) Single


HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Double
CaI2(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbI2(s) + Ca(NO3)2(aq) Double

• Double displacement reactions are also known as


metathesis reactions
Chemical Reactions
Displacement reactions – reactions which exchange
cations
Spectator ions

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)


H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) → Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O(l)
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O(l) neutralization reaction

• A displacement reaction which produces water from H+ and


OH- is called a neutralization reaction
Chemical Reactions
Displacement reactions – reactions which exchange
cations
Spectator ions

CaI2(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbI2(s) + Ca(NO3)2(aq)


Ca2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) + Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) → PbI2(s) + Ca2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)
2I-(aq) + Pb2+(aq) → PbI2(s) precipitation reaction

• A displacement reaction which forms a solid is called a


precipitation reaction
Chemical Reactions
Soluble Insoluble
Nitrates/Acetates (NO3- and CH3COO-) Hydroxides (OH-)
• Except for Group 1A, 2A and
ammonium hydroxides
Fluorides (F-) Carbonates/Phosphates (CO32- PO43-)
• Except PbF2 • Except for Group 1A and ammonium
carbonates/phosphates
Halides (Cl-, Br-, I-) Sulfides (S2-)
• Except for Ag+ Cu+ Hg22+ and Pb2+ halides • Except for Group 1A, 2A and
ammonium sulfides

Sulfates (SO42-)
• Except for Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Ag+ and Pb2+ sulfates

All compounds of 1a and ammonium cations are soluble


All nitrates and acetates are soluble
Chemical Reactions
Single displacement reactions must involve a change
in charge

Ca(s) + SnCl2(aq) → Sn(s) + CaCl2(aq) Ca0+ to Ca2+


Sn2+ to Sn0
vs
Ca2+(aq) + SnCl2(aq) → Sn2+(aq) + CaCl2(aq) Ca2+ to Ca2+
Sn2+ to Sn2+

Ca2+(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) → 2Na+(aq) + CaSO4(s)


Chemical Reactions
Single displacements follow
the activity series
• A more active metal will
displace a less active metal
• A less active metal cannot
displace a more active
metal
• You will need to memorize
the activity series
Chemical Reactions
Single displacements follow
the activity series
• A more active metal will
displace a less active metal

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(s) + H2(g)


2Na(s) + 2H2O(aq) → 2NaOH(s) + H2(g)

6Na(s) + Fe2O3(s) → 3Na2O(s) + 2Fe(s)


Chemical Reactions
Single displacements follow
the activity series
• A less active metal cannot
displace a more active
metal

Cu(s) + HCl(aq) → no reaction


Au(s) + HCl(aq) → no reaction

copper and gold do not react with acids


Chemical Reactions
The halogens follow the following trend in reactivity

F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

NaF(s) + I2(s) → no reaction


2NaI(s) + F2(g) → 2NaF(s) + I2(s)
Chemical Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX) reactions – any
reaction which involves changes in oxidation state
• Oxidation state is another term for charge
• Single displacement reactions are all redox reactions
• Formation reactions are sometimes also redox reactions
• Oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously
• One compound is oxidized
• One compound is reduced
• Oxidation is loss of electrons (OIL)
• Reduction is gain of electrons (RIG)
Chemical Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction (REDOX) reactions – any
reaction which involves changes in oxidation state

4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s)


• Fe0+ loses e- becomes Fe2+ (oxidation)
• O0+ gains e- becomes O2- (reduction)

2Na(s) + 2H2O(aq) → 2NaOH(s) + H2(g)


• Na0 loses e- becomes Na+ (oxidation)
• H+ gains e- becomes H0+ (reduction)
Chemical Reactions
• A substance which causes oxidation is an oxidizing agent
• A substance which causes reduction is a reducing agent

4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s)

Fe(s) causes O2(g) to gain electrons (reduction of O)


• Fe is a reducing agent
O2(g) causes Fe(s) to lose electrons (oxidation of Fe)
• O2 is an oxidizing agent
Chemical Reactions
Redox reactions which form a single product is called
a comproportionation

A high and a low oxidation state converge


Pb(s) + PbO2(s) → 2PbO(s) to a middle oxidation state

A single compound can be both oxidized and


reduced. This is called disproportionation.

A compound reacts with itself. One set is


Hg2Cl2(s) → Hg(l) + HgCl2(s) oxidized, and another is reduced, causing
a divergence of oxidation states
Chemical Reactions
Balancing REDOX Reactions:
1. Split into oxidation and reduction half reactions
2. Balance non O and non H
3. Add H2O to balance O
4. Add H+ to balance H
4a. In basic medium, add OH- on both sides for each H+
5. Add e- to balance charge
6. Recombine half reactions by making e- equal
Chemical Reactions
To practice redox balancing
• Pick any 2 pairs of compounds (pick 2 elements,
and 2 oxidation states for each element)
• Pick a counterion for each set. Oxides and hydroxides
are good since they will not be spectator ions
• Insoluble species are also good since they cannot be
removed even if they are spectators
• You must add the anion of the insoluble species
• Must each set must have different oxidation states
• Set one pair to be an oxidation
• Set one pair to be a reduction
• Pick whether acidic or basic medium
Chemical Reactions
Examples of balancing redox reactions
CrO + VO2 -> V2O5 + Cr
Pb + PbO2 + SO42- -> PbSO4
MnO42- -> MnO2 + MnO4-
Cr2O72- + I- -> Cr3+ + I2