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Clare Halcomb


27 October 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My essay will analyze the effects that plastic has on the environment. I want to know more about the
harm plastic has on earth and our oceans. Wildlife are being killed and there are many health risks
caused by plastic. Do we just keep picking up trash? Do we need better recycling systems? Do we stop
plastic production? If so, what resources are best to use instead?

Chandana Banerjee Contributor. “She Found a Way to Make Plastic Waste Useful.” ​Christian Science
Monitor,​ 30 Mar. 2017, p. N.PAG. ​EBSCOhost​,

Christian Science has kept a reputation for being a high-quality , well-run news organization. It is known
to have minimal bias because of its multiple perspectives, and truthful values. The monitor is owned by
a church, but does not promote certain policies or beliefs. The author Chandana Banerjee writes a story
about Medha. The article is credible because the story is written on Medha who is an entrepreneur,
writer, earned a degree in Journalism, Forensic Science, and marketing. The author is also reliable
because she is a journalist, health coach, teacher, award-winning blogger, and an Amazon Best Selling
Author. Chandana writes for newspapers, magazines, and companies in India and across the world.

To use plastic waste, Medha Tadpatrikar partnered with Phadtare so they could experiment with
burning plastic to make eco-friendly fuel. They invented a machine that converts plastic into fuel
without releasing toxic gases. Their goal was to create usable oil rather than crude oil. They collect are
sent plastics that they take care of, and convert into a useable resource.

Located in India with 16, 876 tons of plastic waste, their fuel was found to be a better alternative than
fuels that local villages use. Their fuel was cheaper, eco-friendly, reduces labor, gets rid of plastic waste,
and saves other resources for different types of fuel. They hope to sell their machines to industries and
other cities so that they can manage plastic waste. Other projects Medha Tadpatrikar and Rutra
Phadtare plan to do is to create another machine, but one that turns old plastic into sheets. This creates
another opportunity to be used, and creates jobs for women in villages.

I can use this information in the article to mention that other countries are taking the initiative to
reduce plastics in the environment. In my essay I will be mentioning the ways we can use plastics for
needed resources instead of wasting it.
Dondero, Jeff. ​Throwaway Nation: The Ugly Truth About American Garbage​. , 2019. Internet resource.

The American Library Association​ is the oldest and largest Library Association in the world. It is very
credible because they carry out policies made by the ALA Council, provides contact/feedback, states its
mission on the website, and is up to date. This review article published by the ​American Library
Association ​written by Rick Roche, suggests that the book written by Jeff Dondero should be
recommended for all libraries to carry. It implies that humans are the only species that pollute the earth
in unnatural ways. In this society, many things are being wasted harming the air, land, and waters.

This article persuades readers to take action to work towards help controlling climate change, pollution,
and the decline of natural resources. Our life is more than a nine to five job, and the information about
how plastics change the world should be communicated. I can use this information provided in my essay
to persuade readers to want to learn more about the earth and how we can play a role to help. I will
give examples on how we can persuade one another so that we can all participate in helping clean the

Dora, Manoj, and Eleni Iacovidou. "Why some plastic packaging is necessary to prevent food
waste and protect the environment." ​Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection​, Gale, 2019. ​Gale In
Context: Opposing Viewpoints,​ Accessed 14 Oct. 2019. Originally published as "Why some plastic
packaging is necessary to prevent food waste and protect the environment," ​The Conversation​, 7 June

Authors Manoj Dora and Eleni Lacovidou both wrote the article in “The Conversation”. It is stated that
neither of the authors receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from the
article. This helps the readers understand that there is no bias towards their opinion. Both authors work
for Brunel University London, and the source of the article is funded and partnered with many state
colleges. The authors and the source is very credible.

The article states ways that plastic should remain in the food industry because it helps food stay
sustainable. Plastic also takes us less space which results in fewer expenses for travel, production, and
there’s less carbon emissions. Although the article is pro plastic, the authors recognize people’s
concerns about plastic. In the article, they state “possible solutions” for plastic such as switching to
bio-based packaging, in-season diets, or finding effective ways to recycle. I will be able to use this
information in my essay to state possible solutions to plastic. It helped me realize that getting rid of
plastic altogether is just not attainable in this economy.

Lemons, Jane Fullerton. "Plastic Pollution." ​CQ Researcher​, 7 Dec. 2018, pp. 1017-40,

CQ Researcher ​is a reliable source that contains many reports and topics. It’s a source created about
Today’s Issues and is the first source that Librarians recommend for seeking information and reports.
Jane Fullerton Lemons is a writer for ​CQ Researcher​ with more than 25 years of experience in
Journalism. She has also completed a master’s degree in creative nonfiction from Goucher College,
former Washiongton bureau chief, and has covered stories from health care to the White House.

