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Part 24

Drilled Shaft Foundations1

— 2010 —

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section/Article Description Page

24.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-2


24.1.1 Scope (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-2
24.1.2 Purpose and Necessity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-3
24.1.3 Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-3
24.1.4 Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-3 1

24.2 Information Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5


24.2.1 Field Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5
24.2.2 Subsurface Investigation (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5

24.3 Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5 3


24.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5
24.3.2 The Transfer of Load from the Drilled Shaft to the Rock or Soil Bearing Strata (2010) . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-5
24.3.3 Connection Between Supported Structure and Drilled Shaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-7
24.3.4 Group Action of Drilled Shafts (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-7

24.4 Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-8


24.4.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-8
24.4.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-8
24.4.3 Permanent Steel Casing Material (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9
24.4.4 Temporary Casing Material (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9

24.5 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9


24.5.1 Contractor Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9
24.5.2 Shaft Excavation (2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9
24.5.3 Casing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-9
24.5.4 Bells or Underreams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10
24.5.5 Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10
24.5.6 Tolerances (2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10
24.5.7 Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10
24.5.8 Inspection (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10

1
References, Vol. 85, 1984, p. 29.

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association


8-24-1
Concrete Structures and Foundations

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)

Section/Article Description Page

24.5.9 Placing Reinforcing Steel (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-10


24.5.10 Placing Concrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-11
24.5.11 Casing Removal (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-11
24.5.12 Continuity of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-11
24.5.13 Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-11

24.6 Testing ............................................................................... 8-24-12


24.6.1 Material Testing (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-12
24.6.2 Capacity Testing (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-12
24.6.3 Integrity Testing (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-12

Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-12

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Description Page

8-24-1 Drilled Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24-4

SECTION 24.1 GENERAL

24.1.1 SCOPE (2010)1

a. This part covers the description and general aspects of design, installation, inspection and testing of drilled shafts, also
frequently referred to as drilled caissons, drilled piers, or bored piles.

b. This part is intended to serve as guidelines in developing specific designs and construction specifications on a project
basis.

c. For the purpose of this part, the minimum diameter of these units shall be 30 inches (760 mm). Drilled shafts with
smaller diameters have been constructed, but are not included in this specification.

d. This part relates primarily to single, vertical drilled shafts.

e. Factors to be used in modifying the capacities of single drilled shafts for determination of the capacity of a group of
drilled shafts which support a common rigid cap are included elsewhere in this part.

f. The use of battered drilled shafts to accommodate lateral loads by the horizontal component of the shaft’s axial
resistance is not recommended and is not addressed by this part. Lateral loads applied to drilled shafts are to be resisted
by the effect of soil/rock interaction between the shaft and ground.

1
See C - Commentary (2010).

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

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Drilled Shaft Foundations

24.1.2 PURPOSE AND NECESSITY

a. Drilled shafts are used to transmit loads through soils of poor bearing capacity into rock or soil formations having
adequate bearing capacity. Generally, single drilled shafts have load capacities much larger than piling due to their
larger size and capability of belling to increase the bearing area without enlarging either the footing or the drilled shaft.

b. The selection of foundation treatment for a given site should be determined by subsurface conditions, and by economic
considerations as there is often a choice of several types of foundations for a structure.

24.1.3 TERMS

Drilled Shaft — A machine and/or hand excavated shaft, concrete filled, with or without steel reinforcing, for the
purpose of transferring structural loads to bearing strata below the structure.

Protective Casing — Protective steel unit, usually cylindrical in shape lowered into the excavation to protect
workmen and inspectors from collapse or cave-in of the side wall.

Bell or Underream — An enlargement at the bottom of the drilled shaft made by hand excavation or mechanical
underreaming with drilling equipment for the purpose of spreading the load over a larger area.

Socket — A shaft of equal or smaller diameter extended into the bearing material.

Toe — Vertical section at bottom of bell.

Permanent Casing — A steel cylinder that is installed for the purpose of excluding soil and water from the 1
excavations. It is used as a form to contain concrete placed for the drilled shaft and remains in place.

Temporary Casing — A cylinder that is installed for the purpose of excluding soil and water from the excavations. It
may also be used as a form for the shaft concrete, but is withdrawn as the shaft concrete is placed.

