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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 231

5th International Conference on Community Development (AMCA 2018)

A Typology of Fungicide Application in Malang


Raya
Moch. Agus Krisno Budiyanto
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
aguskrisno@umm.ca.id

Abstract. The research aims at analyzing the usage typology microbes, the emergence of more harmful secondary
of synthetic and organic fungicides in Malang Raya area. pathogen, increase of production cost, the emergence of
The research design is descriptive qualitative, a method in environmental pollution especially soil and ground water,
which the research tries to describe fact using certain the health of farmers. Therefore, to avoid or to prevent
theory. There were 15 farmers acted as informants within
the negative impacts it requires improvement and
Malang Raya area. Sampling techniques is by purposive
sampling. The research applied interview and observation utilization of eco-friendly pesticide, namely organic
data collection method. Data analysis is in the form of pesticide (Souza et al, 2017, Xue et al, 2016, White et.al,
qualitative analysis by conducting analysis on its content. 2014, Karlsson et al, 2014, Yoo et.al, 2013).
The concept of the usage of fungicide in Malang Raya area Research is designed to achieve the following
would then be analyzed based on Social Movement research objectives 1) Analyze the typology of the use of
Typology theory). Based on result of the study it can be synthetic fungicides in Malang Raya and 2) Analyze the
concluded: 1) Typology of the use of fungicides in Malang typology of organic fungicide use in Malang Raya.
Raya (Batu City, Malang City, and Malang Regency)
included in the typology of alternative movement, and 2)
METHOD
The usage of organic fungicide is less effective and massive in
Malang City and Batu City, yet is more effective in Malang
Regency. The research approach used in this research is
qualitative research with descriptive qualitative research
Keywords: typology, fungicide, organic, synthetic, malang design that is a research that wants to describe fact by
using certain theory. In this study, magna findings or
INTRODUCTION concepts about the use of fungicides in Malang Raya will
be analyzed based on the Social Movement Typology
Fungicide is pesticide that specifically aimed at theory.
killing or inhibiting fungi that causes certain disease Informant research is farmers in Malang Raya. The
towards plants. Fungicide can be in the form of liquid sampling technique used is purposive sampling. The
(most widely used), gas, granules and powders. Seed- number of research subjects were 15 (fifteen) farmers.
producing companies commonly use the fungicide on The focus of this research is 1) typology of synthetic
seed, tuber, root transplants and other propagating organs fungicide use in Malang Raya, and 2) typology of
to kill the fungus on material to be planted and to protect organic fungicide use in Malang Raya that includes:
young plant from patogenic fungus (Adnyana, 2011, identifukasi type of fungus disease, type of fungicide
Apriani 2014, Sekarsari, 2013, Nuraini, 2014). In used, dose of usage, frequency of use, and social
addition, the usage of fungicide can be in the form of movement of fungicide usage.
stem injection, direct spray (liquid), and fumigan (gas Data analysis used in this research is qualitative
spray). Fungicides can be classified into two groups: analysis by content analysis which using Interactive
selective fungicides (fungicides sulfur, copper, quinon, Model from Miles and Huberman that is: (1) data
heterocyclic) and non-selective (aromatic hydrocarbon collection, (2) data simplification or reduction, (3) data
fungicides, anti-oomycota, oxathiin, organophosphates, presentation, (4) withdrawal and testing or verification of
fungicides inhibiting sterol synthesis, and other systemic conclusion. Magna or concept about the use of fungicides
fungicides). Fungicides selectively kill certain fungi but in Malang Raya will be analyzed based on the Social
do not hurt other fungi. Fungicides can also be Movement Typology theory.
categorized as contact fungicides, translaminar, and
systemic. The contact fungicide only works in the RESULT
sprayed part. Translaminar fungicides flow from the
sprayed portion (the leaves and the top of the plant) to The Typology of Fungicide Usage in Batu
the non-sprayed part (down). Systemic fungicides are Plants cultivated by Tani Mulya Farmer Group
absorbed by plants and distributed through plant vessel Tawang Argo Village, Bumiaji District, Batu City is a
systems (Adawiah, 2014, Daniel et al, 2015, Susilo, plant of chili, eggplant, tomato and corn.
2010, Mc Ewen, 2010). The fungicides used by Tani Mulya Batu Farmers
The use of synthetic fungicide has an impact on Group are synthetic fungicides because their effect in
plant’s pathogenic resistance, the death of non-targeted inhibiting the growth of pathogenic fungi can be seen

Copyright © 2018, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.


This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). 71
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 231

