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Real-World MicroGrids- An Overview

Mike Barnes Giri Ventakaramanan

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
University of Manchester, Manchester, MI 7AB, UK University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A.
mike.barnes @
Junji Kondoh Robert Lasseter
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A. lasseter(
Hiroshi Asano Nikos Hatziargyriou
Department of Mechanical Engineering School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Jose Oyarzabal Tim Green
Energy Unit Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Labein - Tecnalia, 48160 Derio, Spain Imperial College, London

Abstract - Microgrids are networks of small, distributed There exists considerable research to date on
electrical power generators operated as a collective unit - Microgrids with a number of major research projects
a system of energy systems. The range of hardware and underway, for example [1-8]. A number of demonstration
control options for Microgrid operation are reviewed. The projects have been commissioned internationally. However
paper summarizes and highlights the operating principles development of these systems and projects has largely been
and key conclusions of research andfield trials to-date. An undertaken independently. For the first time, this paper
overview is given on demonstration projects for brings together information from these field trials, in the
Microgrids which have been, and are being, constructed. context of research to date. The information presented is
perforce limited, in so far as public information on some
Keywords: Microgrids, renewables, power quality, energy projects is limited. Space also precludes the discussion of
storage, distributed generation, micro-generation. many of the smaller laboratory-scale Microgrids at
universities (as used for example in [2-5]).
1 Introduction
The use of micro-generation based on combined heat 2 Microgrid Structures
and power (CHP) or small-scale renewable generation has The topology elements required in a Microgrid are
a significant potential for reducing our dependency on strongly dependent on its operating states. A Microgrid has
fossil fuels. Since this could turn many consumers of two steady states of operation: grid connected operation
electricity into net producers, this strategy is not easily and islanded. It also has two transient states, corresponding
to the transitions between these steady-states. During all
accmmoatd i peset istibtio ntwoks

these four conditions it must remain stable and must meet

The Microgrids concept has been proposed [1] as a grid-code requirements (e.g. on real and reactive power
solution to the conundrum of integrating large amounts of flow and behaviour during faults).
micro-generation without disrupting the operation of the
utility network. By judicious intelligent coordination of The generalized structure and potential topological
loads and micro-generation the aggregate distribution elements of a Microgrid are shown in figure 1. Not all of
network sub-system (or 'Microgrid') would be less these system elements need be used, and the choice and
troublesome to the utility network, than conventional combination of possible elements determines the potential
micro-generation. The net Microgrid could even provide capability of a microgrid, i.e. how 'well behaved' it can be
ancillary services such as local voltage control. During made to operate. Ultimately, compared with a conventional
disturbances on the main network, Microgrids could system, additional hardware and software are required to
potentially disconnect and continue to operate control the voltage and power flows in the aggregate
autonomously. This operation has the potential to improve sse opoueteipoe eaiu eurdo
power quality to the consumer. Microgrid.

1 -4244-1 1 60-2/07/$25 .OO ©2007 IEEE.

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The connection interface (CI) to the utility network network voltage (power line carrier) or even by modulation
(1, figure 1) can be something as straightforward as an of the frequency and voltage of the Microgrid (e.g. 'droop-
electro-mechanical circuit breaker, although solid-state line' control). The coordination can be achieved by a
switches and even back-to-back (AC/DC/AC) power dedicated control unit or tuning the individual unit local
electronic inverters have been proposed. controllers a priori during the design stage.

