Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Real-World MicroGrids- An Overview

Mike Barnes Giri Ventakaramanan


School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
University of Manchester, Manchester, MI 7AB, UK University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A.
mike.barnes @ manchester.ac.uk g.ventakaramanangengr.wisc.edu
Junji Kondoh Robert Lasseter
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A.
J.kondohgaist.go.jp lasseter(engr.wisc.edu
Hiroshi Asano Nikos Hatziargyriou
Department of Mechanical Engineering School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan National Technical University of Athens, Greece
asano@mech.t.u-tokyo.acjp vnhcorfu.power.ece.ntua.gr
Jose Oyarzabal Tim Green
Energy Unit Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Labein - Tecnalia, 48160 Derio, Spain Imperial College, London
joseoyar@labein.es t.greengimperial.ac.uk

Abstract - Microgrids are networks of small, distributed There exists considerable research to date on
electrical power generators operated as a collective unit - Microgrids with a number of major research projects
a system of energy systems. The range of hardware and underway, for example [1-8]. A number of demonstration
control options for Microgrid operation are reviewed. The projects have been commissioned internationally. However
paper summarizes and highlights the operating principles development of these systems and projects has largely been
and key conclusions of research andfield trials to-date. An undertaken independently. For the first time, this paper
overview is given on demonstration projects for brings together information from these field trials, in the
Microgrids which have been, and are being, constructed. context of research to date. The information presented is
perforce limited, in so far as public information on some
Keywords: Microgrids, renewables, power quality, energy projects is limited. Space also precludes the discussion of
storage, distributed generation, micro-generation. many of the smaller laboratory-scale Microgrids at
universities (as used for example in [2-5]).
1 Introduction
The use of micro-generation based on combined heat 2 Microgrid Structures
and power (CHP) or small-scale renewable generation has The topology elements required in a Microgrid are
a significant potential for reducing our dependency on strongly dependent on its operating states. A Microgrid has
fossil fuels. Since this could turn many consumers of two steady states of operation: grid connected operation
electricity into net producers, this strategy is not easily and islanded. It also has two transient states, corresponding
to the transitions between these steady-states. During all
accmmoatd i peset istibtio ntwoks

these four conditions it must remain stable and must meet


The Microgrids concept has been proposed [1] as a grid-code requirements (e.g. on real and reactive power
solution to the conundrum of integrating large amounts of flow and behaviour during faults).
micro-generation without disrupting the operation of the
utility network. By judicious intelligent coordination of The generalized structure and potential topological
loads and micro-generation the aggregate distribution elements of a Microgrid are shown in figure 1. Not all of
network sub-system (or 'Microgrid') would be less these system elements need be used, and the choice and
troublesome to the utility network, than conventional combination of possible elements determines the potential
micro-generation. The net Microgrid could even provide capability of a microgrid, i.e. how 'well behaved' it can be
ancillary services such as local voltage control. During made to operate. Ultimately, compared with a conventional
disturbances on the main network, Microgrids could system, additional hardware and software are required to
potentially disconnect and continue to operate control the voltage and power flows in the aggregate
autonomously. This operation has the potential to improve sse opoueteipoe eaiu eurdo
power quality to the consumer. Microgrid.

1 -4244-1 1 60-2/07/$25 .OO ©2007 IEEE.


Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
1
The connection interface (CI) to the utility network network voltage (power line carrier) or even by modulation
(1, figure 1) can be something as straightforward as an of the frequency and voltage of the Microgrid (e.g. 'droop-
electro-mechanical circuit breaker, although solid-state line' control). The coordination can be achieved by a
switches and even back-to-back (AC/DC/AC) power dedicated control unit or tuning the individual unit local
electronic inverters have been proposed. controllers a priori during the design stage.