Jane Fullerton Lemons explains in this article that the waste is increasing significantly every year. This
resulted in China’s (world’s leading recycler) decision to no longer accept waste from other nations.
Microplastics break down and enter the food chain after animals eat it. Plastic is affecting both wildlife
and human help, and trash could potentially “outweigh ocean fish by 2050.” The solution the article
states is to stop producing so much plastic.

The article continues to cite stories of tragic wildlife stories involving plastic and other quotes that are
based around the problem. These help view other opinions about the issue and stay informed. The most
commonly used plastics are not biodegradable, recyclable, and only used once. Governments are trying
to find a way around this. One solution they thought of was an increasing number of banning plastic
bags and restaurants are starting to reduce the use of straws.

There are many statistics in this article about the waste such as garbage patches in the ocean, plastic
piles, recycled plastic, plastic demands, regulations, and taxing plastic. I will be using specific citations
from this website to provide statistics in my essay to describe trends of waste and specific numbers. I
will also cite research for what the future plan and solution for plastic is.

“Recycled Plastics Make Cool Things.” ​Current Health 1​, vol. 21, no. 1, Sept. 1997, p. 22. ​EBSCOhost​,

EBSCOHost published this article from the ​Current Health​ Source with reliable scientific information.It is
a database known for scholarly articles and reports. This article breaks down two students’ knowledge
about plastics with the guidance of their teacher. It provides a study that helps the students figure out
what it is made out of recycled plastics, and how to use each type.
The students learned about the codes of Recycled plastics and what the importance is. There are six
types of recycled plastics with different codes. Each use is different from when it’s original use to its use
after it has been recycled. It is persuading people to join the “Recycle Cycle” and to make America more
Green. Recycling Plastic is better for the environment than producing and shopping products with new
plastic. The article suggests that readers get in contact with their Local Waste Department to learn more
about the specific needs in their area, and to “Shop Green”.

I could use this in my essay to provide describe the different types of recycled plastic, and how people
are using it today. It is great information to help persuade readers to shop recycled plastics and explain
the importance.

Tessnow-von Wysocki, Ina, and Philippe Le Billon. “Plastics at Sea: Treaty Design for a Global Solution to
Marine Plastic Pollution.” ​Environmental Science & Policy​, vol. 100, Oct. 2019, pp. 94–104.
EBSCOhost​, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2019.06.005.

Authors Ina Tessnow-von Wysocki and Philippe Le Billon both work at The University of British Columbia,
this piece was also published on EBSCOHost which provides more credibility. The source “ScienceDirect”
is published by “Elsevier” which provides scientific breakthroughs, research, and has trusted tools to
provide to users. Their knowledge is reliable and credible information to use.

This article identifies through interviews and studies that seven treaty designs have been created to
help provide a solution to plastic pollution in the sea. They are based on the treaties located in Montreal
and Kyoto Protocols. A few examples the article mentions is considering providing sea and land-based
materials, effective monitoring of procedures, and a financial mechanism to support implement
changes. This information in the article is critical information to my essay by stating ways that the plastic
pollution problem involving marine life is being solved in some areas. It provides evidence that measures
are being done to provide a solution. I will be mentioning the treaties created that support marine life
safety and see how the treaties were put into place.
The Monitor’s Editorial Board. “Natural Motivators for Plastic Bans.” ​Christian Science Monitor,​ 22 Aug.
2019, p. N.PAG. ​EBSCOhost,​

Christian Science Monitor​ published this article written by ​Monitors Editorial Board​ to explain the plastic
bans that are countries are joining. Posted by EBSCOHost, this article is credible to information because
it was recently published in 2019 and is an International News Organization that posts up to date news
articles to their site, newsletters, and magazines.

It mentions the nation of Vanuatu and how it’s leaders were the first to recognize this issue and create a
ban on straws, and later plastic bags and diapers. They helped influence other countries to look at the
economic benefits, social well-being, and other cultural traditions. These leaders were the sole
motivators to help the government take action. Vanuatu has revived the tradition of natural fiber woven
bags to replace plastic bags and replacing plastic water taps with bamboo. Cultural arts and innovating
ways to eco-friendly is being encouraged. A study was also conducted about the people of Vanuatu to
find out how the eco-friendly life affects citizens. It conducted positive results because it was concluded
that a more sustainable life results in a satisfied life.

This article will be useful in my essay because the nation of Vanuatu as an example of how other
countries should also take pro-environmental actions. Stating sustainable resources will be beneficial to
provide better materials for alternative options.