0 Suka0 Tidak suka

0 tayangan65 halamannotes

Nov 06, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

notes

© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

notes

© All Rights Reserved

- Accuplacer Study Guide_Math
- Key-1st Qtr Exam Math10
- Notes for Cive1620 Large Type Part 1&2 Full2008 4up
- [Carcione,_et_al.]_Seismic_modeling(BookZZ.org).pdf
- Product on Binomial
- Lecture 18
- Curve Veering
- Determinants and eigenvalue
- Paper 35
- Linear Algebra
- 4ex
- Lecture 20
- Assignment Bca 193
- maths_syllbus
- Group Schedule - 25 Jan 2014
- EN501A
- Matrix Properties
- Book
- Book
- Book

Anda di halaman 1dari 65

Allied Mathematics

ALLIED COURSE I (AC) - ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

UNIT I

Theory of Equations: Relation between roots & coefficients – Transformations of

Equations – Diminishing , Increasing & multiplying the roots by a constant- Forming

equations with the given roots – Rolle’s Theorem, Descarte’s rule of Signs(statement

only) –simple problems.

UNIT II

Matrices : Singular matrices – Inverse of a non-singular matrix using adjoint method -

Rank of a Matrix –Consistency - Characteristic equation , Eigen values, Eigen vectors –

Cayley Hamilton’s Theorem (proof not needed) –Simple applications only

UNIT III

Differentiation: Maxima & Minima – Concavity , Convexity – Points of inflexion -

Partial differentiation – Euler’s Theorem - Total differential coefficients (proof not

needed ) –Simple problems only.

UNIT IV

dx

Integration : Evaluation of integrals of types , , ,

a b sin x

dx

Evaluation using Integration by parts – Properties of definite integrals – Fourier

a b cos x

Series in the range ( 0 , 2 π ) – Odd & Even Functions – Fourier Half range Sine & Cosine Series

UNIT V

Differential Equations: Variables Separables – Linear equations – Second order of types

( a D2 + b D + c ) y = F ( x ) where a,b,c are constants and F ( x ) is one of the following

types (i) eK x (ii) sin (kx) or cos (kx) (iii) x n , n being an integer (iv) eK x F (x).

1

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Unit – I

Theory of Equations

Let us consider

Let the given equation be

= sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time =

finally we get …… = .

Problem:

If α and β are the roots of , find α + β, αβ.

Solution:

Here

=α+β= =

αβ = = .

Problem:

Solve the equation , one root being 1 + 3i.

Solution:

Given equation is cubic. Hence we have 3 roots. One root is (1+3i) = α (say) complex roots

occur in pairs.

β = 1 – 3i is another root.

2

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Sum of the roots taken one at a time

α+β+ = = 0.

i.e., 1 + 3i + 1 – 3i + =0

=–2

Problem:

Solution:

Given equation is cubic. Hence we have three roots.

One root is 3 + i =α

i.e., 3+i +3 i + =

6+ =

Problem:

Solution:

Given . ----- (1)

It has 4 roots. Given 2 + is a root which is clearly irrational. Since irrational roots occur in

pairs, 2 is also a root of the given equation.

3

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

[x (2 + )] [x (2 )] is a factor of (1)

i.e., is a factor.

(-)

(-)

Problem:

Form the equation, with rational coefficients one root of whose roots is .

Solution:

One root is

i.e., x=

i.e., x =

=3

4

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem:

Form the equation with rational coefficients having 1 + and 1 + as two of its roots.

Solution:

Given x = 1 + and x = 1 +

Since complex and irrational roots occur in pairs, we have x = 1 ,x=1 are

also the roots of the required equation.

[x (1 + )] [x (1 + )] [x (1 )] [x (1 )] = 0

i.e., =0

( (

Simplifying we get

Problem:

Solution:

α–d+α+α+d=

3α =

5

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

α=

32 -48 22 -3

0 16 -16 3

32 -32 6 0

Problem:

Find the value of k for which the roots of the equation are in A.P.

Solution:

α–d+α+α+d=

3α =

i.e., α = -1

Problem:

6

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Solution:

i.e., =

i.e., α= .

(-)

(-)

i.e.,

7

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem:

Find the condition that the roots of the equation may be in G.P.

Solution:

-------- (3)

=0

i.e.,

i.e.,

r=

Transformation of Equations:

Problem:

If the roots of are -1, 4, 9, find the equation whose roots are

1, -4, -9.

8

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Solution:

Given -------- (1)

Now we find an equation whose roots are 1, -4, -9 ie., to find an equation whose roots are the

roots of (1) but the signs are changed. Hence in (1) we have to change the sign of odd powers of

x.

Hence the required equation is

i.e.,

Problem:

Solution:

Given -------- (1)

To multiply the roots of (1) by , we have to multiply the successive coefficients beginning with

the second by

i.e.,

i.e.,

Problem:

1 2 1

Remove the fractional coefficients from the equation x 3 x x 1 0.

4 3

9

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Solution:

1 2 1

Given x3 x x 1 0 --------- (1)

4 3

Multiply by the roots of (1) by m, we get

m 2 m2

x3 x x m3 0 --------- (2)

4 3

If m = 12 (L.C.M. of 4 and 3), the fractions will be removed. Put m = 12 in (2), we get

i.e., .

Problem:

Solve the equation 6 x 3 11x 2 3x 2 0 given that its roots are in H.P.

Solution:

1

Its roots are in H.P. x to in (1), we get

x

3 2

1 1 1

6 11 3 2 0

x x x

2x3 3x 2 11x 6 0 2

Now the roots of (2) are in A.P. (Since H.P. is a reciprocal of A.P.). Let the roots of (2) be

d, , d.

3

d d

2

3

3

2

1

3

2

11

Product of the roots taken 3 at the time is ( d) ( d)

2

5

d= .

2

10

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Case(i) :

5 1 1 5 1 1 5

When d and , the roots of 2 are , ,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1

i.e., 2, , 3.

2

The roots of the given equation are the reciprocal of the roots of 2

1 1

i.e., , 2, . are roots of 1

2 3

Case (ii) :

5 1 1 5 1 1 5

When d and , the roots of 2 are , ,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1

i.e., 3, , 2.

2

The roots of the given equation are the reciprocal of the roots of 2

1 1

i.e., , 2 , . are roots of 1

3 2

Problem:

Diminish the roots of x 4 5 x 3 7 x 2 4x 5 0 by 2 and find the transformed equation.

