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Noise Generation in Dynamic Wireless Power

Transfer
Alberto Delgado
National University of Colombia at Bogota
Email: adelgado@ieee.org

Abstract — In this paper a basic mathematical model is


introduced to study noise generation in a resonant circuit
moving with constant velocity along a road with evenly
distributed coils each one excited at the resonance frequency.
The induced current can be contaminated by noise generated
when velocity of the vehicle, coils period, or spread of the
coupling coefficient are changed; the model is illustrated with
simulations.
Index Terms — coupling coefficient, dynamic wireless power
transfer, magnetic field, resonant circuit.
I. INTRODUCTION
Fig. 1. Dynamic magnetic coupling: a moving resonant circuit (receiver)

T
with constant velocity v along a road with embedded coils
he coupling coefficient k for magnetically coupled (transmitters) each one excited with a sinusoidal current.
circuits, in traditional circuit theory textbooks [1, 2], is
just a constant parameter that relates self-inductances to In this application, the coupling coefficient follows the
the mutual inductance. definition,
On the other hand, recently there has been a growing మ
݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݇௝ ݁ ିఏೕ ሺ௩Ǥ௧ି௫ೕ ሻ ሺͳሻ
interest in Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT) for
electric vehicles. In this application of magnetically coupled
circuits, transmitting coils are embedded under the road and Where, N is the total number of coils, kj is the maximum value
the receiving coil is placed in the electric vehicle. Two of coupling coefficient j, θj is the spread of coupling
advantages result with this approach for electric vehicles: coefficient j, v electric vehicle velocity [m/s], and xj location
longer range and smaller batteries [3-4]. The resonant circuit of coil j along the road [m]; index j takes values from 1 to N.
in the electric vehicle is moving in relation with the coils on
the ground, this action produces a time varying coupling The mesh equation for the resonant circuit depicted in Fig.1
coefficient k(t). The model proposed here shows that three is given by,
parameters can introduce noise to the induced resonant ே
݀
current, vehicle velocity, distance between coils, and spread ቈ෍ ݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ඥ‫ܮ‬௝௝ ‫݅ܮ‬௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ ‫݅ܮ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ቉
of the coupling coefficient. ݀‫ݐ‬ ௝ୀଵ
The paper is organized as follows. Section two presents the ͳ ௧
ൌ ܴ݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ න ݅ሺ߬ሻ݀߬ ሺʹሻ
basic mathematical model for the moving resonant circuit ‫ ܥ‬଴
with a forcing function that depends on the excitation current Taking the derivative,
and the coupling coefficient, including the first and second
order time derivatives, for all coils. Simulations are ே ‫ܮ‬௝௝ ݀݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
introduced in section three to illustrate this basic ෍ ඨ ቈ ݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ቉ 
mathematical model and explain noise generation when ௝ୀଵ ‫ܮ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ ݐ‬௝
vehicle velocity, coils period, and spread of the coupling ݀݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܴ ͳ ௧
coefficient are changed. Finally, conclusions are formulated ൌ ൅ ݅൅ න ݅ሺ߬ሻ݀߬ ሺ͵ሻ
݀‫ݐ‬ ‫ܮ‬ ‫ ܥܮ‬଴
in section five.
Removing the integral by differentiating (3) with respect to
II. RESONANT CIRCUIT time,
Fig. 1 illustrates a moving electric vehicle, with a resonant
circuit, moving with constant velocity v along a road with
embedded coils, each one excited by a sinusoidal current.

978-1-4673-9811-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


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velocity, coils period, and spread of the coupling coefficient.
ே ‫ܮ‬௝௝ ݀݇௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
෍ ඨ ቈ ݅ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ The following parameters are fixed during the simulations:
௝ୀଵ ‫ܮ‬ ݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ௝ N = 100, I = 1.0 A, L = 1.0 H, C = 0.4 F, R = 0.1 Ω, Ljj = 1.0
݀݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀݅௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ H, kj = 1.0; initial conditions are zero for the resonant circuit
൅ʹ ൅ ݇ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ቉  current and its time derivative. Five cases are studied for
݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ௝
݀݅ ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܴ ݀݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ͳ different configurations of the three parameters {v, xj, θj} as
ൌ ൅ ൅ ݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሺͶሻ follows: {1.0, T0, 0.1}, {1.0, T0/2, 2.0}, {1.0, T0, 2.0}, {1.0,
݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ‫ݐ݀ ܮ‬ ‫ܥܮ‬ 2T0, 2.0}, {3.0, T0, 2.0}.
Finally, the second order differential equation for the resonant A. Case 1: v = 1.0, xj = j.T0, θ j = 0.1; j = 1, 2,.. ,N.
circuit,
݀݅ ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܴ ݀݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ͳ The vehicle velocity is constant, coils are evenly spaced along
൅ ൅ ݅ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ  ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሺͷሻ
݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ‫ݐ݀ ܮ‬ ‫ܥܮ‬ the road with a period equal to the circuit resonant period (6),
and the spread of the coupling coefficients is wide (low θ). In
With resonance frequency and period, Fig. 2, after a transient, the coupling coefficient is constant as
detected by the resonant circuit. Fig. 3 depicts the bounded
ͳ ʹߨ
߱଴ ൌ ܶ଴ ൌ ሺ͸ሻ phase plane of the induced current and its time derivative,
ξ‫ܥܮ‬ ߱଴ noise is negligible. It is important to keep in mind that coils
on the road are excited by a sinusoidal source (8) at the
The excitation (7) is a function of the current, the coupling resonant frequency (6).
coefficient, and the time derivatives, up to second order, for
every coil.
ே ‫ܮ‬௝௝ ݀݇௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ  ෍ ඨ ቈ ݅ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
௝ୀଵ ‫ܮ‬ ݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ௝
݀݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀݅௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
൅ʹ ൅ ݇ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ቉ሺ͹ሻ
݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ݐ‬ ݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ ௝