Some form of fast-acting energy absorption and Clearly the steady-state coordination of loads and
injection capability (2, figure 1) is usually required to micro-generation is an important topic [9]. However it is
balance power flows at the onset of Microgrid islanding. In the transient behaviour requirements of semi-autonomous
a more sophisticated Microgrid control scheme, energy operation which determine much of the additional cost of a
storage could also be used to control the net power flows to Microgrid over conventional distributed generation. An
and from the utility in the grid connected mode, allowing example of such behaviour is the control response to
the Microgrid to behave as a 'model' citizen, capable maintain system stability during islanding. Proposals for
assisting stable network operation by providing improved Microgrids can be categorized roughly into three types,
power quality and voltage control for example. depending on how they achieve this transient (short time-
frame) stability:
Point of Couplng
(P_C) nrUW 1A. Virtual 'Prime Mover' - In this scheme a central
ET G2 controller samples Microgrid state variables and dispatches
Utility network C&ftL r- signals to all (or at least the dominant) micro-sources using
fast telecommunications. This aggregation creates one
5Y 8 | _PE
1|1 1 4 virtual power supply unit which dominates and controls the
Possible Power
11Electwnxcsilerface 55
Microgrid's behaviour. Problems with this method are the
need to achieve a reliable communications system, the need
CorinecUon Mtr for some back-up control should the communications fail,
_
_ Communication
OMMXitStn AGA G-----r
eneratort I6
-
the telecommunications cost and the restriction imposed by
line1 ft/lal
PElimited numbers of telecommunications channels /
V I sensor Photovolts a _Ibandwidth on Microgrid expansion.
NumtOr See text tfr description
General load (impedance, or 7 B. Physical 'Prime Mover'- In this scheme a large
motr, or powr elteronics). central hardware unit, either energy storage or generation,
isiscnrletohdetasetpwrfosadst
controlled to handle transient power flows and set
Figure Potential Microgrid System Technologies
1.1.PotentialMicrogridSystemTechnologies
Figure voltage magnitude and frequency to balance steady-state
real and reactive power flows in islanded mode. Problems
The characteristics of the loads and micro-generation are the cost of the central unit (or aggregate unit if multiple
(i.e. 3-7, figure 1) determine the requirements for energy units are paralleled), the reliance of Microgrid operation on
storage and power quality in the Microgrid. In general the this centralluit(ie ove relia bility) an th
addition of a power electronics interface to a unit adds difficulty of sizing the central unit bearing in mind the
extra controllability and increases the unit's speed of potential for future changes in load and micro-generation.
response. Local energy storage in conjunction with a power
electronics interface (for example on the dc link of the C Distributed Control - In this last scheme each unit
power electronics) can add robustness. As a crude form of responds to variation in local state variables, typically
control, non-critical loads may have under-frequency load- voltage magnitude and frequency. A slow central controller
shedding relays (e.g. 7, fig. 1). Load power electronics may send signals to vary steady-state (nominal) set-points,
interfaces in contrast could potentially be used to provide but for redundancy, local control determines transient and
continuously variable power consumption by non-critical default behaviour. The speed of response of the distributed
power loads (e.g. ventilation). Power electronics interfaces elements must be sufficient to ensure stable Microgrid
do have disadvantages; they potentially increase harmonic operation with careful Microgrid design. This type of
injection and can be quite sensitive to systems control typically requires that micro-generation units have
disturbances. power electronic interfaces to achieve the fast response
required. An 'intelligent' connection interface is also
There must be some degree of central control (8, needed to reconnect the Microgrid to the utility network
figure 1) or co-ordination between all Microgrid elements when their voltages (which will need to be at different
in order that they operate as a system. Common Microgrid frequencies by design) pass close to alignment. Careful
state variables, instantaneous phase voltages and currents at system design is necessary to balance loads and generation
the point of coupling, must be regulated. The drn sadn n eoncinwtotuacpal
communication required can be by means of a voltage disturbance.
telecommunications line, a signal superimposed on the

2
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
The Microgrid implementations described below have two commercial customers (in the initial, phase A, of
been categorized further by geography and the research project) and serves a mixed load set [12]. The medium
consortia which were involved in their implementation i.e. voltage switch and NPS new building are controlled by a
American, Asian and European. central Microgrid controller. Although the central
controller, and absence of storage, makes this is a type A
3 American Microgrids Microgrid, the autonomous micro-generation makes the
design of this type of Microgrid extremely challenging.
3.1 AEPCERTS
PoC 1~kI$Vvrar
_~~~~~~~~ 14
od Utilty networkCer
I v
95kWh peak
ra le Z loa
X I-
7.2kV 4

UtiIl
ty
variabe Z load,
I95kW peak
.PEEG
P0 fbse
20W
500kVA prop ne
gen et
100kW
PE Z load,
abIE H
variable _ 25kVA
Vltoad bus
cri ica biodiesel
genset
6OkW ~~~~2Ohp motor load bulddIng) P
variable Z load, II 2.5kVA 30I
95kW peak