Some form of fast-acting energy absorption and Clearly the steady-state coordination of loads and
injection capability (2, figure 1) is usually required to micro-generation is an important topic [9]. However it is
balance power flows at the onset of Microgrid islanding. In the transient behaviour requirements of semi-autonomous
a more sophisticated Microgrid control scheme, energy operation which determine much of the additional cost of a
storage could also be used to control the net power flows to Microgrid over conventional distributed generation. An
and from the utility in the grid connected mode, allowing example of such behaviour is the control response to
the Microgrid to behave as a 'model' citizen, capable maintain system stability during islanding. Proposals for
assisting stable network operation by providing improved Microgrids can be categorized roughly into three types,
power quality and voltage control for example. depending on how they achieve this transient (short time-
frame) stability:
Point of Couplng
(P_C) nrUW 1A. Virtual 'Prime Mover' - In this scheme a central
ET G2 controller samples Microgrid state variables and dispatches
Utility network C&ftL r- signals to all (or at least the dominant) micro-sources using
fast telecommunications. This aggregation creates one
5Y 8 | _PE
1|1 1 4 virtual power supply unit which dominates and controls the
Possible Power
11Electwnxcsilerface 55
Microgrid's behaviour. Problems with this method are the
need to achieve a reliable communications system, the need
CorinecUon Mtr for some back-up control should the communications fail,
_ Communication
OMMXitStn AGA G-----r
eneratort I6
the telecommunications cost and the restriction imposed by
line1 ft/lal
PElimited numbers of telecommunications channels /
V I sensor Photovolts a _Ibandwidth on Microgrid expansion.
NumtOr See text tfr description
General load (impedance, or 7 B. Physical 'Prime Mover'- In this scheme a large
motr, or powr elteronics). central hardware unit, either energy storage or generation,
controlled to handle transient power flows and set
Figure Potential Microgrid System Technologies
Figure voltage magnitude and frequency to balance steady-state
real and reactive power flows in islanded mode. Problems
The characteristics of the loads and micro-generation are the cost of the central unit (or aggregate unit if multiple
(i.e. 3-7, figure 1) determine the requirements for energy units are paralleled), the reliance of Microgrid operation on
storage and power quality in the Microgrid. In general the this centralluit(ie ove relia bility) an th
addition of a power electronics interface to a unit adds difficulty of sizing the central unit bearing in mind the
extra controllability and increases the unit's speed of potential for future changes in load and micro-generation.
response. Local energy storage in conjunction with a power
electronics interface (for example on the dc link of the C Distributed Control - In this last scheme each unit
power electronics) can add robustness. As a crude form of responds to variation in local state variables, typically
control, non-critical loads may have under-frequency load- voltage magnitude and frequency. A slow central controller
shedding relays (e.g. 7, fig. 1). Load power electronics may send signals to vary steady-state (nominal) set-points,
interfaces in contrast could potentially be used to provide but for redundancy, local control determines transient and
continuously variable power consumption by non-critical default behaviour. The speed of response of the distributed
power loads (e.g. ventilation). Power electronics interfaces elements must be sufficient to ensure stable Microgrid
do have disadvantages; they potentially increase harmonic operation with careful Microgrid design. This type of
injection and can be quite sensitive to systems control typically requires that micro-generation units have
disturbances. power electronic interfaces to achieve the fast response
required. An 'intelligent' connection interface is also
There must be some degree of central control (8, needed to reconnect the Microgrid to the utility network
figure 1) or co-ordination between all Microgrid elements when their voltages (which will need to be at different
in order that they operate as a system. Common Microgrid frequencies by design) pass close to alignment. Careful
state variables, instantaneous phase voltages and currents at system design is necessary to balance loads and generation
the point of coupling, must be regulated. The drn sadn n eoncinwtotuacpal
communication required can be by means of a voltage disturbance.
telecommunications line, a signal superimposed on the

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The Microgrid implementations described below have two commercial customers (in the initial, phase A, of
been categorized further by geography and the research project) and serves a mixed load set [12]. The medium
consortia which were involved in their implementation i.e. voltage switch and NPS new building are controlled by a
American, Asian and European. central Microgrid controller. Although the central
controller, and absence of storage, makes this is a type A
3 American Microgrids Microgrid, the autonomous micro-generation makes the
design of this type of Microgrid extremely challenging.
PoC 1~kI$Vvrar
_~~~~~~~~ 14
od Utilty networkCer
I v
95kWh peak
ra le Z loa
X I-
7.2kV 4

variabe Z load,
I95kW peak
P0 fbse
500kVA prop ne
gen et
PE Z load,
abIE H
variable _ 25kVA
Vltoad bus
cri ica biodiesel
6OkW ~~~~2Ohp motor load bulddIng) P
variable Z load, II 2.5kVA 30I
95kW peak

Figure 2. CERTS AEP Microgrid - Micro-generation mi(rNPStond

connection transformers and relocatable harmonic load not G P building) 100kW biodiesel
shown. genW

