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Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction .......................................................................... 13


Cisco Certification dan CCNA ...........................................................................................13
Road to CCNA ..................................................................................................................14
Cisco Packet Tracer Network Simulator ............................................................................14

Section 2: Network Devices .................................................................. 15


Icon Device Cisco .............................................................................................................15
Twister Pair.......................................................................................................................16
Hub vs Switch vs Router ...................................................................................................18

Section 3: Networking Model................................................................. 19


TCP/IP ..............................................................................................................................19
OSI Model.........................................................................................................................21

Section 4: IP Addressing ....................................................................... 24


IPv4 Address ....................................................................................................................24
Lab 1. Konversi Decimal ke Binary Digit ........................................................................28
Lab 2. Mencari Network Address, Broadcast Address, Host Address ............................30
Lab 3. Identifikasi IPv4 ..................................................................................................32
Lab 4. Kalkulasi Subnet .................................................................................................34
Lab 5. Konfigurasi IPv4 .................................................................................................37
IPv6 Address ....................................................................................................................40
Lab 6. Konversi Hexadecimal ke Binary ........................................................................41
Lab 7. Identifikasi IPv6 ..................................................................................................42
Lab 8. Penulisan IPv6 Address......................................................................................43
Lab 9. Struktur Hirarki IPv6 ...........................................................................................44
Lab 10. Konfigurasi IPv6 ...............................................................................................46

Section 5: Cisco Device Basic ............................................................... 48


Device Connection ............................................................................................................48
Memory.............................................................................................................................48
Startup Sequence .............................................................................................................49
Command Mode ...............................................................................................................50
Show Command List .........................................................................................................50
Copy Command List .........................................................................................................51

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Lab 11. Konfigurasi Basic Router ..................................................................................52
Lab 12. Konfigurasi Telnet dan SSH Router ..................................................................58

Section 6: Basic Switching .................................................................... 63


Frame Type ......................................................................................................................63
Broadcast dan Collision Domain .......................................................................................63
Switch Configuration Mode ...............................................................................................64
Lab 13. Inisialisasi Switch..............................................................................................65
Lab 14. Konfigurasi Basic Switch ..................................................................................70
Lab 15. Konfigurasi Telnet dan SSH Switch ..................................................................77
Lab 16. Hardware & Software Information .....................................................................83
Lab 17. Backup & Restore.............................................................................................85

Section 7: Spanning Tree Protocol ........................................................ 92


Overview STP ...................................................................................................................92
Proses STP ......................................................................................................................92
Cara Kerja STP.................................................................................................................93
STP Switch Port State ......................................................................................................96
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) .............................................................................98
RSTP Bridge Port Role .....................................................................................................98
RSTP Port States .............................................................................................................99
STP vs RSTP....................................................................................................................99
Mind Map STP ................................................................................................................100
Lab 18. Basic STP.......................................................................................................101
Lab 19. STP Root Bridge Selection .............................................................................103
Lab 20. STP Port Priority .............................................................................................105

Section 8: LAN Switching .................................................................... 107


VLAN ..............................................................................................................................107
Lab 21. VLAN ..............................................................................................................109
Trunking..........................................................................................................................113
Lab 22. VLAN Trunking ...............................................................................................115
DTP ................................................................................................................................120
Lab 23. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) ..................................................................121
VTP ................................................................................................................................125
Lab 24. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) .......................................................................126
EtherChannel ..................................................................................................................131
Lab 25. EtherChannel .................................................................................................132

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InterVLAN .......................................................................................................................137
Lab 26. Inter-VLAN Routing - SVI................................................................................139
Lab 27. Inter-VLAN Routing - Router-on-Stick .............................................................143
Port-Security ...................................................................................................................147
Lab 28. MAC Address Limitation .................................................................................148
Lab 29. Sticky MAC Address .......................................................................................155
Lab 30. Errdisable Autorecovery .................................................................................158

Section 9: IP Routing Technologies .................................................... 159


Routing Table .................................................................................................................159
Administrative Distance ..................................................................................................160
Static Routing .................................................................................................................161
RIPv2 ..............................................................................................................................161
EIGRP ............................................................................................................................162
OSPF ..............................................................................................................................165
Perbandingan RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF ..............................................................................167
Lab 31. Static Routing .................................................................................................169
Lab 32. Static Routing Advanced ................................................................................176
Lab 33. RIPv2 .............................................................................................................178
Lab 34. EIGRP ............................................................................................................185
Lab 35. EIGRP Troubleshooting ..................................................................................193
Lab 36. OSPF .............................................................................................................195
Lab 37. OSPF Troubleshooting ...................................................................................208

Section 10: IP Services ....................................................................... 211


DHCP .............................................................................................................................211
Lab 38. DHCP Server ..................................................................................................212
Access-List .....................................................................................................................214
Lab 39. ACL Standard .................................................................................................216
Lab 40. ACL Extended ................................................................................................221
Lab 41. ACL Troubleshooting ......................................................................................228
NAT ................................................................................................................................231
Lab 42. NAT Static ......................................................................................................233
Lab 43. NAT Dynamic .................................................................................................238
Lab 44. NAT Dynamic Overload (PAT) ........................................................................243
Lab 45. NAT Dynamic Overload (PAT) with Exit Interface ...........................................248
FHRP ..............................................................................................................................253

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Perbedaan HSRP, VRRP, GLBP ....................................................................................253
Lab 46. HSRP & GLBP ...............................................................................................255

Section 11. WAN ................................................................................. 265


Frame Relay ...................................................................................................................265
Lab 47. Frame Relay ...................................................................................................267
PPP ................................................................................................................................271
Lab 48. PPP ................................................................................................................272
PPPOE ...........................................................................................................................277
Lab 49. PPPoE............................................................................................................278
VPN ................................................................................................................................283
Lab 50. VPN IPSEC ....................................................................................................284

Section 12. Network Management ...................................................... 288


Syslog .............................................................................................................................288
Lab 51. Syslog ............................................................................................................289
NTP ................................................................................................................................292
Lab 52. NTP ................................................................................................................292
SNMP .............................................................................................................................294
Lab 53. SNMP .............................................................................................................294
NetFlow ..........................................................................................................................298
Lab 54. NetFlow ..........................................................................................................299

Section 13. IPv6 Routing Protocol ....................................................... 301


OSPFv3 ..........................................................................................................................301
Lab 55. OSPFv3 ..........................................................................................................301
EIGRPv6.........................................................................................................................306
Lab 56. EIGRPv6 ........................................................................................................306

Section 14. Troubleshooting................................................................ 312


CDP ................................................................................................................................312
Lab 57. CDP................................................................................................................313
tftpdnld ............................................................................................................................315
Lab 58. tftpdnld ...........................................................................................................315
Native VLAN ...................................................................................................................320
Lab 59. Native VLAN ...................................................................................................321
Troubleshooting ..............................................................................................................325

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Section 1: Introduction
Cisco Certification dan CCNA

Level Sertifikasi Cisco

Gambar 1. Level Sertifikasi Cisco

○ 100-101 ICND1 (CCENT)


■ Modul 1 & 2 Cisco Networking Academy
○ 200-101 ICND2 (CCNA)
■ Modul 3 & 4 Cisco Networking Academy)
CCNA

○ 200-125 ( CCNA Composite )


■ Modul 1 s.d 4 Cisco Networking Academy

Untuk mendapatkan sertifikat CCNA bisa ditempuh melalui 2 pilihan jalur ujian, pertama ujian
ICND1 + ICND2, kedua ujian CCNA 200-125 Composite. Keuntungan ujian CCNA 200-125

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hanya sekali ujian saja. Passing grade 810 dari 1000. Tidak ada retake exam atau kesempatan
kedua. Kalau misalnya gagal harus bayar ujian lagi agar bisa mengikuti ujian berikutnya. Durasi
ujian selama 2 jam dengan jumlah soal kisaran 60-an.

Lokasi Ujian

Anda dapat memilih lokasi ujian terdekat di http://www.pearsonvue.com/cisco/locate

Inputkan: Indonesia untuk menampilkan pilihan lokasi ujian di Indonesia

Tanya Jawab Cisco CCNA Lengkap

http://www.nixtrain.com/tanya-jawab-cisco-ccna

Road to CCNA

Join group Road to CCNA di facebook https://www.facebook.com/groups/roadtoccna

Group "Road to CCNA" adalah group facebook buat siapa saja yang ingin menjadi CCNA.

Di group ini setiap member boleh share apa saja yang penting terkait dengan CCNA dan tidak
double post, misalnya tips & trick, share materi, share training, workshop, seminar, share jobs,
update tech, questions, troubleshooting, labs, share config, dll.

Share your the best!

Untuk dukungan teknis GRATIS bagi pembaca buku CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain bisa
posting pertanyaan, permasalahan, error config, dsb di group Road to CCNA.

Cisco Packet Tracer Network Simulator

Download video tutorial Cisco Packet Tracer Network Simulator di Youtube


-> https://www.youtube.com/c/AgusSetiawanNixtrain

Konten video:

Lesson 1. Instalasi Cisco Packet Tracer Network Simulator


Lesson 2. Pengenalan Workspace Cisco Packet Tracer
Lesson 3. Tips dan Trik Cisco Packet Tracer
Lesson 4. Interconnecting Devices (Router, Switch, Hub)
Lesson 5. Desain Topologi Jaringan
Lesson 6. Konfigurasi Sistem Jaringan
Lesson 7. Pembuatan Cisco Packet Tracer Activity

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Section 2: Network Devices
Icon Device Cisco

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Twister Pair

Type Connector Description


Cat3 RJ-45 Digunakan untuk 10 megabit Ethernet atau 16 megabit
token ring.
Cat5 RJ-45 Support 100 megabit Ethernet dan ATM networking.
Cat5e RJ-45 Mirip Cat5 tetapi menyediakan EMI protection. Support 100
megabit dan gigabit Ethernet.
Cat6 RJ-45 Support 10 gigabit Ethernet dan high-bandwidth broadband
communications.
Tambahan standard untuk Cat6 termasuk Cat6a (advanced)
dan Cat6e (enhanced), menyediakan proteksi EMI dengan
lebih baik.
 UTP vs STP

STP memiliki ground untuk mencegah terjadinya EMI (electromagnetic interference)


 Ethernet menggunakan konektor RJ-45 (Tx: digunakan untuk transmit dan Rx:
digunakan untuk Receive)
Pin 1: Tx+
Pin 2: Tx-
Pin 3: Rx+
Pin 4: Unused
Pin 5: Unused
Pin 6: Rx-
Pin 7: Unused
Pin 8: Unused
 Ketika menghubungkan device / perangkat di LAN, Anda membutuhkan tipe kabel
Ethernet: straight-through atau crossover.
 Dengan Auto-MDI/MDIX switch terbaru bisa menyesuaikan posisi pin yang dibutuhkan
sehingga untuk menghubungkan device router/hub/switch/workstation ke switch bisa
menggunakan kabel straight-through maupun crossover. Misalnya untuk
menghubungkan switch to switch mestinya menggunakan kabel crossover, tapi dengan
fitur Auto-MDI/MDIX Anda bisa menggunakan kabel straight-through.
 Beberapa Cisco router menyediakan port AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) yang didesain
untuk menghubungkan transceiver external untuk konversi tipe media misalnya coaxial
atau fiber optic.

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 Untuk mendukung jarak LAN lebih dari limit Ethernet twisted pair ( >100m ), gunakan
slot switch SFP (Gigabit uplink port) dan media fiber optic.
 Penggunaan straight-through atau crossover

 Cabling TIA/EIA

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Hub vs Switch vs Router

Hub Switch Router

Layer 1 (OSI Model) Layer 2 (OSI Model) Layer 3 (OSI Model)


Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer
Menghubungkan device Menghubungkan device Menghubungkan device
didalam network yang sama didalam network yang sama didalam network yang
berbeda
Broadcast Broadcast, Unicast, Multicast Broadcast, Unicast, Multicast
Boros bandwidth Hemat bandwidth -
Half-duplex Full-duplex
- MAC address IP address
- Forward packet berdasarkan Forward packet berdasarkan
MAC address tujuan IP address tujuan
- - Memiliki algoritma routing
protocol untuk mencari jalur
terbaik
LAN LAN LAN,WAN
Bit Frame Packet
Shared bandwidth Dedicated bandwidth Dynamic bandwidth sharing
Semua port memiliki Semua port memiliki Satu port router satu
broadcast domain dan broadcast domain sama broadcast domain kecuali
collision domain sama namun collision domain sub-interface untuk gateway
berbeda VLAN
- Memiliki MAC address table Memiliki routing table
- show mac-address-table show ip route
- Tidak support NAT Support NAT
Bus topologi Full mesh topologi -
01000001 FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 192.168.1.1

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Section 3: Networking Model
TCP/IP
 TCP/IP = DoD (Department of Defense) model
 TCP/IP model mengklasifikasikan dan mengatur host ketika berkomunikasi melalui
network
 Note: TCP/IP adalah model teoritis sebagai standard bagi programmer dan network
engineer, bukan model fisik.
 TCP/IP Model

 Masing-masing layer memiliki tugas masing-masing

 Masing-masing layer ditambahkan header

 Masing-masing packet dilayer TCP/IP memiliki nama yang berbeda

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TCP/UDP Port Number

Categories Characteristics
Well known Di assign untuk protocol dan service spesifik
Range port number dari 0 - 1023
Registered ICANN memberikan port spesifik untuk network service yang
baru dibuat
Range port number dari 1024 - 49151
Dynamic Di assigned ketika sebuah network service melakukan contact,
(private or high) released, dan session berakhir
Mengijinkan aplikasi untuk 'listen' ke port yang telah diberikan
untuk menerima incoming request
Range port numbers dari 49,152 - 65,535

Well-known port

Protocol(s) Port(s) Service


TCP 20, 21 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
TCP
UDP 22 Secure Shell (SSH)
TCP
UDP 23 Telnet
TCP
UDP 25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
TCP
UDP 53 Domain Name Server (DNS)
UDP 67, 68 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
UDP 69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
TCP 80 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
TCP 110 Post Office Protocol (POP3)
TCP 119 Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP)
UDP 123 Network Time Protocol (NTP)
TCP
UDP 143 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP4)
TCP
UDP 161, 162 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
TCP
UDP 389 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
TCP 443 HTTP with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

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Data Encapsulation

 Encapsulation: proses memecah sebuah data menjadi packet, menambahkan control


dan informasi lain kemudian mengirimkan data melalui media transmisi.
 Application layer: data
 Transport layer: segment
 Internet layer: packet (terdapat logical addresses)
 Link layer: frame (terdapat physical addresses) dan bit dikirimkan melalui network media

OSI Model

 Cara mengingat OSI model

Layer Name Mnemonic Mnemonic


(Bottom to up) (Top to bottom)
Layer 7 Application Away All
Layer 6 Presentation Pizza People
Layer 5 Session Sausage Seem
Layer 4 Transport Throw To
Layer 3 Network Not Need
Layer 2 Data Link Do Data
Layer 1 Physical Please Processing

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 Fungsi masing-masing layer OSI

Layer Description and Keyword Protocols


 HTTP
 Menyediakan interface service  Telnet
Application  Enable dan identifikasi komunikasi  FTP
partner  TFTP
 SNMP
 Menentukan format data (file formats).  JPEG, BMP, TIFF,
 Encryption, translation dan PICT
Presentation compression  MPEG, WMV, AVI
 Menentukan format data dan  ASCII, EBCDIC
pertukarannya.  MIDI, WAV
 Menjaga aliran data agar tetap terpisah  Network File System
(session identification). (NFS)
Session
 Setup, maintain, dan mengakhiri sesi  Apple Session
komunikasi Protocol (ASP)
 Menyediakan komunikasi yang reliable  TCP (connection-
(connection-oriented) dan unreliable oriented)
(connectionless).  UDP (connectionless)
Transport  Menyediakan end-to-end flow control.
 Menentukan port dan socket numbers.
 Menggunakan segmentation,
sequencing, dan combination.
 Menentukan logical addresses (host  IP
dan network).  IPX
Network  Menggunakan path determination  AppleTalk
(identification dan selection).
 Merutekan packet
 Konversi bit menjadi byte dan byte into  LAN protocols: 802.2
Data Link
frame. (LLC), 802.3
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 Menggunakan MAC address, (disebut (Ethernet), 802.5
juga burned in address atau hardware (Token Ring), 802.11
address). (Wireless)
 Menentukan topologi logical network  WAN protocols: PPP,
 Menentukan metode akses media Frame Relay, ISDN
 Implementasi host-to-host flow control.
 Menggunakan parity dan CRC.
 Move bit melalui media.  EIA/TIA 232 (serial
 Menentukan cable, connector, dan signaling)
posisi pin  V.35 (modem
Physical  Menentukan sinyal elektrik (voltage, signaling)
sinkronisasi bit).  Cat5
 Menentukan topologi physical (network  RJ45
layout).

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Section 4: IP Addressing
IPv4 Address

 Layer 3 menyediakan
o Addressing
o Encapsulation
o Routing
o Decapsulation
 Layer 3 protocol
o IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4)
o IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)
o IPX (Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange)
o AppleTalk
 IPv4 Header
o Source Address
 32-bit binary number: source NIC
o Destination Address
 32-bit binary number: destination NIC
o TTL (Time-To-Live)
 8-bit binary yang menyatakan berapa banyak “hop” yang bisa dilewati
oleh packet sebelum di drop
 Dimulai dari nilai tertinggi, menurun sampai 0
o ToS (Type-of-Service)
 8-bit binary yang digunakan untuk Qualitfy of Service
o Protocol
 8-bit binary untuk menentukan protocol layer 4 yang digunakan
 01 – ICMP
 06 – TCP
 17 – UDP

IPv4 Basics

 32-bit address
 Dituliskan dalam format “dotted decimal”
o Terdiri dari 4 group 8 bit
o Masing-masing group 8 bit disebut octet
 Setiap 8 bit disebut juga byte
 Konversi decimal ke binary untuk mendapatkan notasi binary digit (biner)

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IPv4 Address Type

 Network Address
o IP pertama dalam sebuah network, reserved dan tidak bisa digunakan oleh host
 Broadcast Address
o IP terakhir dalam sebuah network, reserved dan tidak bisa digunakan oleh host
o Semua host merespon trafik pada IP ini
 Host Address
o IP yang dapat digunakan oleh host
 Network Prefixes
o Prefix length yaitu jumlah bit didalam network portion sebuah address
o Ketika dikonversi menjadi decimal, akan berupa subnet mask
o Penting untuk subnetting dan Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
o Biasanya dikombinasikan dengan network address, misalnya 192.168.1.0/24
 Kalkulasi Address
o Jumlah bit prefix dimulai dari sebelah kiri, biasanya disebut bit network
o Sisa disebelah kanan disebut bit host
o Network address: bit host 0 semua
o Broadcast address: bit host 1 semua
o Host Address: bit antara network address dan broadcast address
 Tipe packet
o Unicast: one to one
o Multicast: one to many
 Trafik dikirim ke spesifik penerima
o Broadcast: one to all
 Limited broadcast – 255.255.255.255 – tidak diforward oleh router
 Directed broadcast – 192.168.1.255 – diforward oleh router
 Range IP
o Host Addresses - 0.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255
■ RFC – 790
o Multicast Addresses - 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
■ RFC – 1700
o Experimental Addresses - 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254
■ RFC - 1700, 3330
■ Tidak dirutekan
o Private Addresses - 10.0.0.0/8, 192.168.0.0/16, 172.16.0.0/12
■ RFC - 1918
■ Tidak dirutekan di Internet
■ NAT - Network Address Translation, translate IP private menjadi IP public
o Public Addresses – IP host address dikurangi IP private
 Special IPv4 Addresses
o Default route - 0.0.0.0
■ Merutekan semua trafik ke “default gateway” atau
“gateway of last resort”
■ Tidak dirutekan
o Loopback - 127.0.0.1
■ Mengirimkan trafik ke IP stack host sendiri, digunakan untuk testing driver/NIC
(Network Interface Card)
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■ Tidak dirutekan
o Link-Local - 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255
■ Secara otomatis assign IP sendiri ketika tidak ada DHCP Server
■ Disebut juga APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) address
■ Tidak dirutekan
o TEST-NET Address - 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255
■ Untuk edukasi

Class IPv4 Address

Class Address Range First Octet Range Default Subnet Default Routing
Mask Prefix
1.0.0.0 to 1–126
A 255.0.0.0 /8
126.255.255.255 (00000001–01111110 binary)
128.0.0.0 to 128–191
B 255.255.0.0 /16
191.255.255.255 (10000000–10111111 binary)
192.0.0.0 to 192–223
C 255.255.255.0 /24
223.255.255.255 (11000000–11011111 binary)
224.0.0.0 to 224–239
D n/a n/a
239.255.255.255 (11100000–11101111 binary)
240.0.0.0 to 240–255
E n/a n/a
255.255.255.255 (11110000–11111111 binary)

Public vs Private IPv4 Address

Address Considerations
Type
Private  10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
 Agar dapat melakukan koneksi ke internet, router harus dikonfigurasi
Network Address Translation (NAT).
Public 1. Step 1. ICANN dan IANA mengumpulkan IPv4 Public address secara
regional
2. Step 2. IANA mengalokasikan range IP address ke Regional Internet
Registries (RIR)
3. Step 3. RIR membagi space address ke National Internet Registries (NIR)
atau Local Internet Registries (LIR). (ISP biasanya LIR)
4. Step 4. Masing-masing Internet Registry (IR) membagi ke organisasi end-
user untuk digunakan

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Decimal Equivalent

 Konversi biner ke decimal, gunakan decimal equivalent berikut ini:

10000000 01000000 00100000 00010000 00001000 00000100 00000010 00000001


128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

 Untuk masing-masing posisi bit yang memiliki value 1, tambahkan nilai decimalnya.
Misalnya, 10010101 = 128 + 32 + 4 + 1 = 149

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Lab 1. Konversi Decimal ke Binary Digit

Base 2 Table

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Untuk menghitung konversi binary ke decimal atau decimal ke binary, Anda harus paham
penggunaan tabel Base 2 diatas.

a. Contoh konversi binary ke decimal berikut ini:

10010011 : ?

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Total
Binary 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Decimal 128 0 0 16 0 0 2 1 147

10010011 = (128*1) + (64*0) + (32*0) + (16*1) + (8*0) + (4*0) + (2*1) + (1*1) = 147

b. Contoh konversi decimal ke binary berikut ini:

172 : ?

Step 1

Cari value yang mendekati dan tidak melebihi 172 yaitu 128. Pada kolom value 128 dibawah ini
tulis angka 1.

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Total
Binary 1
Decimal 128 128

Kemudian kurangi 172 – 128 = 44

Step 2

Ulangi step 1, mencari value yang mendekati dan tidak melebihi 44 yaitu 32. Pada kolom value
32 dibawah ini tulis angka 1.

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Total
Binary 1 1
Decimal 128 32 160

Kemudian kurangi 44 – 32 = 12

Step 3

Ulangi step 1, mencari value yang mendekati dan tidak melebihi 12 yaitu 8. Pada kolom value 8
dibawah ini tulis angka 1.

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Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Total
Binary 1 1 1
Decimal 128 32 8 168

Kemudian kurangi 12 – 8 = 4

Step 4

Ulangi step 1, mencari value yang mendekati dan tidak melebihi 4 yaitu 4. Pada kolom value 4
dibawah ini tulis angka 1.

Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Total
Binary 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
Decimal 128 0 32 0 8 4 0 0 172

Ketika nilai totalnya 172 maka proses kalkulasi berhenti.

172 = (128*1) + (64*0) + (32*1) + (16*0) + (8*1) + (4*1) + (2*0) + (1*0)


= 128 + 0 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 0

Konversikan decimal dibawah ini ke dalam binary digit. Gunakan rumus Base 2 table diatas.

Decimal Binary

170 11000001
222
39
252
10

Decimal Binary

172.16.10.10 11000000.10101000.00001010.00001010
201.101.98.75
192.168.8.8
10.14.206.1
123.45.67.89
252.255.248.200

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Lab 2. Mencari Network Address, Broadcast Address, Host Address

Network Address
1 Konversi IP & Subnet Mask ke dalam Binary
2 Proses AND-ing

Broadcast Address
1 Konversi IP ke dalam Binary
2 Inverse hasil konversi Binary Subnet Mask
3 Proses OR-ing

Network Address <-> Host Address <-> Broadcast Address

AND
1 AND 1 1
1 AND 0 0
0 AND 1 0
0 AND 0 0
OR
1 OR 1 1
1 OR 0 1
0 OR 1 1
0 OR 0 0

Lengkapi tabel dibawah ini. Cari Network Address, Broadcast Address, dan Host Address.

Description Decimal Binary

IP Address 202.190.73.50 11001010.10111110.01001001.00110010


Subnet Mask 255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Network Address 202.190.0.0 11001010.10111110.00000000.00000000
Broadcast Address 202.190.255.255 11001010.10111110.11111111.11111111
Host Address 202.190.0.1 – 202.190.255.254

Description Decimal Binary

IP Address 192.168.30.10
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.252
Network Address
Broadcast Address
Host Address

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Description Decimal Binary

IP Address 192.168.68.220
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128
Network Address
Broadcast Address
Host Address

Description Decimal Binary

IP Address 172.16.208.15
Subnet Mask 255.255.240.0
Network Address
Broadcast Address
Host Address

Description Decimal Binary

IP Address 10.180.2.8
Subnet Mask 255.224.0.0
Network Address
Broadcast Address
Host Address

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Lab 3. Identifikasi IPv4

Tentukan mana network portion dan host portion?

Key for table:


N = semua 8 bit (octet) di network portion
n = bit di network portion
H = semua 8 bit (octet) di host portion
h = bit di host portion

Network/Host
N,n = Network
IP Address/Prefix H,h = Host Subnet Mask Network Address

192.168.10.10/24 N.N.N.H 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.0


10.101.99.17/23 N.N.nnnnnnnh.H 255.255.254.0 10.101.98.0
209.165.200.227/27 N.N.N.nnnhhhhh 255.255.255.224 209.165.200.224
172.31.45.252/24 N.N.N.H 255.255.255.0 172.31.45.0
10.1.8.200/26
172.16.117.77/20
10.1.1.101/25
209.165.202.140/27
192.168.28.45/28

Tentukan First Host Address dan Last Host Address

IP Address/Prefix First Host Address Last Host Address

192.168.10.10/24 192.168.10.1 192.168.10.254


10.101.99.17/23
209.165.200.227/27
172.31.45.252/24
10.1.8.200/26
172.16.117.77/20
209.165.202.140/27
192.168.28.45/28

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Tentukan tipe address manakah IP dibawah ini?

1. Host Address
2. Broadcast Address
3. Network Address
4. Multicast Address

IP Address Subnet Mask Address Type

10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 Host Address


192.168.33.63 255.255.255.192
239.192.1.100 255.252.0.0
172.25.12.52 255.255.255.0
10.255.0.0 255.0.0.0
172.16.128.48 255.255.255.240
209.165.202.159 255.255.255.224
172.16.0.255 255.255.0.0
224.10.1.11 255.255.255.0

Tentukan mana IP Public dan IP Private.

RFC 1918: standard IP Private (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1918)

IP Address/Prefix Public or Private

209.165.201.30/27 Public
192.168.255.253/24
10.100.11.103/16
172.30.1.100/28
192.31.7.11/24
172.20.18.150/22
128.107.10.1/16
192.135.250.10/24
64.104.0.11/16

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Lab 4. Kalkulasi Subnet

Tentukan subnet pada tabel dibawah ini.

Diberikan:

Host IP Address: 172.16.77.120


Subnet Mask Original: 255.255.0.0
Subnet Mask Baru: 255.255.240.0

Cari:

Jumlah Bit Subnet (n) 4


Jumlah Subnet Yang Dibuat 16
Jumlah Bit Host per Subnet (h) 12
Jumlah Host per Subnet 4,094
Network Address Subnet 172.16.64.0
First Host IPv4 Address Subnet 172.16.64.1
Last Host IPv4 Address Subnet 172.16.79.254
Broadcast Address Subnet 172.16.79.255

Jumlah Bit Subnet (n)


-> Jumlah bit host yang dipinjam untuk bit network
New Subnet Mask – Original Subnet Mask = 255.255.240.0 – 255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.1111000.00000000 – 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 = 1111

-> 4

Jumlah Subnet Yang Dibuat


-> Jumlah subnet yang dapat dibuat

2n = 24 = 16

Jumlah Bit Host per Subnet (h)


-> Jumlah bit host tiap subnet: jumlah angka 0 subnet mask yang baru = 12

Jumlah Host per Subnet


-> Jumlah host tiap subnet:

2h – 2 = 212 – 2 = 4096 – 2 = 4094

Subnet Mask
1 menyatakan network portion
0 menyatakan host portion

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Diberikan:

Host IP Address: 192.168.200.139


Subnet Mask Original: 255.255.255.0
Subnet Mask Baru: 255.255.255.224

Cari:

Jumlah Bit Subnet (n)


Jumlah Subnet Yang Dibuat
Jumlah Bit Host per Subnet (h)
Jumlah Host per Subnet
Network Address Subnet
First Host IPv4 Address Subnet
Last Host IPv4 Address Subnet
Broadcast Address Subnet

Diberikan:

Host IP Address: 10.101.99.228


Subnet Mask Original: 255.0.0.0
Subnet Mask Baru: 255.255.128.0

Cari:

Jumlah Bit Subnet (n)


Jumlah Subnet Yang Dibuat
Jumlah Bit Host per Subnet (h)
Jumlah Host per Subnet
Network Address Subnet
First Host IPv4 Address Subnet
Last Host IPv4 Address Subnet
Broadcast Address Subnet

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Studi Kasus VLSM

Anda diminta mendesain jaringan dengan IP network 172.16.128.0/17 untuk kebutuhan address
seperti tabel dibawah ini. Tentukan Network Address/CIDR, First Host Address dan Broadcast
Address.

Jumlah Host
Deskripsi Network Address
yang First Host Address Broadcast Address
Subnet /CIDR
Dibutuhkan

1 16,000
2 8,000
3 4,000
4 2,000
5 1,000
6 500
7 2
8 2
9 2

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Lab 5. Konfigurasi IPv4

Topologi

Konfigurasi IPv4 menggunakan address dibawah ini:

Laptop: 192.168.1.1/24

Switch: 192.168.1.2/24

Router: 192.168.1.3/24

Laptop

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Switch

Router

Cek ping dari Laptop ke Switch dan Router menggunakan Command Prompt

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Laptop>ping 192.168.1.2

Pinging 192.168.1.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.2:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop>ping 192.168.1.3

Pinging 192.168.1.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Ping dari Laptop ke Switch dan Router berhasil.

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IPv6 Address

Fitur IPv6

 Alokasi address secara geografis


 Route summarization menjadi efisien
 Tidak membutuhkan Network Address Translation (NAT) atau Port Address Translation
(PAT)
 Native Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
 IPv6 sudah built in mendukung IPsec protocol
 Pengembangan header
 Built-in Quality of Service (QoS)
 Flow label

Overview IPv6 Address

 IPv6 terdiri dari 128 bit, seperti contoh dibawah ini

35BC:FA77:4898:DAFC:200C:FBBC:A007:8973

 Address terdiri dari 32 hexadecimal numbers, dikelompokkan menjadi 8 quartets


 Quartets dipisahkan oleh titik dua
 Masing-masing quartet direpresentasikan sebagai hexadecimal number antara 0 dan
FFFF. Masing-masing quartet merepresentasikan 16 bit data (FFFF = 1111 1111 1111
1111).
 Leading zeros bisa disingkat pada masing-masing section. Contoh, quartet 0284 bisa
direpresentasikan dengan 284.
 Addresses dengan nol berturut-turut dapat diringkas dengan menggantikan dua titik dua
untuk kelompok nol. Contoh:
FEC0:0:0:0:78CD:1283:F398:23AB
FEC0::78CD:1283:F398:23AB (bentuk yang ringkas)
 Jika address memiliki lebih dari satu lokasi berturut-turut di mana satu atau lebih lokasi
semuanya nol, maka hanya satu lokasi saja yang dapat disingkat. Contoh:
FEC2:0:0:0:78CA:0:0:23AB bisa disingkat menjadi:
FEC2::78CA:0:0:23AB atau
FEC2:0:0:0:78CA::23AB
FEC2::78CA::23AB (bentuk yang salah)
 128-bit address memiliki dua bagian:
o Prefix: 64 bit pertama. Prefix termasuk network dan subnet address. Karena
address dialokasikan berdasarkan lokasi fisik, prefix juga termasuk informasi
routing global. 64-bit prefix sering disebut sebagai global routing prefix.
o Interface: 64 bit terakhir. Disebut juga sebagai Interface ID. Address unik yang di
assign ke interface.
Address di assign ke interface (koneksi network), bukan ke host. Secara teknis,
interface ID bukan host address.

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Lab 6. Konversi Hexadecimal ke Binary

Base 2 Four Digit

23 22 21 20
8 4 2 1

Tabel konversi decimal, hexadecimal, binary

Decimal Hexadecimal Binary


1 1 0001
2 2 0010
3 3 0011
4 4 0100
5 5 0101
6 6 0110
7 7 0111
8 8 1000
9 9 1001
10 A 1010
11 B 1011
12 C 1100
13 D 1101
14 E 1110
15 F 1111

Konversikan Hexadecimal menjadi Binary

Hextet Binary
2001
DB80
ACAD
0001
3227
95E2
8D4F
AAAA
ABCD
EEEE
FFFF

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Lab 7. Identifikasi IPv6
Tipe address IPv6

First Hextet Tipe IPv6 Address

Loopback address, any address, unspecified address, or IPv4-


0000 to 00FF compatible

2000 to 3FFF Global unicast address

FE80 to FEBF Link-local

FC00 to FCFF Unique-local

FF00 to FFFF Multicast address

Tentukan tipe address IPv6 berikut ini

IPv6 Address Answer

2001:0DB8:1:ACAD::FE55:6789:B210
::1
FC00:22:A:2::CD4:23E4:76FA
2033:DB8:1:1:22:A33D:259A:21FE
FE80::3201:CC01:65B1
FF00::
FF00::DB7:4322:A231:67C
FF02::2

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Lab 8. Penulisan IPv6 Address

Ketentuan penulisan IPv6

Rule 1: Pada IPv6 address, string terdiri dari 4 angka 0 (four zero) dalam sebuah hextet
dapat disingkat dengan 1 angka 0 (single zero).
2001:0404:0001:1000:0000:0000:0EF0:BC00
2001:0404:0001:1000:0:0:0EF0:BC00 (disingkat dengan single zero)
Rule 2: Pada IPv6 address, leading zeros pada masing-masing hextet dapat dihilangkan,
trailing zeros tidak boleh dihilangkan.
2001:0404:0001:1000:0000:0000:0EF0:BC00
2001:404:1:1000:0:0:EF0:BC00 (disingkat dengan leading zeros yang
dihilangkan)
Rule 3: Pada IPv6 address, hextet secara berurutan memiliki 4 angka 0 dapat disingkat
dengan double colon (::). Hanya dapat disingkat satu kali dalam satu IP address.
2001:0404:0001:1000:0000:0000:0EF0:BC00
2001:404:1:1000::EF0:BC00 (disingkat dengan leading zeroes yang dihilangkan
dan continuous zeros diganti dengan double colon)

Perhatikan gambar dibawah ini untuk mempermudah pemahaman

Tentukan singkatan IPv6 pada tabel dibawah ini

IPv6 Singkatan
2002:0EC0:0200:0001:0000:04EB:44CE:08A2
FE80:0000:0000:0001:0000:60BB:008E:7402
FE80::7042:B3D7:3DEC:84B8
FF00::
2001:0030:0001:ACAD:0000:330E:10C2:32BF

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Lab 9. Struktur Hirarki IPv6

Network Portion IPv6

1) IANA Global Routing Number (the first three binary bits are fixed as 001)
200::/12
2) Regional Internet Registry (RIR) Prefix (bits /12 to /23)
2001:0D::/23 (the hexadecimal D character is 1101 in binary. Bits 21 to 23 are
110, and the last bit is part of the ISP Prefix)
3) Internet service provider (ISP) Prefix (the bits up to /32)
2001:0DB8::/32
4) Site Prefix or Site Level Aggregator (SLA) which is assigned to the customer by the
ISP (the bits up to /48)
2001:0DB8:0001::/48
5) Subnet Prefix (assigned by the customer; the bits up to /64)
2001:0DB8:0001:ACAD::/64
6) Interface ID (the host is identified by the last 64 bits in the address)
2001:DB8:0001:ACAD:8D4F:4F4D:3237:95E2/64

IPv6 address dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 4 bagian:


1) Global Routing Prefix /32
2) Site Level Aggregator (SLA) /48
3) Subnet ID (LAN) /64
4) Interface ID (last 64 bits)

Host portion IPv6 address disebut juga Interface ID, karena tidak menyatakan host aktual,
akan tetapi menyatakan network interface card. Masing-masing network interface bisa
memiliki multiple IPv6 address dan multiple interface ID.