Figure 2. CERTS AEP Microgrid - Micro-generation mi(rNPStond


connection transformers and relocatable harmonic load not G P building) 100kW biodiesel
shown. genW

The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Figure 3. Mad River Microgrid
Solution (CERTS) Microgrid is a collaboration between
AEP, TECOGEN, Northern Power Systems, S&C Electric 3.3 BC Hydro Boston Bar
Co, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of
Wisconsin. The facility is located at the AEP Walnut Test The British Columbia Hydro Boston Bar substation
facility and is formed by a radial feeder with line lengths allows intentional islanding of a feeder with 3MW peak
up to 175 yards, connected through a 1.5MVA load and 8.6MVA of hydroelectric generation [11]. Power
480V/13.2kV transformer to the utility. Three 60kW
Tecogen Combined Heat and Power Sources, driven by
outages occur severalytimesperiyear forebetweenl12 and20
hours Studies of system islanding, resynchronization and
natural gas fed engines, form the Micro-generation. They black-start on this system (by means of a 50kW diesel-
are interfaced by controlled inverters which use terminal generator) are useful for Microgrid technology
voltage and real power export as the control variables, with development. The system effectively employs a single
a combination of P-f and V-Q droop line and PI control large generation station to control the net sub-system
loops [10,11]. Four load banks are used. Three are behaviour, i.e. uses type B Microgrid control.
impedances which can be varied in steps (with a peak real
*
power rating of 95kW). A fourth load bank *also includes 6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~9kV25kV
a Utiliy network 1M
directly connected induction motor, to allow islanded
motor starting tests. Energy storage is integrated via a
bidirectional dc:dc converter into the dc link of the power POC
electronics interface of the micro-generation. The system
has been designed so that the critical loads are located to 3MW peak 043MVA hydro
the right of the solid-state (anti-parallel thyristor)
connection interface (figure 2) and there is always
4 h

sufficient CHP micro-generation / dc-link storage power to


meet the total critical load power. This is a type C Figure 4. BC Boston Hydro Bar
Microgrid.
3.4 GE Microgrid
3.2 Mad River
The General Electric Corporation is in the process of
Northern Power Systems (NPS) has built a Microgrid gearing up for field trials of its Microgrid concept. The
installation at Mad River, Waitsfield, Vermont. The company has undertaken a $4.2million program to develop
industrial park includes Northern's headquarters as well as

3
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
A Microgrid concept.

3.5 Other Projects

Newfoundland Labrador Hydro [13], investigates the

27VV as turbine

scanliTmalr
scalemicro9id
22kW gas

20KW lea3d'acd
banttery T
engine
RI|
PE m

I0k
P
IEF
2_kW gas

PERX
. .....
T
turbine G PE 350VV

Cotrol Syste
C _ntral
G

Figure 5. Shimizu Extended Microgrid


gilBe-gaSni ~ ~8kVwin,dturbe@
a 'Microgrid Energy Management System" [7], i.e. a type

A number of other Canadian distributed generation


projects, while not strictly 'Microgrids', are of significance
in the development of Microgrid technology.
The Ramea wind-diesel project, undertaken by

autonomous control of an islanded grid comprising 1.2MW


peak load, 395kW of wind turbines with diesel generation,
all centrally controlled.

Sherbrooke Hydro utilizes financial incentives for


customers to employ their back-up generation to reduce
peak loads [13], a potential feature of Microgrid systems.
The Fortis-Alberta scheme connects 3.8MW of wind
generation and 3MW of hydro-generation on a 25kV
feeder, and at certain times of year the feeder changes from
a net load to a net generator. While the capabilities
developed for the Fortis-Alberta feeder are thus of interest
to Microgrid engineers, the system is not permitted to
island - micro-generation must disconnect if a fault occurs
on the feeder.

4
4.1
Asian Microgrids
Shimizu's Microgrid
ility network

as engine
350kW gas engie
n PE1 TX NiMH
400kh

The Shimizu Corporation has built both a pilot and a


ies
90kW gas engine

battery
uEtrapaciEor supply

larger scale Microgrid at its research labs in Tokyo, Japan.