The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Figure 3. Mad River Microgrid
Solution (CERTS) Microgrid is a collaboration between
AEP, TECOGEN, Northern Power Systems, S&C Electric 3.3 BC Hydro Boston Bar
Co, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of
Wisconsin. The facility is located at the AEP Walnut Test The British Columbia Hydro Boston Bar substation
facility and is formed by a radial feeder with line lengths allows intentional islanding of a feeder with 3MW peak
up to 175 yards, connected through a 1.5MVA load and 8.6MVA of hydroelectric generation [11]. Power
480V/13.2kV transformer to the utility. Three 60kW
Tecogen Combined Heat and Power Sources, driven by
outages occur severalytimesperiyear forebetweenl12 and20
hours Studies of system islanding, resynchronization and
natural gas fed engines, form the Micro-generation. They black-start on this system (by means of a 50kW diesel-
are interfaced by controlled inverters which use terminal generator) are useful for Microgrid technology
voltage and real power export as the control variables, with development. The system effectively employs a single
a combination of P-f and V-Q droop line and PI control large generation station to control the net sub-system
loops [10,11]. Four load banks are used. Three are behaviour, i.e. uses type B Microgrid control.
impedances which can be varied in steps (with a peak real
power rating of 95kW). A fourth load bank *also includes 6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~9kV25kV
a Utiliy network 1M
directly connected induction motor, to allow islanded
motor starting tests. Energy storage is integrated via a
bidirectional dc:dc converter into the dc link of the power POC
electronics interface of the micro-generation. The system
has been designed so that the critical loads are located to 3MW peak 043MVA hydro
the right of the solid-state (anti-parallel thyristor)
connection interface (figure 2) and there is always
4 h

sufficient CHP micro-generation / dc-link storage power to

meet the total critical load power. This is a type C Figure 4. BC Boston Hydro Bar
3.4 GE Microgrid
3.2 Mad River
The General Electric Corporation is in the process of
Northern Power Systems (NPS) has built a Microgrid gearing up for field trials of its Microgrid concept. The
installation at Mad River, Waitsfield, Vermont. The company has undertaken a $4.2million program to develop
industrial park includes Northern's headquarters as well as

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A Microgrid concept.

3.5 Other Projects

Newfoundland Labrador Hydro [13], investigates the

27VV as turbine

22kW gas

20KW lea3d'acd
banttery T
PE m

2_kW gas

. .....
turbine G PE 350VV

Cotrol Syste
C _ntral

Figure 5. Shimizu Extended Microgrid

gilBe-gaSni ~ ~8kVwin,dturbe@
a 'Microgrid Energy Management System" [7], i.e. a type

A number of other Canadian distributed generation

projects, while not strictly 'Microgrids', are of significance
in the development of Microgrid technology.
The Ramea wind-diesel project, undertaken by

autonomous control of an islanded grid comprising 1.2MW

peak load, 395kW of wind turbines with diesel generation,
all centrally controlled.

Sherbrooke Hydro utilizes financial incentives for

customers to employ their back-up generation to reduce
peak loads [13], a potential feature of Microgrid systems.
The Fortis-Alberta scheme connects 3.8MW of wind
generation and 3MW of hydro-generation on a 25kV
feeder, and at certain times of year the feeder changes from
a net load to a net generator. While the capabilities
developed for the Fortis-Alberta feeder are thus of interest
to Microgrid engineers, the system is not permitted to
island - micro-generation must disconnect if a fault occurs
on the feeder.

Asian Microgrids
Shimizu's Microgrid
ility network

as engine
350kW gas engie

The Shimizu Corporation has built both a pilot and a

90kW gas engine

uEtrapaciEor supply

larger scale Microgrid at its research labs in Tokyo, Japan.

The first phase, a smaller-scale Microgrid, was constructed
to support company loads in Shimizu's laboratories and
was used to evaluate their 'optimum operation planning
system', i.e. type A Microgrid control [14, 15]. This was
then upgraded during 2006 into a larger Microgrid by the
addition of two additional gas engines (90kW and 350kW)
as well as extra storage in the form of a 400kWh NiMH
battery (5OkWx8h, with 200kW inverter) and an 100kW
work highlights two key points. Firstly, as a result of
minimum generation levels, micro-generation scheduling is
not necessarily straightforward for light loads in islanding.
Secondly, if a uniform power electronics interface is not
used, accommodating the varying response rates of both
micro-generation and energy storage can be challenging.

