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Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Hydrogeology

CONSEPTUAL & NUMERICAL MODEL


IN HYDROGEOLOGY

Novandri Kusuma Wardana, ST., S.Si., M.T.


Member of International Society for Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (ISRM)
Direktur PT. Geomine Roclab’s Studio
Senior Geotechnical PT. Kaltim Prima Coal
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

HYDROGEOLOGI MODELLING

Pelatihan Hidrogeologi Tambang – 28 – 29 Januari 2019


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Pemodelan Lapisan
(Pemodelan Parameter Hidraulik)

1. Layer Based  LPF (Later Package File)


commonly used

2. Grid Cell Base (Modified)


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Physical Model
(Layer Based)

 Pembagian Unit Hidrostratigrafi


 Setiap unit lapisan hidrostratigrafi diterjemahkan sebagai
“layer”
 Setiap layer relatif homogen (K, S, θ dan parameter lainnya)
 Lapisan bisa datar, miring ataupun membentuk antiklinorium
 Korelasi bisa manual oleh hydrogeologist atau dengan
software  pembentukkan kontur struktur “layer”
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Physical Model
(Layer Based)

 Mudah jika pembagian unit hidrostratigrafi sudah dilakukan


 Nilai parameter akuifer sedikit e.g. 1 nilai parameter hidraulik
untuk 1 layer
 Sering dilakukan untuk model di daerah sedimen
 Jumlah grid cell relatif sedikit
 Waktu simulasi relatif lebih cepat
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019
Physical Model
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

(Database)

Hole ID ID X Y Z Bottom 1 Bottom 2 Bottom 3 Bottom 4 Bottom 5 Bottom n


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019 1. Profil input
2. Model blok Hidrogeologi daerah
1
penelitian
3. Penampang yang menunjukkan
lapisan – lapisan akifer.

2 3
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Data (Physical Model)

 Topografi  Log Bor


X, Y, Z (ASCII file) atau ID, X, Y, Z (ASCII) atau (.DXF)
(.DXF) 3D polyline 3D polyline

 Hydrologic Features (River,  Hydrogeological


Lake, Sea, Pond, Stream) in Parameter (K, S, θ,)
dxf dalam 3 D data
(X, Y, Z, K, S, θ) atau (ID,
Layer, K, S, θ)
Physical Model
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

(Grid Cell Based)

 Pembagian Unit Hidrostratigrafi tidak terlalu perlu


 Setiap unit cells diterjemahkan sebagai “grid” dan memiliki
value
 Setiap grid relatif heterogen (K, S, θ dan parameter lainnya)
 Tiap Grid akan memiliki nilai yang akan membentuk pola
hidrostratigrafi, tergantung (model struktur, lapisan)
 Adjustment dan interpolasi oleh hydrogeologist atau dengan
model geostatistic
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Physical Model
(Grid Cell Based)

 Data uji nilai K (lapangan atau laboratorium) banyak


 Nilai parameter akuifer banyak
 Sering dilakukan untuk model di daerah bijih, media rekahan dan
media dengan struktur kompleks
 Jumlah grid cell relatif banyak
 Waktu simulasi relatif lebih lama
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

Permeability (𝑘) is a measure of the ability of a


geology material (often, a rock or unconsolidated
material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
In hydrogeology Hydraulic conductivity (K)
μ
K= 𝑘
ρ𝑔
In this course permeability is hydraulic
conductivity
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Basic Conceptualizations
Most commonly assumed

Most commonly true


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Describing an Aquifer
Describing an Aquifer
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Flow Through A Porous Media Aquifer


Recharge Isotropic & Homogeneous Discharge
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Describing an Aquifer
Flow Through A Karst Aquifer
Recharge Heterogeneous - Anisotropic Discharge
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Types of Models
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Types of Models
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

 Dual ‘porosity’
 Secondary porosity as ‘main actor’
 Rock defects/Fracture/gouge
 Connectivity?
 Heterogeneity
 Isotropy / anisotropy
 K value from field/lab. test?
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019


Dual Porosity
Permeability in Fractured Rocks

-100 m

-110 m
Depth
-100 m
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

 Connectivity K105 : high


 Heterogeneity

Connected -110 m Depth

K115 : low

Not Connected
-120 m
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

West
Anisotropy
Permeability in Fractured Rocks

East
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks


-100 m

Laboratory
test from
core

-110 m
K is very low  impermeable
NOT RELIABLE High K value (rock mass)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks


Pumping Test

Result
 Transmisivity (Permeability)
 Storativity
 Radius of Influence

Limitation and Problem


 Need construction, observation well (obs. well),
 Sometimes obs. well not at ‘right’ position
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

Observation
well 1
No drawdown

25 m
5 meter drawdown

100 m
Pumping well Observation
well 2
Permeability in Fractured Rocks
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Packer Test

Result
 Transmisivity (Permeability)
 Type of rock defects (filled, blocked, open)

 Packer test
 Can be test at an interval depth
 No need well construction, nor obs. well
 Suitable in fracture rocks
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Packer Test
-100 m

Water enter rock


formation ‘’easily” K105
K >>>

-110 m

K115

-120 m
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

-100 m
Packer Test

K105

Very limited -110 m


number of water
can enter the
rock formation

K <<< K115

-120 m
Permeability in Fractured Rocks
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Limited number of Field Hydrogeological Test


In fractured and heterogenic rock, laboratory test is
not reliable
Another approach:
 In a rock mass flow can be more like a porous

medium (Long et al 1982)


 Based on structure observation K can be

approached by
e.g.
1) ODA method (1985, 1996) and
2)HC-System (2010)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

ODA Method
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019
Permeability in Fractured
ODA-method
Rocks

Upscaling approach for fractured medium


Permeability tensor depend on geometrical
properties of fractures
 Aperture area (a)

 size (length) / persistence (l)

 orientation (Ɵ)

l
a
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019
If a fractured rock is treated as a homogeneous, anisotropic
porous medium, the permeability tensor, obeying Darcy's
law, can be formulated as (Bear, 1972)

If a fractured rock mass is assumed to have an


impermeable matrix and groundwater is assumed to only
flow through fractures, the apparent flow velocity can be
defined as

Joint apperture Field Hydraulic


Gradient
in Geometry and
size of cracks
(fractures)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

The permeability tensor ki,j is concisely


expressed by a symmetric, second-rank tensor
P, (called the crack tensor) which depends
only on the geometrical properties of related
cracks (crack shape, aperture, size and
orientation)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

ODA-method
Can be used at
A specific area of opening/face/blocks

Problems and limitations


Not easy to measure (from borehole)
 Aperture area (a)
 size (length) / persistence (l)
 orientation (Ɵ)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

HC-System Method
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

HC – System
Empirical approaches
 Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

 Depth Index (DI)

 Gouge Content Designation (GCD)

 Lithology Permeability Index (LPI)


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Permeability in Fractured Rocks

HC-System
RQD (Rock Quality Designation)
From geotechnical log
‘idea’ : low RQD (poor rock)more permeable
(High K)
Note:
100 % RQD impermeable?
0 100 cm

0 10 cm
Permeability in Fractured Rocks
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Above-left: open and unfilled joint/


crack; upper-right: highly crushed
samples from SOP-80D bore bole;
bellow: joints orientation which
follow the bedding plane orientation.

Core photograph shows fractured of


Carbonaceous Shale
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

HC-System

Depth Index (DI)


‘Idea’ :
Many researchers (for example Lee & Farmer, 1993;
Singhal & Gupta, 1999) pointed out that rock mass 0
permeability may decrease systematically with depth.

DI =…?
LT is the total length of a borehole
Lc is a depth which is located at the middle of a double
200 m
packer test interval in the borehole

0 < DI < 1 220 m

The greater DI, the higher permeability 300 m


HC-System
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Gouge Content Designation (GCD)

the permeability of clay-rich gouges has extremely


low values (Singhal & Gupta,1999).
 ‘Idea’: If the fractures contain infillings such as
gouges, permeability of the fractures will reduce.

Rs value is defined as the cumulative length of core


pieces longer than 100 mm in a run
Rs the total length of the core run The greater GCD will
reduce the permeability of
RG is the total length of gouge content the core run.
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

HC-System
Lithology Permeability Index (LPI)

Lithology is the individual character of a rock in terms


of mineral composition, grain size, texture, color, and
so forth.
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

HC-System
Lithology Permeability Index (LPI)
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Hydraulic Conductivity (m/sec)

HC value
Rock mass permeability system
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

EXAMPLE OF
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

3D-Permeability Modeling
 3D-spatial distribution of permeability in a
block modeling
 Combination K value (primary variable)
and RQD value as (secondary)
 Replace previous layer (stratigraphical
modeling) to grid based model
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Field work

