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ASSIGNMENT NO.

4
OF
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TOPIC: Institutes providing management development


programmes (EDP) and its benefits.

Submitted to: Submitted by:


Miss priyanka chhibber SUNNY SOI
RT1903B75
10908201
MBA (3RD)
INTRODUCTION:
EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME [EDP]

Executive Development is an ongoing systematic process that assesses, develops, and


enhances one’s ability to carry out top-level roles in the organization. It is a scientific process
for executives to enrich their knowledge and skills, so as to make them competent to manage
their organization effectively. It aims at developing conceptual and human skills of
executives through organized and systematic procedures.

The process is designed to help the executives focus on issues as identifying and modifying
the impact of an executive’s management style on an individual and teams, more rapidly and
effectively adapting change, establishing individual development needs, and the key
dimension of executive performance.

EDP is the process of equipping people with the tools, knowledge and opportunities they
need to develop them and become more effective. This process helps executives to address
behaviour or issues that are impending their own job effectiveness.

Executive development programme helps executives strengthen management and


leadership skills, increase company profitability, develop succession planning to ensure
company sustainability, and receive customized training geared to their company’s needs.
Today, it is the growth that makes one person stay at the company. The opportunity and
challenges is what keeps a person satisfied and charmed with his job. Companies have
understood this fact and therefore are forming policies and procedures to develop their
employees.

Institutes offering Executive Development Programme in India:


➢ Administrative Staff College of India

➢ Management Development Institute

➢ Indian Institute of Management

➢ Quality Management International

➢ National Institute of Training in Industrial Engineering

➢ All India Management Association

➢ Indian Society for Training and Development

➢ National Institute of Personal Management


These institutes conduct different development programs for executive to different emerging
problems of the corporate world.

Programs for Executive Development:-


These programs fall into two broad categories: those internal to an organization and those
external to it.

Some corporate houses designed their own executive development programme for their
executives. In the private sector, Tata management Development Centre (TMDC) at
Jamshedpur conducts such programmes for Tata executive’s .In the public sector, Steel
Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) has its full-fledged executive development centre at Ranchi.
Kirloskar group, Reliance group and Lakshmi group (Chennai) have developed their own
executive development centres to train their executives on general and organization specific
issues. In addition, in-house training division of the business houses are also developing
requisite infrastructure to train their executives, in an attempt to reduce their dependence on
outside agencies.

The second classification is external programs: These are the programs which are conducted
by outsider institution to train other organization’s executives. In India many professional
institutes are organizing executive development programs.

Objectives of EDP:
The purpose of executive development program is to develop the knowledge, skills and
attitudes in the executives of the organization, which in turn, make them more effective and
productive in their jobs and also increase their potential for higher jobs. It is not enough to
procure high talents. It is also necessary to develop available talent in proper direction.

Development program gives the executives extra energy and motivation at work. The
professionalism of its management and their ability is to create and re-create company’s
corporate values in the attitudes and behaviours of employees. This is a vital but intangible
element in the company’s continuing success. In the field of Human Resource Management,
the training and development function is part of rather than separate from mainstream
management responsibilities, and plays a crucial role in maintaining the high quality of a
company’s employees. Executive development programs are planned learning experience that
teaches the executives how to perform their current as well as future jobs more efficiently and
effectively. Executive development programs are designed to improve the organizational
performance through enhancing knowledge and skills of the executives. It is essential that all
the activities relating to executive development programs should be in time with the specific
needs of both the organization and the executives. Identifying the development program
needs thus forms the major crux in any organization. A variety of development programs are
available and used by development institutions and organizations.
The programme of executive development aims at achieving following
purposes:

 To increase function knowledge in specific fields in which the executive’s works, like
marketing, production, finance personnel etc.

 To increase proficiency in different management techniques like work study inventory


control, operation research, quality control etc.

 To stimulate creative thinking for improving methods and procedures.