Hachinohe Project
The New Energy and Industrial Technology
Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan has started
three demonstrations as part of the "the Regional Power
Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project". These
projects qualify for the national program because they have
a significant share of renewable energy in a microgrid. The
sites are in Hachinohe, Aichi and Kyoto.
Y tit network

building' 360kWV

2W wind 10kW P

Clenta! Cntrol System

50kW 100kW

This project,

40kW load


Figure 6. Hachinohe System

and a sewage treatment

loads are joined
PX i
GQkW 'load
8kW wind turbine

4k ld

Wl -


(powers shown are contracted values)

a collaboration between Hachinohe

city, Mitsubishi Research Institute and Mitsubishi Electric

[16], utilizes a private 6kV feeder connecting four schools,

the local city hall, an office building of the regional water

A variety of
with PV, wind turbines,
energy storage and three large gas engines fed by sewage
and waste gas by-product. Exhaust heat from the gas-
engines is reused in the sewage fermentation process. The
TOBU drainage facility (treatment plant) system is
controlled by an information exchange network. The
system is essentially a type A system, with a fast controller

G 'onakano

at one site creating a fast-acting generation / storage facility

which ensures system stability despite additional, though
much smaller, micro-generation.

4.3 Kyoto Eco-Energy Project

This project is located in Kyotango city north of
Kyoto [17]. A control centre communicates with the micro-



ultracapacitor (4 second rating). The Shimizu research generation units over a variety of telecommunications

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33OkW PV
Aichi Project
g_ ti1ty network