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Tentukan network prefix IPv6 dibawah ini

2000:1111:aaaa:0:50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1/64
Interface ID
Subnet number
Site number
ISP number
ISP number (binary)
Registry number
Registry number (binary)
IANA global number
Global routing prefix

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Lab 10. Konfigurasi IPv6

Topologi

Konfigurasi IPv6 menggunakan address dibawah ini:

Laptop: 2000::1/64

Router: 2000::3/64

Laptop

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Router

Cek ping dari Laptop ke Router menggunakan Command Prompt

Laptop>ping 2000::3

Pinging 2000::3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 2000::3: bytes=32 time=39ms TTL=255


Reply from 2000::3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 2000::3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 2000::3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 2000::3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 39ms, Average = 9ms

Ping dari Laptop ke Router berhasil.

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Section 5: Cisco Device Basic
Device Connection

 Cisco router maupun switch tidak memiliki monitor, dan Anda tidak bisa memasang
keyboard atau mouse ke device. Oleh karena itu, untuk manage device, Anda
membutuhkan dedicated terminal atau PC. Ada beberapa opsi untuk memanage device
cisco:

Tipe Koneksi Deskripsi


Console Koneksi console menggunakan kabel console yang dihubungkan dari PC
ke port console device. Gunakan putty atau hyperterminal untuk manage
device.

Di terminal gunakan settingan berikut ini:

 9600 baud (or a rate supported by your router)


 Data bits = 8 (default)
 Parity = None (default)
 Stop bits = 1 (default)
 Flow control = None

Virtual Terminal Koneksi vty menggunakan interface LAN atau WAN yang dikonfigurasi di
(VTY) device. Gunakan program telnet atau SSH untuk membuka command line
interface (CLI). Device cisco harus dikonfigurasi IP terlebih dahulu
sebelum mengakses vty melalui telnet atau SSH.
Security Device Koneksi SDM dilakukan melalui web browser dengan protocol https
Manager (SDM) sehingga Anda dapat memanage device melalui web-based graphical user
interface.

Settingan SDM default:


 10.10.10.1: default IP address SDM
 Default username dan password: cisco

Memory

 Beberapa storage device Cisco:

Tipe Memory Karakteristik


ROM (Read Only Preprogrammed, non-writeable memory berisi program bootstrap startup,
Memory) smaller-scale IOS, program POST (Power-on-Self-Test)
Flash Programmable memory, berisi image Cisco IOS
RAM ( Random- Berisi IOS yang sedang berjalan dan running configuration (unsaved
Access Memory) information)
NVRAM (Non- Berisi file startup-config dan virtual configuration register
volatile RAM)

 Konten dari non-volatile memory (ROM, Flash, dan NVRAM) masih tetap ada meskipun
power dimatikan sedangkan konten volatile memory (RAM) akan hilang ketika power
device dimatikan.

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Startup Sequence

Ketika device dinyalakan, berikut ini boot prosesnya:

1. Power-On-Self-Test (POST): cek hardware device. Ketika POST oke, maka indicator OK
LED akan nyala
2. Device melakukan checking configuration register untuk identifikasi IOS akan diload
darimana. Lokasi IOS akan dicek:
a. Flash (default location)
b. TFTP Server
c. ROM (digunakan ketika IOS tidak ditemukan di Flash maupun TFTP)
3. Device load file konfigurasi:
a. NVRAM (startup-config)
b. TFTP Server
4. Jika file konfigurasi tidak ditemukan, maka router masuk setup mode. Biasanya kondisi
ini terjadi ketika router masih dalam kondisi baru sehingga belum ada file konfigurasi
atau file konfigurasi di hapus sehingga startup-config di NVRAM tidak ada.

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Command Mode

Mode Prompt Untuk Masuk Untuk Keluar


exit
User EXEC Router> Press Enter, then log in. logout
disconnect
Privileged disable (exit
Router# enable
EXEC disconnects)
Global
Router(config)# config terminal exit, ^Z
Configuration
Line Router(config-line)# line <type> <number> exit, ^Z
Interface Router(config-if)# interface <type> <number> exit, ^Z
interface <type>
Subinterface Router(config-subif)# exit, ^Z
<number>.<subnumber>
Router Router(config-router)# router <type> exit, ^Z
setup
Setup None, interactive dialog ^C
erase startup-config + reload
Masuk ROM Monitor ketika router
tidak menemukan valid IOS image
atau ketika di interupsi saat boot
sequence router berjalan. ROM
ROM Monitor rommon> monitor merupakan emergency
command-line access ke router.
Untuk menuju EXEC mode dari
mode ini, ketikkan continue atau
reset di prompt
RXBoot mode merupakan booting
ke router dengan limited version
RXBoot <boot>
IOS ketika tidak menemukan valid
IOS image di Flash.

^Z = CTRL + Z
^C = CTRL + C
exit = kembali ke mode sebelumnya
end = kembali ke privilege EXEC

Show Command List

Command Display
 Hardware configuration
 Running IOS version
show version
 ROM bootstrap version
 Informasi RAM dan processor
show running-config  Running configuration file
show startup-config
 Startup configuration file disimpan di NVRAM (saved copy
or
configuration file)
show config
 Ukuran configuration file
show flash  Available flash memory
 Informasi untuk semua IOS image files yang disimpan di router
 Command di list history (yang pernah diketikkan di command
show history
prompt router)
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Command Display
show protocols
or
show interfaces  IP addresses interface spesifik
or
show ip interfaces
show protocols
or  Status semua interfaces
show interfaces

Copy Command List

Command Display
Router#copy run start Menyimpan konten file running-config ke NVRAM
Router#copy start run Menyimpan konten file startup-config ke RAM
Router#copy run tftp Mengcopy konten file running-config ke TFTP server
Router#copy start tftp Mengcopy konten file startup-config ke TFTP server
Router#copy tftp start Mengcopy file dari TFTP server ke NVRAM
Router#copy tftp run Mengcopy file dari TFTP server ke RAM
Router#copy flash tftp Mengcopy IOS image ke TFTP server. Ketika menggunakan command
ini, Anda akan diminta mengisikan destination file name dan address
TFTP Server.

Command Display
Router#erase flash Menghapus konten Flash memory (delete IOS image)
Router#erase start Menghapus konten file startup-config
Router#erase nvram Menghapus konten NVRAM (juga termasuk file startup-config)
Router#reload Restart router

Hati-hati dalam menggunakan command erase jangan sampai menghapus yang Anda
butuhkan.

Command Display
Informasi tentang hardware dan firmware, termasuk configuration register
show version
value.
configure memory
atau
Mengcopy informasi configuration dari source lain (seperti NVRAM).
copy startup-config
running-config
configure terminal Konfigurasi informasi ke RAM router

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Lab 11. Konfigurasi Basic Router

Topologi

Tabel Addressing

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting basic router
 Setting IP address pada perangkat router dan Laptop
Device
 Router: Router-PT, Switch: Switch 2950-24, Console Cable

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Konsep Dasar
Command mode router diantaranya:
1. Setup mode
 Router masuk setup mode jika NVRAM kosong alias tidak memiliki konfigurasi.
Biasanya kondisi ini terjadi ketika kita mengaktifkan router baru atau setelah
melakukan reset konfigurasi.
2. User mode
 Hanya terdapat beberapa command untuk monitoring
 Command show terbatas, ping dan traceroute
 Ditandai dengan : Router>
3. Privileged mode
 Terdapat beberapa command monitoring dan troubleshooting
 Terdapat semua command show, ping, trace, copy, erase
 Ditandai dengan : Router#
4. Global Configuration mode
 Untuk mensetting keseluruhan router misalnya hostname, konfigurasi routing
 Semua konfigurasi yang kita inputkan berefek global di router
 Ditandai dengan : Router(config)#
5. Interface mode
 Untuk konfigurasi interface secara spesifik, misal Interface fa0/0, Interface Fa0/1
6. Rommon mode
 Untuk recovery password
 Jika lupa password console dan telnet, atau lupa password enable maka gunakan
rommon mode untuk melakukan recovery password dengan mengubah nilai
confreg

Konektivitas Console

Untuk koneksi router menggunakan console, membutuhkan kabel console dan converter DB-9
to USB. Proses remote console dapat dilakukan dengan aplikasi putty atau hyperterminal untuk
sistem operasi Windows. Sedangkan di Linux dapat menggunakan minicom –s.

Konfigurasi
Untuk mensetting basic router R1 dan R2, gunakan akses console dari Laptop1 dan Laptop2.
Setelah itu, ketikkan command basic router dibawah ini di R1 dan R2.
a. Setelah login router ketikkan enable privileged EXEC mode.
Router>enable
Router#
b. Masuk global configuration mode.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#

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c. Memberikan nama device router.
Router(config)#hostname NXT-R1

d. Disable DNS lookup untuk mencegah router melakukan translasi command yang salah
ketik.
NXT-R1(config)#no ip domain-lookup

e. Setting password privilege terenkripsi ciscosec


NXT-R1(config)#enable secret ciscosec

f. Setting password console ciscocon. Aktifkan timeout command sehingga jika selama 5
menit 0 second tidak ada aktifitas maka akan logout sendiri.
NXT-R1(config)#line consonle 0
NXT-R1(config-line)#password ciscocon
NXT-R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0
NXT-R1(config-line)#login
g. Setting password vty ciscovty. Aktifkan timeout command sehingga jika selama 5 menit
0 second tidak ada aktifitas maka akan logout sendiri.
NXT-R1(config)#line vty 0 4
NXT-R1(config-line)#password ciscovty
NXT-R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0
NXT-R1(config-line)#login
h. Enable enkripsi clear text passwords.
NXT-R1(config)#service password-encryption

i. Buat banner yang memberikan informasi kepada user yang tidak memiliki otorisasi
dilarang login router.
NXT-R1(config)#banner motd #Unauthorized access prohibited!#

j. Setting IP address dan interface description. Aktifkan interface router dengan sub-
command no-shutdown.
NXT-R1(config)#interface fa1/0
NXT-R1(config-if)#description Connection to NXT-R2
NXT-R1(config-if)#ip address 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-if)#no shutdown
NXT-R1(config-if)#interface fa0/0
NXT-R1(config-if)#description Connection to LAN A
NXT-R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-if)#no shutdown
NXT-R1(config-if)#end
k. Setting clock di router; contoh seperti dibawah:
NXT-R1#clock set 10:00:00 3 Jan 2015

l. Simpan konfigurasi file running-configuration ke startup-configuration.


NXT-R1#copy running-config startup-config
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
54 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
[OK]
Ketika kita mensetting router, maka konfigurasi akan disimpan sementara di file running-
configuration (RAM), oleh karena itu proses menyimpan penting untuk dilakukan agar
saat router reboot atau shutdown file konfigurasi router masih tetap disimpan di startup-
configuration (NVRAM).
Konfigurasi R2
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#hostname NXT-R2
NXT-R2(config)#no ip domain-lookup
NXT-R2(config)#enable secret ciscosec
NXT-R2(config)#line consonle 0
NXT-R2(config-line)#password ciscocon
NXT-R2(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0
NXT-R2(config-line)#login
NXT-R2(config-line)#line vty 0 4
NXT-R2(config-line)#password ciscovty
NXT-R2(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0
NXT-R2(config-line)#login
NXT-R2(config-line)#service password-encryption
NXT-R2(config)#banner motd #Unauthorized access prohibited!#
NXT-R2(config)#interface fa1/0
NXT-R2(config-if)#description Connection to NXT-R1
NXT-R2(config-if)#ip address 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
NXT-R2(config-if)#no shutdown
NXT-R2(config-if)#interface fa0/0
NXT-R2(config-if)#description Connection to LAN B
NXT-R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0
NXT-R2(config-if)#no shutdown
NXT-R2(config-if)#end
NXT-R2#clock set 10:00:00 5 Feb 2016
NXT-R2#copy running-config startup-config
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]

Selanjutnya, setting IP address Laptop1 dan Laptop2 sesuai tabel addressing diatas.

Verifikasi
Setelah mensetting basic router R1 dan R2, langkah selanjutnya lakukan verifikasi bahwa
konfigurasi yang kita inputkan sudah benar dengan command show running-config dan show
ip interface brief.

Lakukan tes Ping :


 dari Laptop1 ke Fa0/0 R1
 dari Laptop2 ke Fa0/0 R2
 dari Fa1/0 R1 ke Fa1/0 R2

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Pastikan tes Ping diatas berhasil semua. Gunakan command prompt di Laptop untuk tes Ping,
caranya klik LaptopX -> pilih tab Desktop -> pilih Command Prompt -> ketikkan ping
IP_Tujuan (Enter).

Menampilkan informasi full konfigurasi router


NXT-R1#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1742 bytes


!
version 15.2
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
service password-encryption
!
hostname NXT-R1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
!
security passwords min-length 6
enable secret 4 3mxoP2KRPf3sFHYl6Vm6.ssJJi9tOJqqb6DMG/YH5No
!
no aaa new-model
!
(skip)
 Gunakan tombol Enter untuk menampilkan per baris
 Gunakan tombol Space untuk menampilkan per screen
 Gunakan tombol q untuk exit dari tampilan konfigurasi router
Cek konfigurasi yang sudah diinputkan apakah ada yang salah atau tidak.

Menampilkan informasi interface


NXT-R1#show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.254 YES manual up
up
FastEthernet1/0 12.12.12.1 YES manual up
up

Dari tampilan informasi interface, cek apakah IP yang sudah diconfig sudah sesuai tabel
addressing atau belum.

Tes konektivitas antar router R1 dan R2


Lakukan tes Ping dari R1 ke R2 dan sebaliknya. Ping pertama success rate masih 80%.
NXT-R1#ping 12.12.12.2
Type escape sequence to abort.

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Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 12.12.12.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max =
0/986/3944 ms

Ulangi tes Ping sampai success rate 100%.


Coba lakukan ping dari Laptop1 dan Laptop2, apakah berhasil?
Karena belum ada routing protocol, maka Laptop1 dan Laptop2 tidak berhasil ping.

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Lab 12. Konfigurasi Telnet dan SSH Router

Topologi

Tabel Addressing

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Melanjutkan konfigurasi Lab 11
 Remote access R1 dan R2 menggunakan telnet dan SSH

Konsep Dasar
Untuk mensetting router menggunakan command line dapat kita lakukan dengan tiga cara yaitu
:

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 Console
Koneksi membutuhkan kabel console dan tidak memerlukan settingan IP address pada
sisi router maupun Laptop
 Telnet
Koneksi membutuhkan kabel UTP dan memerlukan settingan IP address pada sisi
router maupun Laptop. Komunikasi telnet bersifat clear-text protocol, sehingga masih
ada kekurangan dari sisi keamanan yaitu password dapat dengan mudah dilihat
menggunakan packet sniffer.
 SSH
Koneksi membutuhkan kabel UTP dan memerlukan settingan IP address pada sisi
router maupun Laptop. Komunikasi SSH bersifat encrypted protocol (enkripsi), sehingga
lebih aman dibandingkan dengan telnet.

Konfigurasi
R1 maupun R2 telah dikonfigurasi telnet dengan command line vty 0 4.

Agar kita dapat melakukan akses telnet ke router, command enable password atau enable
secret harus disetting terlebih dahulu.

Pada topologi, R1 dan R2 sudah disetting akses telnet dengan password ciscovty dan enable
secret ciscosec (Lihat Lab 1-Basic Cisco Configuration). Oleh karena itu, kita langsung dapat
meremote telnet R1 dan R2. Akan tetapi, sebelum Laptop1 dan Laptop2 meremote router
mengguakan telnet, Laptop1 dan Laptop2 harus disetting IP addressnya sesuai dengan tabel
addressing diatas. Kemudian lakukan tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke R1 dan Laptop2 ke R2 dan
pastikan berhasil tes konektivitasnya antara Laptop dan router.

Setting IP address Laptop1

Klik Laptop1 -> Pilih tab Desktop -> Klik IP Configuration -> Inputkan IP address sesuai tabel
addressing diatas.

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Verifikasi
Setelah disetting IP address Laptop1, kemudian lakukan tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke interface
Fa0/0 R1 menggunakan command prompt. Interface Fa0/0 R1 berfungsi sebagai gateway
Laptop1.

Tampilkan konfigurasi Laptop1


Laptop>ipconfig

FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)

Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::201:43FF:FE3A:AEC2


IP Address......................: 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.1.254

Dan hasil tes Ping tampil reply seperti dibawah ini.

Laptop>ping 192.168.1.254

Pinging 192.168.1.254 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.1.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

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Ping statistics for 192.168.1.254:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Telnet dari Laptop1 ke R1


Setelah berhasil terhubung ke service telnet router, inputkan password telnet ciscovty dan
ketikkan command enable, kemudian inputkan password ciscosec.

Laptop>telnet 192.168.1.254
Trying 192.168.1.254 ...Open

Unauthorized access prohibited!

User Access Verification

Password:
R1>enable
Password:

Muncul login access dan banner yang isinya “Unauthorized access prohibited!”.

Akses telnet dari Laptop1 ke R1 sudah berhasil. Dengan telnet kita bisa meremote router dari
mana saja asalkan ada koneksi dari user ke router.

Username dan Password telnet

Agar saat telnet router tidak hanya ditanyakan password saja, akan tetapi ditanyakan username
juga maka perlu kita tambahkan konfigurasi database local dan ubah agar database local router
digunakan oleh line vty 0 4.
NXT-R1(config)#username netadmin secret netadmin
NXT-R1(config)#line vty 0 4
NXT-R1(config-line)#login local

Lakukan telnet ulang dari Laptop1 ke R1. Pastikan muncul permintaan mengisikan username
dan password.

Konfigurasi SSH di R1

Tujuan mensetting SSH di router yaitu untuk meningkatkan keamanan akses router, karena
dengan SSH komunikasi antar Laptop dan router dienkripsi sehingga menyulitkan proses
sniffing password dengan menggunakan packet sniffer.

Langkah mengaktifkan SSH di router:

1. Setting domain router


2. Setting username dan password login
3. Setting transport input all di line vty
4. Generate crypto rsa key 1024
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NXT-R1>enable
NXT-R1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
NXT-R1(config)#ip domain-name NIXTRAIN.com
NXT-R1(config)#username admin secret ciscossh
NXT-R1(config)#line vty 0 4
NXT-R1(config-line)#transport input all
NXT-R1(config-line)#login local
NXT-R1(config-line)#exit
NXT-R1(config)#crypto key generate rsa
The name for the keys will be: NXT-R1.NIXTRAIN.com
Choose the size of the key modulus in the range of 360 to 2048 for
your
General Purpose Keys. Choosing a key modulus greater than 512 may
take
a few minutes.

How many bits in the modulus [512]: 1024


% Generating 1024 bit RSA keys, keys will be non-exportable...[OK]

R1(config)#exit
*Mar 3 2:27:58.564: %SSH-5-ENABLED: SSH 1.99 has been enabled
NXT-R1#

transport input all = agar Laptop1 dapat melakukan telnet dan SSH. Kalo hanya
memperbolehkan akses saja maka dikonfigurasi transport input ssh.

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Section 6: Basic Switching

Frame Type
 Tiga tipe frame bisa dibuat oleh host dan dikirimkan oleh switch:

Tipe Frame Karakteristik


 Unicast frame dikirim ke satu penerima
 MAC Address penerima di insert ke field frame bagian
Destination MAC Address
Unicast  Ketika switch menerima unicast frame, switch akan mengecek
CAM / MAC Address table untuk menentukan port dimana
destination host terhubung lalu akan melakukan forward ke port
tersebut
 Broadcast frame dikirim ke semua interface pada segmen network
yang sama
 MAC Address destination di set menjadi FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
Broadcast  Ketika switch menerima broadcast frame, switch akan melakukan
flooding ke semua port
 Broadcast frame biasanya digunakan oleh protocol ARP dan
DHCP
 Multicast frame dikirim ke beberapa penerima
 Destination MAC Address diset unik sesuai alamat protocol,
Multicast aplikasi multicast
 Hanya member multicast group yang akan memproses frame,
yang lain akan mengabaikan frame

Broadcast dan Collision Domain


 Collision domain: network / subnetwork dimana device berbagi medium transmisi yang
sama dan bisa terjadi trabrakan. Collision secara natural akan meningkat sesuai jumlah
device pada collision domain.
 Broadcast domain: network / subnetwork dimana device menerima broadcast frame dari
device lain.

Tipe Frame Karakteristik


 Unicast frame dikirim ke satu penerima
 MAC Address penerima di insert ke field frame bagian
Destination MAC Address
Unicast  Ketika switch menerima unicast frame, switch akan mengecek
CAM / MAC Address table untuk menentukan port dimana
destination host terhubung lalu akan melakukan forward ke port
tersebut
 Broadcast frame dikirim ke semua interface pada segmen network
yang sama
 MAC Address destination di set menjadi FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
Broadcast  Ketika switch menerima broadcast frame, switch akan melakukan
flooding ke semua port
 Broadcast frame biasanya digunakan oleh protocol ARP dan
DHCP
Multicast  Multicast frame dikirim ke beberapa penerima
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Tipe Frame Karakteristik
 Destination MAC Address diset unik sesuai alamat protocol,
aplikasi multicast
 Hanya member multicast group yang akan memproses frame,
yang lain akan mengabaikan frame

Switch Configuration Mode

Mode CLI Detail


 Konfigurasi interface swith
o Ethernet (10 Mbps Ethernet)
Interface
Switch(config-if)# o FastEthernet (100 Mbps Ethernet)
configuration
o GigabitEthernet (1 GB Ethernet)
o VLAN
Config-vlan Switch(config-vlan)#  Untuk konfigurasi VLAN
VLAN
Switch(vlan)#  Konfigurasi subset VLAN
configuration
Line  Konfigurasi parameter line terminal, misalnya
Switch(config-line)#
configuration line console, Telnet, dan SSH

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Lab 13. Inisialisasi Switch

Topologi

Tujuan

 Inisialisasi switch
 Buat topologi menggunakan switch seri 2960 dan Laptop

Konsep Dasar
Sebelum mengerjakan lab, pastikan switch tidak memiliki startup-config dan konfigurasi VLAN.
Oleh karena itu, lakukan inisialisasi switch dengan cara menghapus konfigurasi startup-config
dan VLAN.

Konfigurasi

 Koneksikan Laptop dan switch menggunakan kabel Console dan FastEthernet


 Login console switch melalui hyperterminal Laptop
 Hapus konfigurasi switch
 Reboot switch

Verifikasi

 Cek konfigurasi default switch


 Cek konfigurasi default VLAN

Konfigurasi

Buat topologi. Pilih switch seri 2960.

Console switch dari Laptop melalui kabel Console.

Klik Laptop -> pilih Tab Desktop -> pilih Terminal.

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Gunakan default setting terminal. Kemudian klik OK dan tekan Enter.

Hapus konfigurasi switch yang disimpan di file startup-config

Switch>enable
Switch#erase startup-config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files!
Continue? [confirm]
[OK]
Erase of nvram: complete
%SYS-7-NV_BLOCK_INIT: Initialized the geometry of nvram

Command erase startup-config juga berlaku di router untuk menghapus konfigurasi


router / mereset setting router kembali ke default setting.

Hapus konfigurasi VLAN switch

Switch#delete vlan.dat
Delete filename [vlan.dat]?
Delete flash:/vlan.dat? [confirm]
%Error deleting flash:/vlan.dat (No such file or directory)

Perintah diatas muncul Error artinya switch tidak memiliki konfigurasi VLAN. Apabila switch
memiliki konfigurasi VLAN maka outputnya kosong (tidak menampilkan Error).

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Sebelum menghapus konfigurasi vlan, kita bisa cek dulu apakah ada konfig VLAN atau tidak
dengan show flash.

Switch#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-


25.FX.bin
3 -rw- 1033 <no date> config.text

Tidak ada konfigurasi VLAN. Coba bandingkan dengan output dibawah ini, misalkan konfigurasi
VLAN ada di Switch.

Switch#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-


25.FX.bin
3 -rw- 1033 <no date> config.text
4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat
NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

Perhatikan output diatas, terdapat konfigurasi VLAN yang disimpan di file vlan.dat. Oleh karena
itu, untuk reset konfigurasi switch selain erase startup-config ditambah delete
vlan.dat.

Reboot Switch

Switch#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

Switch sudah di reset konfigurasinya.

Verifikasi

Setelah di reboot, tampilkan output running-config default switch:

Switch>enable
Switch#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1043 bytes


!
version 12.2
no service timestamps log datetime msec
no service timestamps debug datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname Switch
!
!
!

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!
!
spanning-tree mode pvst
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
!
interface FastEthernet0/2
!
interface FastEthernet0/3
!
interface FastEthernet0/4
!
interface FastEthernet0/5
!
interface FastEthernet0/6
!
interface FastEthernet0/7
!
interface FastEthernet0/8
!
interface FastEthernet0/9
!
interface FastEthernet0/10
!
interface FastEthernet0/11
!
interface FastEthernet0/12
!
interface FastEthernet0/13
!
interface FastEthernet0/14
!
interface FastEthernet0/15
!
interface FastEthernet0/16
!
interface FastEthernet0/17
!
interface FastEthernet0/18
!
interface FastEthernet0/19
!
interface FastEthernet0/20
!
interface FastEthernet0/21
!
interface FastEthernet0/22
!
interface FastEthernet0/23
!
interface FastEthernet0/24
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1

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!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
!
interface Vlan1
no ip address
shutdown
!
!
!
!
line con 0
!
line vty 0 4
login
line vty 5 15
login
!
!
end

Switch memiliki konfigurasi default seperti diatas. Konfigurasi masih kosong.

Tampilkan output konfigurasi VLAN

Switch#show vlan

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24
Gig0/1, Gig0/2
1002 fddi-default act/unsup
1003 token-ring-default act/unsup
1004 fddinet-default act/unsup
1005 trnet-default act/unsup

VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2
---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ ------
1 enet 100001 1500 - - - - - 0 0
1002 fddi 101002 1500 - - - - - 0 0
1003 tr 101003 1500 - - - - - 0 0
1004 fdnet 101004 1500 - - - ieee - 0 0
1005 trnet 101005 1500 - - - ibm - 0 0

Remote SPAN VLANs


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Primary Secondary Type Ports


------- --------- ----------------- ------------------------------------------

Default switch memiliki 1 VLAN yaitu VLAN 1 dan semua port di assign ke VLAN 1.

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Lab 14. Konfigurasi Basic Switch

Topologi

Tujuan

 Basic Switch Configuration


 Remote management address Switch
 Buat topologi menggunakan Switch seri 2960, Router seri 1941, dan Laptop

Konsep Dasar
Setelah Switch di reset konfigurasinya pada lab sebelumnya dan hasilnya kembali ke default
setting, selanjutnya lakukan setting basic switch dan IP address+gateway agar bisa di remote
dari manapun. Gateway berupa IP interface R1 sebagai jalan keluar menuju network beda
segment. Dengan disetting IP address dan gateway, S1 dapat mengakses/diakses dari network
luar.

Konfigurasi

 Konfigurasi basic switch


 Konfigurasi IP address dan gateway switch

Verifikasi

 Cek konfiguasi IP address switch


 Ping dari Laptop1 ke S1
 Telnet dari Laptop1 ke S1

Konfigurasi basic switch

Login console Switch -> Enter

Switch con0 is now available

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Press RETURN to get started.

Mode user ditandai dengan >

Switch>

Mode privilege (atau mode enable) ditandai dengan #. Untuk masuk mode privilege ketikkan
perintah enable.

Switch> enable
Switch#

Mode global ditandai dengan (config)#. Untuk masuk mode global ketikkan perintah
configure terminal.

Switch# configure terminal


Switch(config)#

Memberikan nama device switch

Switch(config)# hostname NXT-S1

Disable DNS lookup untuk mencegah switch melakukan translasi command yang salah ketik

NXT-S1(config)# no ip domain-lookup

Setting password privilege terenkripsi ciscosec

NXT-S1(config)# enable secret ciscosec

Setting password line console: ciscocon. Aktifkan timeout command sehingga jika selama 8
menit 0 second tidak ada aktifitas maka console akan logout sendiri. Tujuannya untuk
keamanan. Aktikan logging synchronous untuk sinkronisasi output debug dan Cisco IOS
sehigga tidak mengganggu pada saat input command.

NXT-S1(config)# line console 0


NXT-S1(config-line)# password ciscocon
NXT-S1(config-line)# exec-timeout 8 0
NXT-S1(config-line)# logging synchronous
NXT-S1(config-line)# login

Setting password line vty: ciscovty. 0 4 menyatakan jumlah concurrent user login sebanyak 0
sampai 4 user, total ada 5 user.

NXT-S1(config)# line vty 0 4


NXT-S1(config-line)# password ciscovty
NXT-S1(config-line)# exec-timeout 8 0
NXT-S1(config-line)# logging synchronous
NXT-S1(config-line)# login

Enable enkripsi clear text passwords, contoh password yang tidak di enkripsi: password line
console, line vty dan enable password.
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NXT-S1(config)# service password-encryption

Buat banner untuk memberikan warning kepada user yang mencoba login namun tidak memiliki
otorisasi. MOTD = message of the day

NXT-S1(config)# banner motd #Selain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login#

Setting IP address dan interface description.

NXT-S1(config)# interface vlan 1


NXT-S1(config-if)# description Connection to VLAN 1
NXT-S1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
NXT-S1(config-if)# no shutdown

Setting default gateway

NXT-S1(config-if)# ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254

Exit dari mode global ke mode privilege dapat menggukan perintah exit, tombol CTRL+Z atau
perintah end.

NXT-S1(config-if)#exit
NXT-S1(config)#exit
NXT-S1#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

NXT-S1(config-if)#^Z
NXT-S1#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

NXT-S1(config-if)#end
NXT-S1#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Menyimpan konfigurasi switch dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara: copy running-config
startup-config atau write memory

NXT-S1#copy running-config startup-config


Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]

atau

NXT-S1#write memory
Building configuration...
[OK]

72 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Verifikasi

Tampilkan output running-confing switch

NXT-S1#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1389 bytes


!
version 12.2
no service timestamps log datetime msec
no service timestamps debug datetime msec
service password-encryption
!
hostname NXT-S1
!
enable secret 5 $1$mERr$thF1sEHJ9Dl2J3WzXxyZ1/
!
!
!
no ip domain-lookup
!
!
spanning-tree mode pvst
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
!
interface FastEthernet0/2
!
interface FastEthernet0/3
!
interface FastEthernet0/4
!
interface FastEthernet0/5
!
interface FastEthernet0/6
!
interface FastEthernet0/7
!
interface FastEthernet0/8
!
interface FastEthernet0/9
!
interface FastEthernet0/10
!
interface FastEthernet0/11
!
interface FastEthernet0/12
!
interface FastEthernet0/13
!
interface FastEthernet0/14
!
interface FastEthernet0/15
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!
interface FastEthernet0/16
!
interface FastEthernet0/17
!
interface FastEthernet0/18
!
interface FastEthernet0/19
!
interface FastEthernet0/20
!
interface FastEthernet0/21
!
interface FastEthernet0/22
!
interface FastEthernet0/23
!
interface FastEthernet0/24
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
!
interface Vlan1
description Connection to VLAN 1
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
!
ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
!
banner motd ^CSelain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login^C
!
!
!
line con 0
password 7 0822455D0A1606181C
logging synchronous
login
exec-timeout 8 0
!
line vty 0 4
exec-timeout 8 0
password 7 0822455D0A1613030B
logging synchronous
login
line vty 5 15
login
!
!
end

Tampilkan hanya interface vlan 1 saja

NXT-S1#show ip interface brief

74 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol

(tekan Enter sampai baris paling bawah)

Vlan1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up up

Pastikan IP VLAN1 sudah benar dan statusnya UP UP.

Cek IP address Laptop1

PC>ipconfig /all

FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)

Connection-specific DNS Suffix..:


Physical Address................: 0040.0BBE.A832
Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::240:BFF:FEBE:A832
IP Address......................: 192.168.1.3
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.1.254
DNS Servers.....................: 0.0.0.0
DHCP Servers....................: 0.0.0.0
DHCPv6 Client DUID..............: 00-01-00-01-1E-21-94-A5-00-40-
0B-BE-A8-32

Pastikan IP Laptop1 sudah benar.

Ping dari Laptop1 ke S1

Laptop1>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Pastikan ping berhasil dari Laptop1 ke S1.

Telnet dari Laptop1 ke S1

Laptop1>telnet 192.168.1.1
Trying 192.168.1.1 ...OpenSelain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login

User Access Verification

Password:
75 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
NXT-S1>

Pastikan S1 bisa ditelnet dari Laptop1. Pada saat input password telnet tidak tampil karakter
password yang diketikkan pada kolom Password. Setelah password diinputkan tekan Enter.

Cek ping dari S1 ke Laptop1

NXT-S1#ping 192.168.1.3

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms

Ping S1 ke Laptop1 dan sebaliknya sudah berhasil.

