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G  lossary

Anhui (Wan) 安徽(皖)


annei rangwai (domestic pacification before external war) 安内攘外
annei weiyou rangwai, tongyi weiyou kangri (only resistance 安内惟有攘外
against foreign aggression could achieve domestic pacification, 统一才能抗日
and only resistance against Japan could lead China to unity)
antu zhongqian (consciousness of being attached to one's native 安土重迁
land and unwilling to leave it)

Bai Chongxi (Jiansheng), or Pai Chung-hsi (Ch'ung-hsi) 白崇禧(健生)


baihua (Cantonese) 白话
Baoding 保定
Baoding bang, or Baiding pai (The Baoding Group) 保定帮,保定派
Baoding junguan xuexiao (The Baoding Military Academy) 保定军官学校
baojing anmin (protection of the area and pacification of 保境安民
residents)
beifa (The Northern Expedition) 北伐
Beihai 北海
Beijing (Beiping) 北京
Beiliu 北流
beishang kangri (march northwards to resist Japan) 北上抗日
Beiyang 北洋
bi-Jiang kangri (forcing Jiang to resist Japan) 逼蒋抗日
bianqian huiyi (The Disarmament and Rehabilitation 编遣会议
Conference)
Bie Tingfang 别廷芳
bingmin heyi (union of soldiers and people) 兵民合一
bingnong zhengce (union of soldiers and peasants policy) 兵农政策
Bose 百色
businiao (phoenix) 不死鸟

Chahar 察哈尔
Cai E 蔡谔
Cai Tingkai 蔡铤锴
cangchu jigu (keeping grains in a storehouse) 仓储积谷
chaxu geju (Chinese social structure) 差序格局
Changsha 长沙
Chaoran bao 超然报
Chaozhou 潮州
Chen bao (Morning News) 晨报
Chen Cheng 陈诚
Chen Cungong 陈存恭
Chen Gongbo, or Ch'en Kung-po 陈公博

1
Chen Jitang, or Chen Chitang 陈济棠
Chen Jiongming 陈炯明
Chen Lifu 陈立夫
Chen Liangzuo 陈良佐
Chen Mingshu 陈铭枢
Chen Xiaowei 陈孝威
Chen Xiong 陈雄
Cheng Qian 程潜
Cheng Siyuan 程思远
Cheng Shufen 程树芬
chijiu zhan (protracted warfare) 持久战
Chuan-Gui-Hong xieding (“The Sichuan, Guangxi and the Red “川桂红协定”或
Army Agreement”) “红桂川协定”

Da Gong Bao (Ta-Kung Pao) 大公报


da Guangxi zhuyi, or Ta Kuang-hsi chu-i (greater Guangxi-ism, 大广西主义
or greater Kwangsi-ism)
Dai Li 戴笠
Dalian 大连
Dazhong ribao 大众日报
dang daibiao (Party Representative) 党代表
danghua (partification) 党化
dangtong (Party Legitimacy or Orthodox) 党统
dangzheng (intraparty conflicts) 党争
dangzhi (Party Rule) 党治
dao-Jiang kangri(overthrowing Jiang and resisting Japan) 倒蒋抗日
De'an 德安
Deng Benyin 邓本殷
Deng Yanda 邓演达
Dian (Yunnan) 滇(云南)
dier fangmianjun (the Second Front Army) 第二方面军
dier guxiang (the second homeland) 第二故乡
difang (region, locality) 地方
difang shishen (local gentry) 地方士绅
difang yishi (regional identity, or provincialism) 地方意识
difang zizhi (regional self-government) 地方自治
disi fangmianjun (the Fourth Front Army) 第四方面军
diyi fangmianjun (the First Front Army) 第一方面军
dingguijun (the Guangxi Pacification Army) 定桂军
dinggui taozei lianjun (the Guangxi Pacification and Bandit 定桂讨贼联军
Suppression Joint Army)
dingzu ersan (the three legs of a tripot) 鼎足而三
Doihara Kenji 土肥原贤二
Domei(Agenct) 同盟社
Dongbeijun (The Northeast Troops) 东北军