Solution :

Diminishing the roots by 2, we get

2 1 -5 7 -4 5

0 2 -6 2 -4

2 1 -3 1 -2 1 (constant term of the

0 2 -2 -2 transformed equation)

2 1 -1 -1 -4 (coefficient of x)

0 2 2

2 1 1 1 (coefficient of x2)

0 2

2 1 3 (coefficient of x3)

0

1 (coefficient of x4 in the transformed equation)

The transformed equation whose roots are less by 2 of the given equation is

x 4 3x 3 x 2 4 x 1 0

11

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem:

Increase by 7 the roots of the equation 3x 4 7 x 3 15 x 2 x 2 0 and find the transformed

equation.

Solution :

Increasing by 7 the roots of the given equation is the same as diminishing the roots by -7.

-7 3 7 -15 1 -2

0 -21 98 -581 4060

-7 3 -14 83 -580 4058 (constant term of the

0 -21 245 -2296 transformed equation)

-7 3 -35 328 -2876 (coefficient of x)

0 -21 392

-7 3 -56 720 (coefficient of x2)

0 -21

-7 3 -77 (coefficient of x3)

0

3 (coefficient of x4 in the transformed equation)

The transformed equation is 3x 4 77 x 3 720 x 2 2876 x 4058 0.

Problem:

Find the equation whose roots are the roots of x 4 x 3 10 x 2 4 x 24 0 increased by 2.

Solution :

-2 1 -1 -10 4 24

0 -2 6 8 24

-2 1 -3 -4 12 0 (constant term of the

0 -2 10 -12 transformed equation)

-2 1 -5 6 0 (coefficient of x)

0 -2 14

-2 1 -7 20 (coefficient of x2)

0 -2

-2 1 -9 (coefficient of x3)

0

1 (coefficient of x4 in the transformed equation)

The transformed equation is x 4 9 x 3 20 x 0 .

12

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem:

If , , are the roots of the equation x 3 6x 2 12 x 8 0 , find an equation whose roots are

2, 2, 2.

Solution :

2 1 -6 12 -8

0 2 -8 8

2 1 -4 4 0

0 2 -4

2 1 -2 0

0 2

2 1 0

0

1

The transformed equation is x 3 0.

i.e., 2 0, 2 0, 2 0

i.e., 2, 2, 2.

Problem:

Solution:

Given sign = + + + - + -

+ - + - + -

+ - + + + +

13

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem:

Determine completely the nature of the roots of the equation .

Solution:

Given that

Put x = -x

=5–3

=2

14

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

UNIT -2

MATRICES

A matrix is defined to be a rectangular array of numbers arranged into rows and columns.

It is written as follows:-

a 21 a 22 a 23 ...... a2n

a31 a32 a33 ...... a3n

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

a m1 am2 a m3 ...... am n

(i) A row matrix is a matrix with only one row. E.g., [2 1 3].

(iii) Square matrix is one in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns.

a 21 a 22 a 23 ...... a2n

a31 a32 a33 ...... a3n

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

a m1 am2 a m3 ...... am n

(iv) Scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix in which all the elements along the main diagonal are

equal.

15

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

a1 0 0 0

0 a1 0 0

E.g.,

0 0 a1 0

0 0 0 a1

(v) Unit matrix is a scalar matrix in which all the elements along the main diagonal are unity.

I2 = , I3 =

(vi) Null or Zero matrix. If all the elements in a matrix are zeros, it is called a null or zero

(vii) Transpose matrix. If the rows and columns are interchanged in matrix A, we obtain a

second

matrix that is called the transpose of the original matrix and is denoted by At.

(viii) Addition of matrices. Matrices are added, by adding together corresponding elements of

the matrices. Hence only matrices of the same order may be added together. The result

of addition of two matrices is a matrix of the same order whose elements are the sum of

a1 a2 b1 b2 a1 b1 a2 b2

E.g., a3 a4 b3 b4 a3 b3 a4 b4

a5 a6 b5 b6 a5 b5 a6 b6

Problem:

1 0 2 2 1 1

Given A 3 1 4 ;B 3 0 2 ; compute 3A-4B

5 0 6 0 1 1

16

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Solution :

1 0 2 2 1 1

3 A 4B 33 1 4 4 3 0 2

5 0 6 0 1 1

3 0 6 8 4 4

9 3 12 12 0 8

15 0 18 0 4 4

5 4 10

3 3 20

15 4 14

x 3 2y 5 1 5

z 4 4x 5 4 2x 1

2 3 1 2 5 20

Solution :

From the equality of these two matices we get the equations

x 3 1 4x 5 2x 1

2y 5 5 2 2 5

z 4 4 3 1 20

Solving these equations we get

x 2, y 5, z 8, 7

Multiplication of Matrices.

If A is a m × n matrix with rows A1, A2, ……, Am and B is a n × p matrix with columns

B1, B2, ….., Bp, then the prodduct AB is a m × p matrix C whose elements are given by

Hence C = AB =

17

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Inverse of a Matrix

2 1 1

Problem: Find the inverse of the matrix 0 1 3 .

2 1 1

Solution:

2 1 1

1 3 0 3 0 1

det 0 1 3 2 1 ( 1)

1 1 2 1 2 1

2 1 1

= 2(1 + 3) – 1(-6) – 1(-2)

=8+6+2

= 16.

Form the matrix of minor determinants:

1 3 0 3 0 1

1 1 2 1 2 1

4 6 2

1 1 2 1 2 1

= 0 4 4 .

1 1 2 1 2 1

4 6 2

1 1 2 1 2 1

1 3 0 3 0 1

Adjust the signs of every other element (starting with the second entry):

4 6 2

0 4 4

4 6 2

Take the transpose and divide by the determinant:

1 0 1

4 0 4 4 4

1 3 1 3

6 4 6 = 8 4 8

16 2 4 2 1 1 1

8 4 8

1 0 1

4 4

So the inverse matrix is 3 1 3 .

8 4 8

1 1 1

8 4 8

1 2 2

Problem: Show that A = 2 1 2 satisfies the equation A2 – 4A – 5I = 0. Hence determine its

2 2 1

inverse.

