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CARBON

FUN, FAST FACTS


 ATOMIC NUMBER: 6
 ATOMIC MASS: 12.01
 ATOMIC SYMBOL: C
 CLASSIFICATION:
NON-METALLIC
 COLOR: BLACK,
COLORLESS
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
HISTORY OF CARBON
 THIS ELEMENT OF PREHISTORIC DISCOVERY IS
FOUND THROUGHOUT NATURE
 FOUND IN STARS, SUN, COMETS,
ATOMSPHERES
 THE ENERGY OF THE SUN AND THE STARS
CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE CARBON CYCLE
3 TYPES OF CARBON
 CARBON CAN BE
FOUND IN THREE
DIFFERENT FORMS:
– GRAPHITE
– DIAMONDS
– FULLERENE
(aka
BUCKYBALLS)
CARBON AS
GRAPHITE
GREAT GRAPHITE
 LAYERED ATOMIC STRUCTURE-
THERFORE PRODUCES A WEAK
FORCE, AND IS EXTREMELY
BREAKABLE
 SOFT, SLIPPERY
 MOST COMMONLY USED AS PENCIL
LEAD
CARBON DIAMONDS
DIAMOND DATA
 DIAMONDS HAVE AN ATOMIC SHAPE
THAT ENSURES A TIGHT BOND
 EACH CARBON ATOM IS THE SAME
DISTANCE FROM ANOTHER ATOM
 DIAMONDS ARE USED FOR CUTTING
HARD OBJECTS AND FOR DECORATION
(JEWELERY)
FULLERENE
-ALSO KNOWN AS THE
‘BUCKYBALL”
-RECENTLY
DISCOVERED
-CONSISTS OF 60
CARBON ATOMS
-C60
-STILL BEING
RESEARCHED
“BUCKYBALL”
 THIS COMPLEX MOLECULE CAN BE ALTERED
WITH A SINGLE ATOM TO CHANGE ITS
PROPERTIES
 NAMED AFTER ROBERT BUCKMINISTER FULLER
 THIS MOLECULE HAS BEEN MAKING
HEADLINES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND HOW
THE DRUG INDUSTRY HAS INTEREST IN IT
COSTS OF CARBON
-AS OF 1990, CARBON-13 WAS
COMMERICIALLY AVAILABLE AT A COST
OF ABOUT $700/GRAM.
CARBON CYCLE
CARBON IN THE
LITHOSPHERE
 PLANTS ABSORB
CARBON DIOXIDE
FROM ATMOSPHERE,
AND USE IT TO MAKE
SUBSTANCES NEEDED
FOR GROWTH
 PHOTOSYNTHESIS
INCORPORATES
CARBON ATOMS
FROM C02 TO SUGARS
LITHOSPHERE CONT.
 ANIMALS (RABBIT) EAT PLANTS AND USE
CARBON TO BUILD TISSUES
 OTHER ANIMALS (FOX) EAT RABBIT AND USE
CARBON FOR OWN NEEDS
 ANIMALS RETURN C02 INTO AIR WHEN THEY
BREATHE, AND WHEN THEY DIE (BECAUSE
CARBON IS RETURED TO SOIL DURING
DECOMPOSITION)
CARBON IN THE
HYDROSPHERE
 C02 ABSORBED INTO  MOLLUSCS
BODIES OF H20 (MUSSELS, CLAMS
 SOME OF DISSOLVED AND OYSTERS)
C02 REMAINS IN
WATER WHILE SOME MAKE SHELLS OF
IS USED BY ALGAE CALCIUM
AND CARBONATE FROM
PHYTOPLANKTON C02
THROUGH
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
HYDROSPHERE
CONTINUED
 ONCE MUSSLES DIE, SHELLS FALL TO
BOTTOM WITH HARD CALCIUM
CARBONATE AND BECOMES
COMPRESSED, CEMENTED TOGETHER,
AND EVENTUALLY FOSSILISED INTO
ROCKS LIKE CHALK, LIMESTONE, AND
MARBLE
CARBON IN THE
ATMOSPHERE
 COMBUSTION -DURING
OCCURS WHEN CONBUSTION,
ORGANIC OXYGEN IS USED
MATERIAL IS AND CABON
REACTED (BURNED)
IN PRESENCE OF DIOXIDE IS
OXYGEN TO GIVE PRODUCED PLUS
OFF C02 WATER
SMOKESTACK
 ORGANIC MATERIAL
CAN BE ANY FOSSIL
FUEL SUCH AS
NATURAL GAS,
(METHANE) OIL, OR
COAL
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CARBON DIOXIDE+
WATER (h20) ->
CARBOHYDRATE+
OXYGEN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
RESPIRATION
CARBOHYDRATE +
OXYGEN->
CARBON DIOXIDE
+ OXYGEN
CALCIUM
CARBONATE
CALCIUM
CARBONATE->
CALCIUM OXIDE +
CARBON DIOXIDE
OIL AND COAL
 WHEN TREES DIE,
THEY FALL INTO
SWAMPY MUD,
WITH A LACK OF
OXYGEN.
THEREFORE,
NORMAL
DECOMPOSITION
CANNOT OCCUR
OIL AND COAL II
 TREES BECOME
FOSSILISED (COAL
IS THEN FORMED)
 OIL FORMS FROM
TINY DEAD PLANTS
TRAPPED AT THE
BOTTOM OF THE
OCEAN OR MURKY
WATER
RELATE COAL TO
CARBON
 THE PROCESS IN WHICH OIL AND COAL
ARE MADE, IS RELATIVE TO THE CARBON
CYCLE BECAUSE ALL LIVING ORGANISMS
AND THE PROCESSES ARE MADE UP OF
CARBON
RECAP OF CYCLES
HYDROSPHERE,
LITHOSPHERE, AND
ATMOSPHERE
AGAIN!
CARBON CYCLE, AS
EASY AS 1, 2, 3…
COMPLEX CARBON
CYCLE
WHERE THE CYCLE
BEGINS…
 THE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS CARBON
DIOXIDE
 THROUGH THE PROCESS OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, PLANTS TAKE IN
CARBON, CONTINUING THE CYCLE IN THE
LITHOSPHERE
 WHEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXCEEDS
RESPIRATION, ORGANIC MATTER BUILDS UP
TO FORM COAL AND OIL DEPOSITS
“The major exchange of carbon
between the atmosphere and the
lithosphere results from
photosynthesis and respiration”
CARBON AND
RESPIRATION
 RESPIRATION IS PART OF THE PROCESS OF
THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE LITHOSPHERE
 ONCE ANIMALS BREAK DOWN
CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANT TISSUES, THEY
RELEASE IT TO THE ATMOSPHERE (THE
CYCLE THEN CONINUES BACK TO THE
LITHOSPHERE OR GOES TO THE
HYDROSPHERE)
CARBON AND RESPIRATION
CONTINUED