2
Dongfang zazhi (The Eastern Miscellany) 东方杂志
dongli (dynamism, driving force, motive force) 动力
dongzheng (the Eastern Expedition) 东征
duban (Military Governor) 督办
duli (autonomy, or independence) 独立
Duli pinglun (The Independent Critic) 独立评论
Duan Qirui 段祺瑞

E (Hubei) 鄂(湖北)
E-ren zhi-E (Hubei for the Hubei People) 鄂人治鄂
e shili (evil force) 恶势力
Eddy, Sherwood 艾迪

fatong (orthodox legitimacy) 法统


fan di (anti-imperialism) 反帝
fan geming (counter-revolution) 反革命
fan-Jiang kangri (opposing Jiang and resisting Japan) 反蒋抗日
fan-Jiang lianmeng (the anti-Jiang coalitions) 反蒋联盟
Fan Shisheng 范石生
Fang Zhenwu 方振武
feichang huiyi (the Special Congress of the GMD) 非常会议
feijun (the Flying Army) 飞军
Fei Xiaotong (Fei Hsiao Tung) 费孝通
fenzhi hezuo(cooperation between separated governments) 分治合作
Feng Huang 冯璜
Feng Yuxiang 冯玉祥
fu (prefecture) 府
fuguo qiangbing (enrich the state and strengthen the military) 富国强兵
Fujian, or Fukien 福建
Fujianguo (Fujian Nation) 福建国
Fujian renmin zhengfu (The People's Government of Fujian) 福建人民政府
Fujian shibian (the Fujian Rebellion) 福建事变
Fu Zuoyi 傅作义

Gaizupai (The Reorganization Faction) 改组派


Gansu 甘肃
gangjun (the Steel Army) 钢军
gonggeng (cropping system by public) 公耕
gongli (universal principles of nature and society, national law) 公理
gongji zhan (offensive warfare) 攻击战
gongnong geming (the proletarian revolution) 工农革命
gongping (fairness) 公平
Gu Weijun (V. K. Wellington Koo) 顾维钧
guanhua (Guilin dialect, i.e. a dialect of the Southwest 官话(桂林官话)
Mandarin which is popular in north Guangxi and Yunnan,

3
Guizhou and Sichuan provinces)
Guanxi 关系
Guang 广
Guangdong (Yue), or Kwangtung 广东(粤)
Guangxi (Gui), or Kwangsi 广西(桂)
Guangxi dingguijun (Guangxi Pacification Army) 广西定桂军
Guangxi gongren jiuguohui (the National Salvation Association 广西工人救国会
of Guangxi Workers)
Guangxi jianshe gangling (Guangxi Reconstruction Program) 广西建设纲领
Gaungxi jianshe yanjiuhui (Guangxi Reconstruction Studies 广西建设研究会
Association)
Guangxi junxiao (Guangxi Military School) 广西军校
Guangxi lujunxiaoxue (Guangxi Military Elementary School) 广西陆军小学
Guangxi lujun sucheng xuexiao (Guangxi Intensive Military 广西陆军速成学校
Training School)
Guangxi mintuan ganbu xuexiao (Guangxi Provincial School 广西民团干部学校
for Militia Cadres)
Guangxi mofan ying (Guangxi Model Battalion) 广西模范营
Guangxi Nanning junxiao (Guangxi Nanning Military School) 广西南宁军校
Guangxi quansheng suijin duban (Commissioner of Guangxi 广西全省绥靖督办
Provincial Pacification Office)
Guangxi taozeijun (Guangxi Bandit Suppression Army) 广西讨贼军
Guangxi tuanti (the Guangxi group) 广西团体
Guangxi wenhuajie jiuguohui (the National Salvation 广西文化界救国会
Association of Guangxi Cultural Circles)
Guangzhou, or Canton 广州
Guangzhou shibian (Guangzhou Incident) 广州事变
guigen (consciousness of return to someone's homeland) 归根
Guilin 桂林
Guiping (Xunzhou) 桂平
Guixi (The Guangxi Clique) 桂系
Guizhou (Qian), or Kweichow 贵州(黔)
Guizhou kangri jiuguojun (the Guizhou Anti-Japanese and 贵州抗日救国军
National Salvation Army)
Guomin gemingjun (the Nationalist Revolutionary Army) 国民革命军
Guominjun (The National People's Army) 国民军
Guomin zhengfu xi'nan zhixingbu (the Southwest Executive 国民政府西南执行部
Committee of the Nationalist Government)
Guo Tingyi 郭廷以
Guowen zhoubao (National News Weekly, or Guowen Weekly) 国闻周报