24.1.4 DESIGN LOADS


3
a. Loading for drilled shafts shall be the design loads from the supported structure without application of load factors
used for Load Factor design procedure. Design loads shall include the following:

• Primary Forces:

– Dead Load
4
– Live Load
– Centrifugal Force

– Earth Pressure

– Buoyancy

– Negative Soil Friction

• Secondary Forces (Occasional):

– Wind and Other Lateral Forces

– Ice and Stream Flow


– Longitudinal Forces

– Seismic Forces

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AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering 8-24-3


Concrete Structures and Foundations

Figure 8-24-1. Drilled Shaft

b. When drilled shaft foundations are designed for both primary and secondary forces, the allowable load on the drilled
shafts may be increased by 25 percent, provided that the size or number of drilled shafts is not less than that required
for primary forces alone. In soils where downward movements of surrounding soil relative to the drilled shaft are
expected to occur, axial loads shall include negative soil friction forces, acting downward on the drilled shaft. Under
special conditions swelling soils can produce upward forces, with fluctuation of the water table, which should also be
considered in design.

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

8-24-4 AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering


Drilled Shaft Foundations

SECTION 24.2 INFORMATION REQUIRED

24.2.1 FIELD SURVEY

Sufficient information shall be furnished in the form of profile and cross sections to determine general design and structural
requirements. The location of overhead and underground utilities, existing foundations, roads, tracks, or other structures shall
be indicated. Records pertaining to high and low water levels and depth of scour shall be provided for stream crossings.

24.2.2 SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION (2010)

a. Foundation material shall be investigated as specified under Part 22, Geotechnical Subsurface Investigation, in order to
determine soil or rock properties, ground water elevations, and any other pertinent conditions.

b. Where a large portion of the required shaft capacity is to be generated from tip resistance of the shaft or rock socket,
the geotechnical investigation shall be of sufficient scope to permit the determination that the strata in which the tip is
founded is of sufficient depth and strength to carry the loads to which it is subjected.

c. Reference is also made to Article 4.3.1, Part 4, for additional information.

SECTION 24.3 DESIGN


1
24.3.1 GENERAL

The design is divided into three basic parts:

a. The transfer of load from the drilled shaft to the rock and/or soil bearing strata.
3
b. The drilled shaft itself.

c. The connection between the supported structure and the drilled shaft.

24.3.2 THE TRANSFER OF LOAD FROM THE DRILLED SHAFT TO THE ROCK OR SOIL
BEARING STRATA (2010)1 4
24.3.2.1 Drilled shafts transfer load to the bearing strata as follows:

a. An end bearing-type drilled shaft transfers essentially all of its load through weaker soils to a layer of soil or rock with
adequate bearing capacity.

b. A friction-type shaft is one whereby the drilled shaft load is transferred to the surrounding material primarily through
friction between the shaft wall and the adjacent material.

c. A combination end bearing and friction-type drilled shaft is a shaft in which some of the load is transferred into the
stratum by soil friction and the remainder by end bearing.

1
See C - Commentary (2010).

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering 8-24-5


Concrete Structures and Foundations

24.3.2.2 Lateral Loads and Moment

When the drilled shaft is subjected to lateral load and moments, as well as axial load, the distribution of soil pressures and the
variation of moments and shear in the shaft must be determined.

24.3.2.3 Belled Shafts

a. Where the bearing strata has insufficient strength to support the load on the base of the shaft, the shaft bottom may be
enlarged by belling or underreaming to reduce the pressure by distributing the load over a greater area. Belled shafts
shall be used only where the soil in which the bell is placed will not collapse due to the underreaming. Bells are
normally unreinforced. The base diameter of the bell shall not exceed three times the shaft diameter and the sides shall
not be less than 60 degrees from the horizontal. The toe height of bottom edge shall not be less than 6 inches (150 mm).

b. The ultimate axial capacity of a drilled shaft (Qult) shall be based on the summation of the ultimate shaft tip capacity
and ultimate side resistance capacity minus the weight of the shaft. The allowable shaft capacity shall be the ultimate
capacity divided by a factor of safety.

c. The ultimate shaft tip capacity (QT) shall be QT = qT · AT, where qT is the ultimate unit soil tip resistance determined
by geotechnical analysis and AT is the area of the shaft tip.