 WHEN ANIMALS RELEASE CARBON DIOXIDE


TO THE ATMOSPHERE, THEY DECOMPOSE,
DECAY, AND FROM POOLS OF ENERGY
CALLED FOSSIL FULES (INCLUDING COAL,
OIL, AND NATURAL GASES)
CARBON IN THE HYDROSPHERE

CARBON IS ABSORBED
IN THE WATER BY
PHYTOPLANKTON
TO MAKE SHELL OF
CALCIUM
CARBONATE AND
BECOME SEDIMENTS
ONCE THEY DIE
CARBON IN HYDROSPHERE CONT.

 CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE IS


CONTROLLED BY THE SEA SURFACE
TEMPERATURE, CIRCULATING CURRENTS,
AND THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF
PHYTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION
MORE CARBON IN
HYDROSPHERE
 CARBON DIOXIDE CAN DISSOVLE EASILY AND
THE AMOUNT THAT THE OCEAN CAN HOLD
DEPENDS ON THE OCEAN TEMPERATURE
AND HOW MUCH CARBON IS ALREADY IN
THE OCEAN
 WHEN THE OCEAN IN COLD, MORE CARBON
IS ARBORBED, AND WHEN THE TEMP. IS
WARM, CO2 IS RELEASED TO THE SURFACE
THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

CARBON DIOXIDE
CONTRIBUTES
THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

 KEEPS ALL EARTH’S  CARBON DIOXIDE IS


HEAT FROM TRANSPARENT TO
ESCAPING TO THE LIGHT BUT OPAQUE TO
OUTER ATMOSPHERE HEAT RAYS,
THEREFORE THE
 CARBON ATMOSPHERE RETARDS
RESPONSIBLE FOR THE RAIATION OF
GREENHOUSE GASES HEAT FROM THE
AND 55% OF THE EARTH BACK INTO
GREENHOUSE EFFECT SPACE
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 PICTURE RESOURCES:
– www.pmel.noaa.gov/ co2/gif/globcar.png
– www.safeclimate.net/. ../carboncycle.php
– geosun1.sjsu.edu/ ~dreed/105/exped7/4.html
– www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/ carbon/efcarbon.html
– www.webelements.com/.../ text/C/xtal.html
– www.netl.doe.gov/.../ carbon-flux-diagram
– www.mkdandj.com/ loosediamonds/