1 2 2 1 2 2 9 8 8

2

Solution: A = 2 1 2 2 1 2 = 8 9 8

2 2 1 2 2 1 8 8 9

18

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

4 8 8

4A = 8 4 8

8 8 4

5 0 0

5I = 0 5 0

0 0 5

9 8 8 4 8 8 5 0 0

A2 – 4A – 5I = 8 9 8 - 8 4 8 - 0 5 0

8 8 9 8 8 4 0 0 5

0 0 0

= 0 0 0

0 0 0

2

Therefore A – 4A – 5I = 0.

Multiplying by A-1, we have

A-1A2 – 4 A-1A – 5 A-1I = 0

i.e., A – 4I – 5 A-1 = 0

Therefore 5 A-1 = A – 4I

1 2 2 4 0 0

= 2 1 2 – 0 4 0

2 2 1 0 0 4

3 2 2

= 2 3 2

2 2 3

3 2 2

1

-1

Therefore A = 2 3 2 .

5

2 2 3

Rank of a Matrix

A sub-matrix of a given matrix A is defined to be either A itself or an array remaining

after certain rows and columns are deleted from A.

The determinants of the square sub-matrices are called the minors of A.

The rank of an m × n matrix A is r iff every minor in A of order r + 1 vanishes while

there is at least one minor of order r which does not vanish.

19

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

1 1 2

Problem: Find the rank of the matrix 2 6 3 .

3 13 4

Solution:

1 1 2

Minor of third order = 2 6 3

3 13 4

= 0.

The minors of order 2 are obtained by deleting any one row and any one column.

1 1

One of the minors of orders 2 is

2 6

Its value is 8.

Hence the rank of the given matrix is 2.

1 2 5

Problem: Find the rank of the matrix A = 2 3 4 .

3 5 7

Solution: The given matrix is

1 1 2

A= 2 6 3

3 13 4

1 2 5

~ 0 1 6 R2 R2 2 R1

0 1 8 R3 R3 3R1

1 2 5

~ 0 1 6 R2 R2 ( 1)

0 1 8

1 2 5

~ 0 1 6

0 0 2 R3 R3 R2

1 0 0

~ 0 1 0 C2 C2 2C1

0 0 2 C3 C3 5C1

20

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

1 0 0

~ 0 1 0

0 0 2 C3 C3 6C 2

1 0 0

~ 0 1 0

0 0 1 R R3

3

2

1 0 0

Hence A = 0 1 0 which is a unit matrix of order 3.

0 0 1

Hence the rank of the given matrix is 3.

Let the given system of linear equations be

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + …… + a1n xn = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + …… + a2n xn = b2

……………………………………………………

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + …… + amn xn = bm

Step 1:Construct the coefficient matrix which is denoted by

a11 a12 a`13 ...... a1n

a 21 a 22 a 23 ...... a2n

A a31 a32 a33 ...... a3n

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

a m1 am2 a m3 ...... am n

a11 a12 ...... a1n b1

a 21 a 22 ...... a2n b2

[ A, B] a31 a32 ...... a3n b3

...... ...... ...... ...... ......

a m1 am2 ...... am n bm

Step 3: Find the ranks of both the coefficient matrix and augmented matrix which are denoted by R(A)

and R(A, B).

Step 4: Compare the ranks of R (A) and R(A, B) we have the following results.

(a) If R(A) = R(A, B) = n (number of unknowns) then the given system of equations are

consistent and have unique solutions.

21

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

(b) If R(A) = R(A, B) < n (number of unknowns) then the given system of equations are

consistent and have infinite number of solutions.

(c) If R(A) ≠ R(A, B) then the given system of equations are inconsistent (that is the given system

of equations have no solution).

Solution: The coefficient matrix

1 2 3

A= 2 0 3

1 1 1

The augmented matrix

1 2 3 2

[A, B] ~ 2 0 3 3

1 1 1 0

1 2 3 2

~ 0 1 9 1 R2 R2 2 R1

0 3 2 2 R3 R3 R1

1 2 3 2

9 1 R2

~ 0 1 R2

4 4 4

0 3 2 2

1 2 3 2

9 1 R2

~ 0 1 R2

4 4 4

0 3 2 2

1 2 3 2

9 1

~ 0 1

4 4 4 R3

5 R3

0 0 1 19

19

Here rank of coefficient matrix is 3.

Rank of augmented matrix is 3.

Hence the given system of equations are consistent and have unique solution.

22

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Test the consistency of the following system of equations and if consistent solve

2 x y z 2, x 2 y z 2, 4 x 7 y 5 z 2.

Solution:

The coefficient matrix

2 1 1

A= 1 2 1

4 7 5

The augmented matrix

2 1 1 2

[A, B] ~ 1 2 1 2

4 7 5 2

1 2 1 2

~ 2 1 1 2 R1 ~ R2

4 7 5 2

1 2 1 2

~ 0 5 3 2 R2 R2 2 R1

0 15 9 6 R3 R3 4 R1

1 2 1 2

~ 0 5 3 2

0 5 3 2 R3 R3 R2

Here rank of coefficient matrix is R(A) = 2.

Rank of augmented matrix is R(A, B) = 2.

i.e., R(A) = R(A, B) < 3 (the number of unknowns)

Hence the given system of equations are consistent but have infinite number of solutions.

Here the reduced system is

5y +3z = 2

x + 2y + z = 2

2 3z

i.e., y=

5

2 3z

x=2–z–2( )

5

6 z

=

5

6 k 2 3z

i.e., x= ,y= , z = k where z = k is the parameter.

5 5

23

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Solution of Simultaneous Equations

2x y z 6

Problem: Solve the system of equations x 2 y 3z 6.5

4 x 2 y 5z 2

Solution:

2 1 1 x 6

It can be represented as: 1 2 3 y 6.5 .

4 2 5 z 2

2 1 1

To see whether a solution exists we need to find det 1 2 3 .

4 2 5

2 3 1 3 1 2

This determinant is 2 1 1 = 2(-4) – (-17) + (-10) = -1

2 5 4 5 4 2

Therefore we know that the equations do have a unique solution.

2 1 1

To find the solution we need to find the inverse of the matrix 1 2 3 .

4 2 5

Find the determinant: we have already found that this is -1.

Form the matrix of minor determinants (which, for a particular entry in the matrix, is the determinant

of the 2 by 2 matrix that is left when the row and column containing the entry are deleted):

4 17 10

3 14 8

1 5 3

Adjust the signs of every other element (starting with the second entry):

4 17 10

3 14 8

1 5 3

Take the transpose and divide by the determinant:

4 3 1 4 3 1

1

17 14 5 17 14 5

1 10 8 3 10 8 3

4 3 1

So the inverse matrix is 17 14 5 .

