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There is increasing concern in many countries that newspapers are not being read and the news on

television is not being watched by many young people. As a result, young people in these countries
are not up-to-date with or even concerned about local, national and international events.

The major causes of this problem are that most newspapers and news programmes are designed
for an adult audience and are not presented in a format that teenagers find attractive. Few young
people read newspapers because the language is too difficult and the style and content is usually
quite serious. A lack of interest in the news is also due to the fact that young people are fascinated
by new technology, such as computers and the Internet. As a result of this there is a lower interest
in traditional news formats, which are considered unappealing and unfashionable.

There are some strategies that can be used to encourage young people to keep abreast of the news.
The first is to have news agencies present the news in formats that are appealing for the young. The
easiest way to do this would be to present news on internet sites that are designed for a younger
audience. Another way to confront the problem is to have schools involved in the publication of
regular school newspapers. Recent local, national and international news events could be included,
although schools should also encourage pupils to be involved in the writing of articles and
submissions. This newspaper could then be distributed to all the pupils, which means a greater
number of young people would regularly read news stories.

The low number of young people reading newspapers and following the news on television can be
increased by presenting the news in formats that are appealing to them. The key is to utilise
websites and also have schools publish their own newspapers, which students are involved in.
Examinations are one of the most common methods of measuring learning in education
systems throughout the world. At virtually every stage of the learning process, exams are
used to verify that the learner is ready to move on to the next stage. However, many people
believe that the role of examinations should be reconsidered.

There are clearly certain advantages to exams. They help to ensure fairness by imposing
the same conditions on all exam candidates. They are also relatively versatile; different
types of exam questions, for example, multiple-choice questions and essay tasks, can test
different sorts of reasoning ability. However, exams also have clear drawbacks. Test-wise
candidates can often perform well on exams without having good underlying knowledge
or skills. On the other hand, some test-takers perform poorly in exams simply because of
anxiety. Some teachers and learners focus only on those aspects of the curriculum that are
likely to be tested, thus narrowing the educational experience for all.

A number of measures should be taken to address these concerns. Wherever possible,


exams should match the content and activities of the learning environment. Exam tasks
should be varied to give fair opportunities to candidates with different types of skills. Other
types of assessment should also be considered; assignment writing, for example, to assess
independent learning and research skills, or group projects, to measure teamwork ability.

Exams clearly have a role to play in ensuring proper, objective assessment of


achievement. However, exams need to be carefully designed and supplemented with other
forms of assessment if they are to be a truly useful component of the educational system.
The number of vegetarian in a community may depend on various factors, for example the
traditions of the country, the wealth of the country, the religion or the age group.
Therefore, the reasons why people choose to exclude meat and fish from their diet may
also vary.

Some people become vegetarian because they believe that this will benefit their health.
Undoubtedly, eating too much meat, especially too much red meat, is not to be
recommended. Moreover, the fact that there are healthy populations in some parts of the
world where no one eats meat proves that it is not, as some people claim, an essential part
of the human diet. However, it is important to ensure that enough protein, for example, is
included in the diet from other sources. Where vegetarianism is not a tradition, this may
require some careful planning.

In my experience, it is quite common for people to become vegetarians because they feel
that it is selfish to eat meat or because meat production increases global warming. They
may also feel that if no one ate meat, there would be no food shortage, because meat
production uses up food resources. This idealistic point of view is very attractive, but it is
hard to judge whether it is in fact correct.

In some families, if a teenager decides to become a vegetarian, they may do so partly out
of a spirit of rebellion, because this behaviour can be interpreted as a criticism of their
parents’ way of life. However, provided that they continue to eat healthily, the parents
should not raise objections, in my opinion. Vegetarianism is a valid choice in life. Moreover,
research shows that vegetarians tend to be healthier in many ways than meat-eaters.

Personally, I think that being a vegetarian is a good idea in principle as there are proven
health benefits and probably social benefits as well. However, it does not suit everybody,
and I doubt whether it will ever be a universal choice.
Crime is an issue of increasing concern around the world, and more money than ever
before is being spent on the detection and punishment of criminal activity. The reasons
why people commit crime are countless, but drugs and alcohol, social problems and
poverty play a major role. To solve these problems, governments can either focus on
draconian punishments, or improve employment opportunities, invest in good housing
projects and tackle drug and alcohol abuse.