Fuel Cell
Fuel Cielg
Kowakj substation
i_ asaka,tuebine
citra 1MW Of



~~~~~central systemj
*_rn~ ~ ~ ~ PV
infrastructure, and the existing utility network to control
demand and supply, making this a type A Microgrid.
Biogas is generated from (food) waste.

FO 250kW

Figure 7. Kyotango project

55W load
G1 50k


G 5x$OkW biogas engines

EXhibition Building

Figure 8. Aichi Microgrid


~ G~ Mgui
~ -PE-C, 3OO

Bio povier-plant Wlai:

Budding gnignl P

FO270kW MC

This Microgrid project was undertaken for the 2005

Aichi EXPO by Chubu Electric Power, Toyota Motor Corp,
NTT Facilities, Japanese NGK Insulators, Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries, Kyocera and Aichi Prefecture [16, 18].
fed through a DC:DC converter. This gives full
Uniterruptible Power Supply (UPS) back-up to part of the
system and supplies some DC loads. The premium quality
supply A is non-interrupted, and performs voltage
waveform correction [19]. When the utility grid has a
momentary voltage drop and outage, the outage time for
high quality B is less than 15 is. High quality B is
subdivided by differences during utility grid outages.
When a utility grid has an outage, high quality B 1 is
backedW up by storage. High quality B2 is backed up by
distributed power. High quality B3 is not backed up.
Utility network

Cmentra C ontro Ssterfi


205_M ga


Utility network

igr .SediPojc:Mltpepwe

Hsinchiang, China


380V feeder
40 homes, 3 businesses_
(90kW peak load, night)
High powr qualiy
loads (B3 )3OkW
High powe qua hty

Pium' power
AdCAC quality loads (A)

Load 20kW

|b 1 00kW genset

Renewable generation, battery energy storage and fuel cells PV
(solid-oxide, molten carbon and phosphoric acid) were Figure 10. Hsinchiang China
integrated. The MCFC and SOFC act as base-load
generation. Garbage fermentation and gasification act as In addition to its other Microgrids research,
energy input to the MCFC. A by-product of employing the Mitsubishi Electric has also installed a small Microgrid in
fuel cells was refrigeration of cold water for air Hsinchiang China [20]. The peak load of 90kW can be
conditioning. A common central interconnection console supplied by a combination of the distribution network, PV,
allows energy management to be simplified, by selecting battery and genset operation.
which systems to run, making this a type A system. The
system was moved to Central Japan Airport City. 5 European Microgrids

4.5 Sendai Project 5.1 Kythnos

The Sendai system is presently under-construction While not strictly speaking a Microgrid, in so far as it
[16] and is planned to include substantial PV micro- operates in islanded mode only, the autonomous system on
generation, gas engines, a molten carbon fuel cell, as well Kythnos in the Aegen Sea has played a significant role in
as series and shunt power compensation devices, the formation of the thinking in European Microgrid
Significant is the use of series compensation devices projects [2,3].
(Dynamic Voltage Restorers or DVRs) to compensate for
voltage sags to some loads, and the use of an AC:DC:AC The stand-alone system is located 4km from the
inverter ('Integrated Power System') with battery backup nearest utility feeder. It has taken a number of forms [21,
22] topologically and has been used as a research tool.

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Control is by means of real power (P) vs. frequency (f )
and reactive power (Q) vs. voltage (V) droop lines, though
on a single-phase basis. The single-phase nature of the
system places limits on the available bandwidth of the
power signals and has led to the suggestion that input and
output control signals be



36kW PV
interchanged, i.e. inverter output
frequency and voltage be controlled in response to
measured power signals [23]. The system is essentially a
prototype for the type B Microgrid control philosophy.

1 1kW PV

Figure 11. Kythnos Autonomous Network

Labein Experimental Centre

Utility network 2x125OkVA



generator lZ51V
55kW diesel

Figure 13. Labein Microgrid
1 kVA

50kW resistive load

150kW resistive load
36kVA reactive load


6kW wind
Ut net
Utlity network

PE1Utility ne|

1 0kW ste rIiin




15OkWMC~ ~ diesl
I 10kW



, jI ! (. ¢| I,



Figure 12. EDP Frielas Feeder

Figure 15. CESI Test Facility

The CESI network in Milan [26] was developed for
the testing of distributed generation technologies. The test
system will be used as part of the More-Microgrids project
[3] to characterize the performance of the large variety of
distributed generation and local control in the face of



36kVA react'fve load..................le


tW l| |l{<2D~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2kW

Control room loads


network disturbances and during islanded mode to evaluate

The Labein Research Institute in Spain has put power quality. It is also intended to test power line-carrier
together a test system for distributed generation and communication for partial type A microgrid operation.
Microgrid research [3]. It is fed by two 125OkVA
transformers. The system is intended as a test bed for both
decentralised and centralized control schemes and therefore
5.5 Continuon Holiday Park
utilizes a degree of reconfigurability. Utility 200 holiday homes
no- or-1lk il400kVA 400P
5.3 EDP Feeder
The Portuguese electricity utility EDP is in the
_ 0 ~~PocC E t_
process of upgrading the far end section of a small
200kVA, 400V 3-phase 4-wire, commercial radial feeder C,Ol _ PE
in the village of Frielas, a suburb of Lisbon [24,25] in order PE
to undertake Microgrid studies. The use of only one source
of micro-generation, with a capacity in excess of the ~eeg 1k ekP
maximum Microgrid load simplifies the microgrid control storge
problem. This forms a special class of the type B Figure 14. Continuon Holiday Park Microgrid simplified
Microgrid. diagram - PV distributed among homes

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Together with EMforce and Germanos, Continuon is Pentadyne flywheel forms the energy storage. Expansion of
upgrading a holiday park it runs in the Netherlands into a the Microgrid is planned with two CHP units rated at 9kW
Microgrid [3]. At present the park consists of 200 holiday and 5.5kW (electrical). The total on-site load varies
