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Engineering Graphics, Class 5

Multi-View Drawings

Mohammad I. Kilani
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Jordan
Views of an Object

„ A pictorial drawing shows an object as


it appears to the observer, but not in
its true lengths

„ Such a picture cannot describe the


object fully, no matter which direction
it is viewed from, because it does not
show the exact shapes and sizes of the
several parts.

„ In industry, a complete and clear


description of the shape and size of an
object to be made is necessary…

„ Therefore, a number of views


systematically arranged, are used.

„ This system of view is called multi-


view projection
Views of an Object
„ Each view provides certain definite information if the view is
from a direction perpendicular to a principle face or side of
the object.

„ If the observer is looking perpendicularly toward the front


face of the object, he/she obtains a true view of the shape
and size of that side, the same may be said about the top
and side views
Views of an Object

„ The front view in the figure below shows only the height and
width of the object and not the depth

„ Any one view of a three-dimensional object shows only two


dimensions, the third dimension is found in an adjacent view
Views of an Object

„ The three principle


dimensions of an object are
width, height and depth

„ These fixed terms are used


for dimensions taken in these
directions, regardless of the
shape of the object

„ The terms length & thickness


are not used because they
cannot be applied in all
cases.

„ In a front view of an object,


only the width and height
dimensions appear.
Revolving and Object

„ Other views can be obtained


by revolving the object

„ Hold the object in the front


view position

„ Top view: revolve the object


to bring the top of the object
up and toward you

„ Right-side view: revolve the


object to bring the right side
toward you

„ View of any other sides: turn


the object to bring those
side toward you
Regular Views of an Object

„ The regular views of an


object are its top, front, and
right-side views

„ These views are arranged


close to each other as shown
in (d)

„ These three view are the


most frequently used

„ Spacing between views is a


matter of appearance

„ They should be spaced well


apart, yet close enough to
appear related to each other
Regular Views of an Object

„ The space between the front


and top views may or may
not be equal to the space
between the front and side
views.

„ If dimensions are to be
added to the views,
adequate space for them will
have to be left between
views

„ Hidden features can be


clearly shown by means of
hidden lines
Regular Views of an Object

„ In the front view,


surface 7-8-9-10
appears in its true
size. This surface
appears as a visible
line 5-6 in the top
view and as a hidden
line 15-16 in the side
view

„ In the front view,


hole A, appears as a
circle, This hole
shows as hidden
lines 1-4, and 2-3 in
the top view, and 11-
12 and 13-14 in the
side view
The Six Views of an Object

„ Any object can be viewed from six mutually perpendicular directions. These six
views may be drawn if necessary
The Six Views of an Object

„ These views are always arranged as shown which is the American National Standard
Arrangement. The Top, front, and bottom views align vertically, while the rear, left-
side, front and right-side views align horizontally.

„ Drawing a view out of place is generally regarded as one of the worst possible
mistakes in drawing
The Six Views of an Object

„ Height is shown in the rear, left-side, front, and right-side views.


„ Width is shown in the rear, top, front, and bottom views.
„ Depth is shown in the four views that surround the front view
„ In the four views that surround the front view, the front of the object faces towards
the front view.
The Six Views of an Object

„ In the four views that surround the front view, the front of the object faces towards
the front view. i.e. if the front view in the figure is imagined to be the object itself,
the right-side view is obtained by looking toward the right side of the front view.
The Six Views of an Object

„ Any of the six views can be obtained either by rotating the object with respect to the
observer or by rotating the observer with respect to the object.
The Six Views of an Object

„ In architectural drawings plan is used for the top view, elevation for all views
showing the height of the building
„ Height is shown in the rear, left-side, front, and right-side views.
The Six Views of an Object

„ In, general, the front view shows the object in its operating position, particularly
of familiar object, like the house example
„ In most cases this is not important, and the drafter may assume the object to be
in any convenient position.
„ In the figure below the front view is the side, not the front of the automobile.
Necessary Views

„ Necessary views, are the minimum number of views needed for a clear and
complete shape description of the object

„ In selecting views, the drafter should choose those that best show essential
contours or shapes and have the least number of hidden lines
Necessary Views

„ Three features of the object below need to be shown on the drawing:


„ Rounded top and hole…seen from the front
„ Rectangular notch and round corners…seen from the top
„ Right angle with filleted corner… seen from the side
Necessary Views
„ Both the front and rear views show the true shapes of the hole and the round top.
But, the front view is preferred because it has no hidden lines, so the rear view is
crossed out
„ Both the top and bottom views show the rectangular notch and rounded corner,
But, the top view is preferred because it has fewer hidden lines.
Necessary Views
„ Both the right-side and left-side views show the right angle with the filleted
corner. In this example the side views are identical, except reversed. In such
instance, it is customary to choose the right-side view, so the necessary view
are the three remaining views.
Two-View Drawings

„ Often only two views are needed to


clearly describe the shape of an object.