d. The ultimate side resistance (QS) of the shaft in a layer of uniform unit side resistance (qS) shall be equal to the
circumference of the shaft multiplied by the embedment length in a soil layer of uniform unit side resistance (qS)
multiplied by qS. The value(s) of qS shall be determined by geotechnical analysis. Where a shaft passes through
stratified soil having different values of qS for the various soil type layers, the value of QS shall be the shaft
circumference multiplied by the summation of various qS values multiplied by the depth of the respective layer. In
general, the top five feet (1,520 mm) of an embedded shaft and a bottom length equal to the diameter of the shaft tip or
perimeter of the bell shall be considered as noncontributing to the side resistance of the shaft. Where the drilled shaft is
located in scour susceptible areas, the probable depth of scour shall also be deducted when calculating the ultimate
shaft side resistance.

e. Where rock sockets having a diameter equal to or less than the nominal diameter of the shaft are used, the ultimate tip
capacity of the shaft shall be equal to the area of the socket tip multiplied by the uniaxial ultimate unit rock capacity.
The ultimate socket side resistance shall be the product of the socket circumference, socket embedment and ultimate
unit side shear resistance along the socket/rock interface.

f. Unless an analysis is used which accounts for the load/deflection relationship of the various soil or rock strata
encountered, the ultimate capacity of a drilled shaft which utilizes a rock socket shall be based on the sum of the
ultimate tip and side resistance capacities of the rock socket only, neglecting side resistance of the shaft in the soil
overburden.

24.3.2.4 Uplift Capacity

The ultimate uplift capacity of a drilled shaft shall be equal to or less than the weight of the shaft plus 0.7 times the ultimate
side resistance of the shaft. If belled, the uplift capacity of the shaft may be increased by taking into consideration the
reinforcement details of the shaft and bell together with the strength characteristics of the adjacent soil.

24.3.2.5 Factors of Safety

For drilled shafts in soil or socketed in rock, a minimum design factor of safety of 2.5 shall be used against bearing capacity
failure. A factor of safety of 2.5 shall be used when designing for conditions which produce uplift.

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

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Drilled Shaft Foundations

24.3.2.6 Shafts Under Water1

a. Wherever practicable, the drilled shaft shall be designed to permit the placing of the concrete in the dry, and for visual
inspection of the hole, the bearing strata, and the rock socket.

b. When it is impractical to dewater the excavation for rock-socketed shafts, the concrete may be placed under water by
means of a tremie or pumped concrete and appropriate allowances made in the concrete mix design. The water level
shall have reached a static condition before concrete placement begins.

c. When concrete cannot be placed in the dry and a thorough visual inspection cannot be made by television or by divers,
the Design Engineer shall reduce the allowable bearing and side resistance stress appropriately.

24.3.2.7 The Drilled Shaft

a. The drilled shaft is generally designed as a short column for axial loads due to the lateral support provided by the
soil/rock. In muck or water, slenderness effects of the column must be taken into consideration.

b. When the drilled shaft is subjected to moment and lateral forces at the connection to the supported structure, the shaft
must be designed for bending and shear in addition to axial force. Moment and shear along the length of the shaft must
be calculated, and adequate reinforcement provided.

c. The shaft shall satisfy the design requirements of Part 2, Reinforced Concrete Design of this Chapter.

24.3.3 CONNECTION BETWEEN SUPPORTED STRUCTURE AND DRILLED SHAFT 1


The connection between the drilled shaft and the supported structure (parts above the top of shaft) shall be capable of
transferring the design loads, including direct load, shear and moment. This can be accomplished by the following means:

a. When the supported structure at the top of shaft is of concrete, the reinforcing steel cage shall be extended into the cap
so that the load is transferred into the reinforcing steel of the drilled shaft by bond and into the concrete by
compression. 3
b. When the cap section is a steel element, appropriate design shall be developed to transmit all loads, conforming to the
requirements of Chapter 15, Steel Structures, Part 1, Design or Part 3, Fabrication.

