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Trending Vibration Program Guide

1. Understand Maintenance Types:

Not all machinery falls into Condition-based maintenance, such as vibration analysis.

Reactive Preventative Predictive Proactive

Hysterical-based maintenance Calendar-based maintenance Condition-based maintenance Root-cause maintenance

Run machine until fail Must know MTBF Repair only as needed Requires Predictive maintenance
Most Costly for most machine Cost to replace unnecessary parts Avoid unnecessary downtime Re-engineer to improve machine
Best for throw-away equipment Machine failure without warning Required for trending program Best practice when possible

2. Determine Repeatable Test Operating Conditions:

This is key to a successful, trending vibration analysis program. REAPEATABILITY!

What drives the How is driver How is driven What is the driven How is the driven
machine? controlled? connected to driver? component? controlled?
AC Electric Motor Motor Controller Belt drive Pump Valve lineup
DC Electric Motor Governor Chain drive Compressor Controllable blades
Turbine Multiple Speed Gearbox Fan Variable displacement
Fluid Motor Variable Frequency Coupling Generator By load
Diesel Engine Load controlled Clutch Blower By demand

3. Establish Repeatable Vibration Test Locations:

Consistent, comparable data requires using sensor attachment mounting pad.

Choose Best Locations Understand Orientation Use Right Adhesive

1. Identify location on
machine for attachment pad.
2. Use file to remove paint at
Use right-hand rule to relate three channels of
triaxial sensor relate to the orientation of the machine test location area.
As close to bearing as possible
Solid Metal Foundation attachment pad. 3. Swab activator on machine
area and back of pad.
Channel 1 = screw and threaded hole 4. Let activator set for 1 min.
Consider Vibration Path:
Channel 2 = in line with screw and notch 5. Apply drop of adhesive to
Channel 3 = perpendicular to screw and notch back of attachment pad.
> 40 HP or > 3’ between
6. Align pad to machine as
bearings => test location Establish precedence for three orthogonal axes of
previously determined.
needed at each bearing. machine. Determine axial, radial, and tangential
or axial, horizontal, and vertical directions. 7. Apply pressure until pad is
set, approximately 1 minute.
Trending Vibration Program Guide

1. Understand Machine’s Forcing Frequencies:

Must know frequency of vibration sources to establish correct collection setup and spectra display

Element Counts Running Speed Frequency Range

Number of motor bars Trending programs demand repeatable running speed. Calculate forcing frequencies for each component
Number of turbine blades Establish Test Operating Condition at running speed. Forcing Frequency = Number of Elements X Shaft Speed
Number of teeth on each gear Determine speed of each shaft if machine has speed Use two ranges of spectra for trending analysis
Number of blades, vanes, threads changer (belts, gears, fluid coupling). Ensure Fmax is great enough for all analysis
Distance and diameters of sheaves Normalize graphs to running speed. Set resolution to show spectra detail

2. Determine Units:
Spectral units must allow analyst to establish a pattern to trend faults from early detection.

Motion Units Amplitude Levels Decibel Scale

Displacement – Low frequency amplitudes. Linear – Does not show detail of low-level
amplitudes. Cannot trend early fault detection.

Acceleration –High frequency amplitudes.

Logarithmic – Scaled to see large and small

amplitudes. Trendable graph for early detection.

Velocity – Best amplitude, all frequencies.

Velocity Decibel (VdB) Scale is a
logarithmic graph with a linear amplitude
scale. Similar to scale and parameters used
in sound-pressure (noise) measurements,
this scale allows analysts to trend early
faults but apply a measurable value to the
trending progression of the fault.

3. Trend Analysis Results:

The goal is to find faults early enough to avoid unplanned downtime.

Find Faults Trend Progression Determine Root Cause Repair As Necessary Document Savings
1. Determine if valid data. 1. Set periodicity to collect 1. Many faults are caused 1. Plan repairs in advance 1. Perform post repair
2. Ensure data is normalized vibration to determine from other problems. to ensure parts on order. cost justification.
to running speed. fault progression. Determine if root cause and 2. Schedule maintenance 2. Prove savings using
3. Identify all forcing 2. Compare faults to repair as necessary. to have least impact on simple cost of parts to
frequencies peaks and average baseline and 2. Trend each fault production. elaborate no-loss-of-
compare to average baseline. previous tests. independently to understand 3. Repair machine production.
4. Note peaks that exceed 3. Increase testing progression. including root cause fault. 3. Publish your findings.
average as potential fault. periodicity as fault 3. Perform visual and other 4. Perform quality 4. Ensure program
5. Add healthy machine to progresses. technology tests to confirm assurance test following maintains a high return
average baseline. 4. Create work order. findings. repair to ensure success. on investment.

© 2011 – Azima DLI