10 8 3

Hence the solutions to the equations are found by

x 4 3 1 6 2.5

y 17 14 5 6.5 1 .

z 10 8 3 2 2

Therefore x = 2.5, y = -1 and z = 2.

24

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation.

1 2 3

Problem: Verify Cayley – Hamilton theorem for the matrix 2 4 5 and hence find the

3 5 6

inverse of A.

Solution : The characteristic equation of matrix A is

λ3 – λ2(1+4+6) + λ(-1-3+0)–[1(-1)-2(-3)+3(-2)] = 0

A3-11A2-4 A+1 = 0

1 2 3 1 2 3 14 25 31

2

A = A .A = 2 4 5 2 4 5 = 25 45 56

3 5 6 3 5 6 31 56 70

3 2

A =A A = 25 45 56 2 4 5 = 283 510 636

31 56 70 3 5 6 353 636 793

3 2

A -11A -4 A+I = 283 510 636 -11 25 45 56 -4 2 4 5 + 0 1 0

353 636 793 31 56 70 3 5 6 0 0 1

0 0 0

= 0 0 0 =0

0 0 0

Hence the theorem is verified.

To find A-1

We have A3-11A2-4 A+I = 0

I = - A3+11A2+4 A

A-1 = -A2-11A+4 I

14 25 31 1 2 3 1 0 0 1 3 2

= - 25 45 56 -11 2 4 5 + 4 0 1 0 A-1 = 3 3 1

31 56 70 3 5 6 0 0 1 2 1 0

25

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

2 1 1

Problem: Find all the eigen values and eigen vectors of the matrix A = 1 1 2

1 2 1

2 1 1

Solution : Given A = 1 1 2

1 2 1

The characteristic equation of the matrix is

λ3 – λ2(2+1+1) + λ(-3+1+1) –[2(-3)-1(-1)-1(-1)] = 0

λ3-4 λ2- λ+4 = 0 , which is the characteristic equation.

1 1 -4 -1 4

0 1 -3 -4

1 -3 -4 0

λ = 1 is a root.

The other roots are λ2-3 λ -4=0

(λ -4)( λ +1) =0

λ = 4 , -1

Hence λ = 1 , 4 , -4.

2 1 1 x1

i.e. 1 1 2 x2 = 0

1 2 1 x3

(2- λ) x1 + x2 - x3 = 0

x1+x2-x3 = 0

x1+0x2-2x3 = 0

-x1-2x2+0x3 = 0

x1+x2-x3 = 0

x1+0x2-2x3 = 0

26

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

x1 x2 x

= = 3

2 0 2 1 0 1

x1 x x

= 2 = 3

2 1 1

2

x1 = 1

1

3x1+x2-x3 = 0

x1+2x2-2x3 = 0

x1 x2 x

= = 3

2 2 6 1 6 1

x1 x 2 x

= = 3

0 1 1

0

x2= 1

1

-2x1+x2-x3 = 0

x1-3x2-2x3 = 0

x1 x2 x

= = 3

2 3 4 1 6 1

x1 x x

= 2 = 3

1 1 1

1 2 0 1

x3= 1 . Hence Eigen vector = 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

27

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

2 2 1

Problem: Find all the eigen values and eigen vectors of 1 3 1

1 2 2

2 2 1

Solution : Given A = 1 3 1

1 2 2

λ3 – λ2(2+3+2) + λ(4+3+4)–[2(4)-2(1)+1(-1)] = 0

1 1 -7 11 -5

0 1 -6 5

1 -6 5 0

λ = 1 is a root.

(λ -1)( λ -5) =0

λ = 1 ,5

Hence λ = 1 , 1 , 5.

2 2 1 x1

i.e. 1 3 1 x2 = 0

1 2 2 x3

x1+2x2+(2- λ)x3 = 0

x1+2 x2 +x3 = 0

x1+2x2+x3 = 0

x1 +2x2+x3 = 0

Put x3 = 0 , we get x1 + 2 x2 = 0

28

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

x1 = -2x2

x1 x

= 2

2 1

2

x1 = 1

0

x1+x3 = 0

x1= -x3

x1 x

= 2

2 1

1

x2 = 0

1

-3x1+2 x2 +x3 = 0

x1 x2 x3

= =

2 2 3 1 6 2

x1 x 2 x

= = 3

4 4 4

1 2 1 1

x3= 1 . Hence Eigen vector = 1 1 1

1 0 1 1

29

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

1 1 2

Problem: Find the eigen values and eigen vectors of 1 2 1

0 1 1

Solution : The characteristic equation of matrix A is

3 2

(1 2 1) ( 3 1 3) [1( 3) 1(1) 2( 1)] 0

3 2

2 2 0

2 1 -2 -1 2

0 2 0 -2

1 0 -1 0

λ = 2 is a root.

The other roots are

2

1 0

( 1)( 1) 0

1, 1

Hence λ = 2 , 1 , -1

(A I)X 0

1 1 2 x1

1 2 1 x2 0

0 1 1 x3

(1 ) x1 x2 2 x3 0 …………………………(1)

x1 (2 ) x2 x3 0

0 x1 x2 ( 1 ) x3 0

0 x1 x2 2 x3 0

x1 x2 x3 0

x1 x2 x3

1 2 0 2 0 1

x1 x 2 x3

3 2 1

3

X1 2

1

30

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

When λ = -1 ,Equation (1) becomes

x2=0

2x1-2x3 = 0

x1 =x3

1

X2 0

1

When λ = 2,

-x1+x2-2x3=0

x1 x2 x3

1 0 1 2 0 1

x1 x 2 x3

1 3 1

1

X3 3

1

3 1 1

Hence Eigen vector = 2 0 3

1 1 1

31

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Unit – III

If a continuous function increases up to a certain value and then decreases, that value is

called a maximum value of the function.

If a continuous function decreases up to a certain value and then increases, that value is

called a minimum value of the function.

minimum if .

Problem:

Solution:

Let f(x) be 2 x 3 3x 2 36 x 10 .

=6 (x-3) (x+2)

x=3 and x=-2 give maximum or minimum.

When x=3 ,

When x=-2,

x=-2 gives the maximum and x=3 gives the minimum.

