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BOREWELL RESCUE ROBOT

TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING

Submitted by

JANANI.K
(16101033)
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VIVEKANANDHA
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN
[Autonomous]
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Accredited by NBA
Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai-25,
An ISO 9001-2008Certified Institution
Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode, Namakkal Dt. – 637205

APRIL-2019
VIVEKANANDHA COLLEGE OF
ENGENEERING FOR WOMEN (Autonomous)

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this technical report “BOREWELL RESCUE ROBOT ” is the


bonafide work of “JANANI.K (16101033)” who carried out the work under
my supervision.

TECHNICAL WORK GUIDE SIGNATURE


Ms,P.BRINDHA ME Dr.L.MALATHI M.E,Ph.D,
AP/ CSE, HOD/CSE,
Vivekanandha College of Vivekanandha College of
Engineering for Women, Engineering for Women,
Tiruchengode. Tiruchengode.

Submitted to the Technical report writing examination held on


__________________________

CO-ORDINATOR
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank and praise the lord almighty for providing us knowledge, strength and all the necessary
facilities to do the Technical report writing successfully.
My heartfelt thanks to my beloved chairman, Vidya Ratan, Rastriya Ratan, Hind Ratan,
Prof., Dr.M.Karunanithi, B.Pharm. M.S., Ph.D., D.Litt., Vivekananda Educational
Institutions, for providing good lab facilities for the technical report works.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my respectable Advisor Dr.D.VISWANATHAN,
M.E., Ph.D., who supported me in all aspects to complete this technical report writing.
I wish to express my profound thanks to my beloved Principal, Dr.KCK.VIJAYA KUMAR,
M.E., Ph.D., MIE., for all the help provided during the period of technical report work.
I would like to acknowledge the constant support provided by my Head of the Department
,Dr.L.MALATHI, M.E.,Ph.D., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, for her
encouragement and support for completing the technical report writing work successfully.
I wish to thank my technical report writing in-charge Mr.K.SANKAR, M.E.,Assistant
Professor / CSE for his kind support in completion of my technical report writing.
I express my sincere thanks and regards to my technical report writing guide, Ms,P.BRINDHA
M.E., Assistant Professor /CSE, for her encouragement and valuable suggestions throughout
the technical report writing.
Finally, I wish to thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff members of my department for
their support towards the successful completion of my technical report writing work.
CHAPTER LISI OF CONTENTS PAGE NO
NO TITLE

LIST OF FIGURE V

LIST OF ABBRIVATION VI

ABSTRACT VII

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 EXISTING MODEL 2
1.2 TRAGEDY RESULT 3

2 LITRATURE REVIEW 7

3 PROPOSED MODEL 10
3.1 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 11
3.2 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 18
3.3 RECEIVER BLOCK DIAGRAM 19

4 APPLICATION 21

5 CONCLUSION 22

6 REFERENCE 23
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE FIGURE NAME PAGE NO


NO.
1.1 DIGGING PARALLEL HOLE TO 3
SECURE CHILDREN

1.2 CENSES REPORTED BY HINDU 4


1.3 RESCUE OPERATION BY USING 5
ROPE
3.1.1 INFRARED SENSOR 11
3.1.2 CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE 12
3.1.3 CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION 13
3.1.5 LED LIGHT 14
3.1.8 SAFETY BALLOON 17
3.1.9 TELECONFERNCING 18

v
LIST OF ABBRIVATION

IR INFRARED SENSOR
CCD CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE
CCTV CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION
LED LIGHT EMITTED DIODE
PIC PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT
CONTROLLER

vi
ABSTRACT

In India we have N number of borewells which are left uncovered due to scarcity of water.
Now the uncovered borewell turned as pitfalls for innocent life who playing near the
borewell. As the diameter of the borewell is quite narrow (4.5-6inches) for adult and light
goes dark inside it so rescue of the children from the borewell is a challenging task in those
situations. In our project we install a sensor in the borewell which detect the falling of
children and transmit the message to rescue team and nearby hospital which reduce the delay
time. And also, we proposed a robotic arm which lift the children safely.
The arms are provided ultra-sonic camera which capture and record the status of the children
and oxygen cylinder are also provided with it. The arm has human sensitivity and flexibility
to lift the children. We use infrared rays to find posture of the children in the dark borewell.
we proposed a robot which is used to secure the children during at the time of heavy rain. At
the time of heavy rain, the robot covers the top of the borewell tightly which prevent the flow
of water into it. This entire process is controlled by the pic microcontroller. This all the
process is monitored at outside of the borewell by a technician.