 To understand different function in a company.

 To develop the ability to analyse problems in one’s area or function.

 To sustain good performance of managers throughout their careers by exploiting their


full potential.

 To understand economic, technical, and institutional forces in order to solve business


problems.

 To acquire knowledge about problems of human resources.

 To think through problems this may confront the organization now or in the future.

 To develop responsible leaders.


 To inculcate knowledge of human motivation and human relationships.

 Enhancing managerial skills of executives to enable them to shoulder higher


responsibilities in the future.

Importance of EDP:
Executive development is important for the following reasons:

 Executive development programmes are required to train and develop professional


managers.

 It helps managers to develop skills to face cut throat competition.

 It enables managers to face problems related to technology and institution.

 It helps in developing better relations with the labours.

 Executives need training and education to understand and adjust to changes in


socioeconomic changes.

 Executive development is required to broader the outlook of managers.

Benefits of Executive Development Programme:


 Networking takes place between executives.

 More cohesiveness between team members.


 Positive effect on the bottom line.

 More patience and better understanding of another department’s limitations.

 Skill and knowledge enhancement is substantial.

 Executives develop the right attitude.

Characteristics of EDP:
The characteristics of executive development are as following: -

1. A continuous process: It is an ongoing and never ending exercise .It should encompass
the entire professional career of executives. Executive development is a long term process as
managerial skills cannot be developed overnight.

2. A knowledge updating activity: The imperative need for management development


should be appreciated as there always exists a gap between actual and potential performance.
This, therefore, provides scope for continuous improvement in all functional areas. Executive
development programs always attempt to bridge this gap enriching the functional capacity
of executives, continuously updating their knowledge and skill. The gap between potential
and actual capacity is always high for executives across the world as knowledge and skill can
never get plateau.

3. A vehicle for attitude change: Human behaviour is dynamic. Its complexity can only be
appreciated once executive development programs are attempted to understand the
behavioural and attitudinal aspects through simulating sessions. Better interpersonal skills are
an important prerequisite for managerial success, which can be assured through such properly
designed Executive development programme.

4. A stimulant to higher competence: Unless executives are stimulated to the intricacies of


managerial stress and strain through different executive development programmes ,their
full potential cannot be exerted for the benefit of the organization .Executive development
programmes can be designed considering such issues like employee’s motivation , habits,
age-mix , pattern of conflict and chaos ,and this can enable elevation of managerial functions
of the executives during the post training face.
5. A deficiency improver: Executive development programmes are catered to the individual
requirements to improve the functional deficiencies of the individual executives, thus
enabling the organization to derive immediate benefits from such programmes.

6. A self-development process: Executive development facilitates self-development of


executives, as they learn many things through action learning methods, sharing the
experiences of each other in a simulated classroom atmosphere.

Process of EDP:
The process of executive development is as follows:-

1. Analysis of development needs: First of all the present and future development needs of
the organization are ascertained. It is necessary to determine how many and what type of
executives are required to meet the present and future needs of the enterprise.

2. Appraisal of the present managerial talent: A qualitative assessment of the existing


executives is made to determine the type of executive talent available within the organization.

3. Inventory of management Manpower: An inventory of qualified personnel should be


prepared and a selection for the various development programmes should be made. Such
inventory will provide all necessary personnel data regarding the individuals qualified for
development.

4. Planning individual development programmes: Each one of us has a unique set of


physical, intellectual and emotional characteristics. Therefore, development plan should be
tailor-made for each individual.

5. Establishing training and development programme: The HR department prepares


comprehensive and well conceived programmes.

6. Evaluating developing programs: Considerable money, time and efforts are spent on
executive development programmes. It is therefore natural to find out to what extent the
programme’s objective has been achieved.

