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Reading-Comprehension

Read the given passages carefully and answer the questions given below:
RC 1

Even the majority of elders turn their homes into hives of worry as they have too little to do in too much time. Those who have
retired thus find retirement tiresome when hobbies, instead, could have turned it into a period of creativity and contentment.
This common problem of inability to utilise leisure pleasurably and profitably is not restricted to Indians. In fact, Japanese are the
worse sufferers. Their weekends, rather than increase their enjoyment of life, have wreaked havoc on their health and happiness.
Unable to while away the long, unstructured hours, many of them have become addicts to coffee or hard liquor, and have even
taken to gambling.
How has this social malady come about? Ironically, the syllabus-loaded education system is the main culprit. It places a heavy
workload on children and youth, laying emphasis as it does on memory rather than intelligence.

Q1. Why do a majority of retired elders find retirement tiresome?


(a) Because their homes have been turned into hives of worry.
(b) Because they do not have hobbies to utilise their free time.
(c) Because they had nothing to do.
(d) Because they had plenty of free time.

Q2. Which of the following is correct in the context of the Japanese?


(a) They have increased business sense in life.
(b) They enjoy luxurious lifestyle.
(c) They use their working time to increase their enjoyment.
(d) They become addicts to coffee or hard liquor and gambling.

Q3. The syllabus-loaded education system


(a) Places a heavy burden on the youth.
(b) Ensures that parents pay attention to the development of children.
(c) Lays emphasis on intelligence.
(d) Gives students a lot of free time.

Q4. The author thinks that


(a) Authorities are more appreciative of the syllabus-loaded
education system.
(b) Hobbies play an important role in changing the unfortunate situation.
(c) Co-curricular activities are discouraged.
(d) Only Indians suffer from inability to utilise leisure.

Q5. The passage tells us that


(a) Hobbies are a waste of time
(b) Hobbies play a crucial role in physical and mental development.
(c) Hobbies wreak havoc on man's health and happiness.
(d) Hobbies can turn us into addicts of coffee, liquor or gambling.

RC 2
The most important reason for this state of affairs, perhaps, is that India was the only country in the world to truly recognise the
achievements of the Soviet Union-rather than merely focus on the debilitating faults that Communism brought to its people. The
people of India realised that the achievement of one hundred per cent literacy in a country much, much larger than its own and
with similarly complicated ethnic and religious groupings, the rapid industrialization of a nation that was a primarily agrarian
society when the Bolshevik revolution took place in 1917, the attendant revolutionary steps in science and technology, the
accessibility of health care (primeval according to Western standards, perhaps, but not according to Indian ones) to the general
population, and despite prohibition of the government of the time the vast outpourings in literature, music, art, etc. are
momentous and remarkable feats in any country. In contrast, all that the West focused on were the massive human rights
violations by the Soviet State on its people, the deliberate uprooting and mass migrations of ethnic peoples from one part of the
country to another in the name of industrialization, the end of religion. In short, all the tools of information were employed to
condemn the ideology of Communism, so much at variance with capitalist thinking. The difference with the Indian perception, I
think here is, that while the Indians reacted as negatively to what the Soviet governments did to its people in the name of good
governance (witness the imprisonment of Boris Pasternak and the formation of an international committee to put pressure for his
release with Jawaharlal Nehru at its head), they took the pain not to condemn the people of that broad country in black and white
terms; they understood that mingled in the shades of grey were grains of uniqueness (The Russians have never failed that
characteristic in themselves; they have twice experimented with completely different ideologies, Communism and Capitalism
both in the space of a century).

Q1. Which of the following statements according to the passage is correct?


(a)India took heed on the weak faults of Russian policies and system
(b)India seriously commended the achievement of Russia, i.e.. cent per cent literacy and rapid industrialization
(c)The process of industrialization had already started when Russian revolution took place in 1917
(d)The literature, art and music received a setback during the communist regime in Russia Answer: b

Q2. The West did not focus on:


(a) rapid growth of nuclear weapons in Russia
(b)Massive human rights violation by the Soviet state on its people
(c)deliberate uprooting and mass migration of ethnic people in the name of industrialization.
(d)Both B & C

Q3.The India perception of the USSR was always


(a)negative
(b)neutral
(c)counter-reactionary
(d)applauding

Q4.The passage is
(a)descriptive
(b)paradoxical
(c)analytical
(d)thought provoking

RC 3
Nehru's was a many sided personality. He enjoyed reading and writing books as much as he enjoyed fighting political and social
evils or residing tyranny.
In him, the scientist and the humanist were held in perfect balance. While he kept looking at special problems from a scientific
standpoint. He never forgot that we should nourish the total man. As a scientist, he refused to believe in a benevolent power
interested in men's affairs. but, as a self proclaimed non-believer, he loved affirming his faith in life and the beauty of nature.
Children he adored. Unlike Wordsworth, he did not see him trailing clouds of glory from the recent sojourn in heaven. He saw
them as a blossoms of promise and renewal, the only hope for mankind.