vii
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In current scenario, falling of children or even adults in bore well are increasing. These
accidents are mainly happened due to carelessness or playful activities of the child, Moreover
most of the bore wells are drilled and leaved as it as open without any proper coverings. When
a child fall into the bore well the existing rescue operations in such a cases are more risky and
become a non-safe to the rescue team members.
In existing system, a big hole is dug beside the bore well up to the depth where the child is
stuck. This process a huge amount of human resources (military, Para medical, etc.), machinery
(JCBs, Tractors, etc.) is used. A small delay in this resources accumulation may reduce the
chances of saving child alive. If the area beside the bore hole contains rocks below certain
depth, in such cases the chance of saving child alive is very low. Whatever may be the case the
success ratio depends on lots of factors like availability of time taken for transportation of
machinery to the situation, human resources and mainly the response time of various
government organizations. In India according to the NCRB report of 2011 there are 5 average
deaths per day in the license bore wells. At present there is no proper solution for this problem;
in this paper the model of a robot arm which can be used for rescue operation is briefly
explained.

1.1 EXISTING MODEL

The main objective of this project is to make it possible for a child fall inside bore well to
rescue without any injury. This goal is achieved by controlling a robot to take of the child inside
the bore well which is controlled by the person from outside. In existing system, a big hole is
dug beside the bore well up to the depth where the child is stuck. A small delay in this resources
accumulation may reduce the chances of saving child alive. If the area beside the bore hole
1
contains rocks below certain depth, in such cases the chance of saving child alive is very low.
Lack of oxygen inside the bore well and lack of light sources causes the major difficulty during
the rescue operation. There is no such special equipment for rescuing the child trapped inside
the bore well. There is no proper technique to rescue victims of such accidents. When the local
arrangements do not work, army is called in. In most cases reported so far, a parallel hole is
dug up and then a horizontal path is made to reach to the subject’s body. It is not only a time
taking process, but also risky in various ways. Moreover it involves a lot of energy and
expensive resources which are not easily available everywhere and in this process we always
need big space around trapped bore that we can dig. Whatever may be the case the success ratio
depends on lots of factors like availability of time taken for transportation of machinery to the
situation, human resources and mainly the response time of various government organizations.
In India according to the NCRB report of 2011 there are 5 average deaths per day in the license
bore wells. At present there is no proper solution for this problem;
The existing model is to secure the children from borewell is sending the rope to find the
distance at where the children stuck in the borewell and dig the parallel hole up to that distance
and horizontal hole to reach the children. This all due to awareness in covering the borewell,
the tragedy result.
Whether the place contain rocks it further increased the time to secure the children from the
borewell. It is not possible to secure the children even 50%.

Fig 1.1: digging parallel hole to secure children

2
1.2: TRAGEDY RESULT:

The HINDU newspaper witnessed many of the borewell tragedies due to the above-mentioned
method. This tragedy resulted not only in Tamil Nadu but also occur among all over India.

Fig 1.2: censes reported by HINDU

This is also due to the insufficient oxygen in the borewell , and darkness also made the children
more panic. More than 30 children loss their life in the borewell. Food (water)for the children
who fall in the borewell is carried in the glass tied at the end the rope but this is not ensure that
the water reached the children or not.

The injuries during and throughout the rescue operation also leads to the death of child. The
lack of oxygen inside the deep hole makes it impossible for the child to survive for long time
.Hence this operation proves very difficult, risky and time consumptive. As we have made
survey over Maharashtra & found .In Haryana three children’s fell into bore well & only 1 was
alive. In Jaipur on 7th Jan, 2014 a child of age three years recovered alive but died in hospital.
3
Bhopal, Gurgaon, Tamil Nadu, Dheera Village child’s fell into bore well & were not recovered
alive . As per the survey we found that the ratio of dead and alive children is 15:1.

Fig 1.3: Rescue operation by using rope


This shows that frequency of those trapped children in bore well has increased who get died in
the hole due to insufficient amount of oxygen or injuries throughout the whole process. The
alternative solution to this problem is the use of robotic systems which can move down the pipe
and bring the subjected body out of it properly and safely. This will take lesser time than the
normal operation. This work is aimed towards the construction and designing of a robotic
system to work in borehole rescue operations and to detect faults inside the pipeline. The robot
has the arm at its front to pick and place the objects. It has camera that is interfaced with laptop
for the visual display. The motion of the robot is controlled through a keypad of a laptop and
also the temperature inside the pipe sensed by the robot is monitored outside on the display of
laptop. The proposed system is intended to reduce the risk involved during the child rescue
operation by analyzing the situation and also to provide an option detect any leakage inside the
pipe.