Methods or techniques of executive Development:


Planning EDP deserves utmost attention and importance .These objectives of the programme
need to be defined at the outset .Objectives may be either to impart knowledge and skills for
more effective functioning of the manager in their present positions or may be equip them for
holding higher position in future. Most of the organizations through adequate career planning,
work out promotion path for the managers .Unlike career planning programmes for non
managerial employees, which shows such career progression path in similar or allied job
families, EDP may even chalk out career planning for executives in different functional areas
cutting across departmental barriers. Good EDPs are carefully planned so as to give
responsibility to each executive to prepare a replacement for him in successive grades. The
various techniques of executive development may be classified into two broad categories:

On The Job Techniques:


Coaching: In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach
or counsellor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals,
periodically reviews the trainee’s progress and suggests changed required in behaviour and
performance.

Coaching method offer several advantages:

(i) It is learning by doing.

(ii) Every executive can coach his subordinate even if no executive development
programme exists.

(iii) Periodic feedback and evaluation re a part of coaching.

(iv)It is very useful for orientation of new executives and foe developing operative skills.

(v) It involves close interactions between the trainee and his boss.

Coaching method, however, suffers from certain disadvantages:

(i) It tends to perpetuate current managerial styles and practices in the organization.

(ii) It requires that the superior is good teacher and guide.

(iii) The training atmosphere is not free from the worries of daily routine.

(iv)The trainee may not get sufficient time to make mistake and learn from experience.

Coaching will work well if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee can
identify; if the both can be open with each other, if the coach accepts his responsibility fully
and if he provides the trainee recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards.

Under Study: An understudy is a person selected and being trained as the heir apparent to
assume at the future time the full duties and responsibilities of the position presently held by
his superior. In this way, a fully trained person becomes available to replace a manager
during his long absence or illness, on his retirement, transfer, promotion or death. The
superior routes much of the department work through juniors, discusses problems with him
and allows him to participate in the decision-making process as often as possible.

Understudy method provides many advantages:

(i) The trainee receives continuous guidance from the senior and gets the opportunity to
see the total job.
(ii) It is practical and time saving due to learning by doing.

(iii) The trainee takes interest and shares the superior’s workload.

(iv)The junior and the senior come closer to each other.

(v) It ensures continuity of management when superior leaves his position.

Understudy method, however, suffers some disadvantages:

(i) It perpetuates the existing managerial practices.

(ii) As one employee is identified in advance as the next occupant of a higher level
managerial position, the motivation of other employees in the unit may be
affected.

(iii) The subordinate staff may ignore the understudy and treat him as an intruder
without clear authority and responsibility.

(iv)Under an overbearing senior, the understudy may lose his freedom of thought and
action. The success of this method depends upon the teaching skills and
cooperation of the superior with whom the understudy is attached.

Position Rotation: It involves movement or transfer of executives from one position or job
to another on some planned basic. These persons are moved from one managerial position to
another according to the rotation schedule Position rotation is also called job rotation. The
aim is to broaden knowledge, skills and outlook of executives. Job rotation or position is
often designed for junior executives. It may continue for a period ranging from six months to
two years.

Job rotation method offer following advantages:

(i) It helps to reduce monotony and boredom by providing variety of work.

(ii) It facilitates interdepartmental cooperation and coordination.

(iii) It infuses new concept and ideas in to elder personnel.

(iv)Executives get a chance to move up to higher position by developing them into


generalists.

(v) Best utilization can be made of each executive’s skills.

Job rotation method suffers from following disadvantages:

(i) Job rotation may cause disturbance in established operations.

(ii) The trainee executive may find it difficult to adjust himself to frequent moves. He
may feel insecure in the absence of stable interpersonal relationship.
(iii) The new incumbent may introduce ill-conceived and hasty innovations causing a
loss to the organization.

(iv)Job rotation may demotivate intelligent and aggressive trainees to seek specific
responsibility in their chosen specialization.