The first phase, a smaller-scale Microgrid, was constructed
to support company loads in Shimizu's laboratories and
was used to evaluate their 'optimum operation planning
system', i.e. type A Microgrid control [14, 15]. This was
then upgraded during 2006 into a larger Microgrid by the
addition of two additional gas engines (90kW and 350kW)
as well as extra storage in the form of a 400kWh NiMH
battery (5OkWx8h, with 200kW inverter) and an 100kW
work highlights two key points. Firstly, as a result of
minimum generation levels, micro-generation scheduling is
not necessarily straightforward for light loads in islanding.
Secondly, if a uniform power electronics interface is not
used, accommodating the varying response rates of both
micro-generation and energy storage can be challenging.
4.2

consumer
Hachinohe Project
The New Energy and Industrial Technology
Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan has started
three demonstrations as part of the "the Regional Power
Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project". These
projects qualify for the national program because they have
a significant share of renewable energy in a microgrid. The
sites are in Hachinohe, Aichi and Kyoto.
Y tit network

building' 360kWV

Sewge
G
2W wind 10kW P
turbines

Clenta! Cntrol System

50kW 100kW

This project,
Bia

at
40kW load

engines
_

Figure 6. Hachinohe System

and a sewage treatment


loads are joined
lOW PV
PX i
GQkW 'load
8kW wind turbine
KP

4k ld
rkW
I

Wl -

lad

(powers shown are contracted values)


a collaboration between Hachinohe
P`V

city, Mitsubishi Research Institute and Mitsubishi Electric


[16], utilizes a private 6kV feeder connecting four schools,
,Konakano

the local city hall, an office building of the regional water


facility.
A variety of
with PV, wind turbines,
energy storage and three large gas engines fed by sewage
and waste gas by-product. Exhaust heat from the gas-
engines is reused in the sewage fermentation process. The
TOBU drainage facility (treatment plant) system is
controlled by an information exchange network. The
system is essentially a type A system, with a fast controller
Junior

G 'onakano
ementaY

at one site creating a fast-acting generation / storage facility


which ensures system stability despite additional, though
much smaller, micro-generation.

4.3 Kyoto Eco-Energy Project


This project is located in Kyotango city north of
Kyoto [17]. A control centre communicates with the micro-
Koyo
Junior

Elementary

battery

ultracapacitor (4 second rating). The Shimizu research generation units over a variety of telecommunications

4
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
UUiltynetwork

PV

30kWN

4.4
lOOkW

PV

3301tWPV
33OkW PV
Aichi Project
g_ ti1ty network

FOl
25kWFuel
O

Fuel Cell
Fuel Cielg
Ce~I
Kowakj substation
i_ asaka,tuebine
substation
citra 1MW Of