4
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

The field of search and rescue robotics, while growing rapidly in this decade, is still relatively
very harmful have been proved[2]..Outside of controlled environments, humans have only
performed sophisticated manipulation tasks when operated for rescue operation [3] .In normal
rescue operation, a parallel pit is dug deep to achieve the child and adjacent holes are made to
the walls of bore well. A common method used to find the depth of child is the use of rope [3].
One particular aspect of the rescue robotics domain eases the fruitful combination of highly
challenging basic research and application oriented developments for large markets. This is the
fact that rescue robots strongly benefit from autonomy while there is a human in the loop [4].
The alternative solution to this problem is the use of robotic systems which can move down the
pipe and bring the subjected body out of it properly and safely . Robots have been very
successful at manipulation in simulation and controlled environments.It will be a light weight
machine that will go down into the bore well pipe and hold the trapped body systematically. In
this alternative scenario, there will be no requirement of digging any hole parallel to the bore-
well. The remotely controlled robot will go down the bore well and perform the action. A lot
of other hassles will also be avoided by this alternative technique. This proposed system consist
of a light weight machine that will go down into the bore well pipe and hold the trapped body
systematically. In this alternative scenario, there will be no requirement of digging any hole
parallel to the bore-well. The remotely controlled robot will go down the bore well and perform
the action of trapping baby outside the bore-well using 3 finger mechanism. The 3 finger
mechanism is controlled using laptop. We are also using temperature sensor to measure the
temperature of the baby trapped surroundings

B.Bharathi et-al [1] describes the designing a robot for rescue a child from inside bore well,
which is capable of moving inside the bore well, according to the human comment by PC and
also pick and placing based on arm design. . The robot is operated through PC using wireless
5
Zigbee technology and using wireless camera can view both audio and video on the TV. This
robot has a high power LED which acts as a light source when light intensity inside the pipe is
low. It is a low cost robot used to monitor and the human controlled robot that gives an insight
view of rescuing the baby safely taken to achieve this.

Palwinder Kaur et-al [2] describes the rescue operations without human intervention. Here
the wheeled leg mechanism is design to go inside the pipe and the legs are circumferentially
and symmetrically spaced out 1200 apart. The robot can adjust its legs according to the pipeline
dimensions. The robot has consisting of power supply, switch pad, and gear motor. The child
position is captured from bore well with USB Camera and monitored on PC. The LM35
temperature sensor and 16*2 LCD are interfaced with PIC 16F877A microcontroller to sense
and displays on LCD.

Manish Raj et-al [3] describes as the diameter of the borewell is narrow for any adult person
and light goes dark inside it, the rescue task those situations is challenging. The robotic system
which will attach a harness to the child using pneumatic arms for picking up. A
teleconferencing system will also attach to the robot for communicating with the child.

John Jose Pattery et-al [4] describes the facility to monitor the trapped child, supply oxygen
and provide a supporting platform to lift up the child. The 1st motor placed at top turns a gear
mechanism which, in turn, pushes 3 blocks arranged at 120 degrees from each other towards
the side of the bore well. The 2nd motor placed below the plate turns the bottom shaft by 360
degrees, the helping to locate the gap through which the lifting rod passes. This is done with
the help of a wireless camera attached to the lifting rod. The 3rd motor adjusts the radial
distance of the lifting rod. When the diameter is adjusted, the 4th motor helps the lifting rod to
screw its way through the gap towards the bottom of the child. Once the lifting the rod reaches
a safe position under, an air compressor is operated to pump air to the bladder attached to the
end of lifting rod through an air tube that runs downwards inside the lifting rod. The bladder
provides a safe seating to the child.

6
Then 1st motor is then reversely operated so as to unclamp the system. Simultaneously it is
lifted out of the well using a chain or rope. In the existing system, if the child fell into the bore
well.
The rescue workers dug the hole near the bore well to save the child. It’s fully manual and more
harmful during the rescue operation. The presence of the child in the borewell is not identified
by the rescue workers. So it’s the time consuming process and the oxygen present in the bore
well is very low. This may lead to death of the child. To overcome this automation system is
implemented.

7
CHAPTER 3

PROPOSED SYSTEM

The proposed system, to secure the children from the borewell by using ROBOTIC ARMS
which was controlled by a pic microcontroller. This work is aimed towards the construction
and designing of a robotic system to work in borehole rescue operations and to detect faults
inside the pipeline. The robot has arms at its front to pick and place the objects.

Along with the robotic arms, it provided with ultrasonic cameras, image detector, temperature
sensor, food pipe, oxygen pipe, wind pipe, teleconferencing, led light, balloon or pladder are
also used to secure the children 95%alive with in a short duration of time.