Han 汉
Han Fuju 韩复榘
hanjian (Chinese traitor) 汉奸
hanjian zhenxian (Chinese Traitors Front) 汉奸阵线
Hankou 汉口

4
Hebei, or Hobei 河北
He Jian 何健
He Long 贺龙
Henan 河南
He Shan 和山
Heshengqiao (Hesheng Bridge) 贺胜桥
He Sijing 何思敬
He-Umetsu, or He-Umetze (Agreement) 何梅协定
He Wu 何武
He Yingqin 何应钦
He Zhuguo 何柱国
Heilongjiang 黑龙江
Heiqi jun (the Black Flag Army) 黑旗军
Hengyang 衡阳
Hirota 广田
Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全
Hong (Xiuquan) - Yang (Xiuqing) 洪(秀全)-杨(秀清)
Hsuchow, or Xuzhou 徐州
Hubei (E) 湖北
Hubei bang, or Hubei pai (the Hubei Faction) 湖北帮(湖北派)
hudang jiuguo (Party Protection and National Salvation) 护党救国
hudang jiuguojun (the Party Protection and National Salvation 护党救国军
Army)
hudang jiuguo zhanzheng (the War of the Party Protection and 护党救国战争
National Salvation)
hufa (the Constitution Protection) 护法
Hufajun (the Constitution Protection Army) 护法军
hufa yundong (the Constitution Protection Movement) 护法运动
hufa zhanzheng (the Constitution Protection War) 护法战争
huguo (the National Protection) 护国
Huguojun (the National Protection Army) 护国军
huguo yundong (the National Protection Movement) 护国运动
huguo zhanzheng (the National Protection War) 护国战争
Hu Hanmin (Zhantang) 胡汉民
Hunan (Xiang) 湖南(湘)
Hu Shi 胡适
Hu Zongduo 胡宗铎
Huananguo (The South China Nation) 华南国
Huang Jilu 黄季陆
Huang Qihan 黄启汉
Huang Qixiang 黄琪翔
Huang Shaohong (Jikuan), or Huang Shaoxiong 黄绍竑(季宽),或黄
绍雄
Huang Xuchu 黄旭初
Huangpu 黄埔

5
Huangpu junxiao (the Huangpu Military Academy) 黄埔军校
huiban (Deputy Governor, or Deputy Commissioner) 会办
huidang (secret society) 会党
huiguan (native-place associations) 会馆

Ji Hongchang 吉鸿昌
Jinan 济南
ji xiaosheng wei dasheng (adding up many small victories to 积小胜为大胜
make a big one)
jiaxiang guan (native, or regional emotion) 家乡观
jianguo dagang (Fundamentals of National Reconstruction) 建国大纲
jianshe Guangxi fuxing Zhongguo (reconstructing Guangxi 建设广西复兴中国
with the end of restoring China)
Jiang Guangnai 蒋光鼐
Jiang Jieshi (Zhongzheng), or Chiang Kai-shek 蒋介石(中正)
Jiang-Gui zhanzheng (the Jiang-Gui War, or the War between 蒋桂战争
the Jiang group and the Guangxi Clique)
Jiangsu, or Kiangsu 江苏
Jiangxi, or Kiangsi 江西
Jiang Zaizhen 蒋再珍
jiaogong (suppression of the Communists) 剿共
jiaotu dikang (the scorched earth resistance) 焦土抵抗
jiaotu kangzhan (the scorched earth resistance) 焦土抗战
Jinxi (the Shanxi Faction, or the Yan Xishan Faction) 晋系
jingguan daibian (to examine the situation carefully in order to 静观待变
wait for change)
jingji guafen (economic dismemberment) 经济瓜分
jiu Guixi (the old Guangxi Clique) 旧桂系
jiuguohui (Federation of the National Salvation Associations) 救国会
Jiuwang qingbao (National Salvation Newsletter) 救亡情报
jiuyiba shibian (the September 18 Incident) 九一八事变
Ju Zheng 居正
juewu (enlightenment) 觉悟
jun (army) 军
junquan (sharing power) 均权
junquan tongzhi (the rule by military force) 军权统治
junwu shanhou duban (military affairs reconstruction 军务善后督办
commissioner)

