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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN JUDUL .................................................................................. i
HALAMAN HAK CIPTA .......................................................................... ii
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN .................................................................... iii
PERNYATAAN ORISINALITAS ............................................................. iv
HALAMAN RIWAYAT HIDUP ............................................................... v
KATA PENGANTAR ............................................................................... viii
ABSTRAK .................................................................................................. x
DAFTAR ISI ....................................................................................... ....... xii
DAFTAR TABEL ....................................................................................... xv
DAFTAR GAMBAR ................................................................................. xvi
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ............................................................................... xvii
BAB I PENDAHULUAN ..................................................................... 1
A. Latar Belakang ..................................................................... 1
B. Rumusan Masalah ................................................................ 6
C. Tujuan Penelitian ................................................................. 6
1. Tujuan Umum .................................................................. 6
2. Tujuan Khusus ................................................................. 7
D. Manfaat Penelitian ............................................................... 7
1. Manfaat Teoritis ............................................................... 7
2. Manfaat Praktis ................................................................. 7
BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ............................................................. 9
A. Konsep Gagal Ginjal Kronis.. ............................................... 9
1. Definisi ............................................................................. 9
2. Klasifikasi ........................................................................ 10
3. Etiologi ............................................................................. 10
4. Patofisiologi ..................................................................... 11
5. Manifestasi Klinis ............................................................ 12
6. Penatalaksanaan ............................................................... 13
B. Konsep Hemodialisis.. .......................................................... 16
1. Definisi Hemodialisis....................................................... 16
2. Tujuan hemodiaisis .......................................................... 16
3. Indikasi Hemodialisis....................................................... 17
4. Kontraindikasi Hemodialisis ............................................ 17
5. Prinsip Hemodialisis ........................................................ 18
6. Peralatan Hemodialisis ..................................................... 18

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7. Proses Hemodialisis ......................................................... 20
8. Komplikasi ...................................................................... 22
9. Lama Terapi Hemodialisis ............................................... 23
10. Akses Vaskuler ............................................................... 24
C. Konsep Nyeri.. ...................................................................... 29
1. Definisi ............................................................................. 29
2. Mekanisme Nyeri ............................................................. 30
3. Klasifikasi Nyeri .............................................................. 31
4. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Nyeri ..................... 34
5. Teori Nyeri ....................................................................... 39
6. Respon Terhadap Nyeri ................................................... 41
7. Skala Pengukuran Nyeri................................................... 43
8. Pain During Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation ............ 48
D. Kerangka Teori .................................................................... 50
BAB III KERANGKA KONSEP DAN HIPOTESIS ............................... 51
A. Kerangka Konsep ................................................................. 51
B. Hipotesis .............................................................................. 52
BAB IV METODE PENELITIAN............................................................ 53
A. Jenis dan Rancangan Penelitian ........................................... 53
B. Populasi dan Sampel Penelitian ............................................ 53
1. Populasi ............................................................................ 53
2. Sampel dan Sampling ...................................................... 54
C. Tempat dan Waktu Penelitian ............................................... 56
1. Tempat Penelitian ............................................................ 56
2. Waktu Penelitian .............................................................. 56
D. Variabel Penelitian dan Definisi Operasional ....................... 57
1. Variabel Penelitian ........................................................... 57
2. Definisi Operasional ........................................................ 58
E. Metode Pengumpulan Data ................................................... 60
1. Jenis Instrumen ................................................................ 60
2. Cara Pengumpulan Data .................................................. 60
F. Pengolahan Data dan Analisis Data ...................................... 63
1. Pengolahan Data .............................................................. 63
2. Analisis Data .................................................................... 65
G. Etika Penelitian ..................................................................... 67
1. Informed Concent ............................................................. 67
2. Anonymity ........................................................................ 67
3. Confidentiality.................................................................. 68