24.3.4 GROUP ACTION OF DRILLED SHAFTS (2010)

Evaluation of group shaft capacity assumes the effects of negative soil friction (if any) are negligible.
4

24.3.4.1 Cohesive Soil

a. Evaluation of group capacity of shafts in cohesive soil shall consider the presence and contact of a cap with the ground
surface and the spacing between adjacent shafts.

b. If the cap is not in firm contact with the ground, or if the soil at the surface is loose or soft, the individual capacity of
each shaft having a diameter B should be reduced by a reduction factor times QT for an isolated shaft. This factor
equals 0.67 for a center-to-center (CTC) spacing of 3B and 1.0 for a CTC spacing of 6B. For intermediate spacings, the
reduction factor may be determined by linear interpolation. The group capacity may then be computed as the lesser of:

• the sum of the modified individual capacities of each shaft in the group, and

1
See C - Commentary (2010).

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Concrete Structures and Foundations

• the capacity of an equivalent pier defined as the perimeter area of the group.

For a shaft group with a cap in firm contact with the ground, Qult may be computed as the lesser of:

• the sum of the individual capacities of each shaft in the group, or

• the capacity of an equivalent pier as described above.

For the equivalent pier, the shear strength of soil shall not be reduced by any factor to determine the QS component of
Qult. The total base area of the equivalent pier shall be used to determine the QT component of Qult and the additional
capacity of the cap shall be ignored.

24.3.4.2 Cohesionless Soil

Evaluation of group capacity of shafts in cohesionless soil shall consider the spacing between adjacent shafts. Regardless of
cap contact with the ground, the individual capacity of each shaft should be reduced by a reduction factor times QT for an
isolated shaft. This factor equals 0.67 or a center-to-center (CTC) spacing of 3B and 1.0 for a CTC spacing of 8B. For
intermediate spacings, the reduction factor may be determined by linear interpolation. The group capacity may be computed as
the lesser of:

a. the sum of the modified individual capacities of each shaft in the group, or

b. the capacity of an equivalent pier circumscribing the group, including resistance over the entire perimeter and base
areas.

24.3.4.3 Group in Strong Soil Overlying Weaker Soil

a. If a group of shafts which are embedded in a strong soil deposit overlies a weaker deposit (cohesionless or cohesive
soil), consideration shall be given to the potential for a punching failure of the tip into the weaker soil strata.

b. If the underlying soil unit is a weaker cohesive soil strata, careful consideration shall be given to the potential for large
settlements in the weaker layer.

SECTION 24.4 MATERIAL

24.4.1 CONCRETE

Unless otherwise stipulated in this specification, concrete shall be produced and placed in accordance with Part 1 of this
Chapter. Concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi (21 MPa) in 28 days. Approved additives, such as
set retarders, may be used to improve workability. Slump at time of placement shall be not less than 4 inches (100 mm), and
not more than 6 inches (150 mm). If temporary casing is to be used, the slump should be not less than 5 inches (125 mm), and
a set retarder may be necessary.

24.4.2 REINFORCING STEEL

Unless otherwise stipulated in this specification, any required reinforcing steel shall conform to the requirements of Part 1 of
this Chapter.

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8-24-8 AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering


Drilled Shaft Foundations

24.4.3 PERMANENT STEEL CASING MATERIAL (2010)

If the steel casing is relied upon as a structural element, the steel casing material shall conform to the requirements of ASTM
A252 or ASTM A709, Grade 36.

24.4.4 TEMPORARY CASING MATERIAL (2010)

Casing that is not intended to be a structural element of the shaft or that is to be removed shall be considered temporary casing.
Temporary casing may be metal, fiber or other material that possesses adequate strength for its intended purpose and is not
detrimental to the design function of the shaft.

SECTION 24.5 CONSTRUCTION

24.5.1 CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS

Drilled shafts shall be installed by the Owner with experienced personnel, or by a Contractor or Subcontractor who specializes
in such work. Availability of all required special equipment, tools, and experienced personnel are important items to be
considered when determining Owner installation or selecting an installation contractor.