E~
PV
PE0kW
lOkW

RE

~~~~~central systemj
control
*_rn~ ~ ~ ~ PV
infrastructure, and the existing utility network to control
demand and supply, making this a type A Microgrid.
Biogas is generated from (food) waste.

FO 250kW

Figure 7. Kyotango project


iwn
PE
55W load
G1 50k

-
ybattery

G 5x$OkW biogas engines

EXhibition Building
Exhdt-

Figure 8. Aichi Microgrid


PE
PE

FelCll,
~ G~ Mgui
~ -PE-C, 3OO
CFC

Bio povier-plant Wlai:

Budding gnignl P

FO270kW MC

This Microgrid project was undertaken for the 2005


Aichi EXPO by Chubu Electric Power, Toyota Motor Corp,
NTT Facilities, Japanese NGK Insulators, Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries, Kyocera and Aichi Prefecture [16, 18].
iElrkubit
fed through a DC:DC converter. This gives full
Uniterruptible Power Supply (UPS) back-up to part of the
system and supplies some DC loads. The premium quality
supply A is non-interrupted, and performs voltage
waveform correction [19]. When the utility grid has a
momentary voltage drop and outage, the outage time for
high quality B is less than 15 is. High quality B is
subdivided by differences during utility grid outages.
When a utility grid has an outage, high quality B 1 is
Se<:Ou'lVv
backedW up by storage. High quality B2 is backed up by
distributed power. High quality B3 is not backed up.
Utility network

powewerpantCl
qaityOloads)
-_______
Cmentra C ontro Ssterfi

L4.6
Q

205_M ga
~

Wg

Utility network
PE

system
igr .SediPojc:Mltpepwe

Hsinchiang, China
P
ADG
TO

ultyspl

380V feeder
40 homes, 3 businesses_
(90kW peak load, night)
Cl
DR
High powr qualiy
loads (B3 )3OkW
High powe qua hty
odsB)lk

Pium' power
AdCAC quality loads (A)

Load 20kW

|b 1 00kW genset
Q

80kW
batter
60kW
Renewable generation, battery energy storage and fuel cells PV
(solid-oxide, molten carbon and phosphoric acid) were Figure 10. Hsinchiang China
integrated. The MCFC and SOFC act as base-load
generation. Garbage fermentation and gasification act as In addition to its other Microgrids research,
energy input to the MCFC. A by-product of employing the Mitsubishi Electric has also installed a small Microgrid in
fuel cells was refrigeration of cold water for air Hsinchiang China [20]. The peak load of 90kW can be
conditioning. A common central interconnection console supplied by a combination of the distribution network, PV,
allows energy management to be simplified, by selecting battery and genset operation.
which systems to run, making this a type A system. The
system was moved to Central Japan Airport City. 5 European Microgrids

4.5 Sendai Project 5.1 Kythnos


The Sendai system is presently under-construction While not strictly speaking a Microgrid, in so far as it
[16] and is planned to include substantial PV micro- operates in islanded mode only, the autonomous system on
generation, gas engines, a molten carbon fuel cell, as well Kythnos in the Aegen Sea has played a significant role in
as series and shunt power compensation devices, the formation of the thinking in European Microgrid
Significant is the use of series compensation devices projects [2,3].
(Dynamic Voltage Restorers or DVRs) to compensate for
voltage sags to some loads, and the use of an AC:DC:AC The stand-alone system is located 4km from the
inverter ('Integrated Power System') with battery backup nearest utility feeder. It has taken a number of forms [21,
22] topologically and has been used as a research tool.

5
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
Control is by means of real power (P) vs. frequency (f )
and reactive power (Q) vs. voltage (V) droop lines, though
on a single-phase basis. The single-phase nature of the
system places limits on the available bandwidth of the
power signals and has led to the suggestion that input and
output control signals be

10k`W
Battery
Energy
Storage

5.2

36kW PV
5VA
diesel
get
interchanged, i.e. inverter output
frequency and voltage be controlled in response to
measured power signals [23]. The system is essentially a
prototype for the type B Microgrid control philosophy.

1 1kW PV

Figure 11. Kythnos Autonomous Network

Labein Experimental Centre


Utility network 2x125OkVA

3phase
55kWdi8esel

generator
-t.
5m'c
microtutbine
'
PE

_PE
generator lZ51V
55kW diesel

REP
Figure 13. Labein Microgrid
i
2
PE PE
1 kVA
peak
household
loads

50kW resistive load


150kW resistive load
36kVA reactive load

]rbin
1
1925Ah

6kW
lultracap
flywheel
6kW wind
Ut net
Utlity network

~~~~~5.4CESI
PE1Utility ne|
l,kW

800
1 0kW ste rIiin
engine

FuelCell

100kW
flywhee

microturb4ne
1

G
15OkWMC~ ~ diesl
I 10kW
kVA

CAme
Poc

Gicrturbine

, jI ! (. ¢| I,
a_
PE

e=

Line
Contro
80kW

Figure 12. EDP Frielas Feeder

Figure 15. CESI Test Facility


The CESI network in Milan [26] was developed for
the testing of distributed generation technologies. The test
system will be used as part of the More-Microgrids project
[3] to characterize the performance of the large variety of
distributed generation and local control in the face of
PPE
LiL G