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BAB V HASIL PENELITIAN ................................................................ 69
A. Gambaran Umum Lokasi Penelitian ..................................... 69
B. Karakteristik Responden Penelitian ...................................... 70
C. Hasil penelitian korelasi riwayat hemodialisis dengan
pain during arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) Cannulation
Pada Pasien Hemodialisis Di RSUD Ratu Zalecha
Martapura .............................................................................. 72
1. Analisis Univariat ........................................................... 72
2. Analisis Bivariat ............................................................. 74
BAB VI PEMBAHASAN ......................................................................... 75
1. Riwayat Hemodialisis Pasien di Ruang Hemodialisa
RSUD Ratu Zalecha Martapura............................................ 75
2. Pain During Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) Cannulation Pada
Pasien di Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu Zalecha
Martapura ................................................................................ 77
3. Korelasi Riwayat Hemodialisis Dengan Pain During
Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) Cannulation Pada Pasien
Hemodialisis Di RSUD Ratu Zalecha Martapura ................... 81
4. Keterbatasan Penelitian ......................................................... 84
BAB VII PENUTUP................................................................................... 85
A. Kesimpulan .......................................................................... 85
B. Saran ..................................................................................... 86
DAFTAR PUSTAKA ................................................................................ 87

LAMPIRAN – LAMPIRAN

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DAFTAR TABEL

Halaman
Tabel 1.1 Hasil studi pendahuluan .............................................................. 5
Tabel 2.1 Klasifikasi GGK berdasarkan nilai LFG..................................... 10
Tabel 2.2 Respon fisiologis nyeri .............................................................. 41
Tabel 2.3 Interpretasi Skala VAS ............................................................... 47
Tabel 4.1 Waktu Kegiatan Penelitian ......................................................... 56
Tabel 4.2 Variabel, definisi operasional, skala pengukuran dan alat ukur . 59
Tabel 5.1 Distribusi Karakteristik Responden Berdasarkan Umur
Responden di Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu Zalecha
Martapura Tahun 2019………………………………………... 70
Tabel 5.2 Distribusi Karakteristik Responden Berdasarkan Jenis
Kelamin Responden di Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu
Zalecha Martapura Tahun 2019.................................................. 71
Tabel 5.3 Distribusi Karakteristik Responden Berdasarkan Tingkat
Pendidikan Responden di Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu
Zalecha Martapura Tahun 2019.................................................. 71
Tabel 5.4 Distribusi Responden Berdasarkan Riwayat Hemodialisa di
Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu Zalecha Martapura Tahun
2019 ............................................................................................ 72
Tabel 5.5 Distribusi Responden Berdasarkan Pain During Arteriovenous
Fistula (AVF) Cannulation di Ruang Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu
Zalecha Martapura Tahun 2019.................................................. 73
Tabel 5.6 Korelasi Riwayat Hemodialisis dengan Pain During
Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF) Cannulation di Ruang
Hemodialisa RSUD Ratu Zalecha Martapura Tahun 2019 ........ 74

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Halaman
Gambar 2.1 Perbedaan ginjal normal dengan gagal ginjal ....................... 10
Gambar 2.2 Jarum hemodialisis ................................................................ 20
Gambar 2.3 Proses Hemodialisis .............................................................. 21
Gambar 2.4 AV Fistula ............................................................................. 26
Gambar 2.5 Side to End ............................................................................ 27
Gambar 2.6 Side to Side ............................................................................ 27
Gambar 2.7 End to End ............................................................................. 27
Gambar 2.8 End to Side ............................................................................ 28
Gambar 2.9 AV Graft ............................................................................... 28
Gambar 2.10 Verbal Descriptor Scale ....................................................... 44
Gambar 2.11 Numerical Rating Scale........................................................ 46
Gambar 2.12 Visual Analog Scale ............................................................. 47
Gambar 2.13 Kerangka Teori .................................................................... 50
Gambar 3.1 Kerangka Konsep Penelitian .................................................. 51

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran 1 Komisi Etik Penelitian Kesehatan Politeknik Kesehatan Banjarmasin


Lampiran 2 Lembar Penjelasan Penelitian Untuk Responden Pasien Hemodialisis
(PSP)
Lampiran 3 Formulir Persetujuan Penelitian (Informed Concent)
Lampiran 4 Persetujuan Menjadi Responden Penelitian
Lampiran 5 Lembar Kuesioner Karakteristik Responden
Lampiran 6 Lembar Konsultasi
Lampiran 7 Surat Menyurat (Ijin Studi pendahuluan, izin penelitian)
Lampiran 8 Hasil Uji Statistik

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