76 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 15. Konfigurasi Telnet dan SSH Switch

Topologi

Tujuan

 Melanjutkan konfigurasi sebelumnya


 Konfigurasi SSH untuk remote access switch yang lebih aman dibandingkan telnet

Konsep Dasar
Telnet sudah diaktifkan pada Lab sebelumnya dengan perintah line vty 0 4. Selanjutnya
mensetting SSH. Tujuan mensetting SSH di switch yaitu untuk meningkatkan keamanan akses
switch, karena dengan SSH komunikasi antar Laptop dan switch dienkripsi sehingga
menyulitkan proses sniffing password dengan menggunakan packet sniffer.

Konfigurasi

 Konfigurasi domain router


 Konfigurasi username dan password login menggunakan database local
 Konfigurasi transport input ssh di line vty 0 4
 Generate crypto rsa key 1024

Verifikasi

 Cek konfigurasi SSH switch


 Cek version SSH
 Cek SSH session
 Akses SSH dari Laptop ke switch

Konfigurasi SSH Switch

NXT-S1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
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NXT-S1(config)#ip domain-name NIXTRAIN.com
NXT-S1(config)#username admin secret ciscossh
NXT-S1(config)#line vty 0 4
NXT-S1(config-line)#transport input ssh
NXT-S1(config-line)#login local
NXT-S1(config-line)#exit
NXT-S1(config)#crypto key generate rsa
The name for the keys will be: NXT-S1.NIXTRAIN.com
Choose the size of the key modulus in the range of 360 to 2048 for
your
General Purpose Keys. Choosing a key modulus greater than 512 may
take
a few minutes.

How many bits in the modulus [512]: 1024


% Generating 1024 bit RSA keys, keys will be non-exportable...[OK]

Verifikasi

Tampilkan output show running-config

NXT-S1#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1501 bytes


!
version 12.2
no service timestamps log datetime msec
no service timestamps debug datetime msec
service password-encryption
!
hostname NXT-S1
!
enable secret 5 $1$mERr$thF1sEHJ9Dl2J3WzXxyZ1/
!
!
!
no ip domain-lookup
ip domain-name NIXTRAIN.com
!
username admin secret 5 $1$mERr$SIAhNGTETLPi.cdWVTrDn1
!
!
spanning-tree mode pvst
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
!
interface FastEthernet0/2
!
interface FastEthernet0/3
!
interface FastEthernet0/4
!
interface FastEthernet0/5
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!
interface FastEthernet0/6
!
interface FastEthernet0/7
!
interface FastEthernet0/8
!
interface FastEthernet0/9
!
interface FastEthernet0/10
!
interface FastEthernet0/11
!
interface FastEthernet0/12
!
interface FastEthernet0/13
!
interface FastEthernet0/14
!
interface FastEthernet0/15
!
interface FastEthernet0/16
!
interface FastEthernet0/17
!
interface FastEthernet0/18
!
interface FastEthernet0/19
!
interface FastEthernet0/20
!
interface FastEthernet0/21
!
interface FastEthernet0/22
!
interface FastEthernet0/23
!
interface FastEthernet0/24
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/2
!
interface Vlan1
description Connection to VLAN 1
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
!
ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
!
banner motd ^CSelain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login^C
!
!
!

79 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


line con 0
password 7 0822455D0A1606181C
logging synchronous
login
exec-timeout 8 0
!
line vty 0 4
exec-timeout 8 0
password 7 0822455D0A1613030B
logging synchronous
login local
transport input ssh
line vty 5 15
login
!
!
end

Cek versi SSH

NXT-S1#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 1.99
Authentication timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3

Cek SSH login dari S1 ke dirinya sendiri

username admin, password ciscossh

NXT-S1#ssh -v 2 -l admin 192.168.1.1


Open
Password:

Selain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login

NXT-S1>

Login SSH berhasil.

Cek SSH login dari Laptop1 ke S1

Laptop1>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
80 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
Laptop1>ssh -l admin 192.168.1.1
Open
Password:

Selain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login

NXT-S1>

Login SSH dari Laptop berhasil.

Cek SSH Session

NXT-S1#show ssh
Connection Version Mode Encryption Hmac State Username
2 1.99 IN aes128-cbc hmac-sha1 Session Started admin
2 1.99 OUT aes128-cbc hmac-sha1 Session Started admin
%No SSHv1 server connections running.

Coba sekarang login telnet dari Laptop, apakah berhasil? Untuk keluar dari SSH login dari
Laptop gunakan perintah exit.

Laptop1>telnet 192.168.1.1
Trying 192.168.1.1 ...Open

[Connection to 192.168.1.1 closed by foreign host]

Ternyata tidak berhasil login telnet setelah dikonfigurasi SSH. Mengapa demikian?

NXT-S1(config-line)#transport input ssh

Perhatikan baris transport input ssh di line vty 0 4. Switch hanya memperbolehkan
SSH login saja. Agar telnet dan SSH bisa digunakan untuk login, konfigurasi transport
input all di Switch.

NXT-S1(config)#line vty 0 4
NXT-S1(config-line)#transport input all

Cek login telnet dan SSH dari Laptop.

Laptop1>telnet 192.168.1.1
Trying 192.168.1.1 ...OpenSelain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login

User Access Verification

Username: admin
Password:
NXT-S1>
NXT-S1>exit

[Connection to 192.168.1.1 closed by foreign host]


81 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
PC>
Laptop1>ssh -l admin 192.168.1.1
Open
Password:

Selain staf NE PT.NXT dilarang login

NXT-S1>

Sekarang akses telnet dan SSH sudah diperbolehkan.

Cek rsa key yang sudah di generate

NXT-S1#sh crypto key mypubkey rsa


% Key pair was generated at: 5:31:18 UTC Mar 1 1993
Key name: NXT-S1.NIXTRAIN.com
Storage Device: not specified
Usage: General Purpose Key
Key is not exportable.
Key Data:
00000cc9 000001c7 000028f9 00002c4f 0000553b 0000289f
00004f29 000017dc
00006d7f 00006f53 00006bd1 000011d8 000028ea 00007530
00001519 00003b9f
000037fa 00002b13 0000317f 00007685 00007844 00003386
0000676f 6517
% Key pair was generated at: 5:31:18 UTC Mar 1 1993
Key name: NXT-S1.NIXTRAIN.com.server
Temporary key
Usage: Encryption Key
Key is not exportable.
Key Data:
000000ad 00000e2d 00002b13 000011a3 00003ddd 00001261
00005e6c 00005dfa
000032f1 00007d1a 000037a2 00002074 00003270 00001612
00006198 00001235
00002381 00003027 00000ac4 000072af 0000275b 00000901
0000563e 0468

Apabila SSH bermasalah karena RSA key-nya, Anda hapus dulu RSA key-nya lalu generate
RSA lagi.

NXT-S1(config)#crypto key zeroize rsa


% All RSA keys will be removed.
% All router certs issued using these keys will also be removed.
Do you really want to remove these keys? [yes/no]: yes

82 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 16. Hardware & Software Information

Topologi

Tujuan

 Menampilkan informasi hardware Cisco switch


 Menampilkan informasi software Cisco switch

Konsep Dasar
Login S1 dan tampilkan informasi tentang hardware dan software switch. Tujuannya adalah
untuk mengetahui detail hardware dan software yang digunakan oleh switch. Jika nanti ada
proses pergantian part atau IOS dapat diketahui dengan benar seri dan versi yang digunakan.

Ketikkan show version

NXT-S1#show version
Cisco IOS Software, C2960 Software (C2960-LANBASE-M), Version 12.2(25)FX,
RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 12-Oct-05 22:05 by pt_team

ROM: C2960 Boot Loader (C2960-HBOOT-M) Version 12.2(25r)FX, RELEASE


SOFTWARE (fc4)

System returned to ROM by power-on

Cisco WS-C2960-24TT (RC32300) processor (revision C0) with 21039K bytes of


memory.

24 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)


2 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)

63488K bytes of flash-simulated non-volatile configuration memory.


Base ethernet MAC Address : 0002.17AB.594A
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Motherboard assembly number : 73-9832-06
Power supply part number : 341-0097-02
Motherboard serial number : FOC103248MJ
Power supply serial number : DCA102133JA
Model revision number : B0
Motherboard revision number : C0
Model number : WS-C2960-24TT
System serial number : FOC1033Z1EY
Top Assembly Part Number : 800-26671-02
Top Assembly Revision Number : B0
Version ID : V02
CLEI Code Number : COM3K00BRA
Hardware Board Revision Number : 0x01

Switch Ports Model SW Version SW Image


------ ----- ----- ---------- ----------
* 1 26 WS-C2960-24TT 12.2 C2960-LANBASE-M

Configuration register is 0xF

Software

Cisco IOS version : C2960 Software (C2960-LANBASE-M), Version 12.2(25)FX


Configuration register : 0xF

Hardware

Model Switch : WS-C2960-24TT


Interface :
1. 24 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3
2. 2 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
MAC Address : 0002.17AB.594A
RAM : 21039 kbytes
NVRAM : 63488 kbytes

Ketikkan show flash

NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-


25.FX.bin
3 -rw- 1389 <no date> config.text
4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat

64016384 bytes total (59599458 bytes free)

Flash : 64016384 bytes

84 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 17. Backup & Restore

Topologi

Tujuan

 Melanjutkan topologi dan konfigurasi sebelumnya, tambahkan TFTP-Server


 Backup IOS dan file config ke TFTP-Server
 Restore IOS dan file config dari TFTP-Server

Konsep Dasar
Proses backup penting dilakukan apabila router maupun switch sering terjadi Error, sehingga
bisa langsung di restore dari konfigurasi sebelumnya yang telah di backup. Untuk proses
backup ini butuh server TFTP. Anda dapat menggunakan Solarwind TFTP Server secara gratis.
Download saja dari web official solarwind. Satu hal penting yang harus dikonfigurasi agar
proses backup/restore berhasil yaitu antara TFTP dan router/switch bisa komunikasi ping. Oleh
karena itu, minimal konfigurasi yang dibutuhkan keduanya yaitu IP address.

Verifikasi

 Pastikan bisa ping antara TFTP dan switch sebelum backup/restore


 Cek dan pastikan yang dibackup file startup-config terbaru

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Siapkan TFTP Server

Tambahkan Server-PT sebagai TFTP-Server sesuai dengan topologi diatas. Koneksikan ke


switch. Klik TFTP-Server -> pilih Services -> TFTP.

Pastikan TFTP Service sudah On. Agar dapat melihat hasil backup dengan mudah, hapus
semua file yang ada di TFTP Services, caranya klik file image paling atas, lalu klik Remove File
berulang sampai kosong.

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Setting IP address TFTP-Server

Ping dari TFTP-Server ke switch

SERVER>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Ping berhasil.

Ping dari switch ke Laptop

NXT-S1#ping 192.168.1.11

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.11, timeout is 2
seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms

Ping berhasil dari switch ke Laptop maupun sebaliknya.

Proses Backup

Tampilkan file Cisco IOS yang akan di backup.

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NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin


3 -rw- 1389 <no date> config.text
4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat

64016384 bytes total (59599458 bytes free)

Jalankan perintah backup Cisco IOS

NXT-S1#copy flash tftp


Source filename []? c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin
Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.11
Destination filename [c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin]?

Writing c2960-lanbase-mz.122-
25.FX.bin...!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 4414921 bytes]

4414921 bytes copied in 0.054 secs (2221364 bytes/sec)

Jalankan perintah backup file running-config

NXT-S1#copy running-config tftp


Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.11
Destination filename [NXT-S1-confg]? NXT-S1-running-config

Writing running-config...!!
[OK - 1480 bytes]

1480 bytes copied in 0 secs

Cek TFTP-Server apakah proses backup sudah berhasil atau belum?

88 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Proses backup telah berhasil. Jika switch Anda rusak, daripada konfigurasi dari awal, Anda bisa
gunakan file hasil backup untuk deployment switch baru. Jadi tidak perlu repot-repot konfigurasi
dari awal lagi.

Proses Restore

Misalkan S1 mati sehingga tidak berfungsi lagi, dan kita akan deploy switch baru, kita namakan
Switch-Restore. Karena kita sudah punya file config backupnya, bisa dengan mudah langsung
kita restore. Namun, sebelumnya Switch-Restore harus disetting IP address terlebih dahulu
agar bisa ping ke TFTP-Server.

Anda dapat melihat topologi restore dibawah ini:

Konfigurasi IP Switch dan end-to-end connectivy antara Switch-Restore dengan TFTP-Server.

Switch-Restore(config)#int vlan 1
Switch-Restore(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.12 255.255.255.0
Switch-Restore(config-if)#no shutdown
Switch-Restore(config-if)#
Switch-Restore(config-if)#do ping 192.168.1.11

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.11, timeout is 2
seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms

Switch-Restore(config-if)#do ping 192.168.1.11

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.11, timeout is 2
seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms

Pastikan ping berhasil.

Dari output tersebut, koneksi antara TFTP-Server dengan Switch-Restore tidak ada masalah.
Keduanya bisa saling ping.

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Jalakan perintah restore file config

Switch-Restore#copy tftp running-config


Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.11
Source filename []? NXT-S1-running-config
Destination filename [running-config]?

Accessing tftp://192.168.1.11/NXT-S1-running-config...
Loading NXT-S1-running-config from 192.168.1.11: !
[OK - 1480 bytes]

1480 bytes copied in 0 secs


NXT-S1#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

NXT-S1#

Perhatikan proses restore diatas sudah berhasil. 1480 bytes berhasil dicopy dari TFTP-Server
ke Switch-Restore. Kemudian hostname yang sebelumnya Switch-Restore berubah menjadi
NXT-S1. Berarti sekarang NXT-S1 lama sudah digantikan oleh NXT-S1 yang baru.

Misalnya kita ingin merestore Cisco IOS, bisa jalankan perintah dibawah ini:

Hapus dulu file Cisco IOS

NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-


25.FX.bin
3 -rw- 1389 <no date> config.text
4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat

64016384 bytes total (59599458 bytes free)


NXT-S1#delete flash:
Delete filename []?c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin
Delete flash:/c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin? [confirm]

NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

3 -rw- 1389 <no date> config.text


4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat

64016384 bytes total (64014379 bytes free)

File Cisco IOS sudah dihapus. Selanjutnya jalankan perintah restore Cisco IOS

NXT-S1#copy tftp flash:


Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.11
Source filename []? c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin
Destination filename [c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin]?

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Accessing tftp://192.168.1.11/c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin...
Loading c2960-lanbase-mz.122-25.FX.bin from 192.168.1.11:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 4414921 bytes]

Proses restore Cisco IOS berhasil.

Cek apakah sudah masuk flash atau belum?

NXT-S1#show flash
Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 4414921 <no date> c2960-lanbase-mz.122-


25.FX.bin
3 -rw- 1389 <no date> config.text
4 -rw- 616 <no date> vlan.dat

64016384 bytes total (59599458 bytes free)

Cisco IOS sudah ada di flash, berarti proses restore berhasil.

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Section 7: Spanning Tree Protocol
Overview STP
 Menyediakan fault-tolerance / redundant path antar device menggunakan multiple switch
 Meskipun demikian, menyediakan redundant path antara segmen menyebabkan paket
yang akan lewat jalur tersebut berlebihan sehingga menyebabkan bridging loop
 Dapat diubah konfigurasinya sesuai kebutuhan
 Mampu melakukan recovery otomatis apabila ada perubahan topologi atau device yang
rusak
 Mengidentifikasi jalur yang optimal antara dua network device
 Untuk mencegah bridge loop, dibuatlah standard IEEE 802.1d yang disebut sebagai
standar spanning-tree protocol (STP) atau spanning-tree algorithm (STA)
 Dengan protocol STP, satu bridge / switch ditunjuk sebagai designated bridge. Hanya
designated bridge yang bisa meneruskan packet. Redundant switch / bridge yang lain
sebagai backup.

Proses STP
1. PC A ingin berkomunikasi dengan PC B. PC A mengirimkan broadcast, yaitu Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) untuk mencari dimana lokasi PC B. Ketika SwA menerima
broadcast frame, switch akan memforward ke semua port kecuali port asal packet
diterima. SwA akan memforward keluar ke port Fa0/0 dan Fa0/1.

2. Misalkan SwB menerima broadcast frame lebih cepat dari Fa0/0, maka SwB akan
memforward keluar ke dua port yaitu Fa0/5 dan Fa0/1.

3. Lalu broadcast frame yang lain dari SwA datang ke Fa0/1 SwB maka SwB akan
memforward frame ke Fa0/0 dan Fa0/5.

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4. Seperti yang Anda lihat, SwA sudah mengirimkan 2 broadcast frame keluar port Fa0/0
dan Fa0/1, dan SwB menerima semua broadcast frame, sehingga terdapat 2 copy, yang
satu dikirim balik ke SwA dan yang lain dikirim ke PC B.
5. Ketika SwA menerima broadcast ini maka akan dikirimkan lagi ke SwB, begitu
seterusnya sampai network down. Fenomena ini disebut dengan broadcast storm.
6. Broadcast storm menghabiskan banyak bandwidth dan mengganggu trafik network
normal. Broadcast storm menjadi permasalah serius dan bisa membuat down network
dalam sekian detik. Masalah lain yang muncul yaitu pengiriman multiple frame, MAC
database tidak stabil. Dari permasalahan ini Anda sekarang tahu ketika tidak ada
pencegahan looping di network. Semua permasalahan looping bisa diatasi oleh protocol
STP.
7. Oleh karena itu, STP mencegah loop dengan melakukan blocking disalah satu port
switch, dengan blocking port Fa0/0 SwA, maka tidak ada lagi data yang dikirim balik dan
loop di network bisa di eliminasi.

Cara Kerja STP


STP harus menjalankan tiga langkah ini agar topologi network bebas loop:

1. Memilih satu root bridge


2. Memilih satu root port tiap non root bridge
3. Memilih satu designated port tiap masing-masing segment

Berikut ini penjelasan detail dari awal pemilihan root bridge:

1. Pemilihan root bridge

Ketika pertama kali switch dinyalakan, maka switch akan segera mengklaim dirinya sebagai
root bridge, lalu mengirimkan multicast frame keluar yang disebut dengan Bridge Protocol
Data Unit (BPDU), yang digunakan untuk pertukaran informasi STP antar switch.

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BPDU berisi banyak field, namun ada 4 yang paling penting untuk operasi STP agar
berjalan dengan baik.

The Bridge IDs of the Root Bridge and the Bridge ID of the Transmitting Bridge

Pada langkah inisial, masing-masing switch mengklaim sebagai root bridge maka bridge ID
dari root bridge dan bridge ID yang mengirim sama

Bridge ID terdiri dari nilai bridge priority (0 – 65535, 2 bytes) dan MAC Address bridge (6
byte)

Bridge ID = Bridge Priority + MAC Address

Contoh:

- Bridge priority SwA adalah 32768 dan MAC address : 0000.0000.9999 -> bridge ID SwA
32768:0000.0000.9999

- Bridge priority SwB adalah 32768 dan MAC address : 0000.0000.1111 -> bridge ID SwB
32768:0000.0000.1111

The root bridge is the bridge with the lowest bridge ID.

Bandingkan dua bridge ID, priority dibandingkan pertama kali. Jika kedua bridge memiliki
priority sama, maka bandingkan MAC addressnya. Dari contoh diatas, SwA dan SwB
memiliki bridge priority sama (32768), lalu bandingkan MAC address. Karena SwB memiliki
MAC address lebih rendah maka menjadi root bridge.

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Pada root bridge, semua port designated. Designated port berada pada forwarding state
dan bisa menerima maupun mengirim trafik.

Note: default priority bridge 32768. Administrator bisa menentukan bridge menjadi root
bridge dengan menurunkan priority value lebih kecil dari 32768. Dan harap di ingat,
perubahan value priority harus kelipatan 4096.

Kesimpulannya, STP menentukan switch menjadi root bridge dengan membandingkan


Bridge ID pada BPDU. Priority bridge dibandingkan terlebih dahulu, jika sama lalu
bandingkan MAC Address yang digunakan. Karena masing-masing switch memiliki MAC
address yang unik, maka hanya satu root bridge yang akan terpilih.

* The cost to reach the root from this bridge (Root Path Cost): value di set 0 diawal
proses pemilihan root bridge dan semua bridge mengklaim dirinya sebagai root bridge.
Range cost antara 0 – 65535 :

Cost (Revised IEEE Cost (Previous IEEE


Link Speed
Specification) Specification)
10 Gbps 2 1
1 Gbps 4 1
100 Mbps 19 10
10 Mbps 100 100

Path cost digunakan untuk pemilihan root port.


* The Port ID: port ID swith pengirim

2. Pemilihan root port per non-root bridge

Root port adalah port yang paling dekat ke root bridge, yang mana port tersebut menerima
BPDU dengan cost terkecil dari root bridge.

Setiap non-root bridge harus memiliki satu root port. Semua root port berada pada
forwarding state.

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Dengan contoh topologi diatas, misalkan upper link (antara Fa0/0 interface) 10 Mbps dan
lower link (antara Fa0/1 interface) 100 Mbps, maka Fa0/1 akan menjadi root port karena
memiliki cost lebih rendah dibandingkan Fa0/0 (cost 19 < cost 100).

3. Pemilihan satu designated port tiap masing-masing segmen

STP memilih satu designated port per segmen untuk forward trafik. Port switch yang lain
menjadi non-designated port dan di block. Oleh karena itu, interface Fa0/0 SwA akan
menjadi non-designated port (blocking state). Pada blocking state, meskipun switch tidak
bisa mengirim trafik tetapi masih menerima BPDU.

Sekarang network sudah mencapai kondisi converged. Konvergensi di STP terjadi ketika
semua port di bridge dan switch sudah berubah antara forwarding state atau blocking state.
Tidak ada data yang dikirim sampai konvergensi selesai, maka waktu konvergensi ketika
topologi network berubah menjadi sangat penting. Konvergensi yang cepat sangat
disarankan untuk network skala besar. Normal waktu konvergensi yaitu 50 detik untuk
802.1D STP, tetapi timer bisa disesuaikan.

STP Switch Port State


Ketika ada STP, setiap switch akan mengalami blocking state, kemudian berpindah menjadi
listening dan learning. Port akan stabil menjadi forwarding atau blocking state.

Can forward Transitory or


State Learn MAC? Timer
data? Stable State?
Max Age (20
Blocking No No Stable
sec)
Forward Delay
Listening No No Transitory
(15 sec)
Learning No Yes Forward Delay Transitory
Forwarding Yes Yes Stable

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Contoh lain dengan menggunakan topologi diatas, misalkan lower link 100 Mbps putus, apa
yang terjadi ?

Ketika lower link putus, SwA harus menunggu Max Age sebelum memulai transisi interface
Fa0/0 dari blocking state menjadi listening state. Pada kondisi listening state harus
menunggu Forward Delay untuk berpindah menjadi learning state. Selanjutnya akan
menunggu Forward Delay. Jika tidak ada BPDU yang diterima, maka port akan berada pada
kondisi forwarding state. Ada 3 periode menunggu (by default) 20, 15 dan 15 yang membuat
STP lama konvergensinya.

Demo dari Cisco : http://www.cisco.com/image/gif/paws/10556/spanning_tree1.swf

Max Age: berapa lama bridge menunggu ketika tidak mendapatkan hello, sebelum
melakukan perubahan topologi STP. Default 20 detik.

Forward Delay: delay yang diakibatkan oleh perubaha interface dari blocking state menjadi
forwarding state. Port berada dalam kondisi listening lalu learning state untuk beberapa
detik yang didefinisikan oleh forward delay.

Contoh lain, misalkan kita punya 3 switch seperti topologi dibawah ini:

Jika SwA terpilih menjadi root bridge, link antara SwB dan SwC ke block. Ketika STP
konvergen, port role bisa dilihat diatas.

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Misalkan link antara SwA dan SwB down, apa yang dilakukan oleh STP?

1. Pertama, P1 di SwB segera down dan SwB akan mengumumkan bahwa link ke SwA
down.
2. SwB menyarankan link yang menuju SwC (yang mana statusnya blocking) sebagai link
alternative untuk menjadi root port. SwB memulai transisi menjadi P2 dari blocking
state -> listening state -> learning state -> forwarding state. Masing-masing tahap
tersebut membutuhkan waktu 15 detik secara default. Oleh karena itu, port P2 akan di
hold menjadi blocking selama 30 detik sebelum network konvergen lagi. Downtime ini
agak lama dan user bisa merasakannya.

Downtime bisa dikurangi secara signifikan jika kita menggunakan RSTP.

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)


 Salah satu kekurangan besar dari STP yaitu konvergensi yang lambat dimana
konvergensi sangat penting di switched network.
 Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, tahun 2001, IEEE dengan dokumen 802.1w
memperkenalkan evolusi STP yaitu Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), yang mana
dapat mengurangi waktu konvergensi setelah terjadi perubahan topologi di network.
 Ketika STP membutuhkan waktu antara 30 sampai 50 detik untuk transisi dari blocking
state menjadi forwarding state, RSTP bisa merespon kurang dari 10 detik jika ada link
fisik yang rusak.
 RSTP bekerja dengan menambahkan alternative port dan backup port yang
dibandingkan dengan STP.

RSTP Bridge Port Role


Role Description
Root port Forwarding port yang memiliki cost terkecil menuju root bridge
Designated port Forwarding port untuk setiap segmen LAN
Alternate port Alternate port terbaik menuju root bridge. Port ini berbeda dengan root
port. Alternative port berubah menjadi forwarding state ketika ada
kerusakan pada designated port di segmen
Backup port Backup port diimplementasikan hanya ketika satu switch memiliki dua
link ke segmen yang sama (collision domain)
Disabled port Bukan bagian yang strict dari STP, network administrator bisa
mendisable secara manual

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RSTP Port States
STP State (802.1d) RSTP State (802.1w)
Blocking Discarding
Listening Discarding
Learning Learning
Forwarding Forwarding
Disabled Discarding

RSTP 802.1w konvergensinya lebih cepat dibandingkan 802.1D STP ketika terjadi perubahan
topologi.

* RSTP mendefinisikan tiga port states: discarding, learning, and forwarding.


* RSTP mendefinisikan lima port roles: root, designated, alternate, backup, and disabled.

STP vs RSTP

STP (802.1d) Rapid STP (802.1w)


In stable topology all
In stable topology only the root sends
bridges generate BPDU every Hello (2 sec) :
BPDU and relayed by others.
used as “keepalives” mechanism.
Port states
Disabled
Discarding (replaces disabled, blocking and
Blocking
listening)
Listening
Learning
Learning
Forwarding
Forwarding
To avoid flapping, it takes 3 seconds for a port to migrate from one protocol to another (STP /
RSTP) in a mixed segment.
Port roles
Root (Forwarding) Root (Forwarding)
Designated (Forwarding) Designated (Forwarding)
Non-Designated (Blocking) Alternate(Discarding) Backup (Discarding)
– An edge port (end node port) is an
Additional configuration to make an end node
integrated Link type which depends on the
port a port fast (in case a BPDU is
duplex : Point-to-point for full duplex &
received).
shared for half duplex).
Topology changes and convergence
Use timers for convergence (advertised by – Introduce proposal and agreement
the root): process for synchronization (< 1 sec).- Hello,
Hello(2 sec) Max Age and Forward delay timer used only
Max Age(20 sec = 10 missed hellos) for backward compatibility with standard STP
Forward delay timer (15 sec) Only RSTP port receiving STP (802.1d)
messages will behaves as standard STP.
Slow transition (50sec): Faster transition on point-to-point and edge
Blocking (20s) =>Listening (15s) =>Learning ports only:Less states – No learning state,
(15s) =>Forwarding doesn’t wait to be informed by others,
instead, actively looks for possible failure by
RLQ (Request Link Query) a feedback
mechanism.
Use only 2 bits from the flag octet:Bit 7 : Use other 6 bits of the flag octet (BPDU type
Topology Change Acknowledgment.Bit 0 : 2/version 2):
Topology Change Bit 1 : ProposalBit 2, 3 : Port roleBit 4 :
99 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
LearningBit 5 : ForwardingBit 6 :
AgreementBit 0, 7 : TCA & TCN for backward
compatibility
The bridge that discover a change in the TC is flooded through the network, every
network inform the root, that in turns informs bridge generate TC (Topology change) and
all others by sending BPDU with TCA bit set inform its neighbors when it is aware of a
and instruct them to clear their DB entries topology change and immediately delete
after “short timer” (~Forward delay) expire. old DB entries.
If a non-root bridge doesn’t receive Hello for Wait for 3*Hello on a root port (advertised
10*Hello (advertised from the root), start from the root) before deciding to act.
claiming the root role by generating its own
Hello.
Wait until TC reach the root + short timer Delete immediately local DB except MAC of
(~Forward delay) expires, then flash all root the port receiving the topology changes
DB entries (proposal)

Mind Map STP

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Lab 18. Basic STP

Topologi

Tujuan
 Observasi STP
Konfigurasi

Buat topologi dengan dua switch seri 2950-24. Lalu hubungkan keduanya menggunakan kabel
cross dengan dua koneksi Fa0/1 ke F0/1 dan Fa0/2 ke Fa0/2. Secara default STP sudah
berjalan di S1 dan S2, maka akan tampil salah satu port berwarna orange di S1 maupun S2.
Ingat, tiap topologi STP yang dibuat pembaca bisa saja berbeda dengan topologi di lab karena
masing-masing switch memiliki MAC address yang berbeda.

Verifikasi

Tampilkan output spanning-tree S1 dan S2


NXT-S1>en
NXT-S2#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 32769
Address 0001.63E3.75B0
This bridge is the root
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 0001.63E3.75B0
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/2 Desg FWD 19 128.2 P2p
Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 128.1 P2p

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NXT-S2>en
NXT-S2#sh span
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 32769
Address 0001.63E3.75B0
Cost 19
Port 1(FastEthernet0/1)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/1 Root FWD 19 128.1 P2p
Fa0/2 Altn BLK 19 128.2 P2p

Perhatikan pada output S1, terdapat tulisan This bridge is the root artinya S1 menjadi
root bridge dan pada S1 semua port role Desg (designated) dan status port FWD (forwarding).
Sedangkan pada S2 menjadi non-root bridge karena hanya ada satu root bridge. Perhatikan
port role S2 : Root dan Altn (Alternate) kemudian status port FWD (forwarding) dan BLK
(blocking).

Mengapa S1 yang menjadi root bridge?


Karena S1 memiliki MAC address lebih kecil dibandingkan S2. Karena priority sama, maka
yang dibandingkan selanjutnya yaitu MAC address.
S1 -> 0001.63E3.75B0
S2 -> 00D0.97A2.5D97
MAC address lebih kecil yang akan menjadi root bridge.

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Lab 19. STP Root Bridge Selection

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting priority bridge

Konfigurasi

Di Lab 19, yang menjadi root bridge yaitu S1. Agar S2 menjadi root bridge, setting priority S2
lebih rendah dibandingkan priority S1. Default priority pada masing-masing switch yaitu 32768.
Untuk mengubah priority dengan kelipatan 4096.

Misalkan priority S2 diturunkan menjadi 32768 – 4096 = 28672

NXT-S2>ena
NXT-S2#conf t
NXT-S2(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 priority 28672

Verifikasi

Tampilkan output spanning-tree S1 dan S2


NXT-S1#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 28673
Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Cost 19
Port 1(FastEthernet0/1)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 0001.63E3.75B0
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


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---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/2 Altn BLK 19 128.2 P2p
Fa0/1 Root FWD 19 128.1 P2p

NXT-S2#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 28673
Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
This bridge is the root
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 28673 (priority 28672 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 128.1 P2p
Fa0/2 Desg FWD 19 128.2 P2p

Perhatikan pada output S2, terdapat tulisan This bridge is the root artinya S2 menjadi
root bridge dan pada S2 semua port role Desg (designated) dan status port FWD (forwarding).
Sedangkan pada S1 menjadi non-root bridge karena hanya ada satu root bridge. Perhatikan
port role S2 : Root dan Altn (Alternate) kemudian status port FWD (forwarding) dan BLK
(blocking).

Mengapa S2 yang menjadi root bridge?


Karena S2 memiliki bridge priority lebih kecil dibandingkan S1. Untuk pemilihan root bridge,
yang dibandingkan Bridge ID= Bridge Priority:MAC Address, dipilih yang terkecil.
S1 -> 32768
S2 -> 28672
Bridge priority lebih kecil yang akan menjadi root bridge.

Apa bedanya Lab 19 dan Lab 20 dalam pemilihan root bridge?


Di Lab 19 by default switch memiliki bridge priority sama yaitu 32768 sehingga yang
dibandingkan MAC addressnya, sedangkan pada Lab 20, bridge priority S2 diturunkan
sehingga yang lebih kecil bridge priority lah yang akan menjadi root bridge.

Bridge ID=Bridge Priority:MAC Address


S1= 32768:0001.63E3.75B0
S2= 28672:00D0.97A2.5D97
Pilih bridge priority terkecil agar menjadi root bridge, jika bridge priority sama maka pilih MAC
address terkecil.

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Lab 20. STP Port Priority

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting port priority
Konfigurasi

Di Lab 20, yang jadi root bridge S2.

Tampilkan output spanning-tree S1:

NXT-S1#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 28673
Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Cost 19
Port 1(FastEthernet0/1)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 0001.63E3.75B0
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/2 Altn BLK 19 128.2 P2p
Fa0/1 Root FWD 19 128.1 P2p

Fa0/1 menjadi root port dan Fa0/2 menjadi alternate port. Sehingga ketika Fa0/1 down maka
Fa0/2 yang menjadi redundant/backup akan up.

Agar Fa0/2 menjadi primary link (root port) dan Fa0/1 menjadi backup link (alternate port), maka
kita ubah port priority di root bridge S2.

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NXT-S2(config)#int fa0/2
NXT-S2(config-if)#spanning-tree vlan 1 port-priority 48

Verifikasi

Tampilkan output spanning-tree S1 dan S2


NXT-S1#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 28673
Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Cost 19
Port 2(FastEthernet0/2)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 0001.63E3.75B0
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/2 Root FWD 19 128.2 P2p
Fa0/1 Altn BLK 19 128.1 P2p

Bandingkan output spanning-tree S1 sebelum dan setelah diubah port priority Fa0/2 di S2.
Sekarang Fa0/2 menjadi root dan Fa0/1 menjadi alternate. Berarti sudah berhasil.

Tampilkan output spanning-tree S2


NXT-S2#show spanning-tree
VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 28673
Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
This bridge is the root
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 28673 (priority 28672 sys-id-ext 1)


Address 00D0.97A2.5D97
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 20

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type


---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -----------------------
---------
Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 128.1 P2p
Fa0/2 Desg FWD 19 48.2 P2p

Perhatikan pada Fa0/2 port priority number telah berubah menjadi 48 sesuai konfigurasi.