Groundwater modeling
Conceptual model
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Next Step in Modeling


 Permeability value in each cell / zone
 Interpolation method
 Isotropy or anisotropy is assigned by honor geological structure
 Grid cell based modeling (block model)  “discretization”
 Discretization
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019 Bor ID X (m) Y (m) Depth (m) k (m/s) log k
GW-01 24300
24300
-1200
-1200
6.4
12.5
1.14× 10-5
5.08× 10-6
-4.943
-5.294
Contoh Grid Cell Based Data
24300 -1200 20.6 2.77× 10-4 -3.557
24300 -1200 28.0 1.81× 10-5 -4.742
24300 -1200 33.1 5.47× 10-4 -3.262
24300 -1200 35.6 1.82× 10-5 -4.739
GW-02 37.2 2.89× 10-4 -3.539
GW-03 23000 1000 3.3 1.50× 10-5 -4.822
23000 1000 6.5 1.85× 10-5 -4.732
23000 1000 7.7 8.22× 10-5 -4.085
GW-04 23800 0 12.4 2.89× 10-5 -4.538
23800
23800
23800
0
0
0
18.1
24.4
36.4
3.39× 10-4
7.29× 10-5
1.25× 10-4
-3.469
-4.137
-3.903
Data (Physical Model)
GW-05
23800
25000
0
-1100
39.4
6
4.78× 10-4
2.08× 10-5
-3.320
-4.681 Grid Cell Based
25000 -1100 11.1 3.24× 10-5 -4.489
25000 -1100 21.2 7.41× 10-5 -4.130
25000 -1100 23.2 1.85× 10-5 -4.732
25000 -1100 29.1 1.50× 10-6 -5.822
25000 -1100 47.1 2.08× 10-5 -4.681
GW-06 22500 -2300 6.5 1.10× 10-4 -3.957
22500 -2300 16.7 2.55× 10-5 -4.593
22500 -2300 21.5 3.88× 10-5 -4.411
22500 -2300 26 6.74× 10-5 -4.171
22500 -2300 30.5 2.35× 10-5 -4.628
22500 -2300 35.9 1.04× 10-4 -3.981
22500 -2300 39.5 5.65× 10-6 -5.247
CGW-07 23200 -2000 3.5 3.44× 10-5 -4.464
23200 -2000 12.5 7.13× 10-4 -3.147
23200 -2000 32.9 1.27× 10-4 -3.895
23200 -2000 40.3 2.69× 10-4 -3.570
CGW-08 22700 -1300 6.2 3.89× 10-5 -4.409
22700 -1300 13.4 2.67× 10-6 -5.573
22700 -1300 14 9.98× 10-5 -4.000
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Statistical summary of log transformed k value

Number of data 95 Minimum value -5.57

Mean -4.40 First quartile -4.74

Standard deviation 0.68 Median -4.46

Coefficient of variation -0.15 Third quartile -3.40

Skewness -0.20 Maximum value -3.15

Data (Physical Model)


Grid Cell Based
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Co Located Co Kriging (CK)


Grid kecil adalah RQD di batuan point/grid (size = 10 x 10)
n1 n2

zˆ1 (x 0 )   λ1i z1 (x1i )   λ2i z 2 (x 2 j )


i 1 j 1

Grid besar (merah) n1 n2

adalah data  1i  1,  i 1
2i  0,
parameter hidraulik i 1
Size = 125 x 125

1 1 N (h)
c)  (|h|) γ12 (h)  ( z(1 x i  h )  z(1 x i ))( z 2( x i  h )  z 2( x i ))
2 N (h) i 1
450
400
350
300
250
200
 3h  h 3 
150
γˆ(h ) sph  C 0  C1   3  for 0  h  a
100  2a  2a 

50 
0
 C 0  C1 for h  a
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
|h|
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

(K)
3D Spatial

s hidraulik
Distribution

Konduktivita
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Contoh Grid Cell Based

10 x 10 x 10 meter

Grid Grid Total Block


Model Dimension Distance
Size Sum Grid
Easting Min 403500
2000 10 200
(column) Max 405500
Northing Min 306000
2000 10 200 3,200,000
(row) Max 308000
Min 400
Elevation 800 10 80
Max 1200
Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Contoh Grid Cell Based Data dengan data struktur (RQD)


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

Hydraulics Conductivity and RQD


Novandri Kusuma Wardana_Hydrogeology of Mining Operation_28 – 29 Januari 2019

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