32

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

At a maximum or a minimum, = 0.

1 – log x = 0 . x = e.

= , i.e., - ve.

x = e gives a maximum.

Concave upwards; if the curve is below the tangent at P, it is said to be concave downwards or

convex upwards.

If at a point P, a curve changes its concavity from upwards to downwards or vice versa, P

is called a point of inflexion.

Problem:

For what values of x is the curve concave upwards and when is it convex

upwards?

Solution:

Then ,

33

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Partial Differentiation

keeping ‘y’ constant is known as the partial differential coefficient of ‘u’ w.r.t. ‘x’.

It is denoted by .

Similarly if we differentiate u w.r.t. ‘y’ keeping ‘x’ constant is known as the partial differential

coefficient of ‘u’ w.r.t. ‘y’.

It is denoted by .

Problem:

Solution:

------ (1)

34

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

------ (3)

Problem:

Solution:

=2

35

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Euler’s Theorem on Homogeneous Function

Solution: Given u=

i.e., sin u = =

sin u = x f , where f =

Problem:

Solution:

= 3x2 + 3yz.

= 3y2 + 3zx.

= 3z2 + 3xy.

= 3 (x3 + y3 + z3 + 3xyz)

= 3u.

36

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Total Differential Coefficient:

Problem:

Solution:

= + +

= 2 et . 2 et

= 4 et .

Problem:

If x3 + y3 + 3axy, find .

Solution:

= 3x2 – 3ay

= 3y2 – 3ax

= .

37

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

UNIT – IV

Problem: Evaluate .

Solution:

Put x +1 = y; dx = dy

= .

Problem: Evaluate .

Solution:

Put x = y; dx = dy

38

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Evaluate

Solution:

Let 3x + 1 = A ( )+B

3x + 1 = A (4x – 1) + B

3 = 4A A =

1=-A+B

B=A+1= +1 = = .

3x + 1 = (4x – 1) + .

= log ( +

= log ( +

= log ( +

= log ( + .

39

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Evaluate

Solution:

= =

Problem: Evaluate .

Solution:

Let 2x + 1 = A ( )+B

2x + 1 = A (–2x +4) + B

Equating coefficient of ‘x’ on both sides we get

2 = -2A A = -1

Equating constant coefficients we get,

1 = 4A + B

B = 1 - 4A = 1 + 4 = 5 .

2x + 1 = (2x + 1) + 5 .

=

= +

=2 +

40

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

=2 +

=2 + .

where .

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. If f(x) is an odd function i.e., f(-x) = - f(x) then

Problem: Evaluate

Solution:

Also I =

= ------ (2)

2I =

41

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

= =

2I =

I= .

Problem: Evaluate .

Solution:

Also I =

= ------ (2)

2I =

2I = ------ (3)

To evaluate

42

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

= =I

2I = I +

I=

i.e.,

= .

FOURIER SERIES

Particular Cases

Case (i)

If f(x) is defined over the interval (0,2l).

a0 n x n x

f(x) = [a n cos bn sin ]

2 n 1 l l

2l

1

a0 f ( x)dx

l0

1 2l n

an f ( x) cos xdx, n 1,2,......

l0 l

2l

1 n

bn f ( x) sin xdx,

l0 l

If f(x) is defined over the interval (0,2 ).

a0

f(x) = [a n cos nx bn sin nx]

2 n 1

2

1

a0 = f ( x)dx

0

43

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

2

1

an f ( x) cos nxdx

0

, n=1,2,…..

2

1

bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,…..

0

Case (ii)

If f(x) is defined over the interval (-l , l).

a0 n x n x

f(x) = [a n cos bn sin ]

2 n 1 l l

l

1

a0 f ( x)dx

l l

l

1 n

an f ( x) cos xdx

l l l

n =1,2,……

l

1 n

bn f ( x) sin xdx,

l l l

n=1,2,……

If f(x) is defined over the interval (- , ).

a0

f(x) = [a n cos nx bn sin nx]

2 n 1

1

a0 = f ( x)dx

1

an f ( x) cos nxdx

, n=1,2,…..

1

bn f ( x) sin nxdx n=1,2,…..

44

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Obtain the Fourier expansion of

1

f(x) = x in - < x <

2

Solution:

1 1 1

a0 f ( x)dx ( x)dx

2

1 x2

= x

2 2

1 1 1

an f ( x) cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx

2

Here we use integration by parts, so that

1 sin nx cos nx

an x ( 1)

2 n n2

1

0 0

2

1 1

bn ( x) sin nxdx

2

1 cos nx sin nx

x ( 1)

2 n n2

( 1) n

n

Using the values of a0 , an and bn in the Fourier expansion

a0

f ( x) an cos nx bn sin nx

2 n 1 n 1

we get,

( 1) n

f ( x) sin nx

2 n 1 n

This is the required Fourier expansion of the given function.

45

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x)=e-ax in the interval (- , ). Deduce that

2 ( 1) n

cos ech 2

n 2n 1

Solution:

ax

1 ax 1 e

a0 e dx

a

ea e a

2 sinh a

a a

1 ax

Here, an e cos nxdx

ax

1 e

an a cos nx n sin nx

a2 n2

2a ( 1) n sinh a

a 2 n2

1 ax

bn = e sin nxdx

ax

1 e

= a sin nx n cos nx

a2 n2

2n ( 1) n sinh a

=

a 2 n2

Thus,

sinh a 2a sinh a ( 1) n 2 n( 1) n

f(x) = 2

cos nx sinh a sin nx

a n 1a n2 n 1a

2

n2

For x=0, a=1, the series reduces to

sinh 2 sinh ( 1) n

f(0)=1 = 2

n 1n 1

or

sinh 2 sinh 1 ( 1) n

1= 2

2 n 2n 1

2 sinh ( 1) n

or 1= 2

n 2n 1

46

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Thus,

( 1) n

cos ech 2 2

n 2n 1

This is the desired deduction.

Problem: Obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) = x2 over the interval (- , ). Deduce that

2

1 1

1 ......

6 22 32

Solution:

The function f(x) is even. Hence

1 2

a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

0

2 2 2 x3

= x dx

0 3 0

2

2

a0

or 3

1

an f ( x) cos nxdx

2

= f ( x) cos nxdx, since f(x)cosnx is even

0

2

= x 2 cos nxdx

0

an x2 2x 2

n n2 n3 0

n

4( 1)

n2

1

Also, bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 since f(x)sinnx is odd.