kangri 抗日
kangri fan-Jiang (resisting Japan and opposing Jiang) 抗日反蒋
kangri jiuguo (resisting Japan for national salvation) 抗日救国
kangri jiuguojun (Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army) 抗日救国军
kangri minzu tongyi zhanxian (the Anti-Japanese National 抗日民族统一战线
United Front)
kangri taoni (resisting Japan and opposing traitors) 抗日讨逆

6
Kang Youwei 康有为
kangzhan (the War of Resistance) 抗战
kao (examination) 考
kejun (guest army) 客军
kuoda huiyi (Enlarged Congress of the Guomindang) 扩大会议
Kwantung (i.e. Kwantung Army) 关东军

Lai Huipeng 赖慧鹏


Lai Gang 赖刚
Lan Tengjiao 蓝腾蛟
Leng Guan (Hu Lin) 冷观(胡霖)
Li-Bai (Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi) 李-白(李宗仁和白
崇禧)
li 里
li (social norms) 理
Li-Bai-Huang tizhi (Li-Bai-Huang Leadership System) 李-白-黄体制
Li Chunchu 李春初
Li Doushan 李斗山
Li Hsiu-ch'eng, or, Li Xiucheng 李秀成
Li-Huang-Bai tizhi (Li-Huang-Bai Leadership System) 李-黄-白体制
Li Jishen (Renchao) 李济深(任潮)
Li Mingrui 李明瑞
Li Pinxian 李品仙
Li Renren 李任仁
Li Shen 李燊
Li Shiyu 李石愚
Li Shouxin 李守信
Li Wenfan 李文范
Li Wenxin 李文信
Li Xinjun 李新俊
lixing (intuitive reason) 理性
Lixiong 力兄
Li Yixuan 李宜煊
Li Zongren (Delin), or Li Tsung-jen, Lee Chong-jen 李宗仁(德邻)
lian-E ronggong (ally with Soviet Russia and admit the 联俄容共
Communists)
liang (tael) 两
liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi, two Guangs) 两广
liangguang shibian (the two Guang Incident, or Rebellion) 两广事变
Liangguang yidong (the two Guang Incident, or Rebellion) 两广异动
Liang Qichao 梁启超
Liang Shuming 梁漱溟
liangxin (conscience) 良心
Liao Lei 廖磊
Lingui 临桂

7
Lin Hu 林虎
liu-E pai (the Students Returned from Russia Faction) 留俄派
Liu Fei (Weizhang) 刘斐(为章)
Liu Shiheng 刘士衡
Liuwan dashan (sixty thousand mountains) 六万大山
Liu Xiang 刘湘
Liuyi shibian (the June 1 Incident) 六一事变
Liuyi yundong (the June 1 Movement) 六一运动
Liu Yongfu 刘永福
Liu Zhongrong 刘仲容
Liu Zhenhuan 刘震寰
Liuzhou 柳州
Longtan 龙潭
Longtan zhanyi (the Longtan Campaign) 龙潭战役
Long Yun 龙云
Longzhou 龙州
Lu Diping 鲁涤平
Lu Daoyuan 鲁道源
Lugouqiao shibian (the Lugouqiao Incident, or the July 7 芦沟桥事变
Incident, or the Marco Polo Bridge Incident)
Lu Huanyan 吕焕炎
lulin (banditry) 绿林
Lu Rongting 陆荣廷
Lu Weiqian 卢蔚乾
Lu Yi 陆怡
Luoyang 洛阳