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Section 8: LAN Switching
VLAN
 Virtual LAN (VLAN) adalah kumpulan networking devices didalam broadcast domain
yang sama secara logical (virtual)
 Perhatikan gambar dibawah ini:

o Fa0/1 dan Fa0/2 adalah member VLAN 1. Fa0/3 dan Fa0/4 adalah member
VLAN 2.
o Pada gambar diatas, workstation di VLAN 1 tidak bisa berkomunikasi dengan
workstation di VLAN 2 meskipun terkoneksi ke dalam switch yang sama.
o Membuat VLAN berarti membuat broadcast domain baru. Contoh diatas
merupakan contoh dua broadcast domain.
o By default, switch memiliki default VLAN:
 VLAN 1
 VLAN 1002
 VLAN 1003
 VLAN 1004
 VLAN 1005
o By default, semua port member VLAN 1.
 Keuntungan menggunakan VLAN:
o Membuat virtual LAN berdasarkan kriteria tertentu, misalnya untuk memisahkan
trafik voice, data, ip phone, cctv, wireless, dll.
o Memudahkan perpindahan device karena ditempat baru hanya mengganti port
switch saja
o Mengontrol broadcast domain dan membuat collision domain berdasarkan
kriteria logical
o Mengontrol security (mengisolasi trafik berdasarkan VLAN)
o Load balance network traffic secara logical

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 VLAN static dan dynamic

Static VLAN
 Static VLAN berdasarkan port
 Dilakukan secara manual untuk assign port ke VLAN
 Disebut juga sebagai Port-Based VLAN
 Satu port hanya bisa untuk satu VLAN

Dynamic VLAN
 Berdasarkan MAC address PC
 Switch secara otomatis assign port ke VLAN
 Masing-masing port bisa menjadi lebih dari satu member VLAN
 Untuk konfigurasi VLAN dibutuhkan software VMPS (VLAN Membership Policy
Server)

VLAN Characteristics
o A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments.
o A VLAN can be designed to provide stations logically segmented by functions, project
teams, or applications without regard to the physical location of users.
o Each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN.

o Ports in a VLAN share broadcasts. Ports that do not belong to the same VLAN do not
share broadcasts. This improves the overall performance of the network.
o A VLAN can exist on a single switch or span across multiple switches.
o VLANs can include stations in a single building or in multiple-building infrastructures,
or they can even connect across wide-area networks (WANs).

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Lab 21. VLAN

Topologi

Tujuan

 Konfigurasi VLAN 100,200 di semua Switch

Konsep Dasar
Pada lab ini gunakan Multi Layer Switch 3560-24PS dan Switch 2960. VLAN yang dibuat ada 2
yaitu VLAN 100 dan VLAN 200. Masing-masing Switch dikonfigurasi VLAN 100 dan VLAN 200.
Fungsi VLAN tersebut untuk segmentasi traffic DATA dan VOICE agar tidak satu network
dengan memanfaatkan manageable Switch. Masing-masing VLAN memiliki default gateway
sendiri.

Konfigurasi

 Konfigurasi IP address disetiap Laptop sesuai topologi


 Konfigurasi VLAN 100,200 di semua Switch dengan 3 cara
 Assign port Switch VLAN

Verifikasi

 Cek VLAN yang sudah dibuat

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Konfigurasi

Konfigurasi VLAN 100,200 di semua switch

NXT-DS1

NXT-DS1>enable
NXT-DS1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
NXT-DS1(config)#vlan 100
NXT-DS1(config-vlan)#name DATA
NXT-DS1(config-vlan)#vlan 200
NXT-DS1(config-vlan)#name VOICE

NXT-DS2

NXT-DS2>enable
NXT-DS2#vlan database
% Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode,
as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user
documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode.

NXT-DS2(vlan)#vlan 100 name DATA


VLAN 100 added:
Name: DATA
NXT-DS2(vlan)#vlan 200 name VOICE
VLAN 200 added:
Name: VOICE

NXT-AS3

NXT-AS3>enable
NXT-AS3#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
NXT-AS3(config)#interface fa0/23
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport access vlan 100
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 100
NXT-AS3(config-if)#interface fa0/24
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport access vlan 200
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 200
NXT-AS3(config-if)#
NXT-AS3(config-if)#vlan 100
NXT-AS3(config-vlan)#name DATA
NXT-AS3(config-vlan)#vlan 200
NXT-AS3(config-vlan)#name VOICE
NXT-AS3(config-vlan)#

NXT-AS4

NXT-AS4>enable
NXT-AS4#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
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NXT-AS4(config)#interface fa0/23
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport access vlan 100
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 100
NXT-AS4(config-if)#interface fa0/24
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport access vlan 200
% Access VLAN does not exist. Creating vlan 200
NXT-AS4(config-if)#
NXT-AS4(config-if)#vlan 100
NXT-AS4(config-vlan)#name DATA
NXT-AS4(config-vlan)#vlan 200
NXT-AS4(config-vlan)#name VOICE
NXT-AS4(config-vlan)#

Pembuatan VLAN dapat dilakukan dengan tiga cara : mode config, vlan database dan interface
switchport. Detail pembuatan VLAN:
NXT-DS1 = mode config / mode global
NXT-DS2 = vlan database
NXT-AS3 = interface switchport
NXT-AS4 = interface switchport

Assign interface ke VLAN

Pada NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2 interface port yang terkoneksi ke Laptop belum di assign ke
VLAN. Oleh karena itu, kita assign terlebih dahulu

NXT-DS1(config)#interface fa0/24
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 100

NXT-DS2(config)#interface fa0/24
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport access vlan 100

Verifikasi

Pastikan VLAN 100,200 sudah di konfigurasi di semua Switch dan interface host sudah di
assign ke VLAN.

NXT-DS1(config-if)#do show vlan brief

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Gig0/1
Gig0/2
100 DATA active Fa0/24
200 VOICE active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
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1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

NXT-DS2(config-if)#do show vlan brief

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Gig0/1
Gig0/2
100 DATA active Fa0/24
200 VOICE active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

NXT-AS3(config-if)#do show vlan brief

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Gig0/1, Gig0/2
100 DATA active Fa0/23
200 VOICE active Fa0/24
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

NXT-AS4(config)#do show vlan brief

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Gig0/1, Gig0/2
100 DATA active Fa0/23
200 VOICE active Fa0/24
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

Jalankan ping end-to-end dari Laptop1 ke Laptop 2, 3, 4, 5, 6? Apakah berhasil?


Pastikan tidak berhasil. Karena belum di konfigurasi trunking dan intervlan routing.

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Trunking

 Dari gambar diatas, switch memiliki dua VLAN. Satu port pada masing-masing switch
diassign untuk satu VLAN.
 Workstation di VLAN 1 hanya bisa berkomunikasi dengan workstation di VLAN 1. Ini
artinya bahwa dua workstation beda VLAN pada switch yang sama tidak bisa
berkomunikasi dengan yang lainnya
 Sedangkan komunikasi VLAN yang sama namun beda switch melalui trunk link ke
switch lain
 Trunk di identifikasi sebagai port yang terhubung antar switch
 Trunk port bisa secara otomatis melewatkan trafik untuk semua VLAN yang didefinisikan
di switch. Dan bisa juga memfilter spesifik trafik VLAN.
 Biasanya Gigabit port yang digunakan sebagai trunk link, meskipun port yang lain juga
bisa.
 Access port vs trunk port

Access Port Trunk Port


Hanya mampu mengenal satu VLAN Dapat melakukan carrier multiple VLAN
Digunakan oleh point-to-point antara dua
Digunakan oleh end-device switch, antara switch dan router, atau
antara switch dan server
Tidak aware dengan VLAN membership, Mampu memuat trafik multiple VLAN dari
hanya sebagai member broadcast VLAN 1 sampai 1005 pada satu waktu
domain tertentu
Tidak memiliki pemahaman tentang
jaringan fisik
Switch akan menghapus informasi VLAN
dari frame sebelum dikirimkan ke access
link

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Frame Tagging
 Single VLAN bisa di span untuk multiple switch
 Untuk memastikan komunikasi antar member VLAN yang sama di switch yang berbeda
membutuhkan metode frame tagging di trunk link
 Tag ditambahkan sebelum frame dikirimkan dan diremove saat diterima disisi trunk link
 Frame tagging hanya terjadi di trunk link
 VLAN ID digunakan oleh switch untuk mengetahui semua frame melalui trunk link
 Dua trunking protocol yang bertanggung jawab untuk proses frame tagging :
o Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
o IEEE 802.1Q

ISL IEEE 802.1Q


Open standar, kita dapat menggunakan
Cisco proprietary
switch vendor manapun
Bekerja di Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI Hanya bekerja di Ethernet
Hanya menambahkan 4 byte kedalam
Menambahkan 30 byte tagging
frame aslinya
Tidak seperti ISL, 802.1Q tidak
mengenkapsulasi frame, tetapi
Semua VLAN ditagged
memodifikasi eksisting frame untuk
menambahkan VLAN ID
Frame tidak dimodifikasi Frame dari default VLAN 1 tidak ditagged
Support VLAN number 1-1005 Support VLAN number 1-1005

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Lab 22. VLAN Trunking

Topologi

Tujuan
 Konfigurasi VLAN Trunking antar Switch to Switch

Konsep Dasar
Komunikasi didalam VLAN ada 2 macam, yaitu IntraVLAN dan InterVLAN. IntraVLAN adalah
komunikasi sesama VLAN pada Switch yang sama maupun Switch berbeda. Di lab sebelumnya
menggukan mode access, fungsinya untuk carrier satu VLAN, biasanya digunakan dari Switch
ke end-devices misalnya Laptop,PC,Server,Printer. Agar mengenal lebih dari satu VLAN
digunakanlah mode trunk. Trunk bisa diibaratkan seperti jembatan bisa buat lewat VLAN apa
saja. Biasanya trunk digunakan antar switch-to-switch atau switch-to-router. Pada saat traffic
VLAN masuk port trunk, maka akan ditagging. Sebelum keluar port trunk akan di untagging
terlebih dahulu. Enkapsulasi yang digunakan: dot1q dan isl.

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Konfigurasi

 Konfigurasi encapsulation dot1q khusus di NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2


 Konfigurasi trunking antar switch-to-switch
 Allow semua VLAN melewati trunk

Verifikasi

 Cek interface trunk


 Cek ping antar VLAN yang sama namun beda lokasi Switch

Konfigurasi

Konfigurasi trunking antar switch-to-switch.

NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2

NXT-DS1(config)#interface fa0/1
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
NXT-DS1(config-if)#interface fa0/3
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

NXT-DS2(config)#interface fa0/1
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
NXT-DS2(config-if)#interface fa0/3
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

NXT-AS3 dan NXT-AS4

NXT-AS3(config)#interface fa0/1
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
NXT-AS3(config-if)#interface fa0/3
NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
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NXT-AS3(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

NXT-AS4(config)#interface fa0/1
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
NXT-AS4(config-if)#interface fa0/3
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

Di Switch 2960 default encapsulation dot1q, jadi tidak perlu konfigurasi encapsulasi.

Verifikasi

Pastikan semua port trunk sudah running disemua interface switch-to-switch:

NXT-DS1#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

NXT-DS2#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 none
Fa0/3 1,100,200

NXT-AS3#show interface trunk

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Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

NXT-AS4#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Cek ping antar VLAN yang sama. Misalnya dari Laptop2 ping ke Laptop 4, 5, 6 dan Laptop1 ke
Laptop3.

PC>ping 192.168.100.4

Pinging 192.168.100.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.4: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.100.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.4:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

PC>ping 192.168.100.5

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Pinging 192.168.100.5 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.5:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

PC>ping 192.168.100.6

Pinging 192.168.100.6 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.6: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.100.6: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.6: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.6: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.6:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop2 ping ke Laptop 4, 5, 6 semuanya berhasil.

PC>ping 192.168.200.3

Pinging 192.168.200.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.200.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.200.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.200.3: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.200.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.200.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop1 ping ke Laptop3 berhasil.

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DTP
 Dynamic trunking protocol = cisco proprietary protocol
 Digunakan untuk negosiasi status trunking
 Default switch menjalankan dynamic auto, sehingga ketika dua switch dihubungkan
tidak langsung menjadi trunk. Salah satu switch harus disetting manual trunk atau
dynamic desirable.

NXT-S1#sh int fa0/2 switchport


Name: Fa0/2
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: dynamic auto
Operational Mode: static access
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Operational Trunking Encapsulation: native
Negotiation of Trunking: On
Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Voice VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan host-association: none
Administrative private-vlan mapping: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk native VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk encapsulation: dot1q
Administrative private-vlan trunk normal VLANs: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk private VLANs: none
Operational private-vlan: none

Switch 1 Switch 2
Dynamic Desirable Trunk Dynamic Desirable
Dynamic Desirable Trunk Dynamic Auto
Trunk Trunk Dynamic Desirable
Dynamic Auto Trunk Trunk
Dynamic Auto Access Dynamic Auto

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Lab 23. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)

Topologi

Tujuan

 Konfigurasi trunk secara otomatis


Konsep Dasar
Untuk konfigurasi trunk secara otomatis dapat menggunakan Dynamic Trunking Protocol.

Konfigurasi

 Hapus konfigurasi trunk di Switch


 Konfigurasi dtp
Verifikasi

 Cek interface trunk


 Cek ping antar host sesama VLAN
Konfigurasi

Hapus konfigurasi trunk di NXT-DS1,NXT-DS2,NXT-AS3,NXT-AS4

NXT-DS1(config)#interface fa0/3
NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#no switcport mode trunk
NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#do show interface trunk

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NXT-DS2(config)#interface fa0/3
NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#no switcport mode trunk
NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#do show interface trunk

Pastikan untuk interface fa0/1 antara NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2 masih tetap trunking.

NXT-AS3(config)#interface range fa0/1-3


NXT-AS3(config-if-range)#no switcport mode trunk
NXT-AS3(config-if-range)#do show interface trunk

NXT-AS4(config)#interface range fa0/1-3


NXT-AS4(config-if-range)#no switcport mode trunk
NXT-AS4(config-if-range)#do show interface trunk

Pastikan pada saat verifikasi interface trunk kosong, kecuali NXT-AS4 masih ada Gig0/1. Hapus
juga interface Gig0/1 dari interface trunking.

Selanjutnya, konfigurasi DTP yang secara otomatis akan membuat interface menjadi trunking.
DTP yang akan dibuat

 Interface fa0/3 antara NXT-DS1 dan NXT-AS3


 Interface fa0/1 antara NXT-AS3 dan NXT-AS4
 Interface fa0/3 antara NXT-DS2 dan NXT-AS4

Tabel DTP dapat dilihat dibawah ini

Default DTP switch: auto. Agar menjadi trunk kita akan konfigurasi mode dynamic desirable.

NXT-AS3(config)#interface range fa0/1-3


NXT-AS3(config-if-range)#switchport mode dynamic desirable

NXT-AS4(config)#interface range fa0/1-3


NXT-AS4(config-if-range)#switchport mode dynamic desirable

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Verifikasi

Tampilkan output interface trunk disemua switch

NXT-DS1#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 auto n-802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

NXT-DS2#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 auto n-802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

NXT-AS3#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 desirable n-802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 desirable n-802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

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Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned
Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 none

NXT-AS4#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 desirable n-802.1q trunking 1
Fa0/3 desirable n-802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/3 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200
Fa0/3 1,100,200

Interface fa0/1 antara NXT-AS3 dan NXT-AS3 mode nya sama-sama desirable. Lihat table
DTP, hasilnya akan menjadi trunk. Cek kolom status pastikan sudah menjadi trunking.

Cek ping antar host sesama VLAN, pastikan berhasil.

Laptop2>ping 192.168.100.5

Pinging 192.168.100.5 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.100.5: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.5:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop2 ping ke Laptop5 berhasil.

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VTP
 Advertise informasi konfigurasi VLAN
 Maintenance konsisensi konfigurasi VLAN melalui domain administrative
 Mengirimkan advertisement HANYA melalui trunk

VTP Server VTP Client VTP Transparent


Create/Modify/Delete
Yes No Only local
VLANs
Synchronizes itself Yes Yes No
Forwards
Yes Yes Yes
advertisements

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Lab 24. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting VTP

Konfigurasi
S1 = VTP Server
S2 = VTP Transparent
S3 = VTP Client

Konfigurasi VLAN 100,200,300 di S1.

S1>ena
S1#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
S1(config)#vlan 100
S1(config-vlan)#vlan 200
S1(config-vlan)#vlan 300
S1(config-vlan)#
S1(config-vlan)#do show vlan brief

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------
-----------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24
100 VLAN0100 active
200 VLAN0200 active

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300 VLAN0300 active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active
S1(config-vlan)#

Konfigurasi trunking antara S1 – S2 dan S2 – S3.

S1(config)#int fa0/1
S1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
S1(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

S2(config)#int range fa0/1 - 2


S2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
S2(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

S3(config)#int fa0/2
S3(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
S3(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

Tampilkan informasi VLAN di S2 dan S3

S2#sh vl br

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------
-----------
1 default active Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5, Fa0/6
Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10
Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13, Fa0/14
Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17, Fa0/18
Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21, Fa0/22
Fa0/23, Fa0/24
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

S3#sh vl br

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------
-----------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5
Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9
Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13
Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17
Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21
Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24
1002 fddi-default active
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1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

S2 dan S3 VLAN masih default. Agar memiliki informasi VLAN yang sama dengan S1 lakukan
konfigurasi VTP dulu di switch lalu tampilkan output vlannya.

S1#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
S1(config)#vtp mode server
Device mode already VTP SERVER.
S1(config)#vtp domain NIXTRAIN
Domain name already set to NIXTRAIN.
S1(config)#vtp password NXT
Setting device VLAN database password to NXT
S1(config)#vtp version 2
S1(config)#do sh vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255
Number of existing VLANs : 8
VTP Operating Mode : Server
VTP Domain Name : NIXTRAIN
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Enabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x57 0x24 0xFE 0x55 0xD0 0x06 0x69 0x39
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-93 00:05:11
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)
S1(config)#

S2#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
S2(config)#vtp mode transparent
Setting device to VTP TRANSPARENT mode.
S2(config)#vtp domain NIXTRAIN
Domain name already set to NIXTRAIN.
S2(config)#vtp password NXT
Setting device VLAN database password to NXT
S2(config)#vtp version 2
S2(config)#do sh vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255
Number of existing VLANs : 8
VTP Operating Mode : Transparent
VTP Domain Name : NIXTRAIN
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Enabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x03 0xA1 0xEE 0x06 0xA3 0x32 0x2D 0x4D
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-93 00:29:36

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S2(config)#do sh vl br

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------
-----------
1 default active Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5, Fa0/6
Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10
Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13, Fa0/14
Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17, Fa0/18
Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21, Fa0/22
Fa0/23, Fa0/24
100 VLAN0100 active
200 VLAN0200 active
300 VLAN0300 active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active
S2(config)#

S3#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
S3(config)#vtp mode client
Setting device to VTP CLIENT mode.
S3(config)#vtp domain NIXTRAIN
Domain name already set to NIXTRAIN.
S3(config)#vtp password NXT
Setting device VLAN database password to NXT
S3(config)#vtp version 2
Cannot modify version in VTP client mode
S3(config)#do sh vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 4
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 255
Number of existing VLANs : 8
VTP Operating Mode : Client
VTP Domain Name : NIXTRAIN
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Enabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x57 0x24 0xFE 0x55 0xD0 0x06 0x69 0x39
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-93 00:05:11
S3(config)#do sh vl br

VLAN Name Status Ports


---- -------------------------------- --------- --------------------
-----------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5
Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9
Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13
Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17
Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21
Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24
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100 VLAN0100 active
200 VLAN0200 active
300 VLAN0300 active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active
S3(config)#

Semua switch telah memiliki informasi VLAN yang sama. Sekarang control manajemen VLAN
ada di VTP server, sehingga apabila ada penambahan atau pengurangan, VTP transparent dan
VTP client akan mengikuti VTP server.

Sesuaikan nama domain, password, version dengan VTP server agar bisa menerima
advertisement dari VTP server.

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EtherChannel
 EtherChannel adalah sebuah teknik antara switch dengan switch (switch to switch),
yang memberikan beberapa layanan link secara multipleks melalui port-port switch pada
fast atau gigabit ethernet ke satu jalur logical
 EtherChannel dapat melakukan kombinasi dua, empat, atau delapan port (tergantung
daripada platform switch) menjadi satu logikal link yang terhubung dan dapat juga
sekaligus sebagai redundant (backup link).

 Fisik vs Logical Link

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Lab 25. EtherChannel

Topologi

Tujuan

 Setting etherchannel

Konfigurasi
Etherchannel akan diimplementasikan untuk aggregate link Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/11, Fa0/12 di
NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2 menggunakan PAgP. Kemudian port-channel disetting trunk agar bisa
digunakan untuk melewatkan trafik VLAN DATA dan VLAN VOICE.

Verifikasi

 show etherchannel
 show etherchannel summary

Konfigurasi

Konfigurasi Cisco PAgP di NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2

NXT-DS1(config)#interface range fa0/1-2


NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel 1

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%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,
changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,


changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/2,


changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/2,


changed state to up

NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#interface range fa0/11-12


NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
NXT-DS1(config-if-range)#
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/11,
changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/11,


changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/12,


changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/12,


changed state to up

NXT-DS2(config)#interface range fa0/1-2


NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel 1

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,


changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,


changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/2,


changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/2,


changed state to up

NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#interface range fa0/11-12


NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
NXT-DS2(config-if-range)#
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/11,
changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/11,


changed state to up

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%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/12,
changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/12,


changed state to up

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Port-channel 1, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel 1,


changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel 1,


changed state to down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel 1,


changed state to up

Verifikasi

Tampilkan output etherchannel di NXT-DS1 dan NXT-DS2

NXT-DS1#show etherchannel summary


Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port

Number of channel-groups in use: 1


Number of aggregators: 1

Group Port-channel Protocol Ports


------+-------------+-----------+------------------------------------------
----

1 Po1(SU) PAgP Fa0/1(P) Fa0/2(P) Fa0/11(P) Fa0/12(P)

NXT-DS2#show etherchannel summary


Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port

Number of channel-groups in use: 1


Number of aggregators: 1
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Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+------------------------------------------
----

1 Po1(SU) PAgP Fa0/1(P) Fa0/2(P) Fa0/11(P) Fa0/12(P)

NXT-DS1#show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol

Vlan1 unassigned YES unset administratively down
down

Port-channel 1 unassigned YES unset up up

NXT-DS2#show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol

Vlan1 unassigned YES unset administratively down
down

Port-channel 1 unassigned YES unset up up

Port-channel 1 sudah berhasil dibuat. Port-channel 1 merupakan aggregate dari interface


Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/11, Fa0/12.

Konfigurasi trunk port-channel 1

NXT-DS1(config)#interface port-channel 1
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS1(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

NXT-DS2(config)#interface port-channel 1
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-DS2(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

Verifikasi trunk

NXT-DS1(config-if)#do show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/3 auto n-802.1q trunking 1
Po1 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/3 1-1005
Po1 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


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Fa0/3 1,100,200
Po1 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/3 1,100,200
Po1 1,100,200

NXT-DS2(config-if)#do show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/3 auto n-802.1q trunking 1
Po1 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/3 1-1005
Po1 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/3 1,100,200
Po1 1,100,200

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/3 1,100,200
Po1 1,100,200

Etherchannel dan switchport trunk telah berhasil dibuat. Untuk verifikasi koneksi lakukan ping
dari sesama VLAN 100 yaitu Laptop2 ke Laptop 4,5,6. Pastikan berhasil dan perhatikan pada
interface etherchannel, semua port sudah UP semua ditandai dengan warna hijau di Cisco
Packet Tracer.

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InterVLAN
Bagaimana interVLAN routing bekerja?
 Device network yang berbeda VLAN tidak dapat berkomunikasi dengan device lainnya
tanpa router dan L3 switch, yang berfungsi untuk merutekan trafik antar VLAN
 Konfigurasi VLAN bermanfaat untuk mengontrol size broadcast domain dan menjaga
trafik local
 Untuk mengkoneksikan end-devices didalam satu VLAN dengan VLAN lainnya
dibutuhkan komunikasi InterVLAN
 InterVLAN membutuhkan interface fisik router atau sub-interface router sebagai gateway
masing-masing
 Penggunaan sub-interface router untuk InterVLAN disebut juga sebagai Router-on-Stick
 Sub-interface router untuk InterVLAN membutuhkan protocol trunking ISL atau 802.1Q

Konfigurasi Router-On-Stick
1. Pilih Interface router
2. Setting sub-interface
3. Setting protocol trunking ISL atau 802.1Q

Router(config)# interface fa0/0.10


Router(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 10
Router(config-if)# ip address <ip> <subnetmask>
Router(config-if)#
Router(config)# interface fa0/0.20
Router(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 20
Router(config-if)# ip address <ip> <subnetmask>
Router(config-if)#
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface fa0/0
Router(config)# no shutdown
Router(config)# interface fa0/0.10
Router(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 10
Router(config-if)# ip address <ip> <subnetmask>
Router(config-if)#
Router(config)# interface fa0/0.20
Router(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q 20
Router(config-if)# ip address <ip> <subnetmask>
Router(config-if)#
Router(config-if)# exit

 Untuk interVLAN routing bisa dilakukan dengan tiga cara:


1. Router-on-stick dengan sub-interface
2. L3 switch dengan SVI
3. Per-interface interVLAN routing

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Router-on-stick dengan sub interface
 Gambaran router-on-stick bisa dilihat pada gambar dibawah ini:

L3 switch dengan SVI

Per-interface interVLAN routing

Per-interface interVLAN routing menggunakan interface fisik router dan access port di switch.
Tiap VLAN memiliki interface fisik router tersendiri.

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Lab 26. Inter-VLAN Routing - SVI

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting interVLAN routing dengan SVI L3 switch

Konfigurasi
NXT-DS1 dipilih sebagai gateway VLAN 100 dan VLAN 200 menggunakan SVI (Switch Virtual
Interface).

Aktifkan interface SVI VLAN 100 dan VLAN 200. IP address gateway:
VLAN 100: 192.168.100.254/24
VLAN 200: 192.168.200.254/24

NXT-DS1(config)#interface vlan100
NXT-DS1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan100, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan100, changed


state to up

NXT-DS1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.100.254 255.255.255.0


NXT-DS1(config-if)#
NXT-DS1(config-if)#interface vlan200

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NXT-DS1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan200, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan200, changed


state to up

NXT-DS1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.200.254 255.255.255.0

Cek ping dari masing-masing host VLAN ke gateway VLAN. Misalkan, Laptop2 ke gateway
VLAN 100 dan Laptop1 ke gateway VLAN 200.

Laptop2>ping 192.168.100.254

Pinging 192.168.100.254 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.254:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop1>ping 192.168.200.254

Pinging 192.168.200.254 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.200.254:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms
Masing-masing host VLAN bisa ping ke default gateway VLAN-nya.

Sekarang cek ping antar host beda VLAN, misalkan Laptop1 ke Laptop2. Pastikan masing-
masing host sudah disetting default gateway-nya. Contoh Laptop1:

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Laptop1>ping 192.168.100.2

Pinging 192.168.100.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.2:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Ternyata ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2 gagal.

Cek dulu routing table di NXT-DS1

NXT-DS1#show ip route
Default gateway is not set

Host Gateway Last Use Total Uses


Interface
ICMP redirect cache is empty

IP routing belum aktif di NXT-DS1. Aktifkan dulu fungsi IP routingnya dan cek lagi routing
tablenya.

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NXT-DS1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
NXT-DS1(config)#ip routing
NXT-DS1(config)#
NXT-DS1(config)#do show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter
area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type
2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS
inter area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.100.0/24 is directly connected, Vlan100


C 192.168.200.0/24 is directly connected, Vlan200

Ulangi lagi ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2

PC>ping 192.168.100.2

Pinging 192.168.100.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=127


Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=127
Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=127
Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=127

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.2:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 11ms, Average = 3ms

Oke, sekarag sudah berhasil ping antar VLAN yang berbeda. Berarti InterVLAN routing sudah
berjalan dengan baik.

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Lab 27. Inter-VLAN Routing - Router-on-Stick

Topologi

Tujuan

 Setting Router-on-stick

Konfigurasi
Tambahkan NXT-R1 dan koneksikan NXT-R1 ke NXT-AS4. Sesuaikan dengan topologi diatas
untuk cablingnya.

Hapus konfigurasi SVI NXT-DS1

NXT-DS1(config)#no interface vlan 100


NXT-DS1(config)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan100, changed state to
administratively down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan100, changed


state to down

NXT-DS1(config)#no interface vlan 200


NXT-DS1(config)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan200, changed state to
administratively down

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%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan200, changed
state to down

Konfigurasi trunk di interface Gig0/1 NXT-AS4

NXT-AS4(config)#interface Gig0/1
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
NXT-AS4(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all

Konfigurasi sub-interface Gig0/0 di R1

NXT-R1(config)#interface Gig0/0.100
NXT-R1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 100
NXT-R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.100.254 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-subif)#
NXT-R1(config-subif)#interface Gig0/0.200
NXT-R1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 200
NXT-R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.200.254 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-subif)#
NXT-R1(config-subif)#interface Gig0/0
NXT-R1(config-if)#no shutdown

NXT-R1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface GigabitEthernet0/0,


changed state to up

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0.100, changed state to


up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface


GigabitEthernet0/0.100, changed state to up

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0.200, changed state to


up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface


GigabitEthernet0/0.200, changed state to up

Verifikasi
Cek ping dari masing-masing host VLAN ke gateway VLAN. Misalkan, Laptop2 ke gateway
VLAN 100 dan Laptop1 ke gateway VLAN 200.

Laptop2>ping 192.168.100.254

Pinging 192.168.100.254 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

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Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.100.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.254:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Laptop1>ping 192.168.200.254

Pinging 192.168.200.254 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255


Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.200.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.200.254:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Masing-masing workstation VLAN bisa ping ke default gateway VLAN-nya.


Cek ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2

Laptop1>ping 192.168.100.2

Pinging 192.168.100.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=127


Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=127
Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=127
Reply from 192.168.100.2: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=127

Ping statistics for 192.168.100.2:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 11ms, Average = 3ms

Sekarang sudah berhasil ping antar VLAN yang berbeda. Berarti InterVLAN routing sudah
berjalan dengan baik menggunakan Router-on-Stick.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Laptop5


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Laptop1>tracert 192.168.100.5

Tracing route to 192.168.100.5 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.200.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.100.5

Trace complete.

Laptop1 melewati router 192.168.200.254 sebelum menuju Laptop5.

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Port-Security

 Port-security digunakan untuk mengamankan port switch melalui MAC address. MAC
address yang dilarang menggunakan port switch maka akan di deny ketika mengirimkan
packet melalui switch tersebut.
 Port-security dapat mencegah terjadinya MAC flooding atau spoofing attack.

 Port-security violation mode

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Lab 28. MAC Address Limitation

Topologi

Tujuan

 Hapus konfigurasi Switch


 Konfigurasi port-security Switch

Konfigurasi
Hapus konfigurasi Switch

NXT-S1#erase startup-config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files!
Continue? [confirm]
[OK]
Erase of nvram: complete
%SYS-7-NV_BLOCK_INIT: Initialized the geometry of nvram
NXT-S1#delete vlan.dat
Delete filename [vlan.dat]?
Delete flash:/vlan.dat? [confirm]

NXT-S1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

Konfigurasi hostname dan IP address, subnet mask, gateway Switch

Switch>enable
Switch#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Switch(config)#hostname NXT-S1
NXT-S1(config)#interface vlan1
NXT-S1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
NXT-S1(config-if)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
NXT-S1(config-if)#no shutdown

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NXT-S1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Vlan1, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan1, changed state


to up

NXT-S1(config-if)#

Jalankan perintah ping dari Web-Server ke S1

SERVER>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=255

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Tampilkan MAC address table di S1

NXT-S1(config-if)#do show mac-address-table


Mac Address Table
-------------------------------------------

Vlan Mac Address Type Ports


---- ----------- -------- -----

1 0004.9a8b.a712 DYNAMIC Gig0/2


Perintah do untuk menjalankan perintah mode privilege namun dijalankan di mode global/mode
spesifik.

MAC address Web-Server: 0004.9a8b.a712

NXT-S1(config-if)#interface gig0/2
NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport mode access
NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport port-security
NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address
0004.9a8b.a712
NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown

Verifikasi

Tampilkan informasi port-security interface gig0/2

NXT-S1#show port-security interface gig0/2


Port Security : Enabled
Port Status : Secure-up
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Violation Mode : Shutdown
Aging Time : 0 mins
Aging Type : Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled
Maximum MAC Addresses : 1
Total MAC Addresses : 1
Configured MAC Addresses : 1
Sticky MAC Addresses : 0
Last Source Address:Vlan : 0000.0000.0000:0
Security Violation Count : 0

Ping Laptop1 ke Web-Server

PC>ping 192.168.1.11

Pinging 192.168.1.11 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.11:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tampilkan informasi port-security interface gig0/2 setelah di ping Laptop1

NXT-S1#show port-security interface gig0/2


Port Security : Enabled
Port Status : Secure-up
Violation Mode : Shutdown
Aging Time : 0 mins
Aging Type : Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled
Maximum MAC Addresses : 1
Total MAC Addresses : 1
Configured MAC Addresses : 1
Sticky MAC Addresses : 0
Last Source Address:Vlan : 0004.9A8B.A712:1
Security Violation Count : 0

Perbedaan sebelum dan sesudah di ping yaitu pada baris Last Source Address:Vlan.
Sekarang sudah terisi dengan MAC address Web-Server.

Cek MAC address table Switch

NXT-S1#show mac-address-table
Mac Address Table
-------------------------------------------

Vlan Mac Address Type Ports

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---- ----------- -------- -----

1 0004.9a8b.a712 STATIC Gig0/2


1 0040.0bbe.a832 DYNAMIC Fa0/1

MAC address Web-Server statusnya STATIC.

Topologi baru

Web-Server-Fake memiliki IP address, subnet mask, gateway sama dengan Web-Server.


Namun yang berbeda adalah MAC address-nya. MAC address Web-Server sudah didaftarkan
di S1 dan dikonfigurasi port-security, apabila ada host lain yang menggunakan interface port
Gig0/2 memiliki MAC address yang berbeda dengan yang didaftarkan maka interface port
Gig0/2 akan shutdown.

Output port-security sebelum terjadi violation:

NXT-S1#show port-security
Secure Port MaxSecureAddr CurrentAddr SecurityViolation Security
Action
(Count) (Count) (Count)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Gig0/2 1 1 0 Shutdown
----------------------------------------------------------------------
NXT-S1(config-if)#
NXT-S1(config-if)#do sh port

Pada bagian Security Violation nilainya 0.

Konfigurasi IP address Web-Server-Fake

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Setelah dikonfigurasi IP addressnya, jalankan ping dari Laptop1 ke Web-Server-Fake. Apa
yang terjadi?

Pertama, port interface Gig0/2 akan shutdown

Kedua, ping RTO

PC>ping 192.168.1.11

Pinging 192.168.1.11 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.11:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Tampilkan output port-security

NXT-S1#show port-security
Secure Port MaxSecureAddr CurrentAddr SecurityViolation Security
Action
(Count) (Count) (Count)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
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Gig0/2 1 1 1 Shutdown
--------------------------------------------------------------------
--

Pada bagian Security Violation nilainya 1.