47

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Thus

2

( 1) n cos nx

f ( x) 4

3 n 1 n2

2

2 1

4 2

3 n 1 n

2

1

1 n2 6

2

1 1

Hence, 1 .....

6 22 32

x, 0 x

f ( x)

2 x, x 2

Deduce that

2

1 1

1 ......

8 32 52

Solution:

Here,

1 2

a0 = f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

0

2

xdx

0

since f(x)cosnx is even.

1 2

an f ( x) cos nxdx f ( x) cos nxdx

0

2

x cos nxdx

= 0

2 sin nx cos nx

x 1

n n2 0

2

2

( 1) n 1

n

Also,

1

bn f ( x) sin nxdx 0 , since f(x)sinnx is odd

48

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Thus the Fourier series of f(x) is

2 1

f ( x) 2

( 1) n 1 cos nx

2 n 1 n

For x= , we get

2 1

f( ) 2

( 1) n 1 cos n

2 n 1n

2 2 cos(2n 1)

or

2 n 1 (2n 1) 2

Thus,

2

1

8 n 1 (2n 1) 2

2

1 1

or 1 ......

8 32 52

This is the series as required.

, x 0

f(x) =

x,0 x

Deduce that

2

1 1

1 ......

8 32 52

Solution:

Here,

0

1

a0 dx xdx

0 2

0

1

an cos nxdx x cos nxdx

0

1

2

( 1) n 1

n

0

1

bn sin nxdx x sin nxdx

0

1

1 2( 1) n

n

Fourier series is

1 1 1 2( 1) n

f(x) = 2

( 1) n 1 cos nx sin nx

4 n 1n n 1 n

49

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Note that the point x=0 is a point of discontinuity of f(x). Here f(x+) =0, f(x-)=- at x=0. Hence

1 1

[ f (x ) f ( x )] 0

2 2 2

The Fourier expansion of f(x) at x=0 becomes

1 1

2

[( 1) n 1]

2 4 n 1 n

2

1

or 2

[( 1) n 1]

4 n 1 n

2

1 1

Simplifying we get, 1 2 ......

8 3 52

Problem: Obtain the Fourier series of f(x) = 1-x2 over the interval (-1,1).

Solution:

The given function is even, as f(-x) = f(x). Also period of f(x) is 1-(-1)=2

Here

1 1

1

a0 = f ( x)dx = 2 f ( x)dx

1 1 0

1 1

2 x3

= 2 (1 x )dx 2 x

0 3 0

4

3

1

1

an f ( x) cos(n x)dx

1 1

1

2 f ( x) cos(n x)dx as f(x) cos(n x) is even

0

1

2

= 2 (1 x ) cos(n x)dx

0

1

2 sin n x cos n x sin n x

an 2 1 x ( 2 x) ( 2)

n (n ) 2 ( n )3 0

n 1

4( 1)

=

n2 2

1

1

bn f ( x) sin( n x)dx =0, since f(x)sin(n x) is odd.

1 1

2 4 ( 1) n 1

The Fourier series of f(x) is f(x) = 2

cos(n x)

3 n 1 n2

50

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Obtain the Fourier expansion of

4x 3

1 , x 0

3 2

f(x) = 4x 3

1 ,0 x

3 2

2

1 1

Deduce that 1 ......

8 32 52

Solution:

3 3

The period of f(x) is 3

2 2

Also f(-x) = f(x). Hence f(x) is even

3/ 2 3/ 2

1 2

a0 f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

3/ 2 3/ 2

3/ 2 0

3/ 2

4 4x

1 dx 0

3 0

3

3/ 2

1 n x

an f ( x) cos dx

3/ 2 3/ 2

3/ 2

3/ 2

2 2n x

f ( x) cos dx

3/ 2 0

3

3/ 2

2n x 2n x

sin cos

4 4x 3 4 3

1 2

3 3 2n 3 2n

3 3 0

4

= 2 2

1 ( 1)n

n

Also,

3

2

1 n x

bn f ( x) sin dx 0

3 3

3

2 2

Thus

4 1 2n x

f(x) = 2 2

1 ( 1) n cos

n 1 n 3

putting x=0, we get

4 1

f(0) = 2 2

1 ( 1) n

n 1 n

51

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

8 1 1

or 1= 2

1 ......

32 52

2

1 1

Thus, 1 ......

8 32 52

The Fourier expansion of the periodic function f(x) of period 2l may contain both sine and cosine terms.

Many a time it is required to obtain the Fourier expansion of f(x) in the interval (0,l) which is regarded as

half interval. The definition can be extended to the other half in such a manner that the function

becomes even or odd. This will result in cosine series or sine series only.

Sine series :

Suppose f(x) = (x) is given in the interval (0,l). Then we define f(x) = - (-x) in (-l,0). Hence

f(x) becomes an odd function in (-l , l). The Fourier series then is

n x

f ( x) bn sin (11)

n 1 l

l

2 n x

where bn f ( x) sin dx

l 0 l

The series (11) is called half-range sine series over (0,l).

Putting l= in (11), we obtain the half-range sine series of f(x) over (0, ) given by

f ( x) bn sin nx

n 1

2

bn f ( x) sin nxdx

0

Cosine series :

Let us define

( x) in (0,l) .....given

f ( x) in (-l,0) …..in order to make the function even.

( x)

Then the Fourier series of f(x) is given by

a0 n x

f ( x) an cos (12)

2 n 1 l

l

2

a0 f ( x)dx

l 0

where, l

2 n x

an f ( x) cos dx

l 0 l

52

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

The series (12) is called half-range cosine series over (0,l)

a0

f ( x) a n cos nx

2 n 1

where

2

a0 f ( x)dx

0

2

an f ( x) cos nxdx n 1,2,3, ..

0

Problem: Expand f(x) = x( -x) as half-range sine series over the interval (0, ).

Solution: We have,

2

bn f ( x) sin nxdx

0

2

( x x 2 ) sin nxdx

0

2 cos nx sin nx cos nx

bn x x2 2x ( 2)

n n2 n3 0

4

1 ( 1) n

n3

The sine series of f(x) is

4 1

f ( x) 3

1 ( 1) n sin nx

n 1 n

x,0 x

f ( x) 2 over (0, )

x, x

2

Solution:

2

2

a0 xdx ( x)dx

0 2

2

Here

2

2

an x cos nxdx ( x) cos nxdx

0

2

53

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Performing integration by parts and simplifying, we get

2 n

an 2

1 ( 1) n 2 cos

n 2

8

,n 2,6,10,.....

n2

Thus, the Fourier cosine series is

2 cos 2 x cos 6 x cos10 x

f(x) = ......