Ma Junwu 马君武
maqian xiaozu (cat's paw) 马前小卒
Ma Xiaojun 马晓军
Ma Zhanshan 马占山
Manzhouguo 满洲国
Mao Guangxiang 毛光翔
Mao Zedong, or Mao Tse-tung 毛泽东
Meizhou pinlun (Critic Weekly 每周评论
Mengyu shanguan zhuren 梦余山馆主人
Miao Jianqiu 苗剑秋
Minguo ribao (Republican Daily) 民国日报
minquan (people's rights) 民权
minquan tongzhi (the rule by civic rights) 民权统治
minsheng (voice of the people) 民声
minsheng zhuyi (people's livelihood) 民生主义
mintuan (people's militia) 民团
minyi (will of the people) 民意
mu (land unit) 亩

8
Nanchang 南昌
Nanjing, or Nanking 南京
Nanlu (southern Guangdong) 南路
Nanning 南宁
Nanning minguo ribao (Nanning Republican Daily) 南宁民国日报
Nenjiang 嫩江
Ning-Han duili (Nanjing-Wuhan split) 宁汉对立
Ning-Yue duili (Nanjing-Guangdong split) 宁粤对立
ningwei yusui, buwei waquan (rather be a shatterd vessel of 宁为玉碎,不为瓦全
jade than an unbroken piece of pottery)
nongcun jianshe weiyuanhui (Rural Reconstruction 农村建设委员会
Commission)
nonggong geming (the peasant-proletarian revolution) 农工革命
Nuli zhoubao (Endeavour Weekly) 努力周报

Pan Gongzhan 潘公展


Pan Yizhi 潘宜之
Pu Yi 溥仪

qiqi shibian (the July 7 Incident) 七七事变


qi (term) 期
Qian (Guizhou) 黔(贵州)
Qian-Gui lianmeng (Guizhou-Guangxi Alliance) 黔桂联盟
Qian-Gui xieding (Guizhou-Guangxi Agreement) 黔桂协定
Qian Shifu 钱实甫
Qin (the Qin Dynasty) 秦
Qin Lianfang 覃连芳
Qing (the Qing Dynasty) 清
qingdang (party purification) 清党
qinggong (purging the Communists) 清共
Qiu Changwei 邱昌渭
quanguo gejie jiuguohui (Federation of National Salvation 全国各界救国会
Associations)
quanli (assertion of rights) 权利
quanmian zhan (full-scale warfare) 全面战
quanmian zhanshu (full-scale tactic) 全面战争
quanmin geming (national revolution) 全民革命
qunyan (Your Say) 群言

rangwai (resist foreign aggression) 攘外


rangwai annei (resistance against foreign aggression before 攘外安内
domestic pacification)
rangwai bixian annei (domestic pacification before external 攘外必先安内
war)
rangwai caineng annei (only resistance could reach domestic 攘外才能安内

9
pacification)
Rehe 热河
Ren Biming 任毕明
renge (moral personality) 人格
Rikugun Shikan Gakko (Japanese Military School) 日本陆军士官学校
Rongxian 容县
Ruoxi 箬溪