HE

XOOkW
P
71kVApeak
consumer8Woads

36kVA react'fve load..................le


A
T
l
1kW.
~~~~~7kW
wind

tW l| |l{<2D~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 2kW

Control room loads


1VAprogrammable
da

network disturbances and during islanded mode to evaluate


The Labein Research Institute in Spain has put power quality. It is also intended to test power line-carrier
together a test system for distributed generation and communication for partial type A microgrid operation.
Microgrid research [3]. It is fed by two 125OkVA
transformers. The system is intended as a test bed for both
decentralised and centralized control schemes and therefore
5.5 Continuon Holiday Park
utilizes a degree of reconfigurability. Utility 200 holiday homes
no- or-1lk il400kVA 400P
5.3 EDP Feeder
The Portuguese electricity utility EDP is in the
_ 0 ~~PocC E t_
process of upgrading the far end section of a small
200kVA, 400V 3-phase 4-wire, commercial radial feeder C,Ol _ PE
in the village of Frielas, a suburb of Lisbon [24,25] in order PE
to undertake Microgrid studies. The use of only one source
of micro-generation, with a capacity in excess of the ~eeg 1k ekP
maximum Microgrid load simplifies the microgrid control storge
problem. This forms a special class of the type B Figure 14. Continuon Holiday Park Microgrid simplified
Microgrid. diagram - PV distributed among homes

6
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
Together with EMforce and Germanos, Continuon is Pentadyne flywheel forms the energy storage. Expansion of
upgrading a holiday park it runs in the Netherlands into a the Microgrid is planned with two CHP units rated at 9kW
Microgrid [3]. At present the park consists of 200 holiday and 5.5kW (electrical). The total on-site load varies
cottages, many of which have grid-connected between about 80kW to 230kW. The building's 60kW
photovoltaics. The total 315kW of installed photovoltaics ventilation and 48kW boiler loads are controllable. This
exceeds the load during the day. Plans are underway to add Microgrid's structure is still under development though at
a central battery energy storage unit and power electronic present the combination of a large central store makes it a
converter along with a central microgrid controller to allow type B Microgrid. The addition of centrally controllable
load control and resynchronization. The Microgrid is thus a loads would however introduce type A elements.
type B.
The 'Am Steinweg' estate with 400 inhabitants in
5.6 Demotec Stutensee, Germany is another of MVV's Microgrid
projects. The low voltage (LV) closed ring structure has
Utlity 400kVA 5kPwind 28kW (electrical) of CHP installed and PV installations
rbine simrulator with a total peak power of 35kW. In addition 880Ah of
kVA MG Set \ )
lead-acid battery are interfaced through a bi-directional
kV 15Jtconverter. MVV is using this installation to trial the use of
their power management system in this type A system.
1 75kVA_ PV-Battery
LP subsysem Lastly MVV is constructing a Microgrid in
Mannheim-Wallstadt. The installed microgeneration is at
present only 30kW peak of PV, but substantial further
80kVAMG set 4 | Lliil_ 'expansion of the microgeneration is planned.
2OkVA diesel G P P PV-Battery- 6 Conclusions
genlset _ di.esel sub-
3OkVA diesel gen G Many systems have been constructed to evaluate the
concept of enhanced micro-generation. Colloquially called
'Microgrids', this has become a 'buzz-word' that covers a
great many types of system. The majority of such systems
PV Inverte t s P Ehave opted for either a virtual or a physical 'prime mover'
PE;_ Solar-Battery topology. In part this reflects the on-going development of
tSm
_ iXs, Microgrids from distributed generation systems and the
PV-Balte 1 X1Supervisory nature of these projects as 'hardware demonstrators'. In
l monAonnl
1gl
u
connection
-rid part it reflects the usefulness of a single large prime-mover
Connection u bredktr
nt located near the point-of-coupling (PoC) with the utility
Batbery banks! W PE to unwersity contol E being able to dominate the system behaviour at the PoC.
virual baftery labs
A distributed approach throws up more challenges for
the system design - PoC behaviour is no longer dictated by
a single unit (physical or virtual). However, in principle,
The Demotec facility at ISET [27] in Kassel
the Microgrid is less reliant on any one piece of hardware
Germany has been used extensively to develop and extending the Microgrid would not require a change to
methodologies for the control of distributed generation. It
was also used in the first EC Microgrids project [2] to e hardwareofof anyy of the already
the y installed system
y
evaluate central control and unit control strategies.elmnsOfcuesotae elemnts Ofcourse software changes hngs may ay still
tilbbe
necessary to ensure that design constraints of the modified
system (e.g. feeder voltage limits) are still observed.
5.7 MVV Energie Projects
MVV in Germany is presently piloting a number of We look forward to the results of on-going field trials