Selected Readings:

Managing has become a specialized job requiring a close touch with the latest developments
in the field. By reading selected professional books and journals managers can keep in touch
with the latest research findings, theories and techniques management. No executive can
afford to rely solely on others to keep in informed on innovations in management. Reading of
current management literature helps to avoid managerial obsolescence. Selective readings
constitute an individual self development programme for executives. Many organizations
maintain libraries for their executives and managers are encouraged to continually read and
improve their skills.

Multiple Management:

The technique was developed by Charles P. McCormick of the McCormick Corporation of


Baltimore, USA. Under it, a junior board of young executives is constituted. Major problems
are analyzed in the junior board which makes recommendations of the Board of Directors.
The young executives learn decision-making skill and the Board of Director receives the
collective wisdom of the executive team. Vacancies in the Board of Directors can be filled
from the junior board members who have received considerable exposure to problems and
issues.

Off The Job Techniques:


Lectures:

These are formally organized talks by an instructor on specific topics. Lectures essential
when technical or special information of a complex nature is to be provided. These can be
supplemented by discussion, case studies, demonstrations, audio-visual aids and film shows.
It is very useful when facts, concepts, principles, attitudes and problem solving skills are to
be taught. More material can be presented within a given time by any other method.

Lecture method can be made effective in the following ways:-

(a) A lecture should be well planned as to its purpose and contents.

(b) The lecturer should be competent and a good speaker.

(c) He should keep in mind the listener’s needs and interests.

(d) The lecture should not be more than one hour.

(e) The lecture should be made interesting through leading questions, guided discussions
And audio-visual aids.

Case Studies:

Under this method, a real or hypothetical business problem or situation demanding solution is
presented in writing to the trainees. They are required to identify and analyse the problem,
suggest and evaluate alternatives courses of action and choose the most appropriate solution

Group Discussion:

It is a variant of lecture method under it paper is prepared and presented by one or more
trainees on the selected topic. This is followed by a critical discussion. The chair man of
discussion or seminar summarise the contents of the papers and discussion which follows.
Often the material to be discussed is distributed in advance. Seminars and conferences enable
executive to learn from the experience of each other and have become quite popular.

Role Playing:

In this method the trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Two or more
trainees are assigned part to play before the rest of the class. Thus, it is a method of human
interaction which involves realistic behaviour in an imaginary or hypothetical situation. Role
playing primarily involves employer employee relationships, hiring, firing, discussing a
grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview or disciplining a subordinate or a
sales man making a presentation to a customer.

Management Games:

Management or business games are designed to be representative of real life situation. These
are classroom simulation exercise in which teams of individual compete one another or
against an environment in order to achieve a given objective. In this exercise, the participants
play a dynamic role, and enrich their skills through involvement and simulated exercise.
Management games can be of interactive or non interacting types. In the interacting types of
games, the decisions of one team influence the performance of other teams. In the non
interacting games each team is independent and its performance entirely depends upon its on
competence.

Factors that drive the investments involved in EDP:


There are multiple factors that drive the need to track executive developmental investments:

 Increased accountability for all functional areas within the organization, driven by
initiatives such as “Total Quality Management” and other process improvement
programs. In areas such as Training & Development, which are known to produce a
mix of tangible and intangible benefits, there is an increased desire by senior
management to measure performance and outcomes.

 Increased spending on executive development programs in many organizations over


the past several years, making developmental activity more visible across the
organization, therefore requiring greater accountability.

 Increased outsourcing for all areas of corporate training and development,


recognizing that many components of executive development are already outsourced.
This trend has put additional pressure on the need to evaluate, quantify, and justify in-
house executive development programs.

 Increase in Human Resource Development (HRD) professionals who are viewing


their departments as stand-alone business units and are utilizing department profit and
loss statements as one measure of performance. Increasingly, professionals from non-
HR departments are joining HR teams and bringing a “bottom-line” perspective and
discipline.

 Increased awareness by both executive management as well as HRD professionals


on the availability of tools and techniques to quantify impact of executive
development programs.