The input and its time derivatives for coil j are (8-10),

݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܫ‬Ǥ ܿ‫ݐ߱ݏ݋‬ሺͺሻ

݀݅௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
ൌ െ‫߱ܫ‬Ǥ ‫ݐ߱݊݅ݏ‬ሺͻሻ
݀‫ݐ‬

݀݅௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ
ൌ െ‫߱ܫ‬ଶ ܿ‫ݐ߱ݏ݋‬ሺͳͲሻ
݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ
Fig. 2. Coupling coefficient when the spread is wide (small θ).
The input frequency, for all coils, is the resonant frequency of
the circuit in the moving vehicle ω = ω0. Also the time
derivatives for the coupling coefficient (1) result in the
expressions (11-12),

݀݇௝ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ మ
ൌ െʹ‫݇ݒ‬௝ ߠ௝ ሺ‫ݒ‬Ǥ ‫ ݐ‬െ ‫ݔ‬௝ ሻ݁ ିఏೕ ሺ௩Ǥ௧ି௫ೕ ሻ ሺͳͳሻ
݀‫ݐ‬

݀݇௝ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ మ
ൌ  ʹ‫݇ݒ‬௝ ߠ௝ ൣʹ‫ߠݒ‬௝ ሺ‫ݒ‬Ǥ ‫ ݐ‬െ ‫ݔ‬௝ ሻଶ െ ͳ൧݁ ିఏೕ ሺ௩Ǥ௧ି௫ೕ ሻ ሺͳʹሻ
݀‫ ݐ‬ଶ

Replacing formulas (1), (8-10), and (11-12) in (7) generate the


excitation f(t) for the second order differential equation (5)
that describes the resonant circuit dynamics, figure 1.

III. SIMULATIONS

In this section, the main goal is to illustrate noise generation, Fig. 3. Phase plane for a wide spread coupling coefficient, noise is
on the induced current of the resonant circuit, due to vehicle negligible.

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B. Case 2: v = 1.0, xj = j.T0/2, θ j = 2.0; j = 1, 2, …, N.

The velocity is the same as before, coils are separated by half


the resonant period, the spread is reduced by increasing
parameter θ. Fig. 4 shows the coupling coefficient oscillating
as perceived by the resonant circuit, there is a short transient.
Fig. 5 depicts the bounded phase plane, the current and its
time derivative have smaller amplitudes, there is noise present
at the beginning of the time response.

Fig. 6. Sharp oscillating coupling coefficient sensed by the resonant circuit.

Fig. 4. After a transient the coupling coefficient, as sensed by the resonant


circuit, oscillates in a small interval.

Fig. 7. Bounded phase plane, the intervals for the current and its time
derivative are lower than case 2.

D. Case 4: v = 1.0, xj = j.2T0, θ j = 2.0; j = 1, 2, …, N.

The coils period is twice the resonant period, velocity and


sensitivity are the same as before. Fig. 8 depicts the sharp
coupling coefficient with increased period sensed by the
resonant circuit. Fig. 9 shows the phase plane with reduced
bounds as expected.

Fig. 5. Bounded phase plane, the intervals for the current and its derivative E. Case 5: v = 3.0, xj = j.T0, θ j = 2.0; j = 1, 2, …, N.
are lower than case 1.
The distance between coils is the resonant period, spread
C. Case 3: v = 1.0, xj = j.T0, θ j = 2.0; j = 1, 2, …, N.
remains the same as before, velocity has increased. Fig. 10
depicts a high frequency sharp coupling coefficient sensed by
Same velocity, coils separated by a distance equal to the
the resonant circuit. Fig. 11 is the phase plane with a long
resonant period (6), similar spread for the coupling
transient and noise due to the increased velocity of the
coefficient. Fig. 6 is the sharp oscillating coupling coefficient
vehicle.
sensed by the vehicle. Fig. 7 depicts the bounded phase plane,
limits are lower than case 2; noise is introduced by the coils
distribution and the spread of the coupling coefficient.

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Fig. 8. Sharp coupling coefficient sensed by the resonant circuit with
Fig. 11. Phase plane, noise is introduced by increasing the vehicle velocity
increased period.
with remaining parameters constant.

IV. CONCLUSIONS
The study of electric circuits with time varying coupling
coefficients is an interesting complement to standard textbook
examples. The topic is important and useful now that novel
engineering applications require alternative approaches to
exploit mutual inductances [3-4].
A mathematical model has been proposed to explain noise
generation in the DWPT system depicted in figure 1. It is clear
that vehicle velocity, coils period, and spread of the coupling
coefficient change the induced current waveform; in
particular, vehicle velocity with short spread in the coupling
coefficient can generate considerable noise, Fig. 11.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author thanks the support of his employer, the National
Fig. 9. Bounded phase plane, limits are reduced due to a higher separation
University of Colombia at Bogota.
between coils. This work made use of the free software package GNU
Octave, and the author is grateful for the support of the Octave
development community.

REFERENCES
[1] R.C. Dorf and J.A. Svoboda, Introduction to Electric Circuits, New
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
[2] W. Hayt, and J. Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit Analysis, McGraw-
Hill, 1993.
[3] D. Kobayashi, T. Imura, and Y. Hori, “Real - Time Coupling
Coefficient Estimation and Maximum Efficiency Control on Dynamic
Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles,” in IEEE PELS
Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power, Daejeon, 2015,
pp. 1-6.
[4] L. Siqi and C.C. Mi, “Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle
Applications,” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in
Power Electronics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 4 – 17, March, 2015.

Fig. 10. High frequency coupling coefficient as detected by the resonant


circuit.

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