Tampilkan informasi port-security interface gig0/2 setelah di ping Laptop1

NXT-S1#show port-security interface gig0/2


Port Security : Enabled
Port Status : Secure-shutdown
Violation Mode : Shutdown
Aging Time : 0 mins
Aging Type : Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled
Maximum MAC Addresses : 1
Total MAC Addresses : 1
Configured MAC Addresses : 1
Sticky MAC Addresses : 0
Last Source Address:Vlan : 0001.4258.E24E:1
Security Violation Count : 1

Port Status Secure-shutdown, sebelum di ping dan tidak ada violation statusnya Secure-
up.

Topologi seperti semula

Interface Gig0/2 masih down. Agar statusnya UP UP kembali, jalankan shutdown dan no
shutdown.

NXT-S1#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
NXT-S1(config)#interface gig0/2
NXT-S1(config-if)#shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/2, changed state to


administratively down
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NXT-S1(config-if)#no shutdown

NXT-S1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/2, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface GigabitEthernet0/2,


changed state to up

NXT-S1(config-if)#

Ping dari Laptop1 ke Web-Server

PC>ping 192.168.1.11

Pinging 192.168.1.11 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128


Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128
Reply from 192.168.1.11: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.11:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Ping berhasil dari Laptop1 ke Web-Server. Cek MAC address table Switch:

NXT-S1#show mac-address-table
Mac Address Table
-------------------------------------------

Vlan Mac Address Type Ports


---- ----------- -------- -----

1 0004.9a8b.a712 STATIC Gig0/2


1 0040.0bbe.a832 DYNAMIC Fa0/1

Interface Gig0/2 sudah UP UP seperti semula.

NXT-S1#show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol

GigabitEthernet0/2 unassigned YES manual up
up
Vlan1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up
up

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Lab 29. Sticky MAC Address

Topologi

 Melanggunakan Topologi Lab 28

Tujuan

 Setting sticky mac address untuk mempelajari MAC address secara dynamic

Konfigurasi
Melanjutkan konfigurasi lab sebelumnya.

Hapus konfigurasi port-security NXT-S1

NXT-S1(config)#interface gig0/2
NXT-S1(config-if)#no switchport port-security mac-address
0004.9A8B.A712

Ketikkan lagi perintah sticky

NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport port-securit mac-address sticky


NXT-S1(config-if)#switchport port-securit maximum 1

Untuk membatasi berapa banyak yang akan disimpan secara dinamis oleh sticky, perlu kita
batasi menggunakan maximum.

Hasil akhirnya

NXT-S1#show port-security interface gig0/2


Port Security : Enabled
Port Status : Secure-shutdown
Violation Mode : Shutdown
Aging Time : 0 mins
Aging Type : Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled
Maximum MAC Addresses : 1
Total MAC Addresses : 0
Configured MAC Addresses : 0
Sticky MAC Addresses : 0
Last Source Address:Vlan : 0001.4258.E24E:1
Security Violation Count : 1

Jalankan ping dari Laptop1 ke Web-Server

Tampilkan output port-security pada interface Gig0/2

NXT-S1#show port-security interface gig0/2


Port Security : Enabled
Port Status : Secure-up
Violation Mode : Shutdown
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Aging Time : 0 mins
Aging Type : Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled
Maximum MAC Addresses : 1
Total MAC Addresses : 1
Configured MAC Addresses : 0
Sticky MAC Addresses : 1
Last Source Address:Vlan : 0004.9A8B.A712:1
Security Violation Count : 0

NXT-S1 telah mencatat MAC address Web-Server secara dinamis. Sebelum di ping Sticky
MAC Address masih 0 dan Last Source Address:Vlan bukan MAC address Web-Server.

Topologi Testing

Koneksikan Web-Server-Fake pada interface Gig0/2 NXT-S1. Jalankan ping dari Laptop1 ke
Web-Server-Fake. Apa yang terjadi?

Ping RTO dan interface Gig0/2 shutdown.

Tampilkan informasi interface Gig0/2

NXT-S1#show interface gig0/2


GigabitEthernet0/2 is down, line protocol is down (err-disabled)
Hardware is Lance, address is 0090.2118.e41a (bia 0090.2118.e41a)
BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec,
Tampilkan output port-security

NXT-S1#show port-security
Secure Port MaxSecureAddr CurrentAddr SecurityViolation Security
Action
(Count) (Count) (Count)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Gig0/2 1 1 1 Shutdown
--------------------------------------------------------------------
--

Interface Gig0/2 mengalami down (err-disabled) karena ada yang menggunakan interface
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Gig0/2 tanpa diijinkan MAC addressnya. Agar dapat digunakan kembali, koneksikan Web-
Server ke Interface Gig0/2 dan lakukan shutdown, no shutdown di interface.

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Lab 30. Errdisable Autorecovery

Topologi

 Menggunakan Topologi Lab 28

Tujuan

 Setting errdisable autorecovery agar tidak perlu no shutdown manual lagi ketika terjadi
violation

Konfigurasi
Melanjutkan konfigurasi sebelumnya

Ketikkan perintah di NXT-S1

NXT-S1(config)# errdisable recovery cause psecure-violation


NXT-S1(config)# errdisable recovery interval 300

Dengan perintah diatas, admin tidak perlu melakukan shutdown dan no shutdown lagi, karena
secara otomatis akan UP sendiri interface yang down karena violation port-security dan bisa
diatur berapa lama recoverynya. Interval satuannya second. 300 second = 5 menit.

Verifikasi

Gunakan scenario lab sebelumnya untuk mencoba violation port-security.

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Section 9: IP Routing Technologies
Routing Table
 Router menggunakan routing table untuk menentukan kemana mengirimkan packet.
Ketika packet diterima, router membandingkan destination IP address yang ada didalam
packet dengan semua route yang diketahui didalam routing table:
o Destination address dibandingkan dengan network destination dirouting table
o Match terjadi ketika destination IP address berada pada subnet yang sama yang
diindikasikan oleh route didalam routing table
o IP address bisa jadi match dengan lebih dari satu route didalam routing table,
jika hal ini terjadi, maka yang digunakan adalah yang paling spesifik entry routing
tablenya
o Ketika match ditemukan, packet dikirimkan keluar melalui spesifik interface
router ke next hop router address
o Jika tidak ada yang match, maka paket akan didrop (not forwarded)
 Gunakan command show ip route untuk menampilkan routing table:

NXT-R1#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS
level-2
ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static
route
o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.2.1 to network 0.0.0.0

R 172.16.0.0/16 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:08, FastEthernet0/0


R 172.17.0.0/16 [120/2] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:08, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
S* 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 192.168.2.1

Component Description
Gateway of last resort Digunakan jika paket tidak ada yang match dengan route yang lain.
Misalnya, route 0.0.0.0 dan mask 0.0.0.0 match setiap packet, jika
ada packet tidak match dengan route lain, maka next hop address
yang akan digunakan oleh packet ini yaitu 192.168.2.1
Route type Tipe atau source route:

C: untuk directly connected network


S: untuk static
R: untuk route yang dipelajari melalui RIP
Kode yang lain menyatakan route dipelajari oleh routing protocol
yang lain

* merupakan kandidat default route


Network Network address dan subnet mask, menyatakan subnet address
yang spesifik untuk route

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Administrative Yang pertama menyatakan administrative distance. Menyatakan
distance dan cost tingkat kepercayaan sebuah route yang dipelajari dari source
spesifik. Masing-masing routing protocol memiliki administrative
distance value. Value lebih keci lebih dipilih routenya. Contoh, static
route (AD=1) lebih dipilih dibandingkan routing protocol RIP
(AD=120)

Yang kedua menyatakan cost untuk mencapai route. Cost disebut


juga sebagai metric. Tiap routing protocol memiliki arti route cost
number. Cost digunakan untuk memilih route terbaik yang dipelajari
oleh routing protocol yang sama.
Next hop router Address yang ditandai dengan via , menyatakan address router
dimana paket dikirimkan menuju network destination. Address next
hop router berada pada subnet yang sama karena terhubung
langsung. Hal ini bukan berarti next hop router terhubung secara
langsung ke network destination, tetapi sebagai next stop didalam
jalur menuju destination
Last Update Untuk route yang dipelajari melalui routing protocol, time value
(misalnya 00:00:08) menyatakan waktu yang telah berlalu setelah
update route terakhir diterima
Out interface Interface local router yang digunakan untuk menuju next hop router
dan menuju network destination

Administrative Distance

Routing protocol or source Administrative distance

Connected interface 0

Static route 1

EIGRP summary route 5

External BGP 20

Internal EIGRP 90

IGRP 100

OSPF 110

IS-IS 115

RIP 120

EGP 140

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Routing protocol or source Administrative distance

ODR 160

External EIGRP 170

Internal BGP 200

Unknown 255

Static Routing

Routing
 Forwarding paket dari satu network ke network lainnya dengan memilih jalur yang
terbaik dari routing table
 Routing memungkinkan dua network atau lebih dapat berkomunikasi dengan network
lainnya
 Routing table hanya terdiri dari jalur terbaik untuk masing-masing network destination

Static routing
 Konfigurasi routing dilakukan secara manual
 Tidak memberikan informasi atau update otomatis antar router
 Optimal untuk network hub-and-spoke
o Semua remote site diarahkan menuju central site
o Router di central site memiliki static route ke semua subnet dimasing-masing
remote site
 Membutuhkan informasi network destination
 Setiap network destination disetting manual
 Digunakan oleh organisasi kecil
 Sebagai backup dynamic route
 Cocok digunakan di network yang memiliki bandwidth lambat, misalnya dial-up
 Memiliki administrative distance 0 atau 1

RIPv2
Keuntungan menggunakan dynamic routing dibandingkan static routing:
 Tidak perlu tahu network destination
 Perlu melakukan advertise network yang terhubung langsung
 Update perubahan topologi secara dinamis
 Pekerjaan network admin jadi berkurang
 Digunakan di industri besar
 Neighbor router melakukan pertukaran informasi routing dan membangun routing table
secara otomatis
 Lebih mudah dibandingkan menggunakan static routing

Overview RIPv2
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 Open standar protocol (Cisco atau non-Cisco)
 Classless routing protocol (support default atau sub-networks)
 Mendukung VLSM
 Mendukung Autentikasi
 Menggunakan multicast address 224.0.0.9
 Administrative distance: 120
 Metric: hop count (terbaik = yang paling kecil)
 Hop ke-16 unreachable
 Load balancing 4 equal path
 Digunakan untuk organisasi kecil
 Update secara periodic dan pertukaran keseleruhan informasi routing tabel setiap 30
second

Dua langkah mudah setting routing protocol dinamis secara umum:


1. Pilih routing protocol
2. Advertise directly connected network (jaringan yang terhubung langsung dengan router)

Router(config)# router rip


Router(config-router)# version 2
Router(config-router)# network <Network ID>
Router(config-router)# no auto-summary

network <Network-ID> : untuk advertise network yang terhubung langsung dengan


router (directly connected network).
Keuntungan RIPv2
 Mudah dikonfigurasi
 Tidak memerlukan design seperti OSPF
 Tidak kompleks
 Less overhead

Kerugian RIPv2
 Utilisasi bandwidth sangat tinggi karena diperlukan untuk broadcast setiap 30 second
(RIPv1)
 Terbatas pada jumlah hop (bukan bandwidth)
 Tidak scalable, hop count hanya 15
 Konvergensi rendah

Waktu konvergensi: waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh router untuk menggunakan route alternative
ketika best route down.

EIGRP
EIGRP disebut juga sebagai routing protocol distance vector, terkadang disebut juga advanced
distance vector atau routing protocol hybrid.

Berikut ini beberapa fitur dari EIGRP :


 Cisco open standar protocol (sebelumnya proprietary)
 Termasuk classless routing protocol
 Update perubahan topologi secara dinamis
 Metric (32 bit) : Composite Metric (BW + Delay + Load + MTU + Reliability)
 Administrative Distance: 90
 Update menggunakan multicast: 224.0.0.10
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 Jumlah maksimum hop count: 255 (default 100)
 Mendukung protocol IP, IPX, Apple Talk
 Hello packet dikirim setiap 5 second (dead interval 15 second)
 Konvergensi cepat
 Menggunakan algoritma DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm)
 Mendukung equal dan unequal cost load balancing

EIGRP memaintain tiga tabel


1. Neighbor table
- Menampilkan informasi directly connected router
- Command: show ip eigrp neighbor
2. Topology table
- Menampilkan semua best route yang dipelajari dari masing-masing neighbor
- Command: show ip eigrp topology
3. Routing table
- Menampilkan best route menuju network destination
- Command: show ip route

Notes EIGRP
 EIGRP menggunakan autonomous system number (ASN) untuk mengidentifikasi router-
router yang sharing informasi route
 Hanya router yang memiliki ASN sama yang bisa sharing informasi route

Dua step menggunakan routing protocol dinamis secara umum:


1. Pilih routing protocol
2. Advertise directly connected network (jaringan yang terhubung langsung dengan router)

Konfigurasi EIGRP

Router(config)# router eigrp 100


Router(config-router)# network <Network ID>
Router(config-router)# network <Network ID> <Wildcard Mask>
Router(config-router)# no auto-summary

network <Network-ID> : untuk advertise network yang terhubung langsung dengan


router (directly connected network).
Keuntungan EIGRP
 Terdapat backup route jika best route down (successor=primary, feasible
successor=backup)
 Mendukung VLSM

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OSPF

 OSPF singkatan dari Open Shortest Path First


 OSPF merupakan routing protocol open standar yang diimplementasikan oleh berbagai
macam vendor, termasuk Cisco
 Link-state protocol
 OSPF bekerja dengan menggunakan algoritma Dijkstra
 Hop count unlimited
 Metric: cost (cost=10^8 / BW)
 Administrative Distance: 110
 Classless routing protocol
 Mendukung VLSM dan CIDR
 Hanya mendukung equal cost load balancing
 Terdapat konsep area untuk memudahkan manajemen dan control traffic
 Menyediakan design hierarki dengan multiple area
 Harus memiliki satu area yang disebut sebagai area 0 atau backbone area
 Semua area selain 0 (non-backbone area) harus terhubung ke area 0
 Dari scalabilitas lebih baik dibandingkan dengan protocol distance vector
 Mendukung autentikasi
 Update melalui multicast address: 224.0.0.5
 Konvergensi cepat
 Mengirimkan hello packet setiap 10 second
 Trigger/Incrementeal updates
o Router mengirimkan update hanya jika terjadi perubahan dan tidak mengirimkan
semua routing table pada periodic update

OSPF memaintain tiga tabel


1. Neighbor table
- Dikenal juga sebagai adjacency database
- Menampilkan informasi directly connected router (neighbors)
- Command: show ip ospf neighbor
2. Database table
- Disebut juga sebagai LSDB (link state database)
- Menampilkan semua kemungkinan informasi route menuju network dalam satu
area
- Command: show ip ospf database
3. Routing table
- Menampilkan best route menuju network destination
- Command: show ip route

Dua step menggunakan routing protocol dinamis secara umum:


1. Pilih routing protocol
2. Advertise directly connected network (jaringan yang terhubung langsung dengan router)

Konfigurasi OSPF
Router(config)# router ospf <process-id>
Router(config-router)# network <network-id> <wildcard-mask> area
<area-id>
Router(config-router)# network <network-id> <wildcard-mask> area
<area-id>

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network <Network-ID>: untuk advertise network yang terhubung langsung dengan router
(directly connected network).
wildcard-mask : inverse subnet-mask

Keuntungan OSPF
 Open standard
 Tidak ada batasan jumlah hop
 Loop free
 Konvergensi lebih cepat

Kerugian OSPF
 Mengkonsumsi lebih banyak resource CPU
 Kompleks dalam hal design dan implementasi
 Hanya mendukung equal load balancing
 Hanya mendukung protocol IP

EGIRP vs OSPF

Requirement EIGRP OSPF


Status interface harus UP UP Ya Ya
Interface harus berada pada subnet yang sama Ya Ya
Harus lolos autentikasi (jika disetting
autentikasinya) Ya Ya
Harus menggunakan ASN yang sama disettingan
command router Ya Tidak
Hello dan hold/dead timers harus sama Tidak Ya
Router ID harus unik Tidak Ya
K-values harus sama Ya n/a
Harus berada dalam area yang sama n/a Ya

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Perbandingan RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF

No Description RIPv2 EIGRP OSPF


1 Cisco proprietary Tidak Ya Tidak
Classful or classless
2 Classless Classless Classless
protocol
3 Support VLSM Ya Ya Ya
4 Discontigous networks Ya Ya Ya
5 Auto-summarization Ya Ya Tidak
6 Manual-summarization Ya Ya Ya
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No Description RIPv2 EIGRP OSPF
7 Protocol type Distance Vector Hybrid Link State
Administrative
8 120 90 (external 170) 110
Distance
Bandwidth
Delay
9 Path metric Hop count Bandwidth
Load
Reliability
Ya (menggunakan Ya (menggunakan
10 Hierarchical network Tidak (flat saja)
AS) Area)
Routing table Routing table
11 Maintenance tables Routing table Neighbor table Database table
Topology table Topologly table
12 Hop count limit 15 224 (100 default) Tidak terbatas
13 Convergence Slow Sangat cepat Cepat
6, default 4
14 Multiple path 6 (equal-cost path) 6 (equal-cost path)
(unequal-cost path)
Algoritma for selecting Diffusing Update
15 Bellman-ford Dijkstra
best path Algorithm (DUAL)
16 Peer authentication Ya Ya Ya
Multicast
Multicast Multicast
17 Sending update 224.0.0.5 dan
224.0.0.9 224.0.0.10
224.0.0.6
18 Sends periodic update Ya (tiap 30 detik) Tidak Tidak
Full atau partial routing
19 Full Partial Partial
update
IP Protocol 88 IP Protocol 89
20 Transport type UDP/Port 520
(EIGRP) (OSPF)
Support IPX dan
21 Tidak Ya Tidak
AppleTalk
22 Resource usage Rendah Medium Tinggi
23 Wildcard mask Tidak Opsional Ya
router rip router eigrp 100
router ospf 1
version 2 no auto-summary
network 192.168.1.0
no auto-summary network
24 Command routing 0.0.0.255 area 0
network 192.168.1.0
network 172.16.0.0
192.168.1.0 network 172.16.0.0
0.0.0.255 area 0
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255
Propragasi default default-information default-information
25 redistribute static
route originate originate
26 Kode routing table R D O
show ip route show ip route
show ip eigrp show ip ospf
show ip route neighbors neighbor
show ip rip show ip eigrp show ip ospf
27 Troubleshooting
database interface interface
show ip protocol show ip eigrp show ip ospf
topology database
show ip protocol show ip protocol

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Lab 31. Static Routing

Topologi

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting static routing

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Konfigurasi
Gunakan topologi diatas, pastikan IP address telah di assign sesuai table addressing.

Setting interface loopback di NXT-R1 dan NXT-R2


Ketikkan command berikut di R1 dan R2
NXT-R1>enable
NXT-R1#configure terminal
NXT-R1(config)#interface lo1
NXT-R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-if)#
NXT-R1(config-if)#interface lo2
NXT-R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
NXT-R1(config-if)#
NXT-R1(config-if)#end

NXT-R2>enable
NXT-R2#configure terminal
NXT-R2(config)#interface lo1
NXT-R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0
NXT-R2(config-if)#
NXT-R2(config-if)#interface lo2
NXT-R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0
NXT-R2(config-if)#
NXT-R2(config-if)#end

Interface loopback secara default tidak ada, untuk membuat interface loopback gunakan
command diatas. Fungsi interface loopback ini seperti logical interface untuk
merepresentasikan sebuah subnet. Manfaat lain interface loopback untuk testing. Jika memiliki
keterbatasan resources untuk membuat LAN saat ngelab, gunakan interface loopback sebagai
LAN. Interface loopback sudah UP secara otomatis, sehingga tidak perlu memberikan sub-
command no shutdown.

Tampilkan interface yang sudah disetting di R1

Untuk melakukan verifikasi apakah IP address yang sudah kita setting apakah sudah sesuai
atau belum. Gunakan command dibawah ini.
R1#show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.254 YES manual up up
FastEthernet1/0 12.12.12.1 YES manual up up
Loopback1 172.16.1.1 YES manual up up
Loopback2 172.16.2.2 YES manual up up
R1#

Tampilkan interface yang sudah disetting di R2


R2#show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 192.168.2.254 YES manual up up
FastEthernet1/0 12.12.12.2 YES manual up up
Loopback0 172.16.3.3 YES manual up up

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Loopback1 172.16.4.4 YES manual up up
R2#

Pastikan status interface UP UP semua.

Tampilkan routing table di R1


R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R1#

Dari output routing table R1 dapat dilihat :


 Routing table diatas yang ditampilkan hanya network directly connected (jaringan yang
terhubung langsung) ditandai dengan kode C (Connected).
 Secara default, router tidak mengetahui network yang tidak terhubung langsung dan
itulah alasan mengapa Network A dan Network B tidak bisa berkomunikasi.
 Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, maka dibutuhkanlah routing protocol dengan berbagai
tipe contohnya static routing atau dynamic routing.

Setting static routing di R1


Untuk mensetting static routing dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara:
1. Next-hop IP address
2. Exit-interface

Istilah lain static routing :


1. Recursive static route = menggunakan next-hop ip address
2. Directly static route = menggunakan exit-interface

Konfigurasi static routing:


R1(config)#ip route <network-destination> <subnet-mask network-
destination> <next-hop ip address>
R1(config)#ip route <network-destination> <subnet-mask network-
destination> <exit-interface>

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network destination: network tujuan yang tidak terhubung langsung (remotely connected
network)
next-hop ip address: ip address yang terletak didepan router lokal menuju network destination
exit-interface: interface yang ada di router lokal untuk menuju network destination

Part 2: Dari R1, untuk menuju network Fa0/0 R2, yang menjadi next-hop ip address yaitu
IP address Fa1/0 R2.

Part 3:

Part 4: Dari R1, untuk menuju network Fa0/0 R2, yang menjadi exit-interface yaitu
interface Fa1/0 R1.

Part 5:

Setting static routing di R1


R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.2
R1(config)#ip route 172.16.3.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.2
R1(config)#ip route 172.16.4.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.2
R1(config)#

Setting static routing di R2


R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.1
R2(config)#ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.1
R2(config)#ip route 172.16.2.0 255.255.255.0 12.12.12.1
R2(config)#

Verifikasi
Setelah melakukan setting static routing, lakukan verifikasi dengan beberapa command
dibawah ini. Tes Ping antara Laptop1 dan Laptop2 pastikan berhasil. Lakukan tracert dari
Laptop1 untuk melihat router mana saja yang dilewati ketika menuju ke Laptop2.

Tampilkan routing table R1


R1#show ip route

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Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
S 172.16.3.0 [1/0] via 12.12.12.2
S 172.16.4.0 [1/0] via 12.12.12.2
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 12.12.12.2
R1#

Dari output command static routing yang kita inputkan diatas, akan tampil kode S di routing
table, artinya routing yang aktif yaitu static routing.

S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 12.12.12.2

Penjelasan baris routing table diatas:


Dari output routing table diatas, dibagi menjadi 4 kolom :
 Kolom 1 = S : kode static routing, untuk menuju network destination digunakan static
routing, atau routing protocol yang aktif di routing table adalah static routing.
 Kolom 2 = 192.168.2.0/24 : network destination, alamat network destination yang
akan dituju oleh router. Network destination tampil di routing table setelah kita
mengaktifkan routing protocol.
 Kolom 3 = [1/0] : 1 menyatakan nilai Administrative Distance (AD), 0 menyatakan nilai
metric.
 Kolom 4 = via 12.12.12.2 : next-hop ip address yang akan digunakan oleh router local
untuk memforward paket ke network destination

Administrative Distance (AD) menyatakan tingkat prioritas routing protocol ketika router
menjalankan lebih dari satu routing protocol secara bersamaan. AD dengan nilai terkecil yang
akan di pilih oleh router. Misalkan kita mengaktifkan protocol routing dynamic OSPF dan RIP,
maka yang akan dipilih oleh router yaitu OSPF karena memiliki nilai AD lebih kecil (110),
sedangkan RIP memiliki nilai AD lebih besar (120).

Metric menyatakan nilai dari hasil perhitungan routing protocol. Untuk RIP, metric terbaik dinilai
dari hop terkecil, sehingga path (jalur) terbaik menurut RIP yaitu route dengan jumlah hop
terkecil.

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AD untuk membandingkan prioritas routing protocol yang satu dengan yang lainnya, sedangkan
Metric untuk membandingkan value (nilai perhitungan) di dalam routing protocol tertentu.

Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Ping berhasil dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2.

Tampilkan routing table R2


R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
S 172.16.1.0 [1/0] via 12.12.12.1
S 172.16.2.0 [1/0] via 12.12.12.1
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
S 192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 12.12.12.1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R2#

Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=12ms TTL=126
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Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 12ms, Average = 5ms

Lakukan trace route dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Untuk mengetahui jalur mana yang dilewati, bisa kita cek dengan command tracert di Laptop.

Laptop1>tracert 192.168.2.1
Tracing route to 192.168.2.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:
1 7 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.2
3 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.1
Trace complete.

Dari output diatas, untuk menuju Laptop2 dari Laptop1 melewati 3 hop.

192.168.1.254 12.12.12.2

192.168.2.1

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Lab 32. Static Routing Advanced

Topologi

Router-1 Router-2

Comp-A Comp-B

Router-3

Table Addressing

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


S2/0 192.168.5.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
S3/0 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.3.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
S2/0 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
S3/0 192.168.4.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R3 S2/0 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
S3/0 192.168.5.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.254

Tujuan
 Setting static routing

Konfigurasi
Setting static routing di Router-1, Router-2 dan Router-3
Router-1(config)#ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1 1
Router-1(config)#ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.5.2 5

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Router-2(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2 1
Router-2(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1 5

Router-3(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.5.1 1


Router-3(config)#ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.2 1

Verifikasi

Lakukan ping dari Comp-A ke Comp-B menggunakan command promt dan pastikan berhasil.
Jika belum berhasil, cek lagi konfigurasi / IP yang telah diinputkan.

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Lab 33. RIPv2

Topologi

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting RIPv2
 Debug RIPv2
 Setting passive-interface RIPv2

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Konfigurasi
Tampilkan routing table sebelum disetting RIPv2 di R1
R1#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R1#

Tampilkan routing table sebelum disetting RIPv2 di R2

R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R2#

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Setting RIPv2 di R1

Command untuk mensetting RIPv2.


R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.2.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#

Setting RIPv2 di R2

Command untuk mensetting RIPv2.


R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.4.0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#

Verifikasi
Tampilkan routing table setelah disetting RIPv2 di R1
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
R 172.16.0.0/16 [120/1] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:55, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
R 172.16.3.0/24 [120/1] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:02, FastEthernet1/0
R 172.16.4.0/24 [120/1] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:02, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:02, FastEthernet1/0
R1#

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Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk menampilkan routing table di R2

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2 berhasil.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>tracert 192.168.2.1

Tracing route to 192.168.2.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.2
3 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.1

Trace complete.

Untuk menuju Laptop2 dari Laptop1 membutuhkan 3 hop.

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 11ms, Average = 3ms

Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1 berhasil.

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


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Laptop2>tracert 192.168.1.1

Tracing route to 192.168.1.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.1
3 1 ms 11 ms 11 ms 192.168.1.1

Trace complete.

Tampilkan informasi routing protocol yang digunakan di R1


R1#show ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "rip"
Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 12 seconds
Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Redistributing: rip
Default version control: send version 2, receive 2
Interface Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain
FastEthernet1/0 2 2
Loopback1 2 2
Loopback2 2 2
FastEthernet0/0 2 2
Automatic network summarization is not in effect
Maximum path: 4
Routing for Networks:
12.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.1.0
Passive Interface(s):
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
12.12.12.2 120 00:00:15
Distance: (default is 120)

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk menampilkan routing information di R2

Berdasarkan output routing information di R1, kita bisa lihat bahwa R1 menggunakan RIP
version 2 untuk network 12.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0, dan 192.168.1.0. RIP memiliki Administrative
Distance (AD) 120. Terdapat 4 interface yang mengaktifkan RIP yaitu Fa1/0, Fa0/0, Lo1, Lo2.

Debug RIP di R1
Dengan mengaktifkan fitur debug, kita bisa tahu apakah RIP sudah berjalan atau belum.
R1#debug ip rip
RIP protocol debugging is on
R1#
RIP: received v2 update from 12.12.12.2 on FastEthernet1/0
172.16.3.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
172.16.4.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
192.168.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
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RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via FastEthernet1/0 (12.12.12.1)
RIP: build update entries
172.16.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via Loopback1 (172.16.1.1)
RIP: build update entries
12.12.12.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.3.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
172.16.4.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
192.168.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via Loopback2 (172.16.2.2)
RIP: build update entries
12.12.12.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.3.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
172.16.4.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
192.168.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via FastEthernet0/0
(192.168.1.254)
RIP: build update entries
12.12.12.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0
172.16.3.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
172.16.4.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0
192.168.2.0/24 via 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0

Dari output debug RIP, kita bisa lihat bahwa RIP sudah running di router R1. Untuk
menghentikan output debug, gunakan command undebug ip rip atau undebug all.

Setting passive-interface di R1

Untuk menghentikan routing updates yang dikirimkan ke Network A, maka aktifkan command
passive-interface di interface fa0/0 R1 yang menuju Network A. Hal ini tidak
mempengaruhi advertise Network A. Jadi, Network A masih tetap dikenali oleh R2 dan masih
tampil di routing table R2. Di routing protocol RIPv2, mengaktifkan passive-interface
mencegah multicast update melalui interface spesifik dan masih bisa mendapatkan update dari
RIP neighbor yang lain.

R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0
R1(config-router)#

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Tampilkan routing information di R1

R1#show ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "rip"
Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 3 seconds
Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Redistributing: rip
Default version control: send version 2, receive 2
Interface Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain
FastEthernet1/0 2 2
Loopback1 2 2
Loopback2 2 2
Automatic network summarization is not in effect
Maximum path: 4
Routing for Networks:
12.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.1.0
Passive Interface(s):
FastEthernet0/0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
12.12.12.2 120 00:00:08
Distance: (default is 120)
R1#

Passive-interface fa0/0 R1 sudah berhasil kita setting.

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk setting passive-interface di R2

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Lab 34. EIGRP

Topologi

AS=100

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting EIGRP
 Debug EIGRP
 Setting passive-interface EIGRP

185 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Konfigurasi
Tampilkan routing table sebelum disetting EIGRP di R1
R1#sh ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R1#

Tampilkan routing table sebelum disetting EIGRP di R2


R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R2#

Dari output diatas, hanya menampilkan directly connected network pada masing-masing router
yang ditandai dengan kode C. Untuk menghubungkan router agar bisa berkomunikasi dengan
network remote (yang tidak terhubung langsung dengan router) maka perlu disetting routing
protocol, salah satu contohnya yaitu EIGRP.

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Setting EIGRP di R1

Command untuk mensetting EIGRP.


R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.2.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary

Setting EIGRP di R2
Command untuk mensetting EIGRP.

R2(config)#router eigrp 100


R2(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.4.0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary

Verifikasi
Tampilkan routing table setelah disetting EIGRP di R1
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
D 172.16.3.0 [90/156160] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:17, FastEthernet1/0
D 172.16.4.0 [90/156160] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:17, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/30720] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:17, FastEthernet1/0
R1#
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area

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Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk menampilkan routing table di R2

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2 berhasil.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>tracert 192.168.2.1

Tracing route to 192.168.2.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.2
3 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.1

Trace complete.

Laptop1>tracert 192.168.2.1

Tracing route to 192.168.2.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

Untuk menuju Laptop2 dari Laptop1 membutuhkan 3 hop.

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 11ms, Average = 3ms

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Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1 berhasil.

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>tracert 192.168.1.1

Tracing route to 192.168.1.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.1
3 1 ms 11 ms 11 ms 192.168.1.1

Trace complete.

Tampilkan neighbor table R1


R1#show ip eigrp neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
0 12.12.12.2 Fa1/0 10 00:02:23 40 1000 0 32

Dari output neighbor table dapat diketahui bahwa R1 memiliki neighbor router 12.12.12.2 (IP
address R2).
Tampilkan topologi table di R1
R1#show ip eigrp topology
IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS 100

Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply,


r - Reply status

P 12.12.12.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160


via Connected, FastEthernet1/0
P 172.16.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256
via Connected, Loopback1
P 172.16.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256
via Connected, Loopback2
P 172.16.3.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 156160
via 12.12.12.2 (156160/128256), FastEthernet1/0
P 172.16.4.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 156160
via 12.12.12.2 (156160/128256), FastEthernet1/0
P 192.168.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 28160
via Connected, FastEthernet0/0
P 192.168.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 30720
via 12.12.12.2 (30720/28160), FastEthernet1/0
R1#

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk menampilkan neighbor table dan topologi table di
R2

Tampilkan informasi routing EIGRP di R1


189 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
R1#show ip protocols

Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100 "


Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Default networks flagged in outgoing updates
Default networks accepted from incoming updates
EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0
EIGRP maximum hopcount 100
EIGRP maximum metric variance 1
Redistributing: eigrp 100
Automatic network summarization is not in effect
Maximum path: 4
Routing for Networks:
12.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.1.0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
12.12.12.2 90 160431022
Distance: internal 90 external 170

R1#

Berdasarkan output routing information di R1, kita bisa lihat bahwa R1 menggunakan EIGRP
dengan ASN 100 untuk network 12.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0, dan 192.168.1.0. EIGRP memiliki
Administrative Distance 120. Secara default hop-count EIGRP 100.

Tampilkan informasi interface EIGRP di R1

R1#show ip eigrp interfaces


IP-EIGRP interfaces for process 100

Xmit Queue Mean Pacing Time Multicast Pending


Interface Peers Un/Reliable SRTT Un/Reliable Flow Timer Routes
Fa1/0 1 0/0 1236 0/10 0 0
Lo1 0 0/0 1236 0/10 0 0
Lo2 0 0/0 1236 0/10 0 0
Fa0/0 0 0/0 1236 0/10 0 0
R1#

Terdapat 4 interface yang disetting EIGRP yaitu Fa1/0, Fa0/0, Lo1, Lo2.