4 12 32 52

Solution:

Here

c

2

a0 (c x)dx c

c0

c

2 n x

an (c x) cos dx

c0 c

Integrating by parts and simplifying we get,

2c

an 2 2

1 ( 1) n

n

The cosine series is given by

c 2c 1 n x

f(x) = 2 2

1 ( 1) n cos

2 n 1n c

54

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

UNIT-V

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Definition:

An ordinary differential equation is one which a single independent variable enters, either

explicity or implicity. For example,

dy d 2x

2 sin x, m2 x 0

dx dr 2

d2y dy

x2 2 2 xy y sin x

dx dx

Variable separable.

We can directly integrate this equation and the solution is f ( x)dx F ( y )dy c, where

c is an arbitrary constant.

1

2 2

dy 1 y

Problem: Solve 0

dx 1 x2

Solution:

dy dy

We have 0.

1 y2 1 x2

dy

Problem: Solve tany = cotx.

dx

dy

Solution: tany = cotx

dx

tany dy = cotx dx

55

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

tan y dy cot x dx

log secy – log sinx = logc

sec y

log = log c

sin x

sec y

=c.

sin x

Problem: Solve tanx sec2y dy + tany sec2x dx = 0

Solution:

tanx sec2y dy = - tany sec2x dx

sec 2 y sec 2 x

dy dx

tan y tan x

sec 2 y sec 2 x

dy dx

tan y tan x

put t = tany put u = tanx

dt = sec2y dy du = sec2x (- dx)

log t = - log u + log c

log t + log u = log c

log (tu) = log c

tu = c

tan y tan x = c.

Problem: Solve secx dy + secy dx = 0

dy dx

sec y sec x

cos y dy cos x dx

sin y = - sin x + c

sin x + sin y = c.

56

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Linear Equation:

A differential equation is said to be linear when the dependent variable and its derivatives

occur only in the first degree and no products of these occur.

dy

The linear equation of the first order is of the form Py Q , where P and Q are

dx

functions of x only.

dy

Problem: Solve (1 + x2) + 2xy = 4x2.

dx

Solution:

Divided by 1 + x2

(1 + x 2 ) dy 2 xy 4x 2

(1 + x 2 ) dx 1 x 2 1 x2

dy 2 xy 4x 2

dx 1 x 2 1 x2

dy

This is of the form Py Q .

dx

2x 4x2

P= and Q =

1 x2 1 x2

Pdx Pdx

The solution is y e Qe dx c

2x 2x

1 x2

dx 4x 2 1 x2

dx

ye e dx c (1)

1 x2

2x

Pdx dx

1 x2

e =e

put t = 1 + x2

dt = 2x dx

2x dt

dx

1 x2 t

e =e

= e logt

= t

57

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

2x

dx

e 1 x2

= 1 + x 2. (2)

4x 2

y (1 + x2) = (1 x 2 )dx c

1 x2

y (1 + x2) = 4 x 2 dx c

4x3

2

y (1 + x ) = c.

3

dy

Problem: Solve + y sec x = tan x.

dx

Solution:

dy

This is of the form Py Q .

dx

Pdx Pdx

The solution is y e Qe dx c

sec x dx sec x dx

ye tan x e dx c (1)

sec x dx

Now e e log(sec x tan x )

sec x tan x

sec x (1 sec 2 x)dx

sec x dx sec 2 xdx

sec x x tan x c.

58

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

dy

Problem: Solve - tan xy = -2 sin x.

dx

Solution:

dy

This is of the form Py Q .

dx

Pdx Pdx

The solution is y e Qe dx c

tan x dx tan x dx

ye 2 sin x e dx c (1)

tan x dx

Now e e log sec x

sec x

= 2 sin x sec x dx c

sin x

= 2 dx c

cos x

= 2 tan x dx c

dy

Problem: Solve cos 2 x + y = tan x.

dx

Solution:

Divided by cos2x .

cos 2 x dy y tan x

cos x dx cos x cos 2 x

2 2

dy

y sec 2 x tan x sec 2 x

dx

P sec 2 x & Q tan x sec 2 x

Pdx Pdx

The solution is y e Qe dx c

59

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

sec2 x dx sec2 x dx

ye tan x sec 2 x e dx c (1)

sec2 x dx

Now e e tan x

put t = tanx

dt = sec2x dx

y et = t e t dt c

= t . et - et

= et (t – 1) + c

dy

Problem: Solve (1 + x2) + 2xy = cosx.

dx

Solution:

Divided by 1 + x2

(1 + x 2 ) dy 2 xy cos x

(1 + x 2 ) dx 1 x 2 1 x2

dy 2 xy cos x

2

dx 1 x 1 x2

dy

This is of the form Py Q .

dx

2x cos x

P= 2

and Q =

1 x 1 x2

Pdx Pdx

The solution is y e Qe dx c

2x 2x

1 x2

dx cos x 1 x2

dx

ye e dx c (1)

1 x2

2x

Pdx dx

1 x2

e =e

put t = 1 + x2

60

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

dt = 2x dx

2x dt

dx

1 x2 t

e =e

= e logt

= t

2x

dx

e 1 x2

= 1 + x 2. (2)

cos x

y (1 + x2) = (1 x 2 )dx c

1 x2

y (1 + x2) = cos x dx c

y (1 + x2) = sin x c .

Solution:

1

P.I. = 2

ex

D 5D 6

1 x

= e on replacing D by 1.

12

1 x

y = A e-2x + B e-3x + e .

12

61

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

Problem: Solve (D – 2mD + m ) y = emx.

2 2

Solution:

1

P.I. = 2

emx

(k - m)

x2 mx

= e

2

mx x2

y=e (A + Bx + ).

2

Solution:

Solving, m = 2 and 1.

sin 3x

P.I. = 2

D 3D 2

sin 3x

= , put D2 = - a2 = -9

9 3D 2

sin 3x 7 3D

=

7 3D 7 3D

=

49 9 D 2

=

49 9( 9)

62

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

7 sin 3x 9 cos 3x

=

49 81

7 sin 3x 9 cos 3x

=

130

7 sin 3x 9 cos 3x

=

130

y = C.F. + P.I.