One of the main causes of criminality is the use, sale and trafficking of narcotics. For
example, the sale of drugs is organised by armed criminal gangs who illegally traffic drugs
and control their business with extreme violence. Drug-related crime does not end there;
drug users often steal to fund theft habit, resulting in further acts of petty crime. The social
problems connected with crime are said to be the result of single-parent families, absent
role models and bad living conditions. The children from these broken families often
become criminals because they feel alienated from society. Poverty is also a reason behind
crime. When unskilled jobs pay so little and prices are so high, it's easy to see why some
turn to crime for an income.

Crime can, of course, be dealt with by toughening criminal laws and introducing longer
custodial sentences for persistent criminals, but some of the best ways to deal with crime
may be to deal with the social causes. Increasing employment opportunities in poorer areas
would improve living standards, which would mean access to affordable housing and
education. Government funding for drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes would help
reduce dependency on stimulants and the need for the criminal activity that surrounds
them.

In conclusion, crime is a major issue, but cracking down on offenders with a harsh penal
system is not the only way. These problems can be solved through the government
providing jobs and funding which should raise living standards and dramatically reduce
crime levels.
In years gone by, before the age of the telegraph or telephone, letter writing was the main
means of communication for most people. Since then we have developed faster and more
direct ways of contacting people, and personal mail has become relatively rare.

It is true that in many cases where our parents would have written a letter, we prefer to
pick up the phone, to email or even to text instead. These are perfectly suitable ways of
inviting friends to call round or exchanging news with a family member, for example, and
they have the advantage that the communication is immediate and we can receive a reply
very quickly. In business, too, fax and email are extremely useful.

However, in my opinion there are times when there is no alternative to a letter. Letters are
generally more formal and carefully composed than emails. This makes them more suitable
for occasions when they are likely to be kept and re-read, perhaps several times, by the
recipient, as with formal letters of thanks or sympathy. In addition, letters provide a written
record, unlike telephone calls, so they are also a better way of setting out an important or
complex argument, as in official complaints or legal matters.

In conclusion, I would definitely agree that there are fewer times when we need to write
letters than in the past. On the other hand, I feel there are still some important occasions
when a letter is the most appropriate form of communication.
The question of whether we should oblige parents to immunise their children against
common diseases is a social rather than a medical one. Since we are free to choose what
we eat or drink or how much exercise we take, why should the medical treatment we decide
to undergo be any different?
(Introduction poses a new question to introduce the topic)

Medical researchers and governments are primarily interested in overall statistics and
trends and in money-saving schemes, which fail to take into consideration the individual's
concerns and rights. While immunisation against diseases such as tetanus and whooping
cough may be effective, little information is released about the harmful effects of
vaccinations, which can sometimes result in growth problems in children or even death.
(Concessional argument)

The body is designed to resist disease and to create its own natural immunity through
contact with that disease. When children are given artificial immunity, we create a
vulnerable society, which is entirely dependent on immunisation. In the event that mass
immunisation programmes were to cease, the society as a whole would be more at risk than
ever before.
(Writer's opinion stated plainly and forcefully-as fact)

In addition there is the issue of the rights of the individual. As members of a society, why
should we be obliged to subject our children to this potentially harmful practice? Some
people may also be against immunisation on religious grounds and their needs must be
considered when any decisions are made.
(Main idea with supporting arguments)

For these reasons I feel strongly that immunisation programmes should not be obligatory
and that the individual should have the right to choose whether or not to participate.
(Personal opinion to sum up. Re-statement of original question in own words.)
The growth of the fast food industry has, without doubt, impacted on the eating habits
and the health of many societies around the world. Diabetes, high cholesterol, heart and
respiratory problems are all on the rise due to fatty and sugar-rich food. However, the
question is whether higher tax would improve this situation or not.