Debug EIGRP R2

Pada saat kita mensetting EIGRP di R2 step sebelumnya pada Halaman 43, di R2 akan tampil
output seperti dibawah ini :

R2(config)#router eigrp 100


R2(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R2(config-router)#
%DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 12.12.12.1 (FastEthernet1/0)
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is up: new adjacency

R2(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.4.0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#
%DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 12.12.12.1 (FastEthernet1/0)
resync: summary configured

Setelah selesai setting EIGRP di R1, kemudian kita mensetting EIGRP di R2, setelah input
network 12.12.12.0 di R2, muncul pesan neighbor adjacency yang ditambahkan ke dalam
routing process EIGRP. Oleh karena itu, saat kita verifikasi show ip eigrp neighbors R2
akan memiliki neighbor 12.12.12.1 seperti tampilan dibawah ini :

R2#show ip eigrp neighbors


IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
0 12.12.12.1 Fa1/0 10 00:23:38 40 1000 0 16

R2#

Selain itu juga terjadi proses resync saat kita mengetikkan command no auto-summary.
Untuk mengaktifkan debug paket EIGRP, gunakan command dibawah ini :

R2#debug eigrp packets


EIGRP Packets debugging is on
(UPDATE, REQUEST, QUERY, REPLY, HELLO, ACK )
EIGRP: Received HELLO on FastEthernet1/0 nbr 12.12.12.1
AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 17/0 idbQ 0/0

EIGRP: Sending HELLO on Loopback4


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

EIGRP: Received HELLO on Loopback4 nbr 172.16.4.4


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0

EIGRP: Packet from ourselves ignored

EIGRP: Sending HELLO on Loopback3


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

EIGRP: Received HELLO on Loopback3 nbr 172.16.3.3


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0

EIGRP: Packet from ourselves ignored

EIGRP: Sending HELLO on FastEthernet0/0


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

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EIGRP: Sending HELLO on FastEthernet1/0
AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 36/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0

EIGRP: Received HELLO on FastEthernet1/0 nbr 12.12.12.1


AS 100, Flags 0x0, Seq 17/0 idbQ 0/0

Setting passive-interface di R1

R1(config)#router eigrp 100


R1(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0
R1(config-router)#

Dari output debug packet EIGRP, kita bisa lihat bahwa EIGRP menggunakan paket hello untuk
membentuk relationship dengan router tetangga (adjacent router). Apabila kita mengaktifkan
command passive-interface di interface maka akan menghentikan pengiriman paket hello
sehingga akan mencegah update routing outgoing dan incoming.

Karena Network A dan Network B tidak memerlukan paket hello, maka kita perlu mengaktifkan
passive-interface untuk interface di R1 dan R2 yang menuju Network A dan Network B.

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk setting passive-interface EIGRP di R2

192 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 35. EIGRP Troubleshooting

Topologi

Tujuan
 Troubleshooting EIGRP
Pertanyaan
Pada lab ini, Anda telah diberikan output konfigurasi EIGRP topologi diatas. Untuk mengerjakan
lab ini, Anda buat topologi terlebih dahulu sesuai topologi diatas lalu Anda ketikkan konfigurasi
dibawah dan jawab pertanyaan lab ini, pilih satu jawaban yang benar!
1. Jalur yang akan dilewati oleh R1 ke R5 ?
a. Trafik equal load balance melalui R2 dan R3
b. Trafik melalui R3
c. Trafik unequal load-balanced melalui R2 dan R3
d. Trafik melalui R2
2. Router R6 tidak membentuk EIGRP neighbor relationship dengan R1. Apakah ada yang
salah dengan konfigurasinya?
a. Network command ada yang salah
b. K value mismatch
c. AS ga match
d. Passive-interface akfit
3. R1 mencoba ping ke interface Loopback0 R5 dengan IP 10.5.5.5 dari source Loopback0
10.1.1.1 namun success rate 0 %. Mengapa Lo0 R1 tidak bisa ping ke Lo0 R5 ?
a. Ada kesalahan network statement di R5
b. Loopback interface R5 shutdown
c. Ada kesalahan network statement di R1
d. Ada kesalahan network statement di R5
4. Loopback interface di R4 dengan IP address 10.4.4.4/32, 10.4.4.5/32, 10.4.4.6/32 tidak
tampil di routing table R5. Mengapa hal itu bisa terjadi?
a. Automatic summarization diaktifkan, sehingga hanya tampil network 10.0.0.0
b. R4 dikonfigurasi dengan AS yang lain, sehingga tidak membentuk peering
dengan R5
c. Interface shutdown, sehingga network tersebut tidak diadvertised
d. Loopback address tidak diadvertise dan terdapat kesalahan command network di
R4
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Konfigurasi
R1: R2:
int lo0 int lo0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
int e0/0 int e0/0
ip address 192.168.16.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 192.168.123.2 255.255.255.0
int s1/1 int s2/1
ip address 192.168.13.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 192.168.12.2 255.255.255.0
bandwidth 1000 !
int s1/3 router eigrp 1
ip address 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.0 network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.0
! network 192.168.12.0
router eigrp 1 network 192.168.123.0
network 192.168.12.0
network 192.168.13.0
network 192.168.16.0

R3: R4:
int lo0 int lo0
ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 ip address 10.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
int e0/0 int lo1
ip address 192.168.123.3 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.4.4.5 255.255.255.255
int s2/1 int lo2
ip address 192.168.13.3 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.4.4.6 255.255.255.255
! int e0/0
router eigrp 1 ip address 192.168.123.4 255.255.255.0
network 10.3.3.3 0.0.0.0 !
network 192.168.13.0 router eigrp 2
network 192.168.123.0 network 10.4.4.4 0.0.0.0
network 10.4.4.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.4.4.6 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.123.0

R5: R6:
int lo0 int lo0
ip address 10.5.5.5 255.255.255.255 ip address 10.6.6.6 255.255.255.255
int lo1 int e0/0
ip address 10.5.5.55 255.255.255.255 ip address 192.168.16.6 255.255.255.0
int e0/0 !
ip address 192.168.123.5 255.255.255.0 router eigrp 1
! network 10.6.6.6 0.0.0.0
router eigrp 1
network 10.5.5.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.5.5.55 0.0.0.0
network 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.255
network 192.168.123.0

Solusi ( 1.d 2.a 3.c 4.b )

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Lab 36. OSPF

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting OSPF
 Setting router-id OSPF
 Setting passive-interface dan network type loopback OSPF
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Konfigurasi
Agar proses routing berhasil, harus disetting OSPF disemua router terlebih dulu. Setelah itu
baru diverifikasi dengan tes Ping end-to-end device-nya.

Setting OSPF di R1
Command untuk mensetting OSPF.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

Setting OSPF di R2
Command untuk mensetting OSPF.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

Verifikasi
Tampilkan routing table setelah disetting OSPF di R1
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:01:31, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:01:31, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
O 192.168.2.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:40, FastEthernet1/0
R1#

Tampilkan routing table setelah disetting OSPF di R2

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R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:02:07, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:02:07, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
O 192.168.1.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:02:07, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R2#

Tampilkan informasi neighbor OSPF di R1


R1#show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.4.4 1 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:35 12.12.12.2 FastEthernet1/0
R1#

Tampilkan informasi neighbor OSPF di R2


R2#show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.2.2 1 FULL/DR 00:00:31 12.12.12.1 FastEthernet1/0
R2#

Tampilkan informasi routing protocol di R1


R1#show ip protocol

Routing Protocol is "ospf 1"


Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Router ID 172.16.2.2
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Maximum path: 4
Routing for Networks:
12.12.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update

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172.16.2.2 110 00:07:22
172.16.4.4 110 00:06:07
Distance: (default is 110)

R1#
R1#show ip protocol

Dari informasi routing diatas, R1 menjalankan OSPF dengan proses ID 1. Ada 4 network yang
diroutingkan oleh R1. Administrative distance 110. R1 memiliki router ID 172.16.2.2.

R1 memiliki neighbor 172.16.4.4 (IP Loopback R2). 172.16.4.4 merupakan router-ID R2.

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk menampilkan informasi neighbor dan informasi
routing protocol di R2

Tampilkan informasi database OSPF di R1

R1#show ip ospf database


OSPF Router with ID (172.16.2.2) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 0)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count


172.16.2.2 172.16.2.2 472 0x80000005 0x00e483 4
172.16.4.4 172.16.4.4 397 0x80000004 0x00ba9c 4

Net Link States (Area 0)


Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
12.12.12.1 172.16.2.2 472 0x80000001 0x00720b
R1#
R1#show ip ospf database
OSPF Router with ID (172.16.2.2) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 0)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count


172.16.2.2 172.16.2.2 472 0x80000005 0x00e483 4
172.16.4.4 172.16.4.4 397 0x80000004 0x00ba9c 4

Di area 0 hanya terdapat 2 router dengan ID : 172.16.2.2 dan 172.16.4.4.


Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
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Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2

Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2 berhasil.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2


Laptop1>tracert 192.168.2.1

Tracing route to 192.168.2.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.2
3 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.1

Trace complete.

Untuk menuju Laptop2 dari Laptop1 membutuhkan 3 hop.

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 11ms, Average = 3ms

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1


Laptop2>tracert 192.168.1.1

Tracing route to 192.168.1.1 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 12.12.12.1
3 1 ms 11 ms 11 ms 192.168.1.1

Trace complete.

Tampilkan routing table spesifik OSPF di R1 dan R2

R1#show ip route ospf


172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.3.3 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:05:11, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:05:11, FastEthernet1/0

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O 192.168.2.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:04:20, FastEthernet1/0
R1#

R2#show ip route ospf


172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:05:05, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:05:05, FastEthernet1/0
O 192.168.1.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:05:05, FastEthernet1/0
R2#

Debug OSPF di R1
05:53:59: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.4.4 on FastEthernet1/0
from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

Setelah selesai setting OSPF di R2, di R1 maupun R2 akan muncul output adjacent router
OSPF. Dari output debug OSPF diatas R1 memiliki neighbor 172.16.4.4. 172.16.4.4 adalah
router ID dari R2. Berarti R1 dan R2 telah menjalin relationship neighbor (adjacency) sehingga
routing update akan saling dikirimkan.

Setting router-id OSPF di R1

R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#router-id 111.111.111.111
R1(config-router)#Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for
this to take effect
R1(config-router)#

Setting router-id OSPF di R2


R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#router-id 222.222.222.222
R2(config-router)#Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for
this to take effect
R2(config-router)#

Setelah menjalankan command router-id diatas, jalankan command clear ip ospf


process untuk mereset proses OSPF di R1 maupun R2, sehingga router-id OSPF akan
berubah.

R1#clear ip ospf process


Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes

R1#
06:12:37: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.4.4 on FastEthernet1/0
from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Adjacency forced to reset

06:12:37: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.4.4 on FastEthernet1/0


from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached

R1#
06:12:41: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.4.4 on FastEthernet1/0
from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

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Tampilkan neighbor table OSPF di R1

R1#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface


222.222.222.222 1 FULL/DR 00:00:36 12.12.12.2 FastEthernet1/0
R1#

Dari output neighbor table di R1, bisa kita lihat di kolom neighbor ID terdapat 222.222.222.222,
dimana 222.222.222.222 adalah router-id R2. Dengan demikian, setting router-id OSPF di R2
telah berhasil.

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk mereset process OSPF dan tampilkan neighbor
table OSPF di R2, pastikan neighbor ID R1 111.111.111.111

Setting passive-interface OSPF di R1


R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0
R1(config-router)#

Tampilkan routing information OSPF di R1

R1#show ip protocols

Routing Protocol is "ospf 1"


Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Router ID 111.111.111.111
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Maximum path: 4
Routing for Networks:
12.12.12.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
172.16.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Passive Interface(s):
FastEthernet0/0
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
111.111.111.111 110 00:11:04
172.16.2.2 110 00:30:11
172.16.4.4 110 00:11:38
222.222.222.222 110 00:11:04
Distance: (default is 110)

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Passive-interface fa0/0 telah berhasil ditambahkan di OSPF R1.

Tampilkan interface OSPF di R1

R1#show ip ospf interface

FastEthernet1/0 is up, line protocol is up


Internet address is 12.12.12.1/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost:
1
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1
Designated Router (ID) 222.222.222.222, Interface address 12.12.12.2
Backup Designated Router (ID) 111.111.111.111, Interface address
12.12.12.1
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 00:00:07
Index 1/1, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
Adjacent with neighbor 222.222.222.222 (Designated Router)
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

Loopback1 is up, line protocol is up


Internet address is 172.16.1.1/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

Loopback2 is up, line protocol is up


Internet address is 172.16.2.2/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up


Internet address is 192.168.1.254/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost:
1
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State WAITING, Priority 1
No designated router on this network
No backup designated router on this network
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
No Hellos (Passive interface)
Index 4/4, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Passive-interface OSPF memiliki kemiripan dengan EIGRP. Dengan mengaktifkan
passive-interface di interface OSPF, maka akan menghentikan pengiriman paket hello
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sehingga akan mencegah router membentuk relationship neighbor antar router, akibatnya
router akan berhenti melakukan update routing outgoing dan incoming (tidak dapat
mengirimkan update routing dan tidak dapat dikirimi update routing).

OSPF dan EIGRP sama-sama menggunakan paket hello sebelum membentuk relationship
antar router. Perhatikan informasi interface OSPF Fa0/0 dan Fa1/0 R1 diatas. Fa0/0 sudah
diaktifkan command passive-interface sehingga tidak ada lagi paket hello. Beda dengan
Fa1/0 yang ada keterangan Hello due in..

FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up


No Hellos (Passive interface)

FastEthernet1/0 is up, line protocol is up


Hello due in 00:00:07

Karena Network A dan Network B merupakan jaringan LAN dimana tidak membutuhkan
relationship neighbor antar router OSPF sehingga tidak jadi masalah ketika interface Fa0/0
diaktifkan command passive-interface-nya. Lain halnya dengan interface Fa1/0 ketika
diaktifkan command passive-interface, maka akan menimbulkan masalah yaitu R1 tidak dapat
membentuk relationship dengan R2, sehingga OSPF tidak dapat berjalan normal.

OSPF secara default memiliki hello interval = 10 second, dan dead interval = 40 second.

Interface Loopback di OSPF


Perhatikan sekali lagi output routing table di R1 dan R2. Apakah ada masalah dengan interface
loopback?

R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
O 192.168.2.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0

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R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:41:42, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:41:42, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback3
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback4
O 192.168.1.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:41:42, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Dari output show ip ospf interface dan show ip route kita bisa lihat bahwa loopback
yang sebelumnya kita buat untuk tujuan imitasi subnet atau testing menjadi sebuah network
sendiri di R1 maupun di R2 berubah menjadi stub host dengan prefix /32 dan network type
LOOPBACK.

R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
O 192.168.2.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0

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Loopback1 is up, line protocol is up
.
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

Loopback2 is up, line protocol is up


.
Process ID 1, Router ID 111.111.111.111, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

Loopback3 is up, line protocol is up


.
Process ID 1, Router ID 222.222.222.222, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

Loopback4 is up, line protocol is up


.
Process ID 1, Router ID 222.222.222.222, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost:
1
Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host

O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0


O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:38:50, FastEthernet1/0

O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:41:42, FastEthernet1/0


O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:41:42, FastEthernet1/0

Semua loopback, yaitu Loopback1, Loopback2, Loopback3, Loopback4 menjadi stub host
dengan network type LOOPBACK. Stub host memang tampil di routing table dengan prefix /32,
akan tetapi tidak dapat digunakan untuk forwarding.

Agar semua loopback dapat di advertise oleh OSPF sebagai network dengan prefix aslinya
yaitu /24, caranya dengan mengubah network type loopback menjadi point-to-point.

Ubah Network Type Interface Loopback OSPF di R1 dan R2


R1(config)#interface lo1
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#interface lo2
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R1(config-if)#

R2(config)#interface lo3
R2(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#interface lo4
R2(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R2(config-if)#

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Tampilkan routing table OSPF terupdate di R1 dan R2
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:01:00, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:00:50, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
O 192.168.2.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 01:17:07, FastEthernet1/0
R1#

R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
O 172.16.1.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:04:33, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.0 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:04:23, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback3
C 172.16.4.0 is directly connected, Loopback4
O 192.168.1.0/24 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 01:18:04, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R2#show ip route

Dari output diatas, semua loopback telah diadvertise sebagai network dengan prefix /24.
Selanjutnya kita akan tes Ping dari Loopback1 di R1 ke Loopback3 di R2.

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Tes Ping dari Loopback1 di R1 ke Loopback3 di R2

Untuk mencoba tes Ping dari Loopback, gunakan extended-ping di router.


R1#ping
Protocol [ip]: ip
Target IP address: 172.16.3.3
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: loopback1
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.3.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.1.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms

Note: ulangi langkah yang sama diatas untuk tes Ping dari Loopback4 di R2 ke Loopback2 di
R1.

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Lab 37. OSPF Troubleshooting

Topologi

Tujuan
 Troubleshooting OSPF
Pertanyaan
Pada lab ini, Anda telah diberikan output konfigurasi OSPF topologi diatas. Untuk mengerjakan
lab ini, Anda buat topologi terlebih dahulu sesuai topologi diatas menggunakan GNS3 lalu Anda
ketikkan konfigurasi dibawah dan jawab pertanyaan lab ini, pilih satu jawaban yang benar!
1. R3 dan R4 tidak bisa membentuk OSPF neighborship. Apa masalahnya ?
a. Area ID R3 dan R4 tidak sama
b. Enkapsulasi Layer 2 pada kabel serial tidak sama
c. Hello dan dead interval OSPF tidak sama
d. Router ID R3 dikonfigurasi di R4
2. R3 dan R5 tidak bisa membentuk OSPF neighborship. Apa masalahnya?
a. Area ID R3 dan R5 tidak sama
b. Enkapsulasi Layer 2 pada kabel serial tidak sama
c. Hello dan dead interval OSPF tidak sama
d. Router ID R3 dikonfigurasi di R5
3. R1dan R2 tidak bisa membentuk OSPF neighborship. Apa masalahnya?
a. Area ID R1 dan R2 tidak sama
b. Ethernet0/1 R1 dikonfigurasi hello interval OSPF non-default
c. Enkapsulasi Layer 2 pada kabel serial tidak sama
d. Hello dan dead interval OSPF tidak sama
4. R3 dan R6 tidak bisa membentuk OSPF neighborship. Apa masalahnya?
a. Area ID R3 dan R6 tidak sama
b. Enkapsulasi Layer 2 pada kabel serial tidak sama
c. Hello dan dead interval OSPF tidak sama
d. Ethernet0/1 R1 dikonfigurasi hello interval OSPF non-default
e. Router ID R3 dikonfigurasi di R6

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Konfigurasi
R1 R2
interface Loopback0 !
description ***Loopback*** interface Loopback0
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 description **Loopback**
ip ospf 1 area 0 ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.255
! ip ospf 2 area 0
interface Ethernet0/0 !
description **Connected to R1-LAN** interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 10.10.110.1 255.255.255.0 description **Connected to R2-LAN**
ip ospf 1 area 0 ip address 10.10.120.1 255.255.255.0
! ip ospf 2 area 0
interface Ethernet0/1 !
description **Connected to L2SW** interface Ethernet0/1
ip address 10.10.230.1 255.255.255.0 description **Connected to L2SW**
ip ospf hello-interval 25 ip address 10.10.230.2 255.255.255.0
ip ospf 1 area 0 ip ospf 2 area 0
! !
router ospf 1 router ospf 2
log-adjacency-changes log-adjacency-changes
R4
R3
!
username R6 password CISCO36
interface Loopback0
!
description **Loopback**
interface Loopback0
ip address 192.168.4.4 255.255.255.255
description **Loopback**
ip ospf 4 area 2
ip address 192.168.3.3 255.255.255.255
!
ip ospf 3 area 0
interface Ethernet0/0
!
ip address 172.16.113.1 255.255.255.0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip ospf 4 area 2
description **Connected to L2SW**
!
ip address 10.10.230.3 255.255.255.0
interface Serial1/0
ip ospf 3 area 0
description **Connected to R3-Main Branch
!
office**
interface Serial1/0
ip address 10.10.240.2 255.255.255.252
description **Connected to R4-Branch1 office**
encapsulation ppp
ip address 10.10.240.1 255.255.255.252
ip ospf 4 area 2
encapsulation ppp
!
ip ospf 3 area 0
router ospf 4
!
log-adjacency-changes
interface Serial1/1
description **Connected to R5-Branch2 office**
ip address 10.10.240.5 255.255.255.252
encapsulation ppp
ip ospf hello-interval 50
ip ospf 3 area 0
!
interface Serial1/2
description **Connected to R6-Branch3 office**
ip address 10.10.240.9 255.255.255.252
encapsulation ppp
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ip ospf 3 area 0
ppp authentication chap
!
router ospf 3
router-id 192.168.3.3
!

R5 R6
! username R3 password CISCO36
interface Loopback0 !
description **Loopback** interface Loopback0
ip address 192.168.5.5 255.255.255.255 description **Loopback**
ip ospf 5 area 0 ip address 192.168.6.6 255.255.255.255
! ip ospf 6 area 0
interface Ethernet0/0 !
ip address 172.16.114.1 255.255.255.0 interface Ethernet0/0
ip ospf 5 area 0 ip address 172.16.115.1 255.255.255.0
! ip ospf 6 area 0
interface Serial1/0 !
description **Connected to R3-Main Branch interface Serial1/0
office** description **Connected to R3-Main Branch
ip address 10.10.240.6 255.255.255.252 office**
encapsulation ppp ip address 10.10.240.10 255.255.255.252
ip ospf 5 area 0 encapsulation ppp
! ip ospf 6 area 0
router ospf 5 ppp authentication chap
log-adjacency-changes !
router ospf 6
router-id 192.168.3.3
!

Solusi
1.a, 2.c, 3.b, 4.d

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Section 10: IP Services
DHCP
 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
 DHCP berfungsi untuk memberikan IP host secara dinamis. Untuk setting IP address,
ada dua yaitu pertama manual artinya user menginputkan IP address sendiri, kedua
menggunakan DHCP, user akan menerima IP address dari DHCP server, sehingga user
tidak perlu menginputkan manual lagi
 Proses DHCP Server:

 Konfigurasi DHCP Server di Cisco Router

Configuration Description
Router(config)#ip dhcp pool NetworkA Membuat nama DHCP pool
Menentukan network dan subnet mask DHCP
Router(dhcp-config)#network 10.1.1.0 /24
pool
Router(dhcp-config)#default-router 10.1.1.1 Setting default gateway klien
Router(dhcp-config)#dns-server 10.1.1.1 Setting Domain Name Server (DNS)
Router(dhcp-config)#domain-name
Setting domain-name
nixtrain.com
Lama waktu IP digunakan oleh klien.
Command syntax “lease {days[hours]
[minutes] | infinite}”. Pada konfigurasi tersebut
Router(dhcp-config)#lease 0 12 dipinjamkan ke klien selama 12 jam. Default
lease satu hari.
Sebelum habis waktunya, klien meminta
request ke server untuk renew
Router(dhcp-config)#exit
Menentukan range IP address yang tidak di
Router(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address
lease ke klien. Ingat, command ini di global
10.1.1.1 10.1.1.10
configuration mode.

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Lab 38. DHCP Server

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting DHCP Server Router0
Konfigurasi
Konfigurasi DHCP Server di Router0, network 192.168.1.0/24
Router>en
Router#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#no sh

Router(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0,


changed state to up

Router(config-if)#ip dhcp pool NetworkA


Router(dhcp-config)#network 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
Router(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.168.1.1
Router(dhcp-config)#dns 8.8.8.8
Router(dhcp-config)# exit
Router(config)#
Router(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.10
Router(config)#
Router(config)#
Network: 192.168.1.0/2

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Gateway: 192.168.1.1
DNS: 8.8.8.8
Excluded-address: 192.168.1.1 – 10 (IP yang akan di lease ke klien berarti dari 192.168.1.11 –
192.168.1.254)

Verifikasi
Untuk testing apakah DHCP server sudah berfungsi dengan baik atau belum, jalankan DHCP
client di Laptop0.

Pada bagian IP configuration, klik DHCP.

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Access-List

Karakterisik ACL secara umum


 Menentukan tipe traffic yang akan di control
 Menentukan karakteristrik traffic
 Mengidentifikasi traffic dengan permit atau deny
 Dapat men-deny traffic spesifik atau secara keseluruhan
 Terdapat implisit deny any pada akhir baris access list secara default
 Masing-masing baris hanya untuk satu protokol spesifik
 Masing-masing interface router maksimal hanya punya dua access list untuk masing-
masing protocol, satu incoming traffic dan satu outgoing traffic
 Ketika access list di assign untuk interface, tentukan apakah untuk incoming atau
outgoing
 Access list sifatnya global di router, tapi filter traffic hanya berlaku di interface yang di
assign access list
 Masing-masing access list dapat di assign ke beberapa interface
 Akan tetapi tiap interface hanya boleh satu incoming dan satu outgoing
 Access list dapat digunakan untuk nge-log traffic yang match dengan access list
statement
 Access list yang di applied ke inbound traffic dilakukan sebelum routing decision
 Access list yang di applied ke outbound traffic dilakukan setelah routing decision
 Ketikkan rule access list secara berurutan, dengan statement paling restrictive berada di
atas
 Packet filtering:

ACL Standard

1. Nomor : 1-99
2. Digunakan untuk filter source IP address
3. Permit / Deny semua protocol suite TCP/IP
4. Tips : assign pada router yang terdekat dengan destination (close to the
destination router)

Konfigurasi ACL Standard

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Untuk melakukan setting ACL di router, pertama setting rule ACL terlebih dahulu di mode global
router, kemudian langkah kedua assign rule ACL tersebut di interface.
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit/deny source hostname/ip/network
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit/deny any

Router(config)# interface fa0/0


Router(config)# ip access-group 1 in/out

ACL Extended

1. Nomor : 100-199
2. Digunakan untuk filter source dan destination IP address
3. Dapat memfilter spesifik protocol IP dan port number
4. Tips : assign pada router yang terdekat dengan source (close to the source router)

Konfigurasi ACL Extended

Untuk melakukan setting ACL di router, pertama setting rule ACL terlebih dahulu di mode global
router, kemudian langkah kedua assign rule ACL tersebut di interface.
Router(config)# access-list 100 permit/deny protocol source_IP
destination_IP
Router(config)# access-list 100 permit/deny protocol source_IP port
destination_IP port
Router(config)# access-list 100 permit/deny protocol any any

Router(config)# interface fa0/0


Router(config)# ip access-group 1 in/out

Untuk menyatakan match sebuah host bisa menggunakan 2 cara :


 Dengan wildcard mask “0.0.0.0”, misal 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0
 Dengan keyword “host”, misal host 192.168.1.1

Untuk menyatakan match semua host bisa menggunakan 2 cara :


 Dengan wildcard mask “255.255.255.255”, misal 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
 Dengan keyword “any”, misal any source atau destination

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Lab 39. ACL Standard

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting ACL Standard

Konfigurasi

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Sebelum menerapkan ACL, setting OSPF Area 0 terlebih dahulu topologi diatas.

#1. Buat rule ACL standard seperti dibawah ini:


1. Deny host 192.168.1.1 berkomunikasi dengan network 192.168.2.0
2. Deny network 172.16.1.0 berkomunikasi dengan network 192.168.2.0
3. Permit semua trafik lainnya

Gunakan ACL number 1 untuk rule 1-3 diatas.

Tampilkan ipconfig Lapopt1 sebelum disetting ACL

Laptop1>ipconfig
FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)
Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::201:43FF:FE3A:AEC2
IP Address......................: 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.1.254

Laptop1 dapat melakukan tes Ping ke Laptop2 yang berada di network 192.168.2.0

Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Setting ACL Standar di R2

R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0


R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit any

ACL telah disetting di R2 sesuai urutan rule nomor 1-3 di atas. Mengapa menempatkan ACL-
nya di R2? Agar rule tersebut berjalan normal saat di eksekusi, maka kita taruh di dekat router
tujuan. Ingat konsep ACL standar : close to the destination router.

Setelah mensetting rule ACL di R2, langkah selanjutnya yaitu menempatkan ACL tersebut di
interface agar bekerja efektif. ACL ditempatkan di interface outgoing menuju network
192.168.2.0.

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Apply ACL di Interface Fa0/0 R2

R2(config)#interface fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out

Verifikasi

Tampilkan access-list standard yang sudah dibuat di R2

R2#show access-list
Standard IP access list 1
10 deny host 172.16.1.1
20 deny 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
30 permit any
R2#

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2

Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 12.12.12.2: Destination host unreachable.


Reply from 12.12.12.2: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 12.12.12.2: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 12.12.12.2: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

ACL sudah berjalan sesuai dengan rule diatas bahwa host 192.168.1.1 tidak boleh
berkomunikasi dengan network 192.168.2.0. Kemudian kita akan tes dengan IP selain
192.168.1.1.

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop2 dengan mengubah IP address Laptop1 selain
192.168.1.1. Misalnya kita ubah menjadi 192.168.1.3

Laptop1>ipconfig
FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)
Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::201:43FF:FE3A:AEC2
IP Address......................: 192.168.1.3
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.1.254

Laptop1>ping 192.168.2.1

Pinging 192.168.2.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=126

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Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=11ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.1: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Dengan IP 192.168.1.3 ternyata berhasil tes Ping host yang berada di network 192.168.2.0.
Dengan demikian rule ACL baris ke-1 sudah berhasil memfilter host 192.168.1.1 saat
mengakses network 192.168.2.0.

Tes Ping dari Loopback1 ke Laptop2


R1#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 192.168.2.1
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: loopback1
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.1.1
UUUUU
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

Tes Ping dari Loopback1 ke Laptop2 hasilnya 0 percent dan ditampilkan kode U (unreachable).
Berarti rule ACL baris ke-2 sudah berhasil.
Untuk verifikasi rule ACL baris ke-3 yaitu permit semua trafik lainnya, kita akan mencoba tes
Ping dari Loopback2 ke Laptop2 dengan extended ping.

R1#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 192.168.2.1
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: loopback2
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
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Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.2.2
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms

Dari hasil tes Ping extended dari Loopback2 ke Laptop2 memberikan success rate 100%.
Berarti rule ACL baris ke-3 sudah berhasil diimplementasikan.

Tampilkan interface access-list standard di R2

R2#show ip interface fa0/0


FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
Internet address is 192.168.2.254/24
Broadcast address is 255.255.255.255
Address determined by setup command
MTU is 1500 bytes
Helper address is not set
Directed broadcast forwarding is disabled
Outgoing access list is 1
Inbound access list is not set
Proxy ARP is enabled
Security level is default
Split horizon is enabled
ICMP redirects are always sent
ICMP unreachables are always sent
ICMP mask replies are never sent
IP fast switching is disabled
IP fast switching on the same interface is disabled
IP Flow switching is disabled

Dari output interface access-list diatas, di Fa0/0 R2 terdapat outgoing access-list dengan
number 1.

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Lab 40. ACL Extended

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 20.20.20.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
CENTRAL Fa0/0 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 20.20.20.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254
WebServer NIC 192.168.1.11 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254

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Tujuan
 Setting ACL Extended

Konfigurasi
Sebelum menerapkan ACL, setting OSPF Area 0 terlebih dahulu topologi diatas. Apabila
menggunakan topologi sebelumnya, hapus dulu konfigurasi ACL standardnya.
#1. Buat rule ACL extended seperti dibawah ini:
1. Allow host 192.168.2.1 mengakses service SSH R1
2. Allow network R2 mengakses service HTTP ke mana saja
3. Deny semua trafik lainnya

Gunakan ACL number 100 untuk rule 1-3 diatas.

Tampilkan ipconfig Laptop2 sebelum disetting ACL

Laptop2>ipconfig
FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)
Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::260:2FFF:FE42:A6D3
IP Address......................: 192.168.2.1
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.2.254

Laptop2 dapat melakukan tes Ping ke Laptop1 yang berada di network 192.168.1.0

Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=13ms TTL=125


Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=12ms TTL=125
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=13ms TTL=125
Reply from 192.168.1.1: bytes=32 time=7ms TTL=125

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 7ms, Maximum = 13ms, Average = 11ms

Setting ACL Extended di R2

R2(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.2.1 host 10.10.10.1


eq 22
R2(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp any any eq 80

ACL telah disetting di R2 sesuai urutan rule nomor 1-3 di atas. Mengapa menempatkan ACL-
nya di R2? Agar rule tersebut berjalan normal saat di eksekusi, maka kita taruh di dekat router

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source. Ingat konsep ACL extended : close to the source router. Karena implicit deny ada
dibaris terakhir ACL, maka kita tidak perlu menuliskan rule ACL tersebut.

Setelah mensetting rule ACL di R2, langkah selanjutnya yaitu menempatkan ACL tersebut di
interface agar bekerja efektif. Rule ACL ditempatkan di interface outgoing menuju network luar
di Fa1/0 R2.

Apply ACL di Interface Fa1/0 R2

R2(config)#interface fa1/0
R2(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out

Verifikasi

Tampilkan access-list extended yang sudah dibuat di R2

R2#show access-list
Extended IP access list 100
10 permit tcp host 192.168.2.1 host 10.10.10.1 eq 22
20 permit tcp any any eq www
R2#

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1

Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.


Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

ACL sudah berjalan sesuai dengan rule nomer 3 diatas, deny semua traffic lainnya termasuk
ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1. Perhatikan yang memberikan reply dari router R2
(192.168.2.254).

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Laptop1 dengan mengubah IP address Laptop2 selain
192.168.2.1

Laptop2>ipconfig

FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)

Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::260:2FFF:FE42:A6D3


IP Address......................: 192.168.2.3

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Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.2.254

Laptop2>ping 192.168.1.1

Pinging 192.168.1.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.


Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Dengan IP 192.168.2.3 ternyata tidak berhasil tes Ping host yang berada di network
192.168.1.0.

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke R1

Laptop2>ping 10.10.10.1

Pinging 10.10.10.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.


Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 10.10.10.1:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke R1 gagal.

Tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke router CENTRAL

Laptop2>ping 20.20.20.2

Pinging 20.20.20.2 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.


Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.
Reply from 192.168.2.254: Destination host unreachable.

Ping statistics for 20.20.20.2:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Dari hasil tes Ping Laptop2 ke router CENTRAL juga gagal.

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Tampilkan interface access-list extended di R2

R2#show ip interface fa1/0


FastEthernet1/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
Internet address is 20.20.20.1/24
Broadcast address is 255.255.255.255
Address determined by setup command
MTU is 1500 bytes
Helper address is not set
Directed broadcast forwarding is disabled
Outgoing access list is 100
Inbound access list is not set
Proxy ARP is enabled
Security level is default
Split horizon is enabled
ICMP redirects are always sent
ICMP unreachables are always sent
ICMP mask replies are never sent
IP fast switching is disabled
IP fast switching on the same interface is disabled

Dari output interface access-list diatas, di Fa1/0 R2 terdapat outgoing access-list dengan
number 100.

Tampilkan Akses SSH dari Laptop2 ke R1

Laptop2>ipconfig

FastEthernet0 Connection:(default port)

Link-local IPv6 Address.........: FE80::260:2FFF:FE42:A6D3


IP Address......................: 192.168.2.1
Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.................: 192.168.2.254

PC>

Laptop2>ssh -l admin 10.10.10.1


Open
Password:

Unauthorized access prohibited!

R1>enable
Password:
R1#
R1#

Akses SSH dari Laptop2 ke R1 berhasil. Hal ini sesuai dengan rule ACL extended nomer 1.