sangang wuchang (the three cardinal guides and the five 三纲五常
constant virtues)
sanmin zhuyi (the Three Principles of the People) 三民主义
sanmin zhuyi geming tongzhihui (the Revolutionary 三民主义革命同志会
Association of Comrades of the Three Principles of the People)
sanwei yiti (Three-in-One) 三位一体
sanyu zhengce (policy of three incorporations) 三寓政策
sanzi zhengce (policy of three-fold self-reliance) 三自政策
Shandong, or Shantung 山东
shanhou huiyi (Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Conference) 善后会议
Shanhaiguan, or Shanhaikwan 山海关
Shanxi, or Shansi 山西
Shantou 汕头
Shaanxi, or Shaansi 陕西
Shanghai 上海
Shen Baofan 申保藩
Shen Hongying 沈鸿英
Shen Junru 沈钧儒
sheng (province) 省
shengchan dazhong (the productive masses) 生产大众
Shengchandang (The Productive Party) 生产党
shengcun (existence) 生存
shengzhang (provincial chief administrator, or governor) 省长
shengzhuxi (Chairman of the provincial government) 省主席
shi (army division) 师
Shibao (The Times) 时报
shichu youming (dispatch troops with just cause) 师出有名
Shih Ta-k'ai, or Shi Dakai 石达开
shiming gan (sense of mission) 使命感
shinian shengju, shinian jiaoxun (takes ten years to add 十年生聚,十年教训
production and to build up forces, and takes ten years to
educate and train the masses)
Shishi xinbao (China Times) 时事新报
shiyu yuanwei (things go contrary to one's wishes) 事与愿违
shizhang (Divisional Commander) 师长
shoutu kangzhan (Defence and Resistance) 守土抗战
sishu (private school) 私塾

10
sixiao (lujun xiaoxue, lujun yubei xuexiao, lujun zhongxue, 四校(陆军小学、陆
Baoding junguan xuexiao [the Elementary Military School, the 军预备学校、陆军中
Army Preparatory School, the Middle Military School and 学、保定军官学校)
Baoding Military Academy])
Songhu 凇沪
Song Ziwen (T. V. Soong) 宋子文
suqing gongfei (the suppression of the Communist bandits) 肃清共匪
Suiyuan 绥远
Sun Chuanfang 孙传芳
Sun Ke 孙科
Sun Wen xueshuo (Sun Yatsenism) 孙文学说
Sun Wen zhuyi (Sun Yatsenism) 孙文主义
Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen, Sun Wen) 孙中山(孙逸仙,孙
文)

Taierzhuang, or Taierchuang 台儿庄


Taiping (i.e. the Taiping Rebellion) 太平天国
Taiwan 台湾
Tan Yankai 谭延闿
Tang Degang (Tong, Te-kong) 唐德刚
Tanggu 塘沽
Tang Jiyao 唐继尧
Tang Shengzhi 唐生智
Tao Jun 陶钧
taozeijun (Bandit Suppression Army) 讨贼军
tehuo (special goods - opium) 特货
teweihui (special committee) 特委会
tianfu (land taxes) 田赋
Tianjin, or Tienjin 天津
Tanaka Giichi 田中义一
tiejun (the Ironside) 铁军
tiexue zhengce (iron and blood policy) 铁血政策
Tongguan 潼关
Tongmenghui (Revolutionary Alliance) 同盟会
tongxiang guannian (local particularism) 同乡观念
tongxianghui (regional fellows association) 同乡会
tongyi caineng kangri (national unity before resistance) 统一才能抗日
Tongzixi (the Tongzi Faction, Guizhou) 桐梓系(贵州)
tuhao lieshen (local tyrants and evil gentry) 土豪劣绅
tu huangdi (local lord) 土皇帝
tuanti (group) 团体
tuifan ducai (downfall of dictatorship) 推翻独裁
tuifan ducai tongzhi (overthrow of dictatorship politics) 推翻独裁统治
tuirang qiuhe (making concessions and suing Japan for peace) 退让求和
tuoxie zhengce (concession policy towards Japan) 妥协政策

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Wang Boqun 王伯群
Wang Gongdu 王公度
wangguo (loss of country) 亡国
Wang Jialie 王家烈
Wangjiapu 王家铺
Wang Jingwei (Zhaoming) 汪精卫(兆铭)
Wang Juren 王菊人
Wang Tianpei 王天培
Wang Yingyu 王应榆
weili (power alone) 惟力
Wei Ruilin 韦瑞霖
weiwu buneng qu (not to be subdued by force) 威武不能屈
Wei Yongcheng 韦永成
wenhua jianshe (cultural reconstruction) 文化建设
Weng Zhaoyuan 翁照垣
Wokou (Japanese pirates) 倭寇
Wuhan 武汉
Wu Peifu 吴佩孚
wusheng liangjun zongsiling (Commander-in-Chief of Ally of 五省联军总司令
Five Provinces)
Wu Tiecheng 吴铁城
wuye youmin (unemployed vagrants) 无业游民
Wuzhou 梧州