From an economic point of view, higher tax might seem sensible. In countries such as the
USA, Australia and Britain, the healthcare system spends a large part of its budget on people
with diet-related health problems. It could be argued that these people have caused their
own illnesses because of their choice of food. In this case, why should they expect the state
to pay for their treatment? The tax could help fund the healthcare system.

However, we also need to consider which socio-economic group consumes fast food as the
main part of their diet. Statistics indicate that lower income groups eat more of this food
than wealthier people. One possible reason for this is that fast food is far cheaper than
fresh produce. This is because many governments offer large subsidies to farmers who
provide products for the fast food industry, such as corn, wheat and beef. Fruit and
vegetables, on the other hand, are not subsidised. Research suggests that many families
simply cannot afford to buy healthy food or pay higher taxes on fast food. For them, fast
food is not a choice but a necessity.

In conclusion, imposing a higher tax on fast food does not seem to be the answer. If the
government chose to do this, it would only lead to greater poverty and families facing
further hardship.
Newspapers and magazines are full of stories about famous people and the wonderful
lifestyles that they enjoy. I think it's something that we get used to. We expect to see them
wearing very expensive clothes and, going to amazing parties. It seems natural that if you
have a lot of money, you will spend it in these ways.
(Opening paragraph agrees with first part of premise.)

Some people who are rich and famous do manage to have a happy life as well. They get
married and have children and, although they have to work hard, they still have time to give
to their family. Victoria and David Beckham are just one example of a happy celebrity
couple.
(Second paragraph disputes second part of premise.)

However, money doesn't always bring happiness. In fact, sometimes the opposite is true.
Stars often talk to the press about the pressures of being rich and famous. Some of them
end up drinking too much or taking too many drugs. The actress Elizabeth Taylor, for
example, has been in clinics many times for these problems. The divorce rate is also very
high among celebrities. Often their marriages last only a short period of time and they re-
mary very quickly but the same thing happens again.
(Third paragraph agrees and gives two clear examples.)

Ultimately, I think it depends on the person. I don't really believe that being unhappy is a
consequence of fame but I do think that it may be very difficult to cope with having a lot of
money and fame. Celebrities are ordinary people underneath and perhaps some of them
are not strong enough to deal with their fame.
(Conclusion provides a possible explanation and gives a personal view.)
Practical skills are very important and it could be argued that they are as important as
academic qualifications when it comes to getting a job. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that
academic qualifications will ever become unnecessary.

There are certain manual jobs such as cleaning and labouring where formal qualifications
are less important. Employers in these industries are more likely to employ people with a
good working knowledge of the job and what it entails. However, even in these jobs it is
important for people to have a minimum level of education, especially if they want to rise
above the lowest working level. How can a person without good writing and mathematical
skills balance a budget or manage staff? How can such a person make informed decisions
about which products to use or safety issues in the workplace?

Having said this, a student graduating from university with the highest level of
qualifications, but limited practical skills, still has a great deal to learn. None of us would
expect or want a doctor without many years of practical experience and training to perform
an essential operation. Students from all disciplines need to understand that entering the
job market with a degree in management, for example, does not automatically qualify them
for a managerial role.

Clearly, education is important in teaching the theoretical side of any profession. This
theoretical knowledge forms an important basis for practical skills which are also essential.
In truth neither one nor the other is dispensable when it comes to getting a good job.
Many countries in the world rely on motorways for speedy and efficient transportation, as
they are a very convenient way of travelling long distances. However, motorways also have
negative aspects such as dangerous traffic, damage to the environment and pollution. In
this essay, I will look at some of the problems of motorways and how they can be
overcome.

One major problem of motorways is that they can be dangerous. In many countries, the
speed limit on motorways is very high. This means that any accidents are more likely to be
serious and involve many vehicles. Sometimes in bad weather, several vehicles crash into
each other and many people are killed or injured. This problem could be solved in a number
of ways. People could have special lessons on how to drive safely on motorways. In
addition, special signs could be displayed when driving conditions are bad to make people
drive more slowly and safely. Alternatively, the general speed limit could be reduced
slightly.