24.5.2 SHAFT EXCAVATION (2010) 1


a. When excavating a drilled shaft, earth walls shall be adequately and securely protected against cave-in, subsidence
and/or displacement of surrounding earth, and for the exclusion of groundwater by means of temporary or permanent
steel casings.

b. Whenever personnel are required to enter the shaft, a protective casing shall be used and there shall be adequate
provisions for fresh air, light and protection from falling objects and toxic gases. 3
c. Rock grapples or special tools for removal of boulders or other obstructions must be readily available for use. Blasting
will be permitted only upon obtaining written approval from the Engineer.

d. Inspection of the shaft base, and any socket, by a qualified inspector is highly recommended and should be omitted
only with the approval of the Engineer.
4
e. No shaft excavation shall be made within 15 feet (4,570 mm) of an uncased shaft filled with concrete that is less than
one day old. The construction procedure used shall be approved by the Engineer before commencing work.

24.5.3 CASING

a. Where called for, permanent steel casing shall be installed to the plan elevation or to the elevation designated by the
Engineer in the field. When the top of the drilled shaft is below the surface of the ground, installation of additional
large diameter casing may be required to extend above the working level to minimize the possibility of foreign
materials or water entering the top of the shaft.

b. Casings shall be of adequate size and thickness to safely retain the adjacent earth materials and water from entering the
shaft excavation, without exceeding allowable steel stresses, distortion, or collapse of the casing.

c. A protective casing is also to be provided, where required, to serve as protection for personnel entering the shaft
excavations not provided with casings as specified above. Casing size and thickness shall meet the requirements stated

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AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering 8-24-9


Concrete Structures and Foundations

above. The outside diameter of the protective casing shall be as large as possible, yet small enough to be lowered and
removed without damage to the sides of the shaft.

d. If conditions are such that casing withdrawal will cause dislocation of the reinforcing steel or permit sloughing soils to
enter the shaft, a double casing should be used. By this method, the shaft is drilled oversize and a temporary casing
installed. A light gage permanent inner casing the same size as the required shaft diameter is then installed. This inner
casing shall be of sufficient strength to serve as a form for the concrete shaft, but need not be designed for soil pressure.
Concrete is then placed within the permanent inner casing. After the concrete has set, the annular space between the
permanent casing and surrounding soil is filled with grout, lean concrete, sand or by another approved method and the
temporary outer casing is withdrawn.

24.5.4 BELLS OR UNDERREAMS

Before belling, the Engineer shall determine that the formation encountered at the plan elevation is adequate. When shafts are
required to be belled, the bells shall be formed either by hand or by use of special belling equipment to the angle and slope
called for on the drawings. The bottoms of bells shall be thoroughly cleaned of all loose materials and inspected before the
concrete is placed.

24.5.5 SOCKETS

When sockets are required, they shall be formed by machine or by hand to the proper size and depth called for in the plans.
Sides and bottom of sockets must be thoroughly cleaned of all loose material since the bond of the concrete to the socket sides
is used in design.

24.5.6 TOLERANCES (2010)

The center of the top of each shaft shall not vary from its design location by more than 1/24 of the shaft diameter, or 3 inches
(75 mm), whichever is less, and the shaft shall not be out of plumb by more than 1.5 percent of the length, not exceeding 12.5
percent of shaft diameter.

24.5.7 DEWATERING

Suitable dewatering procedures shall be as agreed upon between the Engineer and Contractor as determined at such time as
conditions warrant. Unless otherwise agreed, the shaft at the time of placement of steel reinforcing cage, if any, and concrete
shall be essentially free of standing water in excess of 2 inches (50 mm) deep.

24.5.8 INSPECTION (2010)1

Immediately prior to placement of any reinforcement or concrete, each shaft shall be thoroughly inspected as directed by the
Engineer to ascertain that the shaft has been properly prepared, that the bearing material is compatible with design
requirements, and whether additional investigation of the bottom is required. If conditions vary from the assumed conditions
determined by the borings, additional investigation shall be conducted as directed by the Engineer.

24.5.9 PLACING REINFORCING STEEL (2010)

Reinforcing steel shall be prefabricated and placed as a unit immediately prior to concrete operations. In order to minimize
displacement of reinforcing steel cage when casing is pulled, the cage may be reinforced by welding horizontal bands to the
cage at about 5 feet (1,520 mm) intervals. When concrete is placed by tremie methods, temporary hold-down devices shall be
employed to prevent uplift of the cage during concrete placement.

1
See C - Commentary (2010).

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Drilled Shaft Foundations

24.5.10 PLACING CONCRETE

24.5.10.1 Dry Hole

Prevent segregation of concrete through use of tube, sectionalized pipe or other means to direct the free fall of concrete, so that
it does not strike the sides of reinforcement in the shaft.