Xi'an shibian (the Xi'an Incident) 西安事变


Xibeijun (the Northwest Troops) 西北军
Ximenghui (the Sacrifice League) 牺盟会
xi'nan guanhua (the Southwest Mandarin) 西南官话
xi'nan liang jiguan (the two southwest organizations) 西南两机关
xi'nan shibian (the Southwest Incident) 西南事变
xi'nan yidong (the Southwest Revolt) 西南异动
Xishan huiyi pai (the Western Hill Faction) 西山会议派
xizheng (the Western Expedition) 西征
Xiamen (Amoy) 厦门
Xia Wei 夏威
xian (county) 县
Xiang (Hunan) 湘(湖南)
xiangtu qing (native, or regional emotion) 乡土情
xiangtu wenhua (native, or regional culture) 乡土文化
xiangtu yishi (regional identity) 乡土意识
Xiao Focheng 萧佛成
xiaozhang (principal) 校长
Xie Cangsheng 谢苍生
Xie Fang 解方

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Xie Hegeng 谢和赓
xin Guixi (the New Guangxi Clique) 新桂系
xinzheng (new policies, new administration) 新政
xing xinzheng yong xinren (carry out new policies and use 行新政用新人
young officers)
xiongdi xiyuqiang, waiyu qiwu (Brothers quarreling at home 兄弟阋于墙,外御其
join forces against attacks from without) 侮
Xiong Kewu 熊克武
Xiong Shihui 熊式辉
xiucai (the graduate of the first level of examination - i.e. 秀才
Prefecture - in the imperial examination system from Tang to
Qing Dynasties)
Xu Qiming 徐启明
Xu Xiangqian 徐向前
xunkan (thrice-monthly) 旬刊
xunzheng (the tutelage) 训政
Xunzhou 浔州

Yahara Kenkichi 矢原谦吉


Yan'an 延安
Yan Jing 严敬
Yan Xishan 阎锡山
Yanxi (the Yan Xishan Faction) 阎系
Yan Yangchu 晏阳初
Yang Hucheng 杨虎城
Yang Tenghui 杨腾辉
Yang Ximin 杨希闵
Yang Yongtai 杨永泰
Yangzi, or Yangtse, Yangtze (River) 杨子(江)
Ye Kaixin 叶开鑫
Ye Qi 叶琪
Ye Ting 叶挺
Yi 彝
yigui zhigui (using natives of Guangxi to replace others) 以桂制桂
yihua miehua (using Chinese to eliminate the Chinese) 以华灭华
yi kongjian huan shijian (trading space for time) 以空间换时间
yishi erniao (killing two birds with one stone) 一石二鸟
Yin Chenggang 尹成纲
Yin Rugeng, or Yin Ju-keng 殷汝耕
yindan zhengce (silver bullets bribery policy) 银弹政策
yinggan (act recklessly) 硬干
Yongfu 永福
Yongsheng zhoukan (Immortal Weekly) 永生周刊
You Guocai 犹国才
youhuan yishi (consciousness of warrying adversity out) 忧患意识

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youji zhan (guerrilla warfare) 游击战
youmin (vagrant) 游民
youmin fenzi (lumpen proletariat) 游民份子
youyong (disbanded soldiers) 游勇
yubing yutuan (militia training of able-bodied men to produce 寓兵于团
soldiers)
Yu Hanmou 余汉谋
yujiang yuxue (military training of students to produce officers) 寓将于学
Yulin 玉林
yumu yuzheng (troop raising through conscription) 寓募于征
Yu Zuobai 俞作柏
Yu Zuoyu 俞作豫
yuan (Chinese dollar) 圆(元)
Yuan Shikai, or Yuan Shik-kai 袁世凯
Yue (Guangdong) 粤(广东)
Yue-Gui lianmeng (Guangdong-Guangxi Alliance) 粤桂联盟
Yue-Gui zhanzheng (Guangdong-Guangxi War) 粤桂战争
yuejun diyishi (the 1st Division of the Guangdong Army) 粤军第一师
yueren zhiyue (Guangdong for the Guangdong people) 粤人治粤
Yuexi (the Guangdong Faction) 粤系
yundong zhan (mobile warfare) 运动战
Yun Guangying 云广英
Yunnan (Dian) 云南(滇)