Secondly, motorways can spoil the environment. Motorways often go through beautiful
areas and may damage plants and wildlife. This problem could be avoided by building
motorways through less beautiful areas or putting some sections in tunnels. In addition,
the large amount of traffic on motorways produces both air pollution and noise pollution.
However, governments could help to reduce air pollution by making environmentally-
friendly cars cheaper. Noise pollution could be reduced by changing motorway surfaces or
by putting up sound-proof fences.

Despite the problems of motorways, they are necessary and useful. With careful
preparation and planning, the problems they cause could be reduced. People today are
also more aware of environmental issues and as a result cars and road transport in general
are becoming more environmentally friendly.
There is no doubt that education and the learning process has changed since the
introduction of computers: The search for information has become easier and amusing, and
connectivity has expedited the data availability. Though experts systems have made
computers more intelligent, they have not yet become a substitute of the human
interaction in the learning process. In my opinion what can be expected is a change of the
teachers’ role, but not their disappearance from the classroom.

Nobody can argue that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers.
The mere activity of touching and exploring this device constitutes an enjoyable task for a
child. This, accompanied by the relaxing attitude and software interactivity, usually
contributes to a better grasping of new knowledge. At a higher educational level the
availability of digital books, simulators and other academic materials provide the student
with an ever accessible source of information, that otherwise would not be at hand.

But, besides the increasing complexity and behaviour of intelligent software, which is
usually embedded in the academic digital material, the need for human interaction in the
learning process will always be present, at least in the foreseeable future. There is the
necessity for a human being to be able to determine what the specifics needs of each
individual are. The expertise of a teacher in how to explain and adapt complex concepts to
different individuals can hardly be mimicked by a computer, no matter how sophisticated
its software is.

As computers are becoming a common tool for teaching, teachers should be more aware
of their role as guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitters of facts.
They have to be open minded to the changes that are taking places, keep updated and
serve as problem solvers in the learning process, thus allowing students to discover the
fact for themselves.

To summarize, in my personal view, teachers play and will continue to play an important
role in the classroom, especially at the primary level. No matter how complex computers
become, there will be no replacement for the human interaction, but in the way haw this
interaction takes place.
According to a section of society, the primary goal of tertiary education is to enable
individuals secure coveted jobs. However others strongly believe that goal of higher
education is to achieve greater good; both for individuals and society. I strongly believe that
purpose of university education is far beyond job prospects and in the course of the essay
I will discuss both the viewpoints.

There are specific reasons why people believe that tertiary education is the gateway to a
lucrative job. Firstly market researches in the United States and other developed countries
have shown that post graduates are able to command a considerable higher salary at
workplace when compared to graduates or simple high school diploma holders. Moreover,
the professional world of certain white collared, highly respected professions, like those of
physicians, engineers, scientists can only be pursued, after graduating from the respective
university courses. Furthermore, in certain fields like management, the credibility of various
universities are judged by their ability to generate glittering well-paid employment offers
for their fresh graduates, during their campus placements. Hence university education is
definitely perceived as a means of better employability.

In this context it is worth mentioning that, apart from generating lucrative jobs for
students, universities also benefit the nation by creating educated societies, containing an
immense pool of forward thinking individuals, who can contribute towards social
development by their respective expertise. Individuals graduating from universities also
additionally benefit from the multicultural environments that promote intercultural
tolerance and brotherhood. The process of tertiary education also promotes teamwork and
collective development amongst individuals. Over and above, numerous long lasting
friendships, business partnerships and courtships also bloom from the university campus life.

Finally, to sum up, it can be confidently stated that apart from generating respectable
employment, there are numerous associated positive aspects of university education, which
are of great social and individual significance.
Governments, in all countries, have some visions and responsibilities and they seek to achieve the
overall developments of the country for a prosperous future. Thus many governments think that
economic progress is the key to success while others disagree with this notion and opine that
many other aspects such as green environment, security, social values, traditions and peace
among nations are even more important. I personally believe that economic success of a nation is
an important goal for a government but this is not most important.