First thing in our project is to provide Infrared (IR) Sensor placed or provided at the side walls
of the borewell is used to detect the falling of the object in the borewell, and image detector is
used to detect the image of the object whether this is human being or any other object like pvc
pipe or pumps or pipe lines etc. So this is very useful to convey the information to the rescue
team and near by hospital to save the children within a time. Its helps the rescue team and near
by hospital to reach the place in correct time and also help the people to aware about the
children fall in the borewell. And then we send the robotic arms into the borewell and pick up
the children as soon as possible, and this all process are monitored at the outside by the person
in the rescue team.

3.1: HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

3.1.1. IR SENSOR:
Infrared sensors work on the principle of reflected light waves.Infrared sensors are used to
measure distance or proximity. The reflected light is detected and then an estimate of distance
is calculated between sensor and object. When object pass within the range, the light waves
8
detect those object and reflect the presence back to the sensor. The range of the sensors are
good detection between 1-5m/3-15 feet. We can double this range by increasing the transmitted
power four times.
Infrared sensor has receiver and transmitted which transmit the ir rays to a particular distance
and the rays get reflected by the object or any other obstacles placed in that way. The reflected
ray is received by the receiver of the ir sensor, depends upon the speed of the ray reflected by
the object we can easily calculate the distance between the sensor and object. By this we can
easily find the distance where the children struck in the borewell after finding the distance we
send the robotic arms inside the borewell.

Fig 3.1.1: Infrared sensor


3.1.2. IMAGE DETECTOR:

An image sensor or imaging sensor also called imager is a sensor that detects and convey
information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light
waves (as they pass through or reflect off object) into signals, small bursts of current that
convey the information. So it is used identify the object whether it is human beings or any other
objects like pumps, pipe lines etc

9
Fig 3.1.2. charge coupled device

3.1.3. ULTRASONIC CAMERA:


We use the ultrasonic camera which is placed in the robotic arms to captured and record the
movement of the children who fall into the borewell and display the image (transmitted the
image) to the monitor screen at the outside of the borewell.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras
to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast
television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point
(P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links. In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may
be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room.

10
Fig 3.1.3. CCTV camera

3.1.4. TEMPERATURE SENSOR:


Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can affect
its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. LM35 is a precision IC
temperature sensor with its output proportional to the temperature (in oC). The sensor circuitry
is sealed and therefore it is not subjected to oxidation and other processes. With LM35,
temperature can be measured more accurately than with a thermistor. It also possess low self
heating and does not cause more than 0.1 oC temperature rise in still air. The operating
temperature range is from -55°C to 150°C.

3.1.5: LED
A LED is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light
when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine
with electron-holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. LEDs are just
tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs,.
The lifespan of an LED surpasses the short life of an incandescent bulb by thousands of hours.

11
Fig 3.1.5. led lights

3.1.6. FOOD PIPE AND OXYGEN PIPE:


The children inside the needs oxygen for the survival till they secure from the borewell. After
measuring the oxygen content in the borewell and calculate the oxygen need for the children
and then supply the required oxygen to the children.
At the same time they also required the water to overcome their thirsty and made them
conscious till the rescue team secure them from the borewell. This all the supplies are controlled
by the microcontroller to make our work easy and safe secure. It also provided with air pipes
and micro holes in the robotic arms which supply the air for ventilation of the children in the
borewell.

3.1.7. SERVOMOTOR:
Servo motor is used to operate the arms of the robot. The servo motor is actually an assembly
of four things: a normal DC motor, a gear reduction unit, a position-sensing device (usually a
potentiometer—a volume control knob), and a control circuit. The function of the servo is to
receive a control signal that represents a desired output position of the servo shaft, and apply
power to its DC motor until its shaft turns to that position. It uses the position-sensing device
to determine the rotational position of the shaft, so it knows which way the motor must turn to
move the shaft to the commanded position. The shaft typically does not rotate freely round and
round like a DC motor, but rather can only turn 200 degrees or so back and forth.
12
The servo has a 3 wire connection: power, ground, and control. The power source must be
constantly applied the servo has its own drive electronics that draw current from the power lead
to drive the motor.
The control signal is pulse width modulated (PWM), but here the duration of the positive-going
pulse determines the position of the servo shaft. For instance, a 1.520 millisecond pulse is the
center position for a Futaba S148 servo. A longer pulse makes the servo turn to a clockwise-
from-center position, and a shorter pulse makes the servo turn to a counter-clockwise-from-
center
A DC motor is used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, very typically through
the interaction of magnetic field and current carrying conductors. The reverse process
producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by an alternator,
generator or dynamo. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa.
The input of DC motor is current/voltage and its output is torque (speed). The DC motor has
two basic parts the rotating part that is called the armature and the stationary part that includes
coils of wire called the field coils. The stationary part is called the stator.