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Tampilkan access-list extended setelah di jalankan akses SSH ke R1

R2#show access-list
Extended IP access list 100
10 permit tcp host 192.168.2.1 host 10.10.10.1 eq 22 (154 match(es))
20 permit tcp any any eq www
R2

Perhatikan pada baris pertama rule ACL terdapat 154 match(es) artinya jumlah attempt yang
match dengan rule baris ke-1 dimana Laptop2 diperbolehkan mengakses service SSH ke R1.
Jumlah match akan terus naik seiring dengan jumlah koneksi SSH dari Laptop2 ke R1.

Jalankan Web Browser di Laptop2 untuk Mengakses Web Server di Network A

Klik Laptop2 -> Pilih tab Desktop -> Klik Web Browser -> Isikan IP Web Server : 192.168.1.11
-> ENTER.

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Service HTTP WebServer berhasil diakses dari Laptop2. Coba ganti IP address Laptop2 selain
192.168.2.1, kemudian akses WebServer dan pastikan berhasil karena service HTTP memang
diperbolehkan diakses dari network R2 mana saja.

Tampilkan access-list extended setelah mengakses Web Server di R1

R2#show access-list
Extended IP access list 100
10 permit tcp host 192.168.2.1 host 10.10.10.1 eq 22 (155 match(es))
20 permit tcp any any eq www (11 match(es))

Dari output baris rule nomor 2 diatas, bagian akhir baris terdapat 11 match(es) artinya jumlah
attempt yang dilakukan oleh source any ketika mengakses HTTP.

Dari informasi output show access-list dapat disimpulkan bahwa ACL yang telah kita buat
sudah berhasil melewatkan traffic SSH dan HTTP.

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Lab 41. ACL Troubleshooting

Soal
Anda diminta membuat ACL number tidak lebih dari tiga baris dengan spesifikasi berikut ini:
 Hanya web akses dari host C yang bisa mengakses Finance Web Server
 Tidak ada host lain yang memiliki akses ke Finance Web Server
 Semua trafik diperbolehkan

IP addressing:
 Core connection: 198.18.196.65
 Host LAN: 192.168.33.1 – 192.168.33.254
o Host A: 192.168.33.1
o Host B: 192.168.33.2
o Host C: 192.168.33.3
o Host D: 192.168.33.4
 Server LAN: 172.22.242.17 – 172.22.242.30
o Finance Web Server: 172.22.242.23
o Public Web Server: 172.22.242.17

show running-config Corp1

Corp1#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 786 bytes


!
version 12.4
no service timestamps log datetime msec
no service timestamps debug datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
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hostname Router
!
ip name-server 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 192.168.33.254 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet0/1
ip address 172.22.142.30 255.255.255.240
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface Serial1/0
ip address 198.18.196.66 255.255.255.0
!
interface Serial1/1
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Serial1/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Serial1/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Vlan1
no ip address
shutdown
!
router rip
network 172.22.0.0
network 192.168.33.0
network 198.18.196.0
!
ip classless
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
line con 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
!
!
end

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Solusi
Konfigurasi ACL di Corp1 router

1 Corp1>enable
2 Corp1#configure terminal
3 Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.33.3 host 172.22.242.23 eq 80
4 Corp1(config)#access-list 100 deny tcp any host 172.22.242.23 eq 80
5 Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit ip any any
6
7 Corp1(config)#interface fa 0/1
8 Corp1(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out
9
10 Corp1(config-if)#end
11 Corp1#copy running-config startup-config

Rule

 Hanya web akses dari host C yang bisa mengakses Finance Web Server -> baris 3
 Tidak ada host lain yang memiliki akses ke Finance Web Server -> baris 4
 Semua trafik diperbolehkan -> baris 5

Rule ACL telah dibuat, selanjutnya menentukan lokasi penempatan rulenya, lihat baris 7 dan 8,
ACL akan diimpementasikan di interface fa 0/1 yang menuju Server LAN.

Setelah selesai jangan lupa lakukan penyimpanan konfigurasi.

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NAT
Pengertian NAT

NAT adalah metode translasi IP private menjadi IP public. Agar dapat berkomunikasi dengan
Internet kita harus teregistrasi menggunakan IP public.

Tujuan NAT
 Mengurangi keterbatasan IPv4
 Menyembunyikan skema network internal

Tipe NAT
1. NAT Static
2. NAT Dynamic
3. PAT (Port Address Translation)

Terminologi NAT
1. Inside Local Adress : source address sebelum translasi (IP private)
2. Outside Local Address : destination address sebelum translasi (IP private)
3. Inside Global Address : inside host setelah translasi (IP public)
4. Outside Global Address : outside destination host setelah translasi (IP public)

IP Private
Yaitu IP yang digunakan oleh organisasi secara internal dan tidak dapat dirutekan di Internet.

Class Range

A 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255

B 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255

C 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
 Perusahaan kecil biasanya mendapatkan IP public dari ISP
 ISP mendapatkan alokasi IP public dari IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
 Device yang dapat melakukan translation biasanya berupa firewall, router, server.

Keuntungan NAT
 Menghemat alamat IP secara legal
 Mengurangi overlap pengalamatan
 Meningkatkan fleksibilitas ketika berkomunikasi ke internet
 Mengurangi penomoran kembali jika terjadi perubahan network

Kerugian NAT
 Terdapat delay pada proses switching
 Tidak dapat melakukan trace end-to-end IP
 Terdapat beberapa aplikasi yang tidak berfungsi ketika implementasi NAT

NAT Static
 Termasuk jenis one-to-one NAT, satu IP private ditranslate menjadi satu IP public

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 Ingat, untuk NAT static tiap host menggunakan IP public sendiri
 Bisa inisiasi komunikasi dari network outside global

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Lab 42. NAT Static

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting NAT Static

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Konfigurasi
Untuk mempraktikkan konsep NAT Static ini, kita asumsikan bahwa area Internet menggunakan
routing OSPF. Network A dan Network B pada R1 dan R2 tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF
sehingga masuk Network Private, sehingga untuk mengakses Internet dibutuhkan NAT. Agar
Network A dan Network B tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF berarti kita tidak perlu memasukkan
Network A dan Network B pada command OSPF di R1 maupun R2.

Tampilan routing table R1


R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Tampilan routing table R2


R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
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Dari output kedua routing table di R1 dan R2, sudah tidak terlihat lagi route menuju masing-
masing Network A dan Network B.

Tabel NAT R1

Private IP Public IP

192.168.1.1 12.12.12.11

192.168.1.2 12.12.12.22

192.168.1.3 12.12.12.33

Tabel NAT R2

Private IP Public IP

192.168.2.1 12.12.12.44

192.168.2.2 12.12.12.55

192.168.2.3 12.12.12.66

Langkah sederhana setting NAT Static:


1. Tentukan interface NAT inside
2. Tentukan interface NAT outside
3. Buat translasi NAT dari source Private IP ke destination Public IP

Setting NAT Static di R1

Command untuk mensetting NAT Static.


R1(config)#interface fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat inside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat outside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.1 12.12.12.11
R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.2 12.12.12.22
R1(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.3 12.12.12.33

Setting NAT Static di R2

Command untuk mensetting NAT Static.

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R2(config)#interface fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat inside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat outside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.2.1 12.12.12.44
R2(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.2.2 12.12.12.55
R2(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.168.2.3 12.12.12.66
R2(config)#

Verifikasi
Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo3
Laptop1>ping 172.16.3.3

Pinging 172.16.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.3.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>ping 172.16.4.4

Pinging 172.16.4.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.4.4:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms

Dari tampilan diatas dapat diketahui bahwa Laptop1 yang berada di Private Network dapat
berkomunikasi dengan Lo3 dan Lo4 yang berada di Internet.

Tampilan NAT table di R1


R1#show ip nat translations
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 12.12.12.11:87 192.168.1.1:87 172.16.4.4:87 172.16.4.4:87

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icmp 12.12.12.11:88 192.168.1.1:88 172.16.4.4:88 172.16.4.4:88
icmp 12.12.12.11:89 192.168.1.1:89 172.16.4.4:89 172.16.4.4:89
icmp 12.12.12.11:90 192.168.1.1:90 172.16.4.4:90 172.16.4.4:90
--- 12.12.12.11 192.168.1.1 --- ---
--- 12.12.12.22 192.168.1.2 --- ---
--- 12.12.12.33 192.168.1.3 --- ---

Dari tampilan NAT tabel di R1 dapat dilihat proses translasi dari host 192.168.1.1 menjadi
12.12.12.11. Sebelum packet di forward ke Internet, terlebih dahulu source host 192.168.1.1
diubah menjadi 12.12.12.11 agar bisa dikenal di Internet. Karena Private IP tidak dikenal di
Internet dan tidak dirutekan di Internet.

Note: ulangi langkah verifikasi diatas untuk tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Lo1 dan Lo2 dan
tampilkan NAT table di R2.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>tracert 172.16.4.4

Tracing route to 172.16.4.4 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.4.4

Trace complete.

Perhatikan hasil tracert dari Laptop1 ke Lo4.

Dimulai dari Laptop1 ke Gateway 192.168.1.254, kemudian source IP Laptop1 diubah menjadi
12.12.12.11 sehingga masuk ke directly connected network R1 dan R2, langsung di teruskan
sampe di Lo4 (172.16.4.4).

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Lo2


Laptop2>tracert 172.16.2.2

Tracing route to 172.16.2.2 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 * 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.2.2

Trace complete.

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Lab 43. NAT Dynamic

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting NAT Dynamic

238 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Konsep Dasar
NAT Dynamic
 Termasuk tipe many-to-many NAT, IP private dalam jumlah banyak kemudian
ditranslate menjadi IP public yang banyak juga dengan menyediakan sebuah pool IP
public
 Kita tidak perlu melakukan translate satu per satu, cukup sediakan IP public sesuai
jumlah user yang akan terkoneksi ke Internet

Konfigurasi
Untuk mempraktikkan konsep NAT Static ini, kita asumsikan bahwa area Internet menggunakan
routing OSPF. Network A dan Network B pada R1 dan R2 tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF
sehingga masuk Network Private, sehingga untuk mengakses Internet dibutuhkan NAT. Agar
Network A dan Network B tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF berarti kita tidak perlu memasukkan
Network A dan Network B pada command OSPF di R1 maupun R2.

Tampilan routing table R1


R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Tampilan routing table R2

R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B -
BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter
area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route
239 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Dari output kedua routing table di R1 dan R2, sudah tidak terlihat lagi route menuju masing-
masing Network A dan Network B. Oleh karena itu, agar Network A dan Network B bisa
berkomunikasi dengan Internet langkah selanjutnya yaitu setting NAT.

Pool NAT R1

Private IP (ACL 1) Public IP (POOLR1)

192.168.1.0/24 12.12.12.11-12.12.12.20

Pool NAT R2

Private IP (ACL 1) Public IP (POOLR2)

192.168.2.0/24 12.12.12.21-12.12.12.30

Langkah sederhana setting NAT Dynamic:


1. Tentukan interface NAT inside
2. Tentukan interface NAT outside
3. Tentukan permit ACL Private Network
4. Tentukan pool Public IP
5. Buat translasi NAT dari source ACL ke destination pool Public IP

Setting NAT Dynamic di R1

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic.


R1(config)#interface fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat inside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat outside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip nat pool POOLR1 12.12.12.11 12.12.12.20 netmask

240 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


255.255.255.0
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool POOLR1
R1(config)#

Setting NAT Dynamic di R2

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic.


R2(config)#interface fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat inside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat outside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat pool POOLR2 12.12.12.21 12.12.12.30 netmask
255.255.255.0
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool POOLR2
R2(config)#

Verifikasi
Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo3
Laptop1>ping 172.16.3.3

Pinging 172.16.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.3.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>ping 172.16.4.4

Pinging 172.16.4.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.4.4:

241 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms

Dari tampilan diatas dapat diketahui bahwa Laptop1 yang berada di Private Network dapat
berkomunikasi dengan Lo3 dan Lo4 yang berada di Internet.

Tampilan NAT table di R1


R1#show ip nat translation
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 12.12.12.11:101 192.168.1.1:101 172.16.4.4:101 172.16.4.4:101
icmp 12.12.12.11:102 192.168.1.1:102 172.16.4.4:102 172.16.4.4:102
icmp 12.12.12.11:103 192.168.1.1:103 172.16.4.4:103 172.16.4.4:103
icmp 12.12.12.11:104 192.168.1.1:104 172.16.4.4:104 172.16.4.4:104
icmp 12.12.12.11:105 192.168.1.1:105 172.16.3.3:105 172.16.3.3:105
icmp 12.12.12.11:106 192.168.1.1:106 172.16.3.3:106 172.16.3.3:106
icmp 12.12.12.11:107 192.168.1.1:107 172.16.3.3:107 172.16.3.3:107
icmp 12.12.12.11:108 192.168.1.1:108 172.16.3.3:108 172.16.3.3:108
icmp 12.12.12.11:109 192.168.1.1:109 172.16.4.4:109 172.16.4.4:109
icmp 12.12.12.11:110 192.168.1.1:110 172.16.4.4:110 172.16.4.4:110
icmp 12.12.12.11:111 192.168.1.1:111 172.16.4.4:111 172.16.4.4:111
icmp 12.12.12.11:112 192.168.1.1:112 172.16.4.4:112 172.16.4.4:112

Dari tampilan NAT tabel di R1 dapat dilihat proses translasi dari host 192.168.1.1 menjadi
12.12.12.11 dengan tujuan host 172.16.4.4 dan 172.16.3.3.

Note: ulangi langkah verifikasi diatas untuk tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Lo1 dan Lo2 dan
tampilkan NAT table di R2.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>tracert 172.16.4.4

Tracing route to 172.16.4.4 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.4.4

Trace complete.

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Lo2


Laptop2>tracert 172.16.2.2

Tracing route to 172.16.2.2 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 * 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.2.2

Trace complete.

242 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 44. NAT Dynamic Overload (PAT)

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting PAT

243 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Konsep Dasar
PAT
 Tipe NAT yang paling popular
 Termasuk tipe many-to-one NAT
 Dengan menyediakan satu IP public dapat mentranslate IP private yang banyak dengan
menggunakan pembeda yaitu port
 Disebut juga sebagai NAT Dynamic Overload, Port Address Translation (PAT), atau
NAT Overload

Konfigurasi
Di lab ini akan dibagi menjadi dua bagian yang pertama tentang Port Address Translation dan
kedua tentang Port Address Translation menggunakan exit-interface.

Bagian 1. Port Address Translation

Untuk mempraktikkan konsep NAT Static ini, kita asumsikan bahwa area Internet menggunakan
routing OSPF. Network A dan Network B pada R1 dan R2 tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF
sehingga masuk Network Private, sehingga untuk mengakses Internet dibutuhkan NAT. Agar
Network A dan Network B tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF berarti kita tidak perlu memasukkan
Network A dan Network B pada command OSPF di R1 maupun R2.

Tampilan routing table R1


R1#show ip route
..
Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Tampilan routing table R2

R2#show ip route
..
Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

244 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Dari output kedua routing table di R1 dan R2, sudah tidak terlihat lagi route menuju masing-
masing Network A dan Network B.

Pool NAT R1

Private IP (ACL 1) Public IP (POOLR1)

192.168.1.0/24 12.12.12.11

Pool NAT R2

Private IP (ACL 1) Public IP (POOLR2)

192.168.2.0/24 12.12.12.22

Langkah sederhana setting NAT Dynamic PAT:


1. Tentukan interface NAT inside
2. Tentukan interface NAT outside
3. Tentukan permit ACL Private Network
4. Tentukan pool Public IP (terdiri dari single Public IP)
5. Buat translasi NAT dari source ACL ke destination pool Public IP

Setting NAT Dynamic PAT di R1

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic PAT.

R1(config)#interface fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat inside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat outside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip nat pool POOLR1 12.12.12.11 12.12.12.11 netmask
255.255.255.0
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool POOLR1 overload
R1(config)#

Setting NAT Dynamic PAT di R2

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic PAT.

R2(config)#interface fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat inside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#interface fa1/0

245 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


R2(config-if)#ip nat outside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat pool POOLR2 12.12.12.22 12.12.12.22 netmask
255.255.255.0
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool POOLR2 overload
R2(config)#

Verifikasi
Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo3
Laptop1>ping 172.16.3.3

Pinging 172.16.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.3.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>ping 172.16.4.4

Pinging 172.16.4.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.4.4:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms

Dari tampilan diatas dapat diketahui bahwa Laptop1 yang berada di Private Network dapat
berkomunikasi dengan Lo3 dan Lo4 yang berada di Internet.

Tampilan NAT table di R1


R1#show ip nat translation
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 12.12.12.11:123 192.168.1.1:123 172.16.3.3:123 172.16.3.3:123
icmp 12.12.12.11:124 192.168.1.1:124 172.16.3.3:124 172.16.3.3:124

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icmp 12.12.12.11:125 192.168.1.1:125 172.16.3.3:125 172.16.3.3:125
icmp 12.12.12.11:126 192.168.1.1:126 172.16.3.3:126 172.16.3.3:126
icmp 12.12.12.11:127 192.168.1.1:127 172.16.3.3:127 172.16.3.3:127
icmp 12.12.12.11:128 192.168.1.1:128 172.16.3.3:128 172.16.3.3:128
icmp 12.12.12.11:129 192.168.1.1:129 172.16.3.3:129 172.16.3.3:129
icmp 12.12.12.11:130 192.168.1.1:130 172.16.3.3:130 172.16.3.3:130
icmp 12.12.12.11:131 192.168.1.1:131 172.16.4.4:131 172.16.4.4:131
icmp 12.12.12.11:132 192.168.1.1:132 172.16.4.4:132 172.16.4.4:132

Dari tampilan NAT tabel di R1 dapat dilihat proses translasi dari host 192.168.1.1 menjadi
12.12.12.11 dengan tujuan host 172.16.4.4 dan 172.16.3.3. Dengan menggunakan single-IP
address Public, maka yang membedakan tiap sessionnya yaitu port, contoh 123, 124, 125, dst.

Note: ulangi langkah verifikasi diatas untuk tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Lo1 dan Lo2 dan
tampilkan NAT table di R2.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>tracert 172.16.4.4

Tracing route to 172.16.4.4 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.4.4

Trace complete.

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Lo2


Laptop2>tracert 172.16.2.2

Tracing route to 172.16.2.2 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 * 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.2.2

Trace complete.

247 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 45. NAT Dynamic Overload (PAT) with Exit Interface

Topologi

Area 0

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 Fa0/0 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa1/0 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo2 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 Fa0/0 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa1/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo3 172.16.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo4 172.16.4.4 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
S2 N/A VLAN 1 N/A N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.254
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.254

Tujuan
 Setting PAT with Exit-Interface

248 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Konsep Dasar
PAT
 Tipe NAT yang paling popular
 Termasuk tipe many-to-one NAT
 Dengan menyediakan satu IP public dapat mentranslate IP private yang banyak dengan
menggunakan pembeda yaitu port
 Disebut juga sebagai NAT Dynamic Overload, Port Address Translation (PAT), atau
NAT Overload

Konfigurasi
Bagian 2. Port Address Translation with Exit-Interface

Untuk mempraktikkan konsep NAT Static ini, kita asumsikan bahwa area Internet menggunakan
routing OSPF. Network A dan Network B pada R1 dan R2 tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF
sehingga masuk Network Private, sehingga untuk mengakses Internet dibutuhkan NAT. Agar
Network A dan Network B tidak diadvertise oleh OSPF berarti kita tidak perlu memasukkan
Network A dan Network B pada command OSPF di R1 maupun R2.

Tampilan routing table R1


R1#show ip route
..
Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback2
O 172.16.3.3/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.4.4/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.2, 00:17:33, FastEthernet1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Tampilan routing table R2

R2#show ip route
..
Gateway of last resort is not set

12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets


C 12.12.12.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet1/0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
O 172.16.2.2/32 [110/2] via 12.12.12.1, 00:18:24, FastEthernet1/0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

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Dari output kedua routing table di R1 dan R2, sudah tidak terlihat lagi route menuju masing-
masing Network A dan Network B.

Pool NAT R1

Private IP (ACL 1) Interface Public

192.168.1.0/24 Fa1/0

Pool NAT R2

Private IP (ACL 1) Public IP (POOLR2)

192.168.2.0/24 Fa1/0

Langkah sederhana setting NAT Dynamic Overload (PAT with Exit-Interface):


1. Tentukan interface NAT inside
2. Tentukan interface NAT outside
3. Tentukan permit ACL Private Network
4. Tentukan interface Public (Fa1/0)
5. Buat translasi NAT dari source ACL ke destination Interface Public

Setting NAT Dynamic PAT di R1

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic PAT.


R1(config)#interface fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat inside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R1(config-if)#ip nat outside
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
R1(config)#
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 interface fa1/0 overload
R1(config)#

Setting NAT Dynamic PAT di R2

Command untuk mensetting NAT Dynamic PAT.


R2(config)#interface fa0/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat inside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#interface fa1/0
R2(config-if)#ip nat outside
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#

250 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 interface fa1/0 overload
R2(config)#

Verifikasi
Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo3
Laptop1>ping 172.16.3.3

Pinging 172.16.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.3.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

Tes Ping dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>ping 172.16.4.4

Pinging 172.16.4.4 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254


Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=254
Reply from 172.16.4.4: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 172.16.4.4:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 0ms

Dari tampilan diatas dapat diketahui bahwa Laptop1 yang berada di Private Network dapat
berkomunikasi dengan Lo3 dan Lo4 yang berada di Internet.

Tampilan NAT table di R1


R1#show ip nat translation
Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global
icmp 12.12.12.1:155 192.168.1.1:155 172.16.4.4:155 172.16.4.4:155
icmp 12.12.12.1:156 192.168.1.1:156 172.16.4.4:156 172.16.4.4:156
icmp 12.12.12.1:157 192.168.1.1:157 172.16.4.4:157 172.16.4.4:157
icmp 12.12.12.1:158 192.168.1.1:158 172.16.4.4:158 172.16.4.4:158
icmp 12.12.12.1:159 192.168.1.1:159 172.16.3.3:159 172.16.3.3:159
icmp 12.12.12.1:160 192.168.1.1:160 172.16.3.3:160 172.16.3.3:160
icmp 12.12.12.1:161 192.168.1.1:161 172.16.3.3:161 172.16.3.3:161

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Dari tampilan NAT tabel di R1 dapat dilihat proses translasi dari host 192.168.1.1 menjadi
12.12.12.11 dengan tujuan host 172.16.4.4 dan 172.16.3.3. Dengan menggunakan single-IP
address Public, maka yang membedakan tiap sessionnya yaitu port address, contoh 155, 156,
159, dst.

Note: ulangi langkah verifikasi diatas untuk tes Ping dari Laptop2 ke Lo1 dan Lo2 dan
tampilkan NAT table di R2.

Traceroute dari Laptop1 ke Lo4


Laptop1>tracert 172.16.4.4

Tracing route to 172.16.4.4 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 192.168.1.254
2 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.4.4

Trace complete.

Traceroute dari Laptop2 ke Lo2


Laptop2>tracert 172.16.2.2

Tracing route to 172.16.2.2 over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 0 ms 1 ms 0 ms 192.168.2.254
2 * 0 ms 0 ms 172.16.2.2

Trace complete.

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FHRP
 First Hop Redundancy Protocol
 Berfungsi untuk menyediakan redundansi default gateway sehingga mengurangi single
point of failure dengan cara menyediakan duplikasi device

Perbedaan HSRP, VRRP, GLBP

Fitur Protocol HSRP VRRP GLBP


Scopre Cisco proprietary IEEE Standard Cisco proprietary
Load balancing Tidak Tidak Ya
Multicast group IP 224.0.0.2 (versi 1)
224.0.0.18 224.0.0.1022
address 224.0.0.101 (versi 2)
Transport/Port
UDP 1985 UDP 112 UDP 3222
Number
Advertisement – 1
Hello – 3 detik Hello – 3 detik
Timers detik
Hold – 10 detik Hold – 10 detik
Active Maste router: Active Virtual Gateway:
Router:
Election 1. Priority tertinggi Priority tertinggi 1. Priority tertinggi
2. IP address IP tertinggi 2. IP tertinggi
tertinggi
Satu Active Virtual
Satu Active Router Gateway sampai 4
Satu Active Router
Satu Standby Router Active Virtual
Router role Satu atau lebih
Satu atau lebih Forwarded Router di
backup Router
Listening Router dalam group (AVF)
melewatkan trafik.
By default preempt By default preempt By default preempt
Preempt
disabled ON disabled
Group Virtual MAC
0000.0c07.acxx 0000.5e00.01xx 0007.b4xx.xxxx
address
IPv6 Support Ya Tidak Ya

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Gambaran first hop redundancy protocol:

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Lab 46. HSRP & GLBP

Topologi

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1 G0/1 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A


S0/0/0 (DCE) 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
R2 S0/0/0 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
S0/0/1 (DCE) 23.23.23.2 255.255.255.0 N/A
Lo1 8.8.8.8 255.255.255.0 N/A
R3 G0/1 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
S0/0/1 23.23.23.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
S1 - - - -
S3 - - - -
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.101 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
Laptop3 NIC 192.168.1.103 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.3

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Tujuan
 Setting HSRP

Device
Router 1941 ditambahkan modul HWIC-2T, Switch 2960.

Konfigurasi
Setting IP address, default route ke Loopback0, EIGRP dan redistribute

R1(config)#int g0/1
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 12.12.12.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary

R3(config)#int g0/1
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#no sh
R3(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R3(config-if)#ip add 23.23.23.3 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#no sh

R3(config-if)#
R3(config-if)#router eigrp 100
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R3(config-router)#network 23.23.23.0
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary

R2(config)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ip add 12.12.12.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#no sh
R2(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R(config-if)#ip add 23.23.23.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#no sh
R2(config-if)#int lo0
R2(config-if)#ip add 8.8.8.8 255.255.255.255
R2(config-if)#no sh

Router(config-if)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 lo0

Router(config)#router eigrp 100


Router(config-router)#network 12.12.12.0
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Router(config-router)#network 23.23.23.0
Router(config-router)#no auto-summary
Router(config-router)#redistribute static

Ping dari PC-A dan PC-B ke Loopback 0

Laptop1

Laptop1 berhasil ping 8.8.8.8 melalui gateway 192.168.1.1 (R1)

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Laptop3

Laptop2 berhasil ping 8.8.8.8 melalui gateway 192.168.1.3 (R3)

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Apa yang terjadi apabila link antara S1 dan R1 putus?

Coba shutdown interface Fa0/1 di S1 dan lakukan ping lagi ke 8.8.8.8 dari Laptop1 .

S1(config)#int fa0/1
S1(config-if)#sh

S1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/1, changed state to
administratively down

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1,


changed state to down

PC>ping 8.8.8.8

Pinging 8.8.8.8 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 8.8.8.8:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

Setelah shutdown interface Fa0/1 di S1, Laptop1 gagal ping dan keluar output RTO. Begitu juga
di S2 akan mengalami hal yang sama ketika Laptop2 ping 8.8.8.8 namun Fa0/1 di S2 di
shutdown. Oleh karena itu, aktifkan kembali interface Fa0/1 di S1 dengan perintah no
shutdown. Pada topology tersebut memang terdapat dua gateway, namun dari sisi host hanya
bisa memilih satu yang akan digunakan. Misalnya gateway R1 mati, kemudian di Laptop1
diarahkan ke gateway R2 juga bisa normal kembali atau sebaliknya.

Dengan adanya HSRP/GLBP host tidak perlu setting manual dalam memilih gateway, HSRP
akan mendeteksi apabila ada gateway utama mati, maka akan dialihkan ke gateway backup
sedangkan disisi host harus mensetting IP virtual HSRP/GLBP.

Konfigurasi HSRP di R1

R1(config)# interface g0/1


R1(config-if)# standby 1 ip 192.168.1.254
R1(config-if)# standby 1 priority 150
R1(config-if)# standby 1 preempt

Konfigurasi HSRP di R2

R3(config)# interface g0/1


R3(config-if)# standby 1 ip 192.168.1.254

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Verifikasi HSRP

R1#sh standby
GigabitEthernet0/1 - Group 1 (version 2)
State is Active
5 state changes, last state change 01:17:38
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.254
Active virtual MAC address is 0000.0C9F.F001
Local virtual MAC address is 0000.0C9F.F001 (v2 default)
Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.271 secs
Preemption enabled
Active router is local
Standby router is unknown
Priority 150 (configured 150)
Group name is hsrp-Gig0/1-1 (default)

R1#sh standby brief


P indicates configured to preempt.
|
Interface Grp Pri P State Active Standby Virtual IP
Gig0/1 1 150 P Active local 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.254

R3#sh standby
GigabitEthernet0/1 - Group 1 (version 2)
State is Standby
7 state changes, last state change 01:17:08
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.254
Active virtual MAC address is 0000.0C9F.F001
Local virtual MAC address is 0000.0C9F.F001 (v2 default)
Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.694 secs
Preemption disabled
Active router is 192.168.1.1
Standby router is local
Priority 100 (default 100)
Group name is hsrp-Gig0/1-1 (default)

R3#sh standby brief


P indicates configured to preempt.
|
Interface Grp Pri P State Active Standby Virtual IP
Gig0/1 1 100 Standby 192.168.1.1 local 192.168.1.254

HSRP telah aktif. Sekarang ganti IP address default gateway pada Laptop1 dan Laptop2
menjadi 192.168.1.254 (sesuai IP HSRP)

Lakukan tracert ke 8.8.8.8

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Sekarang semua request dilewatkan ke R1 karena R1 sebagai Active Router, sedangkan R2
sebagai Standby Router (Backup Router). Perhatikan lagi output show standby.

Shutdown interface Fa0/1 S1, lalu ping dan lakukan tracert ke 8.8.8.8

Ada delay saat terjadi pergantian dari Standby Router menjadi Active Router yang disebabkan
karena interface Active Router down (link Fa0/1 S1 dan R1 down)

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Setelah melakukan tracert ke 8.8.8.8, sekarang trafik dilewatkan melalui R3 (192.168.1.3).
Yang tadinya sebagai Standby Router (Backup Router) sekarang telah menjadi Active Router).
Host tidak perlu mengganti IP gateway manual lagi.

Konfigurasi GLBP
Pada packet tracer tidak mensupport GLBP, konfigurasi dibawah untuk GNS3.

Setting GLBP melanjutkan topologi sebelumnya. Hapus dulu konfigurasi HSRP.

R1(config)# interface g0/1


R1(config-if)# no standby 1

R3(config)# interface g0/1


R3(config-if)# no standby 1

R1(config)# interface g0/1


R1(config-if)# glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.254
R1(config-if)# glbp 1 preempt
R1(config-if)# glbp 1 priority 150
R1(config-if)# glbp 1 load-balancing round-robin

R3(config)# interface g0/1


R3(config-if)# glbp 1 ip 192.168.1.254
R3(config-if)# glbp 1 load-balancing round-robin

R1 akan menjadi Active Virtual Gateway sekaligus Active Virtual Forwarder, sedangkan R3
menjadi Active Virtual Forwarder saja. AVG akan merespon ARP klien dengan metode round-
robin, klien akan dikirim dua MAC address, sehingga masing-masing klien akan melewati router
yang berbeda-beda. Pertama, lewat R1, kemudian yang lain lewat R3.

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Section 11. WAN
Frame Relay
 Frame Relay adalah standard packet switching untuk komunikasi WAN melalui jalur
digital
 Menyediakan error detection bukan error recovery. End device bertanggung jawab untuk
request pengiriman ulang apabila ada packet yang hilang
 Menyediakan transfer data sampai 1.54 Mbps
 Memiliki variable packet yang disebut frame
 Dapat digunakan sebagai backbone LAN
 Dapat diimplementasikan melalui berbagai jalur koneksi (56K, T1, T3)
 Beroperasi pada layer 1 Physical dan layer 2 Data Link OSI Layer
 Menggunakan topology full mesh, partial mesh, ring atau star untuk menghubungkan
antar site
 Hanya memiliki satu koneksi ke Frame Relay dan hanya menggunakan satu serial
interface, meskipun memiliki banyak virtual koneksi yang digunakan

Istilah Frame Relay

Term Definition
Data Terminal DTE adalah device yang berada pada sisi network LAN,
Equipment (DTE) mengirimkan dan menerima data, DTE biasanya router
Data Communication
DCE nama lain dari Frame Relay Switch (FRS)
Equipment (DCE)
Virtual Circuit (VC) VC menghubungkan dua DTE
Permanent Virtual
Yang ditetapkan sebagai virtual circuit
Circuit (PVC)
Switched Virtual Circuit VC yang di setup ketika dibutuhkan
Access Link Leased line yang menghubungkan DTE dan DCE
Access Rate Clock speed dari access link
CIR adalah kecepatan virtual cirtuit:

 CIR adalah garansi maksimum tingkat pengiriman data


yang akan diterima di network Frame Relay
Committed Information
 Ketika trafik network lagi rendah, Anda bisa mengirimkan
Rate (CIR)
data lebih cepat daripada CIR, sedangkan ketika trafik
network lagi meningkat, prioritas akan diberikan dari
pelanggan yang memiliki CIR lebih tinggi

Seperti MAC address, DLCI untuk identifikasi masing-masing


virtual circuit:
 DLCI range antara 16 dan 1007
 DLCI menggambarkan koneksi antara 2 device Frame
Relay
Data Link Connection
Identifier  Frame Relay Service Provider memberikan DLCI ketika
virtual circuit di setup
 Masing-masing DLCI unik untuk local network, tetap bukan
untuk keseluruhan WAN. Dengan kata lain, nomor DLCI
yang sama bisa digunakan beberapa kali untuk identifikasi
device yang berbeda
Local Management LMI bertanggung jawab memanage koneksi dan memberikan
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Interface laporan status koneksi, LMI bisa :

 Maintain link antar router dan switch


 Mendapatkan status informasi tentang router dan koneksi di
network

Cisco router mendukung 3 tipe LMI: Cisco, ANSI dan Q933a

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Lab 47. Frame Relay

Topologi

Device Interface IPv4 and IPv6 Address Default Gateway

R1 G0/0 192.168.1.1/24 N/A


S0/0/0 (DCE) 172.16.1.1/24 N/A
FRS S0/0/0 N/A N/A
S0/0/1 (DCE) N/A N/A
R3 G0/0 192.168.3.1/24 N/A
S0/0/0 172.16.1.2/24 N/A
Laptop1 NIC 192.168.1.3/24 192.168.1.1
Laptop2 NIC 192.168.3.3/24 192.168.3.1

Tujuan

 Setting enkapsulasi frame relay

Setting IP address laptop dan router sesuai topologi diatas

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Konfigurasi
Konfigurasi Frame Relay Switch terlebih dahulu

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Konfigurasi Frame Relay di R1 dan R3

R1(config)#int g0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 172.16.1.2 103 broadcast
R1(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R1(config-if)#

R1(config)#int g0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh
R3(config)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#no sh
R3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R3(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 172.16.1.1 301 broadcast

Frame relay telah dikonfigurasi, untuk verifikasi apakah frame relay sudah terkoneksi atau
belum ping dari R1 ke R3 dan sebaliknya

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R1(config-if)#do ping 172.16.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 3/4/7 ms

R3(config-if)#do ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 3/6/14 ms

Dari output diatas R1 dan R3 sudah terhubung melalui Frame Relay Switch. Selanjutnya setting
routing protocol EIGRP untuk menghubungkan semua network yang ada.