cottages, many of which have grid-connected between about 80kW to 230kW. The building's 60kW
photovoltaics. The total 315kW of installed photovoltaics ventilation and 48kW boiler loads are controllable. This
exceeds the load during the day. Plans are underway to add Microgrid's structure is still under development though at
a central battery energy storage unit and power electronic present the combination of a large central store makes it a
converter along with a central microgrid controller to allow type B Microgrid. The addition of centrally controllable
load control and resynchronization. The Microgrid is thus a loads would however introduce type A elements.
type B.
The 'Am Steinweg' estate with 400 inhabitants in
5.6 Demotec Stutensee, Germany is another of MVV's Microgrid
projects. The low voltage (LV) closed ring structure has
Utlity 400kVA 5kPwind 28kW (electrical) of CHP installed and PV installations
rbine simrulator with a total peak power of 35kW. In addition 880Ah of
kVA MG Set \ )
lead-acid battery are interfaced through a bi-directional
kV 15Jtconverter. MVV is using this installation to trial the use of
their power management system in this type A system.
1 75kVA_ PV-Battery
LP subsysem Lastly MVV is constructing a Microgrid in
Mannheim-Wallstadt. The installed microgeneration is at
present only 30kW peak of PV, but substantial further
80kVAMG set 4 | Lliil_ 'expansion of the microgeneration is planned.
2OkVA diesel G P P PV-Battery- 6 Conclusions
genlset _ di.esel sub-
3OkVA diesel gen G Many systems have been constructed to evaluate the
concept of enhanced micro-generation. Colloquially called
'Microgrids', this has become a 'buzz-word' that covers a
great many types of system. The majority of such systems
PV Inverte t s P Ehave opted for either a virtual or a physical 'prime mover'
PE;_ Solar-Battery topology. In part this reflects the on-going development of
_ iXs, Microgrids from distributed generation systems and the
PV-Balte 1 X1Supervisory nature of these projects as 'hardware demonstrators'. In
l monAonnl
-rid part it reflects the usefulness of a single large prime-mover
Connection u bredktr
nt located near the point-of-coupling (PoC) with the utility
Batbery banks! W PE to unwersity contol E being able to dominate the system behaviour at the PoC.
virual baftery labs
A distributed approach throws up more challenges for
the system design - PoC behaviour is no longer dictated by
a single unit (physical or virtual). However, in principle,
The Demotec facility at ISET [27] in Kassel
the Microgrid is less reliant on any one piece of hardware
Germany has been used extensively to develop and extending the Microgrid would not require a change to
methodologies for the control of distributed generation. It
was also used in the first EC Microgrids project [2] to e hardwareofof anyy of the already
the y installed system
evaluate central control and unit control strategies.elmnsOfcuesotae elemnts Ofcourse software changes hngs may ay still
necessary to ensure that design constraints of the modified
system (e.g. feeder voltage limits) are still observed.
5.7 MVV Energie Projects
MVV in Germany is presently piloting a number of We look forward to the results of on-going field trials
Microgrid Projects [3]. The substation network connected to address these and other issues in the development of this
to the MVV headquarters building in Mannheim Germany exciting field.
has been identified by MVV as a site to investigate
Microgrids [28]. The proposed system includes residential References:
and commercial units and loads: the MVV headquarters and
an adjacent apartment block which are fed from a single [1] R.H. Lasseter, "Microgrids", IEEE Power
substation. A 4.7kW PEM fuel cell and 3.8kW of PV form Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 146-
the installed on-site micro-generation [3]. A 120kW g

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[2] European Research Project "Microgrids", [17] "Garbage becomes electricity at state-of-the-art plant",, 2003-5. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development
Organization (NEDO),
[3] European Research Project "More-Microgrids", http://www.nedo.gojp/kankobutsu/pamphlets/kouhou/fy20, 2006-9. 04/27_28.pdf

[4] "Highly Distributed Power Systems" UK Research [18] "New Energy on-site research at EXPO 2005 Aichi,
Council Supergen project grant GR/T28836/01, 2005-9. Japan",,
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[5] "UK-Microgrids", UK Research Council EPSRC grant
EP/C00177X/1, 2005-8. [19] K.Hirose et al, "Study on Field Demonstration of
Multiple Power Quality Levels System in Sendai,
[6] S.Morozumi, "Technology Development For Grid- International Telecommunications Energy Conference,
Connection Issues", Renewable Energy 2006, Chiba, September 2006
Japan, Oct. 2006
[20] T. Goda, "Microgrid Research at Mistubishi",
[7] US Department of Energy Electricity Distribution California Energy Commission symposium, June
Programme, "Advanced Distribution Technologies and 2005,
Operating Concepts - Microgrids", http:// 06-17_symposium/GODA_2005-06-17.PDF
www.electricdistribution.ctc .com/microgrids .htm
[21] P. Strauss and A. Engler, "AC Coupled PV Systems
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Microgrids Special Issue 2006/7, ISSN 1614-7138, editor World Conf. on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Japan,
N Hatziargyriou 2003, pp. 2129-2134.

[9] A.L Dimeas and N Hatziargyriou, "Operation of a [22] J. Schmidt, P. Strauss and P. Schweizer-Ries, "More
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Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, Aug. 2005, pp. 1447-55 2003, pp. 192-199
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[11] R.H. Lasseter and P. Piagi, "Control and Design of Germany, 2001.
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publication 06-03, [24] A. Amorim, A.L. Cardoso, J. Oyarzabal and N. Melo,
"Analysis of the Connection of a Microturbine to a Low
[12] J. Lynch, "Update on Mad River Microgrid and Voltage Grid", International Conference on Future Power
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