3.1.8. PLADDER:
Pladder is a balloon like structure which moves underneath of the children which prevent the
children from further fall from where they struck in the borewell. It also provided with the two
cameras which shows the gap between children and borewell to make the pladder move
underneath of the children without hurting them. when the pladder reach beneath the children,
the air pipe fill the gas to the pladder and it covers the borewell below the children struck.
When we lift the children borewell using robotic arms the pladder also come up along with
them. So we can easily secure the children without injury.

13
Fig 3.1.8 pladder (balloon like structure)
This just an imaginary picture what we are going to use in our project.

3.1.9. TELECONFERENCING:
The major thing in our project is teleconferencing that may ensures that the children is alive. It
is very useful because the parents and the rescue team at the outside can easily communicate
14
to the children and the children can also easily communicate to the outside.

We going to place the miniatured size speaker and mike in the robotic arms which is very
useful and plays intermediate between children inside the borewell and parents and rescue team
at the outside and it may also help us to motivate the children to made them free from panic

Fig 3.1.9. Teleconferencing


At last we send the robotic arms inside the borewell we need to cover the top of the borewell
to prevent or avoid the sand irrigation and flow of water during the heavy rain so we can easily
secure the children

3.2 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION


Above mentioned components and the entire robotic arms are controlled by the pic16f877a
microcontroller. The Programming language is EMBEDDED C which is executed by MP lab
IDE.

15
BLOCK DIAGRAM

By using this microcontroller, we can control the entire process easily. To the microcontroller
the information is passed through the ZIGBEE.
ZIGBEE: like a Bluetooth, it transfer information but for long distance.

16
PIN CONFIGURATION:

3.2.2 RECEIVER BLOCK DIAGRAM

ZIGBEE
There are a multitude of standards like Bluetooth and WiFi that address mid to high data rates
for voice, PC LANs, video, etc. However, up till now there hasn't been a wireless network
standard that meets the unique needs of sensors and control devices. The Zig Bee Alliance is
not pushing a technology; rather it is providing a standardized base set of solutions for sensor
and control systems ZigBee technology is a bidirectional wireless communication technology
of short distance, low complexity, low cost, low power consumption, and low data rate, mainly
used in automatic control. It mainly works on 2.4GHz ISM band with 20~250kbit/s data rate,
100m ~1.5km maximum transmission range, and a typical 100m distance .
17
CHAPTER 4

APPLICATION

As bore well child saver: - The main application of the machine is in the rescue operation of
the child from the bore well.
As Pipe cleaning machine: - This machine can be used in pipe cleaning. It can drive through
long pipes and with a rotary brush as an end effecter fitted at front will serve the cleaning
operation of dirty pipes. As the inside surface of the pipes may be wet and slippery the high
quality wheels are capable to grip on the wet surface.
As Pipe inspection machine:- In pipe manufacturing industries the final product is required
to go through inspection process for quality control and prevent any leakage in pipes or any
oil, gas pipe lines are to be surely free from any kind of leakage and damage as it may cause
huge destruction if any kind of accidents takes place. This inspection machine loaded with
special inspection instruments like sensors, x-ray are capable to inspect pipes, thus can detect
any kind of defect which may be the reason for a serious accidents.
Miscellaneous Application: This type of robot capable of climb vertical pipes or drive through
horizontal or inclined pipes may be used in the following areas.
In manufacturing industries
In space programs.
In radio active or highly hazardous environment.
In under water operation

18
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

A lot of lives have been lost due to falling in the bore well because it involves digging a pit
beside a bore well which is a time consuming process. The proposed system is to overcome all
these difficulties. This project is used to reduce human efforts for rescuing operations from
bore well. It performs rescue operations in very less time as compared to traditional methods.
Thus, it has been designed keeping the entire obstacle in mind that may arise during the
operation. We like to conclude with the help of my research project I am able to rescue without
any damage