7 sin 3x 9 cos 3x

= A e2x + B ex .

130

d2y dy

Problem: Solve 2 3y 5x 2 .

dx 2 dx

Solution:

(D2 + 2D + 3) y = 5x2

2 2 2 4.1.3

m=

2.1

2 4 12

=

2

2 8

=

2

2 2i 2

=

2

= -1 i 2

α=-1, β= 2

5x 2

P.I. =

D 2 2D 3

63

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

5x 2

=

3 2D D 2

5x 2

=

2D D2

31

3

1

5 2D D 2

= 1 x2

3 3

2

5 2D D 2 2D D 2

= 1 ........... x 2

3 3 3

5 2D D 2 4D 2 4D 3 D4

= 1 ........... x 2

3 3 9

5 2D D 2 4D 2

= 1 x2 (Neglecting Higher Powers)

3 3 9

5 2 2 D( x 2 ) D 2 ( x 2 ) 4D 2 ( x 2 )

= x

3 3 9

5 2 2(2 x) 2 4(2)

= x

3 3 9

5 2 4x 2 8

= x

3 3 9

5 2 4x 2 8

= x

3 3 3 9

5 2 4x 2

= x

3 3 9

y = C.F. + P.I.

5 2 4x 2

= e-x (A cos 2 x + B sin 2 x) + x .

3 3 9

64

ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS

2 2x

Problem: Solve (D + 4) y = e sin 2x.

Solution:

m2 = -4

m= 4

m= 2i.

= A cos2x + B sin2x

e 2 x sin 2 x

P.I. =

D2 4

e 2 x sin 2 x

= 2

, replace D by D+2

D 2 4

e 2 x sin 2 x

=

D 2 4D 8

e 2 x sin 2 x

= , replace D2 by -4

4 4D 8

e 2 x sin 2 x 4D 4

=

4D 4 4D 4

= =

16 D 2 16 16( 4) 16

4e 2 x [2 cos 2 x sin 2 x]

=

80

y = C.F. + P.I.

4e 2 x [2 cos 2 x sin 2 x]

= A cos2x + B sin2x .

80

65

- Accuplacer Study Guide_MathDiunggah olehoddone9195
- Key-1st Qtr Exam Math10Diunggah olehRizaLastimosa
- Notes for Cive1620 Large Type Part 1&2 Full2008 4upDiunggah olehsjeyarajah21
- [Carcione,_et_al.]_Seismic_modeling(BookZZ.org).pdfDiunggah olehOussama Khelil
- Product on BinomialDiunggah olehMaya Rahayu
- Lecture 18Diunggah olehUsama Javed
- Curve VeeringDiunggah olehRafael Sánchez Crespo
- Determinants and eigenvalueDiunggah olehA
- Paper 35Diunggah olehho-fa
- Linear AlgebraDiunggah olehukr7862175
- 4exDiunggah olehTrung Phan
- Lecture 20Diunggah olehumesh
- Assignment Bca 193Diunggah olehdolon10
- maths_syllbusDiunggah olehSupriyo Datta
- Group Schedule - 25 Jan 2014Diunggah olehtob3rts
- EN501ADiunggah olehNithin John
- Matrix PropertiesDiunggah olehmgpadalkar
- BookDiunggah olehHassaan Ahmad
- BookDiunggah oleheukristian
- BookDiunggah olehJakub Langr
- BookDiunggah olehJosé Brites
- Untitled (21)Diunggah olehzhangir
- System Last 2003Diunggah olehDogukan Aktay
- cover-150809074001-lva1-app6892.docxDiunggah olehSubhasish Kumar Behura
- Structural Stability 1Diunggah olehRicox4444
- EC3sh_FDiunggah olehJosh Zngr
- Physics Problem Solving StrategyDiunggah olehAmey Kale
- Apoyo 1 Conceptos basicosDiunggah olehSamira Alejandra Villa Almeida
- C1BS02-C1902-MATHEMATICS-IIDiunggah olehSudhakar_08
- 2013 BlockDiunggah olehJiadong Ye

- Rational and Cumulative ReviewDiunggah olehKenzie Pattison
- Al II H Final Review PDFDiunggah olehsanthi
- Theory 16Diunggah olehEr. Narender Singh
- Algebra Without SolutionDiunggah olehVaibhavVarshney
- Grade 11 General Math - TeacherDiunggah olehA.M.A
- Totally Real Origami and Impossible Paper Folding - Auckly and ClevelandDiunggah olehGugaKling
- rational theoremDiunggah olehLastCardHolder
- RouthHurwitzAnalysisDiunggah olehWesNamtrow
- Amer.math.Monthly.118.04.358 RickardsDiunggah olehCharlie Shen
- 04 - Quadratic EquationsDiunggah olehRaju Sharma
- Section 3.2 notes.docxDiunggah olehJean G
- SPM-Add-Maths-Formula-List-Form4Diunggah olehTHINES REVI
- 3.1Diunggah olehrng414
- Training Problems 2011Diunggah olehAli khan7
- Computational Mathematics with SageMath.pdfDiunggah olehJuan Morales Cabrera
- ISI_MIII_08Diunggah olehapi-26401608
- James Ruse 2005 4U at Div 1 & SolutionsDiunggah olehLachlan Smith
- Manuale DeriveDiunggah olehfrankphys
- Solving Higher Order PolynomialsDiunggah olehDVS2mona
- PolynomialsDiunggah olehguru_changkyu
- intermediate-algebra-posttest.pdfDiunggah olehachuth
- Leonard Eugene Dickson - Theory of EquationsDiunggah olehwijohns
- complex_numbers_p3.pdfDiunggah olehRayYong
- Math Formulas Book For JEE MAIN _ Advanced _ d.t.pdfDiunggah olehyogesh
- notes.pdfDiunggah olehkr d
- Algebra 101Diunggah olehAmanda Wright
- Complex Numbers - Introduction.pdfDiunggah olehhamxafarrukh
- Afda Vocab Cards 2016Diunggah olehAnderson Nascimento
- Eddie Woo – Complex Numbers Playlist 2.docxDiunggah olehJustin
- Compete Math_ AMC10Diunggah olehAnonymous tE78WxC

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.