Microgrid Projects [3]. The substation network connected to address these and other issues in the development of this
to the MVV headquarters building in Mannheim Germany exciting field.
has been identified by MVV as a site to investigate
Microgrids [28]. The proposed system includes residential References:
and commercial units and loads: the MVV headquarters and
an adjacent apartment block which are fed from a single [1] R.H. Lasseter, "Microgrids", IEEE Power
substation. A 4.7kW PEM fuel cell and 3.8kW of PV form Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 146-
the installed on-site micro-generation [3]. A 120kW g

Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
[2] European Research Project "Microgrids", [17] "Garbage becomes electricity at state-of-the-art plant",
http://microgrids.power.ece.ntua.gr, 2003-5. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development
Organization (NEDO),
[3] European Research Project "More-Microgrids", http://www.nedo.gojp/kankobutsu/pamphlets/kouhou/fy20
http://microgrids.power.ece.ntua.gr, 2006-9. 04/27_28.pdf

[4] "Highly Distributed Power Systems" UK Research [18] "New Energy on-site research at EXPO 2005 Aichi,
Council Supergen project grant GR/T28836/01, 2005-9. Japan", http://www.ntt.co.jp/csr_e/kankyo/03_03.html,
NTT on-line newsletter.
[5] "UK-Microgrids", UK Research Council EPSRC grant
EP/C00177X/1, 2005-8. [19] K.Hirose et al, "Study on Field Demonstration of
Multiple Power Quality Levels System in Sendai,
[6] S.Morozumi, "Technology Development For Grid- International Telecommunications Energy Conference,
Connection Issues", Renewable Energy 2006, Chiba, September 2006
Japan, Oct. 2006
[20] T. Goda, "Microgrid Research at Mistubishi",
[7] US Department of Energy Electricity Distribution California Energy Commission symposium, June
Programme, "Advanced Distribution Technologies and 2005,http://www.energy.ca.gov/pier/esi/documents/2005-
Operating Concepts - Microgrids", http:// 06-17_symposium/GODA_2005-06-17.PDF
www.electricdistribution.ctc .com/microgrids .htm
[21] P. Strauss and A. Engler, "AC Coupled PV Systems
[8] International Journal of Distributed Energy Resources, and Microgrids - State of the Art and Future Trends", 3rd
Microgrids Special Issue 2006/7, ISSN 1614-7138, editor World Conf. on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Japan,
N Hatziargyriou 2003, pp. 2129-2134.

[9] A.L Dimeas and N Hatziargyriou, "Operation of a [22] J. Schmidt, P. Strauss and P. Schweizer-Ries, "More
Multi-agent system for microgrid control", IEEE Trans. than a Light-bulb", Renewable Energy World, July-August
Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, Aug. 2005, pp. 1447-55 2003, pp. 192-199
[10] P. Piagi and R.H. Lasseter, "Autonomous Control of [23] A. Engler, C. Hardt, P. Strauss and M. Vandenbergh,
Microgrids", IEEE PES Meeting, Montreal, 2006. "Parallel operation of generations for stand-alone single-
phase hybrid system", EPVSEC Conference, Munich
[11] R.H. Lasseter and P. Piagi, "Control and Design of Germany, 2001.
Microgrid Components", Final project report, PSERC
publication 06-03, http://certs.aeptechlab.com/ [24] A. Amorim, A.L. Cardoso, J. Oyarzabal and N. Melo,
"Analysis of the Connection of a Microturbine to a Low
[12] J. Lynch, "Update on Mad River Microgrid and Voltage Grid", International Conference on Future Power
Related Activities", CERTS Microgrid Symposium, June Systems, 2005
17, 2005.
[25] J. Oyarzabal, F. Fresquet, A. Amorim and A.
[13] C. Abbey, F. Katiraei, C. Brothers, L. Dignard-Bailey Androutsos, "Large Scale Integration of Micro-Generation
and G. Joos, "Integration of Distributed Generation and to Low Voltage Grids", DII Deliverable Report, European
Wind Energy in Canada", IEEE Power Engineering Commission Framework V Microgrids project.
Society Meeting, June 2006
[26] A. Invernizzi, "Technologies to Innovate Distribution
[14] J. Baba, S. Suzuki, S. Numata, T. Yonezu, S. Networks with DG", IEA Workshop on Electricity T&D,
Kusagawa, A. Denda, T. Nitta and E. Masada, "Combined Session V - Integrated Distributed and Intermittent
Power Supply Method for Microgrid by the Use of Several Sources, Paris Nov. 2004.
types of Distributed Power Generation systems", European
Conf. on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), 2005. [27] T. Degner, and P Strauss, "Laboratory for Distributed
Generation", EC Project DISPOWER , Project Highlight
[15] A. Denda, "Shimizu's microgrid research activities", document no. 3, http:// www.iset.uni-kassel.de/
Symposium on Microgrids, Montreal, June 2006.
[28] "ISET Institutionsbericht 2005 - Erfolge und
[16] 5. Morozumi, "Overview of Microgrid Research and Perspektive", 2005 Yearly Report of the Institute for Solar
Development Activities in Japan", International Energy Technology, Kassel, Germany.
Symposium on Microgrids, Montreal, June 2006.

8
Authorized licensed use limited to: Inha University. Downloaded on August 17,2010 at 01:06:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.