19
CHAPTER 6

REFERENCE

[1] B. Bharathi, B. Suchitha Samuel “Design and Construction of Rescue Robot and Pipeline
Inspection Using Zigbee” International Journal Of Scientific, Engineering and Research
(IJSER) Volume 1 Issue 1, September 2013.
[2] Sridhar Palaniswamy “ Life Saving Machine” the first International Conference on
Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 31 May-1 June 2011, Thailand.
[3] O. Tatar, D. Mandru, “Design of in-pipe modular robotic systems”, Vol.147-149, pp. 49-
54, 2009.
[4] Alan Mutka and Zdenko Kovacic “A Leg-wheel robot based approach to the solution of
flipper-track robot kinematics”, IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 28-
30 September, 2011, USA.
[5] Oxygen concentrator -Direct web search on google.com
[6] Safety balloon-Direct web search on google.com
[7] Camera - Direct web search on google.com
[8] J. Burke and R.R.Murphy, “Human-robot interaction in USAR technical search: Two heads
are better than one,”in Proc.IEEE Int. Workshop ROMAN, Kurashiki, Japan, 2004, pp. 307-
312.
[9] J. Casper and R. R. Murphy, “Human-robot interactions during the robot assisted urban
search and rescue response at the world trade center,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B,
Cybern., Vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 367–385, Jun. 2003.
[10] R. R. Murphy, “Activities of the rescue robots at the World Trade Center from 11–21
September 2001,” in Proc. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., 2004, pp. 50–61.

20
CHAPTER 7

BASE PAPER

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BOREWELL RESCUE ROBOT


USING LAB VIEW PROJECT REFERENCE NO.: 38S1474

COLLEGE : VIDYA VIKAS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND


TECHNOLOGY, MYSURU
BRANCH : ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
GUIDE : DR. BINDU A THOMAS PROFESSOR AND HEAD OF THE DEPT
STUDENTS : MS. MANJARI M V MS. MEGAHANA H.S MR. VIJAY
KUMAR M MR. RAJESHA C

Abstract : Bore well accidents are common due to uncovered openings of bore well. It is
very difficult and risky to rescue the trapped children. A small delay in the rescue can cost the
child his or her life. Lifting the child out of the narrow hole of the bore well is not easy. The
child who has suffered the trauma of the fall is confined to a small area where with the passage
of time, the supply of oxygen reduces. The main objective of this project is to design and
construct a portable robot which is cost effective, quick in action and accurate. This robot is
also capable of performing life saving action like supplying oxygen. The Bore well Rescue
Robot is capable of moving inside the well and performs operations according to the user
commands. The proposed model is designed to provide the child with two level of safety
achieved by using robotic arms at the top and safety airbag at the bottom. This arrangement
ensures that the child does not slip further deep during the rescue operation. The robot is
operated through personal computer according to the observations made continuously using
CCTV camera. LABVIEW tool is used for programming the controller.
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KEYWORDS: Robotic arms, metallic plates, CCTV camera

1. Background Theory: Children fall in the Borewell due to the carelessness nature of the
people in society. Due to this many children are becoming the victims. The currently
available systems are less effective and costly too. Thus the society is in need of a new
technique which is more efficient and effective. In most cases reported so far, a parallel
hole is dug and then horizontal path is made to reach the child. It is not only a time taking
process, but also risky in various ways. The borewell rescue robot is capable of moving
inside the same borewell where the child has been trapped and performs various actions to
save the child. CCTV camera is used to continuously monitor the child’s condition and also
help to decide the actions which have to be performed by the robot. This robot has a high
power LED which acts as a light source since light intensity inside the hole will be less.
The advancement in the field of automation along with the mechanical design has a great
impact on the society. This project includes series of process development from hand
drawn sketches to computer generated design.The modern equipments are implemented for
various parts of the robot, since the robot performs a life rescuing activity. The light weight
servomotors are implemented for the robot’s operations. A safety airbag is introduced in
order to prevent the further falling down of child during rescue operation. A wide range
CCTV camera is placed to find the child’s position. An additional robotic arm system is
included for the perfect positioning. Borewell rescue Robot is a human controlled
computerized Robotic system embedded with additional safety devices.
2. Objectives : The main objective of the project is to rescue the children who have fallen
inside the Borewell with the help of robotic arms and safety airbag with minimal time. CCTV
camera plays a very important role of continuous monitoring of the child’s position. The
myDAQ which is the controlling device located at the ground level controls all the actions of
the robot. The Borewell Rescue Robot can replace the currently available techniques.
The objectives of this project include 1. Manually monitoring the child with the help of camera
and controlling unit of robot. 2. Communicating with the robot by sending appropriate
commands to it and activate the suitable motors.

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3. Length of the rope can be determined roughly with the help of IR sensors. Once the robot
has reached proximity of child, it is stopped immediately and is given the commands by the
controlling device to perform the closing of the robotic arms.

4. Oxygen supply :is activated immediately to overcome its scarcity and entire arrangement is
pulled up.

3. Methodology The entire system is manually controlled by the user. The functional block
diagram of Borewell Rescue Robot is as shown in Figure 1. The CCTV camera is used for
continuous monitoring and records each and every action of the child and display can be
observed on monitor.
The fully computerized control unit controls the camera and acquires the images that have been
captured with the help of CCTV camera. With the help of this, the child’s position can be
inferred. The ground control unit comprises of air compressor unit which is used to supply air
to the safety air bag to provide a platform for the child. The video signals received are analyzed
by the user and in turn sends the suitable commands to the robot. These command signals are
then passed on to the myDAQ for further actions to take place. The metallic plate can be
rotated, clamped and rod is inserted inside the gap found with the airbag tied at its one end.
Finally the air is blown into the airbag to form a horizontal platform. It is ensured that the child
is provided with the oxygen supply. To implement the prototype, 4 DC motor and 2
servomotors are used to achieve the robotic movements and ensured that the child has been
held safely in the robot’s hand. Once this is ensured the entire arrangement is pulled up using
pulley arrangement.
The design of the robot basically consists of three metallic discs as shown in the .The upper
metallic disc has slightly more diameter about 14 inches greater when compared to the other
two discs forming a lid at the opening of the Borewell. Usually the Borewell diameter varies
from 8 to 12 inches. The first and the second discs are interconnected via the rope. The second
metallic disc has a diameter of 8 inches and the third disc of 6 inches. The robot is designed in
a conical shape ensuring that while moving inside the well it will not collide with the edges of
the well which may hamper the rescue operations. A number of components are used
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to achieve and control various actions of the Robot. The various hardware components used
are CCTV Camera, Oxygen Supply Unit, Servomotor, Motor Driver Circuit, DC Motor, Pulley,
Safety Airbag and Robotic Arms.

4. Result and Conclusion The proposed prototype performs the rescuing actions more
precisely in very limited time. Usage of robotic arms ensures the rescuing action in both
conditions such as when the child has been struck in between or at the bottom of the well. The
inclusion of metallic plates has been proposed to provide an additional support and ensure the
complete safety of the child. The robot is also capable of performing life saving actions like
supplying oxygen.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Vol. 4, Issue 5, May 2015

Pipeline Inspection and Borewell Rescue Robot

ABSTRACT:
The aim of this proposed system is to give an innovative concept to handle the bore well rescue
operations without human intervention and to inspect any type of leakage in the pipe. Normal
operation of child rescue is done by using big machines with large manpower involvement. It
takes more time to rescue a child from the bore well and to check any kind of irregularities in
pipe. The three finger mechanisms are employed in this design to go inside the pipe. The three
finger mechanism is circumferentially and symmetrically spaced out 120o apart. The robot is
made adaptive so that it can adjust its three finger mechanism according to the pipeline
dimensions. This structural design makes it possible to have the adaptation to the diameter of
pipe and to have adjustable attractive force towards the walls of pipe. In this proposed system,
the condition of trapped child is captured with USB Camera and monitored on laptop. LM-35
Temperature Sensor is interfaced with Atmega 16 microcontroller to sense the temperature
inside the bore well and to display it on terminal display on laptop. The robot structure consists
of power supply, development board of atmega 16 and gear motors. Adding a claw or gripper
was the initial hurdle for which additional power supply and DC gear motor were needed. The
proposed system is intended to reduce the risk involved during the child rescue operation by
analysing the situation and also to provide an option detect any leakage inside the pipe.

KEYWORDS: Bore well rescue robot, Life savoir robot, Child trapped inside borehole

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1. INTRODUCTION

To improve security and efficiency of piping networks in industrial units, continuous


inspection, maintenance , cleaning and repairing of pipelines are strongly demanded because
due to aging problems, a lot of troubles like corrosion, cracks and mechanical damages are
possible in pipes [1]. These operations are quite expensive, so robots prove an efficient solution
in this situation. A robot is an intelligent, re-programmable and multifunctional manipulator
designed to work in inaccessible environment to do variety of tasks which are laborious,
threatened and risky [three]. Along with pipeline inspection, the concept of rescuing the trapped
child from the borehole is also implemented in the robot design. Since water level is decreasing
day by day so more people put ever increasing demands on limited supplies [2]. To fulfill the
needs, bore wells are constructed, but these are usually left uncovered. Many innocent children
without noticing the hole have trapped and lost their lives

In normal rescue operation, a parallel pit is dug deep to achieve the child and adjacent holes
are made to the walls of bore well. A common method used to find the depth of child is the
use of rope [3].

The injuries during and throughout the rescue operation also leads to the death of child. The
lack of oxygen inside the deep hole makes it impossible for the child to survive for long time
.Hence this operation proves very difficult, risky and time consumption.
As we have made survey over Maharashtra & found .In Haryana three children’s fell into bore
well & only 1 was alive. In Jaipur on 7th Jan, 2014 a child of age three years recovered alive
but died in hospital. Also found that in Bhopal, Gurgaon, Tamil Nadu, Dheera Village child’s
fell into bore well & were not recovered alive .As per the survey we found that the ratio of dead
and alive children is 15:1. This shows that frequency of those trapped children in bore well has
increased who get died in the hole due to insufficient amount of oxygen or injuries throughout
the whole process. The alternative solution to this problem is the use of robotic systems which
can move down the pipe and bring the subjected body out of it properly and safely. This will
take lesser time than the normal operation. This work is aimed towards the construction and
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designing of a robotic system to work in borehole rescue operations and to detect faults inside
the pipeline. The robot has the arm at its front to pick and place the objects. It has camera that
is interfaced with laptop for the visual display. The motion of the robot is controlled through a
keypad of a laptop and also the temperature inside the pipe sensed by the robot is monitored
outside on the display of laptop. The proposed system is intended to reduce the risk involved
during the child rescue operation by analysing the situation and also to provide an option detect
any leakage inside the pipe.

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

As the proposed system is being inspired by in-pipe inspection robot mechanism, some
modifications are required that enable the robot to be used for child rescue operations from the
borehole

OBJECTIVES: Following are the aims and objectives of the proposed design: 1. To make an
adaptive robotic design having three finger mechanism cylindrical structure so as to move
smoothly through the bore well 2. Add gripper or claw to it which can contract and expand
according to necessity and can grasp the target inside the pipe. 3. To interface it with the
controller unit, sensor unit and display unit and camera is mounted over it. Also laptop is
interfaced for visual display. 4. Software implementation. To control the whole system with
keypad and to bring the target out of the pipe safely
Robotic Unit This unit comprises of 12V power supply, dc motors. The PC has been interfaced
to the microcontroller I/O pins through serial communication. When any key is pressed that
particular port is supplied with high logic. The microcontroller always monitors these key in
real time (i.e. in continuous mode). Also four dc motors are used for performing the robotic
action. One motor is for moving the robot up and down, three motors for the
contracting/expanding of the gripper.

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Controller Unit This unit comprises of ATMEGA 16 microcontroller. This is RISC (Reduced
Instruction Set Computing) based microcontroller having analog input channels, analog
comparators and additional timer circuits. The microcontroller stores the information captured
by the robot and display it.
The temperature and CO2 percentage sensed by the robot is firstly stored in microcontroller
and then get displayed on terminal. The video captured by the USB camera is displayed on
laptop.

Sensing Unit The unit consists of LM-three5 temperature sensor for sensing the temperature
inside the pipeline having range from 55o C to +150o C. It is an integrated circuit sensor that
can be used to measure temperature with an electrical output proportional to the temperature..
It is suitable for remote applications. Ii has very low self heating. The CO2 sensing unit consist
MG811 sensor that it used to detect the CO2 percentage inside the pipeline the detection range
is 0 to10000ppm.

Display Unit The temperature sensed by the robot is displayed on the terminal of laptop. Also
the video captured by the USB camera is monitored on the laptop which gives the insight view
of the borehole to perceive the location and position of the child and also able to detect any
fault inside the pipeline.
METHODOLOGY The robot will perform the following steps for performing the task:
1. The robot firstly goes down the pipe with by adjusting its three finger mechanism according
to the dimensions. It is controlled by the operator using keypad of laptop
2. The video camera mounted on it gives the insight view of the position and location of the
target. This video will be monitored on laptop.
3. The robot then grasps the target by contracting or expanding its gripper according to the
requirement.
4. Temperature sensing is also done by the robot which is monitored on terminal display
5. The robot holds the target tightly and brings it out of the pipe safely.
This whole method is lesser time consumptive and risky than the normal operation.

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CONCLUSIONS

In last 10 years, a lot of lives have been lost due to falling in the bore well because it involves
digging a pit beside a bore well which is very time consuming. Small objects having weight
200-300 grams was put inside the, pipe.The robot moved inside the vertical pipe and controlled,
by the operator using keypad .Then it perceived the target which was viewed on laptop. Then
according to the instructions it brought that object with the help of gripper safely out of it.
Hence this concept is really applicable in pipe line inspection and borehole rescue operations
and can save many innocent lives with safety and low risk.

FUTURE SCOPE

The proposed system can be further improved by adding or modifying By following features:
1. An additional feature of air bag can be used to provide support, underneath of the child.
2. Oxygen sensor & Oxygen supplier can be installed.
3. Smoke sensor can be added to sense the dangerous Gases concentration inside the pipe.
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