24.5.10.2 Under Water

Utilize a tremie or pumped concrete in accordance with Part 1, Materials, Tests and Construction Requirements,
Article 1.15.10 and Part 24, Drilled Shaft Foundations, Article 24.3.2.6.

24.5.10.3 Consolidation

Rodding or mechanical vibrating is necessary only for the top 5 feet (1,520 mm) of shaft. Any special requirements for
concrete placement shall be approved by the Engineer.

24.5.11 CASING REMOVAL (2010)

a. In situations where temporary casing is to be removed, the head of concrete inside the casing must be adequate to
preclude infiltration of water and sluffage of the shaft face and sides.

b. Elapsed time from beginning of concrete placement in cased portion of shaft, until extraction of casing is begun, shall
not exceed one hour. 1
c. Extreme care shall be taken when a casing is removed to prevent subsidence of the surrounding ground.

d. Elevation of top of the steel cage should be carefully checked before and after casing extraction. The top of the
concrete shall not raise during extraction of the casing.

e. The exterior temporary casing, if a double-cased shaft, shall not be removed until three (3) days after the shaft is 3
poured.

24.5.12 CONTINUITY OF WORK

Drilled shaft construction work shall be planned so that all required operations proceed in a continuous manner until the shaft
is complete. A precise time schedule agreement between the Contractor and the Engineer should be established. Provision 4
shall be made for protecting the shaft and adjacent construction in case of unforeseen interruptions. Such provisions shall be
approved by the Engineer before drilling begins.

24.5.13 RECORDS

An accurate record shall be kept of each drilled shaft as installed. The record shall show the top and bottom elevations, shaft
and bell diameters, depths of test holes if required, date the shaft is excavated, inspection report of the bearing stratum, depth
of water in excavation at time of placing steel and concrete, quantity of concrete placed compared with theoretical quantity,
and any other pertinent data. Records shall be made and signed by both the project superintendent and inspector and
distributed to proper authorities daily.

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Concrete Structures and Foundations

SECTION 24.6 TESTING

24.6.1 MATERIAL TESTING (2010)

Materials used in construction of drilled shafts should be sampled and tested as designated elsewhere in Part 1 of this Chapter.
At least two (2) concrete test cylinders shall be taken for each shaft. When permanent steel casing is used in determining the
capacity of the shaft, certified mill test reports in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 15 shall be provided to document
the adequacy of the material properties of the casing.

24.6.2 CAPACITY TESTING (2010)1

Drilled shafts may be static load tested per ASTM D1143 “Standard Method of Testing Piles under Axial Compressive Load.”
As an alternate, drilled shafts may be tested by use of a hydraulic load cell or other method as approved by the Engineer.

24.6.3 INTEGRITY TESTING (2010)2

It is essential that the excavation for drilled shafts, placement of permanent casing or placement and extraction of temporary
casing, placement of reinforcing steel and placement of concrete be conducted in a manner such that all construction
operations are under close supervision to verify that completed shaft will not contain any voids, deleterious or other extraneous
material or other defects that may reduce the ability of the shaft to support its design loading. When shafts are constructed
under conditions where all elements of the shaft’s construction cannot be reliably inspected, the use of Crosshole Sonic Log
(CSL) testing shall be employed to verify the integrity of the shaft(s).

CSL testing shall be performed by firms specializing in such testing and having a minimum of 5 years prior documented
related experience. Prior to testing, testing personnel, their qualifications and all elements of the testing process shall be
submitted to the Engineer for approval. All CSL testing procedures and equipment shall conform to the requirements of
ASTM D6760. CSL testing shall not commence until a minimum of 24 hours has elapsed after placement of the shaft
concrete.

C - COMMENTARY

-2010-

C - 24.1.1 SCOPE (2010) (Reference 80)

f. Vertical drilled shafts, adequately reinforced, can accommodate significant lateral loading. Internal moments and
shears are highly dependent not only on the loading condition, but also on the physical properties of the material
through which the shaft passes. For additional information see Handbook on Design of Piles and Drilled Shafts Under
Lateral Load, U.S. DOT Report No. FHWA–IP-84-11 and Drilled Shafts: Construction Procedures and Design
Methods, U.S. DOT Report No. FHWA-IF-99-025.