Q1. Nehru thought that children


A. were tailing clouds of glory
B. held promise for a better future
C. were like flowers to be loved and admired
D. held no hope for mankind

Q2. Nehru enjoyed


A. reading and writing books
B. fighting political and social evils
C. resisting tyranny
D. doing all the above and much more

Q3. Which of the statements reflects Nehru point of view?


A. Humanism is more important than science
B. Science is supreme and humanism is subordinate to it
C. Science and Humanism are equally important
D. There is no ground between science and humanism

Q4. In this passage, 'a benevolent power interested in men's affairs' means
A. a supernatural power of god
B. beauty of nature
C. the spirit of science
D. the total man

Q5. A 'many-side personality' means


A. a complex personality
B. a secretive person
C. a person having varied interests
D. a capable person

RC 4

Many sociologists have argued that there is functional relationship between education and economic system. They point to the
fact that mass formal education began in industrial society. They note that the expansion of the economies of industrial societies
is accompanied by a corresponding expansion of their educational systems. they explain this correspondence in terms of the
needs of industry for skilled and trained manpower, needs which are met by the educational system. Thus, the provision of mass
elementary education in Britain in 1870 can be seen as a response to the needs of industry for a literate and numerate workforce
at a time when industrial processes were becoming more complex and the demand for technical skills was steadily growing.

Q6. The industry needs a literate work-force because


A. its expansion needs sound learning
B. it relies heavily on expertise
C. it promotes a competitive spirit
D. its operations need intricate technical knowledge

Q7. The author argues that


A. formal education can be traced to industrial society
B. industrial society is responsible for expansion of education at mass level
C. industrial society gave rise to vocational education
D. industrial society changed the pattern of education

Q8. The observation of the Sociologists are based on a study of


A. the statistical data available in a historical context
B. economic system of the 19th century
C. the correlation between industry and education in a historical context
D. growth of industry 19th century

Q9. The Sociologists referred to it in the passage say that the relationship between industry and elementary education was one
A. based on mutual need
B. based entirely on the need of the industry
C. based entirely on economic need
D. based on some inexplicable historical forces

Q10. By 'functional relationship' is meant


A. a short-term relationship
B. practical and utilitarian relationship
C. temporary arrangement
D. close and unbreakable relationship

RC 5

Extreme weather conditions have become such a part of life all across the world over the last decade and more, that ways and
means to understand and cope with them have become an essential element of survival strategies. Heatwaves in summer, cold
waves in winter and extreme rainfall when it is least expected have almost become the norm. Each of these rounds takes its own
toll on lives and livelihoods even as those in other areas are forced to stand as mute spectators. This summer in India, the number
of lives lost to heatwave conditions has exceeded 2,000. While shrinking winter-spans are considered by specialists as a sure sign
that climate change is a reality we cannot ignore, at the other end of the spectrum, hot summers are no less debilitating.
Prediction of these phenomena is itself so difficult, not for lack of effort but because of the theoretical limitations of the models
being used in the calculations. Broadly speaking, there is no doubt that summer heat is worsening by the year in parts of India.
This fact is reflected in some climate studies. For instance, one on climate in the subcontinent over the period from 1961 to 2010
by scientists of the India Meteorological Department based in Pune and Chennai, found that compared to the first four decades,
the number of heat-wave (HW) days per season was higher during 2001-2010 in many parts of north, north-west and central
India. An increase was observed in the number of severe-heat-wave (SHW) days per season in some stations, mainly in north-
west India. The study also found that the frequency, persistenceand area coverage of HW/SHW days were more than average in
years succeeding El Niño years.

1.According to the passage what is the meaning of the phrase "Cope with" .
(1)riskiness
(2)unsatisfied
(3)hold up
(4)to abundant

2.Why the prediction of the climate change is so difficult?


(1)lack of efforts
(2)Due to pollution into the water
(3)due to the increasing ultraviolet waves
(4)Due to restrictions in the techniques in the calculation.

3.The word which is closest in meaning to persistence is


(1)prolonged existence
(2)idleness
(3)Pluck
(4)None of these

4.What is NOT the reason that death toll rises above 2000?
(1)extreme weather condition
(2)severe heat waves
(3)lack of tools to determine the exact impact.
(4)none of the above

5.Who found out that there is an increase in the number of severe-heat-wave (SHW) days per season in some stations
(1)India forest department
(2)department of biotechnology India
(3)India Meteorological Department
(4)None of these

RC 6
The DRDO was set up in 1958 as the fulcrum of India’s indigenous defence production. However, its performance, or the lack of
it, must count as one of the biggest uninvestigated scandals of independent India. Among its notable failures is the production of
the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), which was commissioned over a decade ago but ran years behind schedule with a cost
overrun of over Rs. 5,000 crore. The aircraft’s Kaveri engine was commissioned over two decades ago; it ran over 15 years
behind schedule with similarly high cost overruns. Other projects allocated to the DRDO, such as the Airborne Early Warning
and Control (AEW&C) System, the naval version of the LCA, the Long Range Surface to Air Missile (LRSAM), and the
Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (ALWT) have all missed deadlines by several years.
The performance of our public sector units handling defence has been equally scandalous. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL)
could not rectify simple design faults in the HPT-32 basic trainer aircraft, forcing the Indian Air Force (IAF) to import propeller
driven trainers. The Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) prototype is nowhere close to flying, and the Light Combat Helicopter and the
multi-purpose civilian aircraft, Saras, have forever been in the pipeline. Our ordnance factories are similarly languishing. The
Nalanda ordnance factory, in collaboration with an Israeli company, is reportedly only a fourth complete. The commitment to
indigenously supply 1,000 T-90S main battle tanks to the Indian Army could not be met because the project failed. Indian-made
125 mm smooth bore barrels for the T-72 tanks also reportedly failed because the barrels blew up during field trials

1. According to the passage why the author referred DRDO as independent India's uninvestigated scandals?
(a) due to non - adherence to time which resulted in over costing to the Govt.
(b) due to one of the employee who got arrested in scandal.
(c) due to excess cost demand by the employee.
(d) All of the above

2. Which of the following acronyms are not used in the above passage?
(a) ALWT (b) ITJ (c) LCA (d) DRDO

3. Which of the following is not the synonyms of the word "fulcrum"?


(a) base (b) foundation (c) inscribe (d) None of these

4. Which of the PSU's have failed to complete their commitments?


(a) HAL (b) ordinance factory (c) DRDO (d) All of these

5. Which of the following does the phrase " blew up " mean?
(a) Failed (b) Trailed (c) Blocked D ) Achieved

RC 7
The recent rapid growth of industry has, in some cases, been so excessive that too much manufacturing capacity has been
developed in some fields of production, which forces companies to sell their surplus products in world markets at prices lower
than normal. This will make it almost impossible to develop local industries producing the same items because consumers will
prefer to buy the cheaper imported product.

1. Why is it necessary for companies to sell products at cheaper prices?


(A) The cost of production has been considerably low.
(B) The local industries also manufacture the same product.
(C) There is a heavy demand for these products.
(D) None of these

2. According to the passage, the situation resulting from the rapid industrial growth is
(A) The cost of production has been considerably low.
(B) The local industries also manufacture the same product.
(C) There is a heavy demand for these products.
(D) None of these.

3. ‘This will make……….’___ in this sentence, ‘This’ refers most closed and directly to
(A) development of local industries
(B) the recent rapid growth of industry
(C) selling products of excessively higher prices
(D) companies manufacturing surplus products

4. Which of the following is/are most likely to hamper the development of local industries?
A. Availability of imported product at cheaper rates
B. Consumer’s tendency to refrain from using imported products
C. Excessive production capacity and low production cost
(A) Only A (B) Only B (C) Only C (D) A and C

5.‘Imported product’ as used in the last product refers to


(A) product manufactured locally but of export quality
(B) product sold to such other country which can’t locally manufacture it
(C) product of a foreign country available at a below normal price
(D) surplus product manufactured be foreign country and sold at a normal price.

RC 8

In this work of incessant and feverish activity, men have little time to think, much less to consider ideals and objectives. Yet how
are we to act, even in the present, unless we know which way we are going and what our objectives are? It is only problems can
be adequately considered. It is only when the young men and women, who are in the university that these basic problems can be
adequately considered. It is only when the young men and women, who are in the university today and on whom the burden of
life’s problems will fall tomorrow, learn to have clear objectives and standards of values that there is hope for the next
generation. The past generation produced some great men but as a generation it led the world repeatedly to disaster. Two world
wars are the price that has been paid for the lack of wisdom on man’s part in this generation.

I think that there is always a close and intimate relationship between the end we aim at and the means adopted to attain it. Even if
the end is right but the means are wrong, it will vitiate the end or divert us in a wrong direction. Means and ends are thus
intimately and inextricably connected and cannot be separated. That, indeed, has been the lesson of old taught us by many great
men in the past, but unfortunately it seldom remembered.
6. People have little time to consider ideals and objectives because
(A) they consider these ideals meaningless.
(B) they do not want to burden themselves with such ideas.
(C) they have no inclination for such things.
(D) they are excessively engaged in their routine activities.

7. ‘The burden of life’s problems’ in the fourth sentence refers to


(A) the incessant and feverish activities
(B) the burden of family responsibilities
(C) the onerous duties of life
(D) the sorrows and sufferings

8. The two world wars are the price that man paid due to
(A) the absence of wisdom and sagacity
(B) his not caring to consider the life’s problems
(C) his ignoring the ideals and objectives of life
(D) his excessive involvement in feverish activities

9. According to the writer the adoption of wrong means even for the right end would
(A) not let us attain our goal
(B) bring us dishonor
(C) impede our progress.
(D) deflect us from the right path

10. The word ‘vitiate’ used in the second paragraph means


(A) negate (B) debase (C) tarnish (D) destroy