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Complex Notation for AC Quantities:

Complex Impedance
Aims:
To appreciate:
•Use of complex quantities.
•Role of impedance and j.
•Influence of power factor.
•Appreciate operation of low, high and band pass filters

To be able:
•To analyse some basic circuits.

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Lecture 12 2

Revision of Complex Number Arithmetic


what is j? three ways to express a complex number

j = −1 Z = R + jX R is real part; X is imaginary part


j = −1
2
Z = R 2 + X 2 (modulus) : tan φ =
X
(argument)
R
j 3 = − −1 = − j
Z = Z e jφ
1
=−j Z = Z (cos φ + j sin φ )
j

complex arithmetic

Z1 + Z 2 = ( R1 + R2 ) + j ( X 1 + X 2 )
complex conjugate
j (φ1 +φ2 )
Z1Z 2 = Z1 Z 2 e Z = R − jX = Z e − jφ (complex conjugate)
*

Z1 Z ZZ * = R 2 + X 2
= 1 e j (φ1 −φ2 )
Z2 Z2
⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
j⎜φ + ⎟ Z j⎜φ − ⎟
jZ = Z e ⎝ 2⎠
= Z e ⎝ 2⎠
j
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1
Phasors as Complex Numbers
Imaginary If we plot phasors on an Argand
diagram we can use complex
number representation:
V
Vsin ωt
V ωt ≡ V (cos ωt + j sin ωt )
ωt
Real
Vcos ωt Which means that we can use the
powerful tools of complex algebra
to manipulate AC quantities.

Note that we use j for √-1 and not i


This is to avoid confusion with i as a
symbol for currents.

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Complex AC quantities
In general, all AC quantities are complex numbers containing amplitude and phase:
Voltage V = VRE + jVIM = V e jφ
Current I = I RE + jI IM = I e jφ
Impedance Z = R + jX = Z e jφ
The complex quantities obey all the laws and techniques that we
have derived for DC networks:
• Kirchhoff’s Current Law
• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
• Ohm’s Law V=IZ
• Impedances in series: Z = Z1+Z1
• Impedances in parallel: Y = Y1+Y2

The physical significance of the real and imaginary parts of current and voltage:
• Real currents and voltages are associated with energy dissipation (power
averaged over one cycle is positive). Measurable
• Imaginary parts are associated with energy storage (power averaged over
one cycle is zero – charging and discharging). Not measurable

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2
Look Back at Inductive Reactance:
dI
I L = I o e jωt and we know that VL = L dt
L
Let

What is VL ?

The reciprocal of impedance is ADMITTANCE, symbol Y, units Siemens

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Look Back at Capacitative Reactance:


dV
VC = Vo e jωt and we know that I C = C dt
C
Let

What is IC ?

The reciprocal of impedance is ADMITTANCE, symbol Y, units Siemens

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3
Power in AC Circuits
Power in an AC circuit is given by W=VI V = V0 e jωt
I = I 0 e j (ωt +φ )
W = V0 I 0 e j (2ωt +φ )
This reduces to:

(
W = V0 I 0 cos φ e + j 2ωt + sin φ e − j 2ωt )
Resistive power Reactive power

If we average over one cycle (from t=0 to t=2π/ω):


e+j2ωt averages to ½ and e-j2ωt averages to 0, so

1
W = V0 I 0 cos φ or W = VRMS I RMS cos φ
2
The cosφ term is called the power factor

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Power Factor:
W = VRMS I RMS cos φ

This tells us that when the current and voltage are π/2 out of phase
(e.g.in a pure L or pure C), the power dissipated is zero.

Power factor is a big issue for electrical engineers.


• Many industrial loads have a high inductance in 50 Hz
Power factor correction
series with the resistance (e.g. heating coils for
large tanks)
• This can affect the power factor and reduce the R L

power dissipated in the resistor.


• In many cases a capacitor is used to correct the
power factor
Power ratings of industrial equipment are often quoted in
“kVA” – kilo-volt-amp – rather than kW to indicate that
the power factor may not be 1
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4
RC Network with Complex Numbers
I

V R VR

C VC

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RCL Network in Series


L

C
V

R
VR

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5
RCL Network in Series
3. Get the current
R C L
VAe jωt VA j (ωt −φ )
I= = e
Z e jφ Z

4. Get the voltage across the resistor


1. Complex impedance is given by
Z = R + jX RVA j (ωt −φ )
1 VR = IR = e
where X = ω L − Z
ωC
VR R − jφ
= e
2. Convert to exponential form for multiplication: V Z
VR 1
e − jφ
2
⎛ 1 − ω 2 LC ⎞ =
Z = R2 + ⎜ ⎟ V 2
⎝ ωC ⎠ ⎛ 1 − ω LC ⎞
2
1+ ⎜ ⎟
X ω LC − 1 2
⎝ ωCR ⎠
tan φ = =
R ωCR
Z = Z e jφ
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Lecture 12 19

RCL Network in Series


VR 1
L = e − jφ
VAe jωt ⎛ 1 − ω LC ⎞
2 2

1+ ⎜ ⎟
C ⎝ ωCR ⎠
VA

R when ω=0, denominator →∞, VR →0


1
when ω →∞, denominator →∞, VR →0 ω0 =
VR

when ω = ω0, denominator = 1, VR=VA LC

VR

This is a series resonant circuit.


At resonance XC=-XL so the
reactance in the circuit is zero
ω0 ω

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Lecture 12 20