quickly. The mulya farmers group currently does not use spinach, mustard, bean, chilli, and onion. When facing a
natural fungicides because it is thought that natural fungal attack, Sumber Urip Farmer Group prioritizes the
fungicides have a slow effect in halting the growth of use of organic fungicides when compared to the use of
pathogenic fungi in plants. Mulya Batu Farmers Group synthetic fungicides This is due to several things, namely
using synthetic fungicides since the 90s during the era of as follows: 1) Wonorejo Village there is a biological
common farmers. potential that can be used organic fumgicide making
“The use of synthetic fungicide is recommended by materials, such as betel leaf, ginger, garlic, turmeric,
companies and farmer groups following the company's clove leaves, paper flowers, bougenville flowers, 2)
advice because the results provided by synthetic making organic fungicides easily by fermenting organic
fungicides can be seen quickly. In the farmer's group, fungicides with moebillin (fermented inoculum); 3) the
there are active members and passive members. price of organic fungicides is much cheaper when
Members who use the advice of the company are mostly compared to the price of synthetic fungicides; and 4) the
active members"said Abdul Mujib Secretary of Tani use of organic fungicides organic fungicides has very
Mulya Farmers Group. little health and environmental impact.
Thus typology of fungicide use in Batu City included As a group of organic farmers Sumber Urip Farmer
in Alternative Movement. According Aberle in Group continues to make efforts to use organic resources
Kornblum (2014) typology is an effort to categorize of fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. In
something based on karaterisktik teretntu. While the collaboration with the University of Muhammadiyah
meaning of Alterative Movement is a movement that Malang, Sumber Urip Farmers Group continues to raise
aims or impacts to change some individual behavior In awareness to all members of farmer groups through
this category we can input various counseling, meetings, counseling, monthly routine meetings, posters, and
promotions, leaflets / brochures that are sometimes done leaflets. The results are quite encouraging, almost all
to change the behavior of the farmers in the direction that members of farmer groups use organic resources such as
the farmers want to cool. fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. It's
Typology of Fungicide Usage in Malang City just that some farmers are still using synthetic fungicides
The most cultivated plants by Tani Jaya Farmer when the use of organic fungicides is less effective and
Group Tunggulwulung Village, Lowokwaru Subdistrict, efficient, especially in chronic and chronic (massive)
Malang City is rice plant. All members of the farmer's fungal attack.
group use synthetic fungicides if their paddy plants are "Almost all our members use organic fungicides but if
attacked by fungi. There had been extension services by the fungus do not disappear we need to use a synthetic
the local government regarding the use of organic fungicide" said Abdul Fatah Chairman of Farmers Group
fungicides, but when practiced, the results were not good Sumber Urip I.
and the effects were so long that most of the members of Thus the typology of the use of fungicides in Malang
the Jaya Farmers Group continued to use synthetic District included in the typology of Alterative Movement
fungicides until now. (alternative movement). This is because the awareness
"We use factory-made fungicides, for a long time we movement of farmer group members through various
did not use homemade fungicides, we used homemade media (counseling, monthly routine meetings, posters,
fungicides but the results were not efficient" said Sardani, and leaflets) has only caused a change in some members
a member of Tani Jaya Farmer Group. of the farmer group
The directive of synthetic fungicide use is done by Continuous use of synthetic fungicides can lead to
sales of synthetic fungicide product and not all members pathogenic resistance, human toxicity and pollute the
of Kelompok Tani Jaya follow the sales instruction. environment (Apriani, 2014, Pimentel, 2010, Kenmore,
Similarly, the direction of use of organic fungicides is 2010, Efri, 2010). According to Wright et.al (2013),
also done several times but also only a small member of White et.al, (2014), Walia et al, (2014), Djunaedy (2010)
the Farmers Group Jaya who follow saranya it. The the use of pesticides, especially synthetic pesticides is
reason of at least members of Farmers Group Jaya who like a double-edged knife. Behind the great benefits of
followed the suggestion of organic fungicide use due to increasing agricultural production, it is shrouded by
raw materials that have been relatively difficult to find in terrible dangers. It can not be denied, the pesticide
the area of Malang City and also associated with the hazards are increasingly felt by the public, especially due
effectiveness of fungicides that take a long time to the unwise use of pesticides. Losses in the form of
Thus the typology of the use of fungicides in Malang adverse effects of the use of pesticides, can be grouped
city included in the typology of Alternative Movement. into 3 parts: (1). Pesticides have negative effect on
This is because the movement of awareness of farmer human health, (2). Pesticides have an adverse effect on
group members through various media counseling environmental quality, and (3). Pesticides promote the
product sales and new local government led to changes in development of plant-disturbing plant populations.
some members of farm groups only. Fungicides can lead to resistance to plant pathogens
Typology of Fungicide Usage in Malang Regency that cause unsuitable chemicals to be used, the killing of
Crops cultivated by Sumber Urip Farmer Group I non-targeted microbes and the emergence of more
Wonorejo Village, Poncokusumo District, Malang dangerous secondary pathogens, increasing production
Regency is mostly rice, cabbage, tomato, long bean, costs due to the higher cost of chemicals, causing

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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 231

environmental pollution, especially groundwater and soil, [7] Karlsson I, Friberg H, Steinberg C, Persson P,
affecting the health of farmers and his family especially Fungicide Effects on Fungal Community
when the face-to-face in the field is the mother who is Composition in the Wheat Phyllosphere. Los
pregnant or breastfeeding, and affect the health of Journal Online, https://doi.org/10.1371,
consumers who consume agricultural products November 2014, page. 14-20 2014.
contaminated with these chemicals Therefore, to prevent [8] Kenmore, P.E. IPM Means the Best Mix. Rice
or avoid the negative impacts, it is necessary to strive for IPM Newsletter. VII (7). IRRI. Manila.
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and leaflets) has only caused a change in some members Terhadap Keterjadian Penyakit Bulai Pada Jagung
of the farmer group.and 2) The usage of organic Manis (Zea Mays Saccharata). Jurnal Agrotek
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