R1(config-if)#router eigrp 100


R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary

R3(config-if)#router eigrp 100


R3(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary

Tampilkan hasil routing table

R1(config-router)#do show ip ro eigrp


192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:20, Serial0/0/0

R3(config-router)#do sh ip ro eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:58, Serial0/0/0

Semua network telah terhubung melalui EIGRP. Sekarang coba Anda ping antar laptopnya,
dari Laptop1 ke Laptop3 atau sebaliknya, pastikan ping berhasil. Jika belum cek lagi konfigurasi
yang sudah Anda inputkan.

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PPP

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Lab 48. PPP

Topologi

Tabel Addressing
Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

Branch1 G0/1 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A


S0/0/0 (DCE) 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 N/A
Central S0/0/0 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.252 N/A
S0/0/1 (DCE) 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.252 N/A
Lo0 209.165.200.225 255.255.255.224 N/A
Branch3 G0/1 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
S0/0/1 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.252 N/A
PC-A NIC 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
PC-C NIC 192.168.3.3 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1

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Tujuan
 Setting routing
 Setting enkapsulasi PPP

Konfigurasi
Setting routing
Setting routing OSPF Area 1
 Aktifkan OSPF single-area pada semua router dan menggunakan proses ID 1.
Tambahkan semua network ke dalam proses OSPF kecuali 209.165.200.224/27.
 Konfigurasi default route ke Internet pada router Central menggunakan Lo0 sebagai
exit interface dan lakukan redistribusi default route ke dalam proses OSPF.
 Verifikasi konfigurasi router OSPF

Setting enkapsulasi PPP


Tampilkan enkapsulasi default serial
Di router, ketikkan perintah show interfaces serial untuk menampilkan enkapsulasi serial
yang sedang dipakai.
Branch1# show interfaces s0/0/0
Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Internet address is 10.1.1.1/30
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:02, output 00:00:05, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops:
0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
1003 packets input, 78348 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 527 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1090 packets output, 80262 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 3 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
2 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

Note: Harap diingat bahwa HDLC sebagai default enkapsulasi pada serial router Cisco.
Ubah enkapsulasi serial menjadi PPP.

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1. Ketikkan command encapsulation ppp di interface S0/0/0 interface pada router
Branch1 untuk mengubah enkapsulasi HDLC menjadi PPP.
Branch1(config)# interface s0/0/0
Branch1(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Branch1(config-if)#
2. Ketikkan perintah untuk menampilkan line status dan line protocol di interface S0/0/0
pada router Branch1. Line protocol statusnya down karena enkapsulasi di router Central
yang mengarah ke Branch1 belum dikonfigurasi.
Branch1# show ip interface brief
Line status is up, and line protocol is down.

Branch1# show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol
Embedded-Service-Engine0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up
up
Serial0/0/0 10.1.1.1 YES manual up
down
Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
3. Ketikkan perintah encapsulation ppp di interface S0/0/0 pada router Central router
untuk mengatasi enkapsulasi “problem mismatch encapsulation”. Back-to-back koneksi
serial harus memiliki enkapsulasi yang sama agar bisa berkomunikasi.
Central(config)# interface s0/0/0
Central(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Central(config-if)#

4. Verifikasi di interface S0/0/0 antara router Branch1 dan Central apakah line status dan
line protocolnya sudah up/up dan enkapsulasinya PPP?
Branch1# show interfaces s0/0/0
Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Internet address is 10.1.1.1/30
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:03:58
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops:
0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

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77 packets input, 4636 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
117 packets output, 5800 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 8 interface resets
22 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
18 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up

Central# show interfaces s0/0/0


Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is WIC MBRD Serial
Internet address is 10.1.1.2/30
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit/sec, DLY 20000 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDPCP, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:02, output 00:00:03, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:01:20
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops:
0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
41 packets input, 2811 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
40 packets output, 2739 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
0 carrier transitions
DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up
Note : Harap diingat enkapsulasi serial antar router harus sama. Jika tidak, maka koneksi tidak
bisa terbentuk alias interface tetap down.

5. Ketikkan perintah encapsulation ppp di interface S0/0/0 pada router Branch1 router
untuk memperbaiki enkapsulasi yang mismatch (tidak sama).
Branch1(config)# interface s0/0/0
Branch1(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
6. Ketikkan perintah show ip interface brief pada router Branch1 dan Central
setelah network konvergen. Lihat pada line status dan line protocol, pastikan semua
up/up.
Branch1#show ip interface brief
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol

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Embedded-Service-Engine0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up
up
Serial0/0/0 10.1.1.1 YES manual up
up
Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down

Central# show ip interface brief


Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status
Protocol
Embedded-Service-Engine0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
GigabitEthernet0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively
down down
Serial0/0/0 10.1.1.2 YES manual up
up
Serial0/0/1 10.2.2.2 YES manual up
up
Loopback0 209.165.200.225 YES manual up
up

7. Verifikasi interface S0/0/0 di router Branch1 dan Central menggunakan PPP.

Branch1# show interfaces s0/0/0


Central# show interfaces s0/0/0

8. Konfigurasi enkapsulasi serial antara router Central dengan Branch3 menjadi PPP.

Central(config)# interface s0/0/1


Central(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Central(config-if)#

Branch3(config)# interface s0/0/1


Branch3(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Branch3(config-if)#

Verifikasi
Verifikasi konektivatas end-to-end dengan cara tes Ping antar PC-A dan PC-C. Pastikan bisa
saling ping antara router Central dan Branch3 dan Routing OSPF berjalan normal.

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PPPOE

 Ketika konfigurasi PPPOE, perhatikan hal-hal berikut ini:


o Setting maxium transmission unit (MTU) menjadi 1492 bytes
o Autentikasi PPP tidak dibutuhkan ketika mensetting PPPOE klien
o PPPoE bisa dikonfigurasi di interface Ethernet atau interface ATM

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Lab 49. PPPoE

Topologi

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

Server Fa0/0 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0 N/A


R1 Fa0/1 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa0/0 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 N/A

Tujuan

 Setting PPPOE server dan klien

Konfigurasi
Setting IP address server sesuai topologi

Konfigurasi modem di Cloud

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Konfiguasi PPPoE di router

Router>enable
Router#conf t
Router(config)#host R1
R1(config)#int fa0/1
R1(config-if)#description "LAN"
R1(config-if)#ip add 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh

R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#int fa0/0
R1(config-if)#desc "PPPoE"
R1(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
R1(config-if)#pppoe enable
R1(config-if)#no sh

R1(config-if)#int virtual-template1
R1(config-if)#ip unnumbered fa0/0
R1(config-if)#peer default ip address pool nixtrain
R1(config-if)#ppp authentication chap
R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#vpdn enable
R1(config)#vpdn-group group0
R1(config-vpdn)#accept-dialin
R1(config-vpdn-acc-in)#protocol pppoe
R1(config-vpdn-acc-in)#virtual-template 1
R1(config-vpdn-acc-in)#exit
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R1(config-vpdn)#ip local pool nixtrain 10.1.1.10 10.1.1.20
R1(config)#username nixtrain password 12345
R1(config)#do copy run start
Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]
R1(config)#

Verifikasi
Untuk verifikasi sudah berjalan atau belum service PPPoEnya, coba Anda lakukan dial in dari
Laptop1 atau Laptop 2.

Inputkan username: nixtrain dan password: 12345

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Test dari Laptop1 untuk membuka website server

Laptop1 sebagai PPPoE klien terhubung ke router (PPPoE server) dan mendapatkan IP dari
pool nixtrain sehingga Laptop1 terhubung directly connected dan bisa mengakses web server
di LAN dengan IP web server 172.16.1.2.

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VPN
 Virtual Private Network (VPN) adalah network yang menggunakan enkripsi untuk
melewatkan trafik IP secara aman diatas TCP/IP network
 VPN menggunakan link terenkripsi dan autentikasi yang menyediakan remote access
antara private network atau computer
 VPN bisa digunakan diatas LAN, melalui koneksi WAN, diatas Internet atau antara klien
dan server untuk dial-up ke Internet
 VPN bekerja dengan tunneling protocol yang mengenkripsi packet

Teknologi Security VPN diantaranya:

Protocol Description
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)  Sebagian besar di deploy untuk teknologi VPN
 Hanya digunakan untuk IP dan bisa mengenkripsi
semua trafik yang disupport oleh IP protocol
 Membutuhkan digital certificate atau pre-shared
key

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)  Menyediakan keamanan antar klien dan server
based on Internet
 Autentikasi server ke klien yang menggunakan
public-key cryptography dan digital certificate, SSL
mengenkripsi semua sesi komunikasi
 Proteksi web (HTTP) seperti telnet, ftp dan email
Transport Layer Security (TLS)  Membutuhkan digital certificate antara klien dan
server
 Menyediakan keamanan untuk trafik diatas layer
transport
 Tidak menyediakan security untuk web trafik pada
layer transport

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Lab 50. VPN IPSEC

Topologi

Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

CENTRAL Fa0/0 15.15.15.5 255.255.255.0 N/A


Fa0/1 35.35.35.5 255.255.255.0 N/A
R1 Fa0/1 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa0/0 15.15.15.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
R3 Fa0/1 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 N/A
Fa0/0 35.35.35.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Laptop1 Fa0 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 N/A
Laptop3 Fa0 192.168.3.3 255.255.255.0 N/A

Tujuan

 Setting VPN GRE

Konfigurasi
Setting IP address semua router dan laptop sesuai addressing topologi ditas.

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Konfigurasi default route di R1 dan R2

R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 15.15.15.5

R3(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 35.35.35.5

Pastikan R1 bisa ping R3 dan sebaliknya. Coba Anda ping terlebih dahulu.

Konfigurasi GRE tunnel

R1(config-if)#interface tunnel 0
R1(config-if)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#tunnel source fa0/0
R1(config-if)#tunnel destination 35.35.35.3

R3(config)#interface tunnel 0
R3(config-if)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.252
R3(config-if)#tunnel source fa0/0
R3(config-if)#tunnel destination 15.15.15.1

Pastikan interface tunnel R1 bisa ping ke IP interface tunnel R2 dan sebaliknya.

R1(config-if)#do ping 10.10.10.2

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/1/4 ms
R1(config-if)#do ping 10.10.10.2

R3(config)#do ping 10.10.10.1

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms
R3(config)#do ping 10.10.10.1

Verifikasi interface tunnel

R1(config-if)#do sh ip int br
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 15.15.15.1 YES manual up up
FastEthernet0/1 192.168.1.1 YES manual up up
Tunnel0 10.10.10.1 YES manual up up
Vlan1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down

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R3(config)#do sh ip int br
Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol
FastEthernet0/0 35.35.35.3 YES manual up up
FastEthernet0/1 192.168.3.1 YES manual up up
Tunnel0 10.10.10.2 YES manual up up
Vlan1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down

Konfigurasi routing EIGRP over tunnel

R1(config-if)#router eigrp 100


R1(config-router)#network 10.10.10.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto

R3(config)#router eigrp 100


R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0
R3(config-router)#network 10.10.10.0
R3(config-router)#
%DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 10.10.10.1 (Tunnel0) is up:
new adjacency

R3(config-router)#no auto-summary
R3(config-router)#
%DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor 10.10.10.1 (Tunnel0) resync:
summary configured

Tampilkan routing table R1,R3

R1(config-router)#do sh ip ro eigrp
15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/26882560] via 10.10.10.2, 00:01:32, Tunnel0

R3(config-router)#do sh ip ro eigrp
35.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/26882560] via 10.10.10.1, 00:02:15, Tunnel0

Verifikasi end-to-end
Ping dari Laptop1 ke Laptop3 dan sebaliknya

Laptop1>ping 192.168.3.3

Pinging 192.168.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.


Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=13ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

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Ping statistics for 192.168.3.3:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 13ms, Average = 4ms

Laptop3>ping 192.168.1.3

Pinging 192.168.1.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126


Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=13ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time=0ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.1.3:


Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 13ms, Average = 3ms

Ping berhasil antar end-devices. Berarti GRE Tunnel sudah berjalan dengan baik.

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Section 12. Network Management
Syslog
 By default, router mengirimkan logging message ke logging process
 Message ini disebut juga sebagai syslog
 Mengontrol distribusi logging message ke berbagai tujuan (misalnya, buffer logging,
line terminal, atau server syslog) tergantung pada konfigurasi
 Mengirimkan message termasuk output debug command ke console
 Contoh default message logging:

*Aug 8 11:18:12.081: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface


FastEthernet0/0, changed state to down

System logging message severity level:

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Lab 51. Syslog

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting Syslog Server
Konfigurasi
Aktifkan syslog server di Server

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Konfigurasi R1 untuk mengirimkan log events ke syslog server
R1(config)#logging 192.168.1.11
R1(config)#

S1(config)#logging 192.168.1.11
S1(config)#
Generate log event
- Buat Loopback0 di R1 dengan ip address 1.1.1.1/32
- Matikan Laptop1 dan Laptop2, lalu nyalakan lagi
Verifikasi
Tampilkan hasil log di Syslog Server

Log message sudah masuk ke syslog server. Namun masih ada permasalahan waktu. Kita
setting clock terlebih dahulu di switch.
S1#clock set 06:49:00 February 6 2016
Aktifkan logging timestamp service di S1
Switch(config)#service timestamps log datetime msec
Matikan Laptop1 dan Laptop2, lalu nyalakan lagi untuk generate log events di S1, lalu tampilkan
lagi output syslog server

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NTP

Lab 52. NTP


Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting NTP Client di Router
Konfigurasi
Melanjutkan topology Syslog yang masih terdapat permasalahan waktu pada router. Oleh
karena itu kita akan mengkonfigurasi agar clock di router mengikuti NTP server.
Enable NTP Server

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Setting router sebagai NTP client
R1(config)#ntp server 192.168.1.11
Verifikasi
Tampilkan status NTP

R1#show ntp status


Clock is synchronized, stratum 2, reference is 192.168.1.11
nominal freq is 250.0000 Hz, actual freq is 249.9990 Hz, precision is
2**19
reference time is DA3A8835.000000C1 (19:10:45.193 UTC Sat Feb 6 2016)
clock offset is 0.00 msec, root delay is 0.00 msec
root dispersion is 0.02 msec, peer dispersion is 0.02 msec.
R1 sudah sinkronisasi dengan Syslog server 192.168.1.11.
Aktifkan logging timestamp service di S1
R1(config)#service timestamps log datetime msec
Disabled dan enable Loopback0 di R1.
Buka syslog server dan lakukan clear log. Tampilkan output syslog server.

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SNMP

Lab 53. SNMP


Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting SNMP

Konsep Dasar
SNMP membantu network engineer untuk memanage dan monitoring status network devices.
Network device bisa mengirimkan beberapa informasi ke NMS server untuk analisis CPU,
memory, I/O.

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Konfigurasi
Aktifkan SNMP di R1
R1(config)#snmp-server community NXT ro
R1(config)#snmp-server community NXTRAIN rw
Testing SNMP dari Laptop1

Pilih SNMP MIB browser.

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IP Address: 192.168.1.1 (Router)
Port: 161
Read Community: NXT
Write Community: NXTRAIN
Set “Operations” tab menjadi “Get”.
Pada bagian kiri “SNMP MIBs” pilih :
MIB Tree>router_std MIBs>.iso>.org>.dod>.internet>.mgmt>.mib-2>.system>.sysDescr
Lalu klik “Go”

Hasilnya akan ditampilkan di “Result Table”

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Menampilkan Interface Description

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NetFlow

 NetFlow adalah aplikasi Cisco Propietary IOS untuk mengumpulkan informasi trafik IP
network. Dengan kata lain, Netflow menyediakan informasi detail tentang paket yang
melewati network
 Cisco mendefinisikan urutan paket sebagai berikut:

 Source IP address
 Destination IP address
 Source port number
 Destination port number
 Layer 3 protocol type
 ToS
 Input logical interface

 Mengaktifkan teknologi NetFlow pada network dapat membantu kita memahami
bagaimana aliran atau flow sebuah network.

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Lab 54. NetFlow

Topologi

Tujuan

 Setting netflow

Konfigurasi

Setting IP address devices laptop, router, server sesuai topologi diatas.

Setting konfigurasi netflow di R1

R1(config)#int fa0/0
R1(config-if)#ip flow ingress
R1(config-if)#ip flow egress
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#ip flow-export destination 192.168.1.11 2055
R1(config)#ip flow version 9
R1(config)#ip flow-export source fa0/0

Lakukan ping dari R1 ke Laptop1 dan Server sampai 100%. Lalu, tampilkan informasi cache
flownya:

R1(config)#do ping 192.168.1.11

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.11, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms

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R1(config)#do ping 192.168.1.3

Type escape sequence to abort.


Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms

R1(config)#do sh ip cache flow


IP packet size distribution (31 total packets):
1-32 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480
.000 .097 .000 .903 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
.000

512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608
.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

IP Flow Switching Cache, 278544 bytes


2 active, 4094 inactive, 5 added
4 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures
Active flows timeout in 30 minutes
Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds
IP Sub Flow Cache, 34056 bytes
0 active, 1024 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow
0 alloc failures, 0 force free
1 chunk, 1 chunk added
last clearing of statistics never
Protocol Total Flows Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec) Idle(Sec)
-------- Flows /Sec /Flow /Pkt /Sec /Flow /Flow
ICMP 3 0.0 6 120 0.0 3.7 3587.0
Total: 3 0.0 6 120 0.0 3.7 3587.0

SrcIf SrcIPaddress DstIf DstIPaddress Pr SrcP DstP Pkts


Fa0/0 192.168.1.11 Local 192.168.1.1 01 0000 0000 6
Fa0/0 192.168.1.3 Local 192.168.1.1 01 0000 0000 5
R1(config)#

Informasi trafik dapat dilihat pada output diatas.

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Section 13. IPv6 Routing Protocol
OSPFv3

Lab 55. OSPFv3


Topologi

Device Interface IPv6 Address Default Gateway

2001:DB8:ACAD:12::1/64
R1 S0/0/0 (DCE)
FE80::1 link-local N/A
Lo1 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64 N/A
Lo2 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64 N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:12::2/64
R2 S0/0/0
FE80::2 link-local N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:23::2/64
S0/0/1 (DCE)
FE80::2 link-local N/A
Lo5 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/64 N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:23::3/64
R3 S0/0/1
FE80::3 link-local N/A
Lo3 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64 N/A
Lo4 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/64 N/A

Tujuan
 Setting routing protocol OSPFv3

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Konfigurasi

Setting IP address router sesuai topologi diatas.

R1(config)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::1/64
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::1 link-local
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#int lo1
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64
R1(config-if)#int lo2
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64

R2(config)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::2/64
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local
R2(config-if)#no sh

R2(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::2/64
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local
R2(config-if)#no sh

R2(config-if)#int lo5
R2(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/64

R3(config)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::3/64
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::3 link-local
R3(config-if)#no sh

R3(config-if)#int lo3
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64
R3(config-if)#int lo4
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/64

Setting OSPFv3 Area 0

R1(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R1(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1
R1(config-rtr)#router-id 1.1.1.1
R1(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
R1(config-if)#int lo1
R1(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
R1(config-if)#int lo2
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R1(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0

R2(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R2(config)#ipv6 router ospf 2
R2(config-rtr)#router-id 2.2.2.2
R2(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 2 area 0
R2(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 2 area 0
R2(config-if)#int lo5
R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 2 area 0

R3(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R3(config)#ipv6 router ospf 3
R3(config-rtr)#router-id 3.3.3.3
R3(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 3 area 0
R3(config-if)#int lo3
R3(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 3 area 0
R3(config-if)#int lo4
R3(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 3 area 0

Tampilkan routing table OSPF

R1(config-if)#do sh ipv6 ro ospf


IPv6 Routing Table - 10 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/128 [110/128]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::/64 [110/128]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0

R2(config-if)#do sh ipv6 ro ospf


IPv6 Routing Table - 10 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::1, Serial0/0/0
303 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::1, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

R3(config-if)#do sh ipv6 ro ospf


IPv6 Routing Table - 11 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/128 [110/128]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/128 [110/128]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::/64 [110/128]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0

Verifikasi end-devices

Ping dari Lo1 ke Lo4


R1#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1, timeout is 2
seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/14/19 ms

Ping berhasil dari Lo1 ke Lo4 berhasil. Coba Anda lakukan ping dari Lo1 ke Lo dirouter lain.

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Tampilkan informasi routing protocol OSPFv3 di R1

R1#show ipv6 protocols


IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected"
IPv6 Routing Protocol is "ND"
IPv6 Routing Protocol is "ospf 1"
Interfaces (Area 0)
Serial0/0/0
Loopback1
Loopback2
Redistribution:
None

305 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


EIGRPv6

Lab 56. EIGRPv6


Topologi

Device Interface IPv6 Address Default Gateway

2001:DB8:ACAD:12::1/64
R1 S0/0/0 (DCE)
FE80::1 link-local N/A
Lo1 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64 N/A
Lo2 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64 N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:12::2/64
R2 S0/0/0
FE80::2 link-local N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:23::2/64
S0/0/1 (DCE)
FE80::2 link-local N/A
Lo5 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/64 N/A
2001:DB8:ACAD:23::3/64
R3 S0/0/1
FE80::3 link-local N/A
Lo3 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64 N/A
Lo4 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/64 N/A

Tujuan
 Setting routing protocol EIGRPv6

306 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Konfigurasi

Setting IP address router sesuai topologi diatas.

R1(config)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::1/64
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::1 link-local
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#int lo1
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64
R1(config-if)#int lo2
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64

R2(config)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::2/64
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local
R2(config-if)#no sh

R2(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::2/64
R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local
R2(config-if)#no sh

R2(config-if)#int lo5
R2(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/64

R3(config)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::3/64
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::3 link-local
R3(config-if)#no sh

R3(config-if)#int lo3
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64
R3(config-if)#int lo4
R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/64

Setting EIGRPv6 AS 100

R1(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R1(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 100
R1(config-rtr)#eigrp router-id 1.1.1.1
R1(config-rtr)#no shutdown
R1(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
R1(config-if)#int lo1
R1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
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R1(config-if)#int lo2
R1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100

R2(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R2(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 100
R2(config-rtr)#eigrp router-id 2.2.2.2
R2(config-rtr)#no shutdown
R2(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
R2(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R2(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
R2(config-if)#int lo5
R2(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100

R3(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
R3(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 100
R3(config-rtr)#eigrp router-id 3.3.3.3
R3(config-rtr)#no shutdown
R3(config-rtr)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
R3(config-if)#int lo3
R3(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100
R3(config-if)#int lo4
R3(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 100

Tampilkan routing table EIGRP


R1#show ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table - 11 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 [0/0]
via Loopback1, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/128 [0/0]
via Loopback1, receive
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::/64 [0/0]
via Loopback2, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/128 [0/0]
via Loopback2, receive
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::/64 [90/2809856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::/64 [90/2809856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::/64 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, directly connected

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L 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::1/128 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, receive
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::/64 [90/2681856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
L FF00::/8 [0/0]
via Null0, receive
R1#

R2#show ipv6 route


IPv6 Routing Table - 12 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::1, Serial0/0/0
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::1, Serial0/0/0
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::/64 [0/0]
via Loopback5, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/128 [0/0]
via Loopback5, receive
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::/64 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::2/128 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, receive
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::/64 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/1, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::2/128 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/1, receive
L FF00::/8 [0/0]
via Null0, receive
R2#

R3#show ipv6 route


IPv6 Routing Table - 12 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6
I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 [90/2809856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
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D 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::/64 [90/2809856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::/64 [0/0]
via Loopback3, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/128 [0/0]
via Loopback3, receive
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::/64 [0/0]
via Loopback4, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1/128 [0/0]
via Loopback4, receive
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::/64 [90/2297856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
O 2001:DB8:ACAD:5::1/128 [110/64]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
D 2001:DB8:ACAD:12::/64 [90/2681856]
via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0
C 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::/64 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, directly connected
L 2001:DB8:ACAD:23::3/128 [0/0]
via Serial0/0/0, receive
L FF00::/8 [0/0]
via Null0, receive
R3#

Verifikasi end-devices
Ping dari Lo1 ke Lo4
R1#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:ACAD:4::1, timeout is 2
seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 5/14/19 ms

Ping berhasil dari Lo1 ke Lo4 berhasil. Coba Anda lakukan ping dari Lo1 ke Lo dirouter lain.

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Tampilkan informasi routing protocol EIGRPv6 di R1

R1#show ipv6 protocols


IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected"
IPv6 Routing Protocol is "ND"
IPv6 Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100"
EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0
EIGRP maximum hopcount 100
EIGRP maximum metric variance 1
Interfaces:
Serial0/0/0
Loopback1
Loopback2
Redistributing: eigrp 100
Maximum path: 16
Distance: internal 90 external 170

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Section 14. Troubleshooting
CDP
 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) adalah protocol yang digunakan oleh Cisco device
untuk mempelajari dan share informasi sesama device Cisco. Misalnya, router, switch
bisa mempelajari device tetangganya dengan protocol CDP.
o By default sudah aktif disemua interface
o Hanya share informasi device yang terhubung langsung
o Hanya bekerja ketika koneksi layer 2 valid
 Yang dipertukarkan:
o IP addresss
o Device type
o Link type
o Device name

312 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com


Lab 57. CDP

Topologi

Tujuan

 Verifikasi device tetangga menggunakan CDP

Verifikasi

Login R1

R1#show cdp neighbor


Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route
Bridge
S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, P - Phone
Device ID Local Intrfce Holdtme Capability Platform Port ID
S1 Fas 0/0 133 S 2950 Fas 0/3

R1#show cdp neighbor detail

Device ID: S1
Entry address(es):
Platform: cisco 2950, Capabilities: Switch
Interface: FastEthernet0/0, Port ID (outgoing port): FastEthernet0/3
Holdtime: 174

Version :
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) C2950 Software (C2950-I6Q4L2-M), Version 12.1(22)EA4, RELEASE
SOFTWARE(fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by cisco Systems, Inc.

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Compiled Wed 18-May-05 22:31 by jharirba

advertisement version: 2
Duplex: full

Dari output diatas, R1 terhubung ke device S1 melalui Fa0/0 (Interface), yang memiliki platform
2950. Sedangkan dari S1 terhubung ke R1 melalui Fa0/3 (outgoing port).

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tftpdnld

Lab 58. tftpdnld

Topologi

Tujuan

 Restore IOS Router

Konfigurasi

Untuk mencoba lab ini, backup dulu IOS router ke TFTP.

R1#show flash

System flash directory:


File Length Name/status
3 33591768 c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
2 28282 sigdef-category.xml
1 227537 sigdef-default.xml
[33847587 bytes used, 30168797 available, 64016384 total]
63488K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)

R1#copy flash tftp


Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.1.11
Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin]?

Writing c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-
15.T1.bin....!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
315 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK - 33591768 bytes]

33591768 bytes copied in 4.076 secs (865308 bytes/sec)


R1#

Proses backup IOS berhasil. Tampilkan output TFTP.

Selanjutnya, hapus Cisco IOS di router kemudian di reload.

R1#delete flash
Delete filename []?c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
Delete flash:/c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin? [confirm]

R1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Initializing memory for ECC

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..
c2811 processor with 524288 Kbytes of main memory
Main memory is configured to 64 bit mode with ECC enabled

Readonly ROMMON initialized

Boot process failed...

The system is unable to boot automatically. The BOOT


environment variable needs to be set to a bootable
image.
rommon 1 >

Perhatikan output diatas, karena router tidak menemukan Cisco IOS maka router masuk ke
mode rommon artinya router tidak bisa digunakan untuk operasional. Oleh karena itu, kita harus
restore IOSnya dengan bantuan TFTP.
Untuk merestore IOS pada mode rommon, bisa gunakan command tftpdnld
rommon 1 > tftpdnld

Missing or illegal ip address for variable IP_ADDRESS


Illegal IP address.

usage: tftpdnld
Use this command for disaster recovery only to recover an image via
TFTP.
Monitor variables are used to set up parameters for the transfer.
(Syntax: "VARIABLE_NAME=value" and use "set" to show current
variables.)
"ctrl-c" or "break" stops the transfer before flash erase begins.

The following variables are REQUIRED to be set for tftpdnld:


IP_ADDRESS: The IP address for this unit
IP_SUBNET_MASK: The subnet mask for this unit
DEFAULT_GATEWAY: The default gateway for this unit
TFTP_SERVER: The IP address of the server to fetch from
TFTP_FILE: The filename to fetch

The following variables are OPTIONAL:


TFTP_VERBOSE: Print setting. 0=quiet, 1=progress(default), 2=verbose
TFTP_RETRY_COUNT: Retry count for ARP and TFTP (default=7)
TFTP_TIMEOUT: Overall timeout of operation in seconds (default=7200)
TFTP_CHECKSUM: Perform checksum test on image, 0=no, 1=yes (default=1)
FE_SPEED_MODE: 0=10/hdx, 1=10/fdx, 2=100/hdx, 3=100/fdx, 4=Auto(deflt)

rommon 2 >

Karena belum ada settingannya, maka muncul seperti diatas.


Sekarang kita setting terlebih dahulu

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rommon 2 > IP_ADDRESS=192.168.1.1
rommon 3 > IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
rommon 4 > DEFAULT_GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
rommon 5 > TFTP_SERVER=192.168.1.11
rommon 6 > TFTP_FILE=c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin

Setelah disetting, ketikkan lagi tftpdnld.

rommon 12 > tftpdnld

IP_ADDRESS: 192.168.1.1
IP_SUBNET_MASK: 255.255.255.0
DEFAULT_GATEWAY: 192.168.1.1
TFTP_SERVER: 192.168.1.11
TFTP_FILE: c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-15.T1.bin
Invoke this command for disaster recovery only.
WARNING: all existing data in all partitions on flash will be lost!

Do you wish to continue? y/n: [n]: y

Setelah itu, ketik reset untuk restart router

rommon 15 > reset


System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.

Readonly ROMMON initialized

Self decompressing the image :


######################################################################
#### [OK]
Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is


subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, California 95134-1706

Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M), Version


12.4(15)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
318 CCNA Lab Guide Nixtrain www.nixtrain.com
Compiled Wed 18-Jul-07 04:52 by pt_team
Image text-base: 0x60080608, data-base: 0x6270CD50

This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United


States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and
use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply
third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption.
Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for
compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you
agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are
unable
to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately.

A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be


found at:
http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html

If you require further assistance please contact us by sending email


to
export@cisco.com.

Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.


Processor board ID FTX0947Z18E
M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49
2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
191K bytes of NVRAM.
63488K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)
Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M), Version
12.4(15)T1, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 18-Jul-07 04:52 by pt_team

Press RETURN to get started!

R1>enable
R1#

Proses restore telah berhasil. Sekarang sudah bisa login normal ke router.

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Native VLAN

 Native VLAN merupakan konsep dari dot1q yang dibuat untuk kompatibilias device lama
yang tidak mendukung VLAN
 Cara kerjanya: native VLAN tidak ditag ketika dikirimkan melalui trunk
 Frame yang ditidak ditag diterima di trunk link diset sebagai native VLAN
 Cisco menggunakan untagged frame untuk membawa beberapa protocol administrasi,
misalnya CDP, VTP, LACP. Ingat, tidak semua vendor menerapkan native VLAN.
 Untuk switch Cisco, native VLAN harus match antar switch
 By default native VLAN yaitu VLAN 1

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Lab 59. Native VLAN

Topologi

Tujuan
 Setting native vlan
Konfigurasi
Buat topology seperti diatas dan gunakan konfigurasi dibawah ini :

S1 pre-config
S1(config)#vlan 100
S1(config-vlan)#vlan 200
S1(config-vlan)#vlan 300
S1(config-vlan)#
S1(config-vlan)#int fa0/1
S1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
S1(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
S1(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 100
S1(config-if)#
S1(config-if)#

S3 pre-config
S3(config)#vlan 100
S3(config-vlan)#vlan 200
S3(config-vlan)#vlan 300
S3(config-vlan)#
S3(config-vlan)#int fa0/1
S3(config-if)#switchport mode trunk

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S3(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
S3(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 100
S1(config-if)#
S1(config-if)#

Setelah dikonfigurasi seperti diatas maka akan muncul native vlan mismatch

S1>
%CDP-4-NATIVE_VLAN_MISMATCH: Native VLAN mismatch discovered on
FastEthernet0/1 (100), with S2 FastEthernet0/1 (1).

S3>
%CDP-4-NATIVE_VLAN_MISMATCH: Native VLAN mismatch discovered on
FastEthernet0/1 (100), with S2 FastEthernet0/2 (1).

Solusi

Agar tidak terjadi Native VLAN mismatch maka kita samakan Native VLAN di S2

S2(config)#vlan 100
S2(config-vlan)#vlan 200
S2(config-vlan)#vlan 300
S2(config-vlan)#
S2(config-vlan)#int range fa0/1 - 2
S2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
S2(config-if)#switchport trunk allowed vlan all
S2(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 100
S2(config-if)#
S2(config-if)#

S2#show interface trunk


Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa0/1 on 802.1q trunking 100
Fa0/2 on 802.1q trunking 100

Port Vlans allowed on trunk


Fa0/1 1-1005
Fa0/2 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain


Fa0/1 1,100,200,300
Fa0/2 1,100,200,300

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned


Fa0/1 1,100,200,300
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Fa0/2 200,300

S2#show interface fa0/1 switchport


Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: trunk
Operational Mode: trunk
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Negotiation of Trunking: On
Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 100 (VLAN0100)
Voice VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan host-association: none
Administrative private-vlan mapping: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk native VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk encapsulation: dot1q
Administrative private-vlan trunk normal VLANs: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk private VLANs: none
Operational private-vlan: none
Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL
Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001
Capture Mode Disabled
Capture VLANs Allowed: ALL
Protected: false
Appliance trust: none
S2#

S2#show interface fa0/2 switchport


Name: Fa0/2
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: trunk
Operational Mode: trunk
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Negotiation of Trunking: On
Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 100 (VLAN0100)
Voice VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan host-association: none
Administrative private-vlan mapping: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk native VLAN: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk encapsulation: dot1q
Administrative private-vlan trunk normal VLANs: none
Administrative private-vlan trunk private VLANs: none
Operational private-vlan: none
Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL
Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001
Capture Mode Disabled
Capture VLANs Allowed: ALL
Protected: false
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Appliance trust: none

Setelah S2 disetting Native VLAN yang sama dengan S1 dan S3, maka output Native VLAN
mismatch tidak muncul lagi.

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Troubleshooting

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Troubleshooting IP Connectivity

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Troubleshooing IP Routing

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Troubleshooting WAN

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