To start, many developed countries have already gained the economic progress and yet they are
suffering from growing crime rates, hostile relationship with other nations, internal chaos,
corruption and outbreak of epidemic diseases. Thus economic progress had failed to ensure
better life standard of citizens and this is a proof that only economic progress should not be the
vision of a government. On the contrary, without economic stability, a government cannot
ensure advancement in education, defence, healthcare, international trade and safety of citizens.

Again, industrialisation and success in trades have ensured economic stability to many western
and Asian countries and yet the environmental damage that has caused is overwhelming. What
good money would bring to a nation if they cannot build a safe and green environment for the
next generation? However, many people would also argue that it is better to bestow a prosperous
country to the new generation rather than leaving a broken economy.

Furthermore, economic progress requires many monopoly business implementations, dominance


in international trade and use of cheap labours from other countries. That can only make other
nations hostile and history tells us that wars are imminent due this practice. On the contrary,
without economic success, a country cannot defend itself from outer threats, fight with epidemic
diseases and cannot ensure proper health care facilities to its citizens. Finally, some would say,
with the economic progress the country will lose its old way of living, traditional values and
uniqueness as a nation. But it should also be considered that change is the fundamental basis of
development and if a nation worries too much about the old way of living, it would fail to ensure
progress compared to other nations.

In conclusion, there is no doubt that economic progress should be an important goal for a
government but there are still many aspects which are equally important.
I am in consummate accord with the statement that, the earth’s natural green reserves purify its
atmosphere and functions synonymously as that of the mammalian lungs. I also advocate the view
that, forest destruction will ruin our present world.

Firstly, from our basic knowledge of plant physiology, it can be restated that, plants by the process
of photosynthesis convert the harmful carbon-dioxide gas into oxygen, without which life cannot
exist. Thus in a wider perspective, it can be stated that, the earth’s forests purify the atmosphere
and thereby help in sustaining life. Secondly, environmentalists have proven that, the rapid
destruction of forests is also a leading cause of global warming. Hence, destruction of the natural
green reserves may lead to such a surge in the global temperature that agricultural land may
become arid, leading to wide spread famine and deaths. Thirdly, forests also house diverse forms
of life and these would become extinct if we continue to destroy their natural habitats.

Furthermore, scientific research has proven that forest ecosystem act as natural scavengers and by
the process of biodegradation, forest ecology helps in producing crude oil, which fuels our modern
world and its unavailability is unimaginable as this will directly catalyse a global economic crisis.
Finally forests are also source of numerous medicinal plants, from which varieties of modern
medicines are produced; Quinine, an antimalarial drug, produced from the barks of Cinchona trees
is the best possible example. Hence forest destruction will also be a bane for the medical
community.

Thus the harmony of the present world will be ruined if our natural green reserves are continuously
destroyed and there is a theoretical possibility that the blue planet might become lifeless if these
green lungs are totally wiped out.
A vast majority of our adult life is spent working; hence it is important that we have an appropriate
job that fulfils our aspirations. While financial remuneration is an important factor that attracts
individuals towards a specific work, I disagree that it is the most significant factor that makes a job
ideal.

Firstly, the importance of financial security cannot be undermined in the modern materialistic
world. Since a vast majority of people earn their livelihood from their workplace, it will be difficult
for individuals with single source of income, to make their ends meet, from underpaying jobs. Thus
underpaid employees, because of their financial burdens, may not be able to offer dedication and
commitment at workplace, which in turn results in under-performance. Secondly, the educated
refrain from being employed in underpaying jobs, as these are less attractive. Hence the
remuneration associated, is an important factor that determines the value of a particular job.

On the other hand, to glorify higher earning as the sole determiner of an ideal job is incorrect. This
is because various other factors like work and life balance; working place culture and adequate
recognition contribute towards satisfaction and contentment in work. Thus an astronomically higher
paying job with a demanding employer, with poor social life in a tedious work place environment
will lead to higher job dissatisfaction, which in turn will also promote higher attrition.

Henceforth, it can be stated that apart from financial remuneration, which is a major determiner of
a good occupation, job satisfaction is also an equally important associated factor that determines
the value of a specific job.