zapaijun (inferior brand armies) 杂牌军


Zhang Bojun 章伯钧
Zhang Dihai 张涤海
Zhang Dingfan (Boxuan) 张定藩(伯璇)
Zhang Fakui (Xianghua) 张发奎(向华)
Zhang-Guijun (Zhang Fakui-the Guangxi Clique Joint Army) 张-桂军
Zhang Guotao 张国焘
Zhang-Huang shibian (the Zhang-Huang Incident or Zhang- 张-黄事变
Huang Rebellion)
Zhang Junmai 张君劢
Zhang Renmin 张任民
Zhang Wenhong 张文鸿
Zhang Xueliang 张学良
Zhang Yunyi 张云逸
Zhang Zongchang 张宗昌
Zhang Zuolin 张作霖
Zhao Biyun 赵碧云
Zhao Hengti 赵恒惕
Zhejiang 浙江
zhendi zhan (positional warfare) 阵地战
Zheng Jianlu 郑建庐

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zhengtong (sole legitimacy) 正统
Zhengxuexi (the Political Studies Faction) 政学系
zhengyi (justice) 正义
zhengzhi fenhui (Branch Political Council) 政治分会
zhengzhi huiyi (political conference) 政治会议
Zhili 直隶
Zhi-Lu lianjun (Zhili-Shandong Joint Army) 直鲁联军
zhiyi xingnan (knowing easily but doing with difficulty) 知易行难
Zhongguo Guomindang hudang jiuguo qiannian juntuan (the 中国国民党护党救国
Party Protection and National Salvation Young Army Corp of 青年军团
the Chinese Nationalist Party)
Zhongguo Guomindang geming qingnian juntuan (the 中国国民党革命青年
Revolutionary Young Army Corp of the Chinese Nationalist 军团
Party)
Zhongguo Guomindang geming tongzhihui (the Revolutionary 中国国民党革命同志
Association of Comrades of the Chinese Nationalist Party) 会
Zhonghua minzu geming tongmeng (the Chinese National 中华民族革命同盟
Revolutionary Coalition)
Zhonghua zhiye jiaoyushe (the Chinese Professional Education 中华职业教育社
Association)
zhongyang (the Centre) 中央
zhongyang jun (the Central Army) 中央军
zhongyang zhixing weiyuanhui xi'nan zhixingbu (Southwest 中央执行委员会西南
Executive Branch of the Central Executive Committee) 执行部
zhongyong (golden mean) 中庸
Zhong Zupei 钟祖培
Zhou Dai 周玳
Zhou Enlai 周恩来
Zhou Xicheng 周西成
Zhu De 朱德
Zhu Dexin 朱德新
Zhu Foding 朱佛定
Zhu Hongyuan (Chu Hongyuan) 朱浤源
Zhujiang liuyu geming (the Pearl River Valley Revolution) 珠江流域革命
zicun (self-existence) 自存
zidong (individual initiative) 自动
zigu (self-strength) 自固
zijue (self-awareness) 自觉
zili gensheng (self-reliance) 自力更生
ziwei (self-defence) 自卫
zizhijun (self-governing army) 自治军
zizhu (autonomy) 自主
zong canmouzhang (Chief of General Staff) 总参谋长
zong canyi (Chief Advisor) 总参议
zongfa zhidu (patriarchal clan system) 宗法制度

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zongsiling (Commander-in-Chief) 总司令
Zou Lu 邹鲁
zuigao yuanze (the uppermost principle) 最高原则
zuzong (forebear) 祖宗

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