„ In figures (a) and (c), the right side view


shows no significant contours of the
object and is crossed out

„ In figure (b) the top and front views are


identical, so the top view is eliminated
Two-View Drawings

„ If an object requires only two views and the


top and bottom views are equally descriptive,
the top view is customarily chosen.

„ If an object requires only two views and the


left-side and the right-side views are equally
descriptive, the right-side view is customarily
chosen.
Two-View Drawings

„ If only two
views are
necessary and
the top view
and the right-
side view are
equally
descriptive, the
combination
chosen is the
one that spaces
best on the
paper.
One-View Drawings

„ A single view supplemented by a note or lettered symbols is sufficient to


describe clearly the shape of a relatively simple object

„ In the figure, one view of the shim plus a note indicating the thickness as 0.25
mm is sufficient.
One-View Drawings

„ In the figure
„ the left end is 65 mm square,
„ the next portion is 49.22 mm diameter,
„ the next is 31.75 mm diameter,
„ and the portion with the thread is 31.75 mm diameter, as indicated in the note

„ Nearly all shafts, bolts, screws, and similar parts should be represented by
single views in this manner
Hidden Lines

„ Hidden line should join a visible line except when it causes the visible line to
extend too far (a & g), so, leave a gap whenever a hidden line is a
continuation of a visible line

„ Hidden lines should intersect to form L and T corners (b)


Hidden Lines

„ A hidden line should jump a visible line when possible (c)


„ Parallel hidden lines should be drawn so that the dashes are staggered (d),
„ When two or three hidden lines meet at a point, the dashes should join (e-f)
Hidden Lines

„ A Poorly drawn hidden lines can easily spoil a drawing

„ Dashes should be about 5 mm long and spaced about 1


mm apart, by eye

„ Accent the beginning and end of each dash by pressing


down on the pencil, whether drawn freehand or
mechanically

„ Hidden lines should be used when necessary to make the


drawing clear

„ Hidden lines not needed for clarity should be omitted so


as not to clutter the drawing and also to save time

„ The beginner, should be cautious about leaving out


hidden lines until experience shows when they can be
safely omitted
Center Lines

„ Center line are used to indicate axes of symmetrical objects or features, bolt circles,
and paths of motion.
„ The small dashes should cross at the intersection of center line
„ Center lines should extend about 8 mm outside the feature for which they are drawn
Center Lines

„ The long dashes may vary from 20 to 40 mm or more in length, depending on the
size of the drawing.
„ The short dashes should be about 5 mm long, with spaces about 2 mm
„ Center lines should always starts and ends with long dashes
Center Lines

„ Short center lines specially for small holes, may be made solid (e)
„ Always leave a gap when a center line formulate a continuation of a
hidden or a visible line
„ Center lines should be thin enough to contrast well with the visible and
hidden lines, but dark enough to reproduce well
Alignment of Views

„ Drawings arranged in accordance with the American National Standard must satisfy the
following alignment conditions:

„ All views line up with the front view

„ The top view must be directly above the front view

„ The right-side view must be directly to the right of the front view

„ Never draw the views in reversed positions, with the bottom over the front view or the right-
side to the left of the front view, even if the views line up with the front view
Alignment of Views

„ Never draw the views in reversed positions, with the bottom over the front view
„ or the right-side to the left of the front view,
„ even if the views line up with the front view
Meanings of Lines

„ A visible or a hidden
line has three possible
meanings:

„ Intersection of
two surfaces

„ Edge view of a
surface

„ Contour view of a
curved surface
Precedence of Lines

„ Visible lines, hidden


lines, and center
lines often coincide
on a drawing

„ A visible line always


takes precedence
over a center line or
a hidden line

„ A hidden line take


precedence over a
center line