C - 24.3.2 THE TRANSFER OF LOAD FROM THE DRILLED SHAFT TO THE ROCK OR SOIL
BEARING STRATA (2010)

For drilled shafts it is very important that the Engineer work closely with the geotechnical engineer in order that both have a
clear understanding of what portion of the applied load to the drilled shaft is resisted by side friction and what is resisted by
end bearing. The interaction of side friction with end bearing is often very complex and the possibility of large and possibly
unsafe settlement occurring prior to complete mobilization of the anticipated end bearing resistance must be considered.

1
See C - Commentary (2010).
2
See C - Commentary (2010).

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Drilled Shaft Foundations

C - 24.3.2.6 SHAFTS UNDER WATER

When drilled shafts are to be constructed under water the concrete as it is placed in the casing may carry miscellaneous debris
(rock cuttings, sediment, diluted concrete, etc.) to the top of the shaft. Therefore, the top portion of the shaft in this situation
may contain poor quality concrete. It is recommended for such conditions that concrete in the casing be carried 1 to 2 feet
(300 to 600 mm) above the final top of shaft elevation to allow for the careful removal of that portion of the shaft which may
contain such deleterious material.

C - 24.5.8 INSPECTION (2010)

For further information on the inspection of drilled shafts, the following document is available.

Drilled Shaft Inspector’s Manual


Deep Foundations Institute
326 Lafayette Avenue
Hawthorne, NJ 07506

C - 24.6.2 CAPACITY TESTING (2010)

In lieu of a static load test which may be inefficient due to the typical large capacity of drilled shafts relative to driven piles,
consideration may be given to the use of a hydraulic load cell referred to as an Osterberg Cell®. This test method uses an
instrumented hydraulic cell placed typically near the tip of the shaft. After placement and curing of the shaft concrete the cell
is activated, loading the tip of the shaft and providing an upward force on the shaft above the cell. The use of the cell thus can
provide a measurement of tip base capacity as well as the frictional force developed along the side of the shaft. After testing, 1
the hydraulic fluid is replaced with a high strength grout. Use of this test method should be reserved for experienced specialty
contractors and requires the submission and approval of proposed test details.

C - 24.6.3 INTEGRITY TESTING (2010)1

In the past the taking of concrete cores of drilled shafts was the primary means of ascertaining the quality and consolidation of 3
the shaft concrete. As an alternate to coring for determination of the quality of drilled shaft concrete, the measurement of the
response of ultrasonic pulse waves as they pass from a signal source to a receiver source within the shaft concrete will provide
an indication of the soundness of shaft. This method of testing is often referred to as Crosshole Sonic Log (CSL) Testing.
This method utilizes a number of tubes placed within the shaft to allow for transmission and reception of the ultrasonic pulse
waves. After testing, the tubes are fully grouted.

As opposed to coring, which verifies the concrete quality in the immediate vicinity of the core only, CSL Testing provides for 4
greater coverage of the shaft. CSL Testing is, however, limited to the area of the shaft within the arrangement of the CSL tubes
and therefore does not provide an assessment of concrete quality outside of the interior of the reinforcing steel cage. Also the
decision to use CSL Testing must be made before concrete placement. Therefore, if anomalies occur during the placement of
the shaft concrete, which may lead to questioning of the concrete integrity, coring remains the only viable test for such
situations.

Use of Crosshole Sonic Log Testing should be reserved for specialty firms with satisfactory experience in the use of this
method. Prior to testing, submittals detailing the materials to be used, the number of tubes, the vertical spacing of the tests and
the procedures to be employed should be made to the engineer for review and approval, if acceptable.

Where the CSL test indicates void or other anomalies present in the shaft, or when supplementary testing when the concrete
for the shaft is placed under water or where the use of a slurry is employed, the use of sample cores of approximate 2 inches

1
See Reference 148.

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Concrete Structures and Foundations

(50 mm) in diameter and extending the entire length of the shaft may be employed to verify the adequate consolidation and
composition of the concrete. After coring, the hole shall be filled with a cement grout compatible with the shaft concrete.

© 2017, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

8-24-14 AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering