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DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY- DASMARIÑAS

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE AND TECHNOLOGY


Engineering Department

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING LAB.

EXERCISE NO. 3

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO OF SOIL

Submitted by: QUITON, ALAINE KRISTINE R. Rating:

CEE51 1st Sem. SY 2019- 2020 Group No. 1


Date Performed: October 25, 2019 Date Submitted: November 7, 2019
Submitted to: ENGR. JOYLEN PEARL P. MITRA
2.1 Objective
To determine the California Bearing Ratio CBR of sub-grade soil in remolded condition.

2.2 Equipment / Apparatus


Molds 2250cc capacity with base plate, stay rod and wing nut
Collar
Spacer Disc
Metal rammer
Loading machine equipped with a movable head or base that travels at a uniform rate of 1.25mm
/ min for use in forcing the penetration plunger in to the specimen.
Dial gauge two numbers reading to 0.01mm.
IS sieves 19mm and 4.75mm.
Vernier caliper
Balance
Miscellaneous apparatus such as mixing bowl, straight edge, scales, filter paper, dishes and
calibrated measuring jar.

2.3 Introduction
California bearing ratio is a ratio expressed in percentage of force unit area required to
penetrate a soil mass with a standard circular plunger of 50mm diameter. This test is a measure
of resistance of a material to penetration of standard plunger under controlled density and
moisture conditions. It is a method of classifying and evaluating soil-subgrade and base course
materials for flexible pavements.

2.4 Theory
California bearing ratio (CBR) test is developed by California Division of Highway for
evaluating the strength of subgrade soil and base course materials for flexible pavements. After
Second World War, the U.S. crop of Engineers adopted CBR test for use in the design of base
course for the airfield pavements. The test is empirical, and the results of this test can’t be
related accurately with the fundamental properties of material but useful in the design of
flexible pavements. Unless the test procedure is strictly followed, dependable results can’t be
obtained.
Based on the extensive CBR test data collected, empirical design charts were developed
by the California State Highway Department, correlating the CBR value and flexible pavement
thickness required. Indian Road Congress (IRC) also uses this type of chart.
As per IS: 2720 (partXIV)-1979, the CBR is define as the ratio of “force per unit area”
required to penetrate a soil mass with a circular plunger of 50 mm diameter at a rate of
1.25mm/min to “force per unit area” required for corresponding penetration of a standard
material.
2.5 Procedure
The CBR test maybe done on soaked or un-soaked specimen. But the standard test requires
soaked test hence soaked specimens are commonly prepared for CBR value. Here we are going to
use soaked, disturbed or remolded specimen, compacted by the dynamic compaction procedure.
A. Preparation of remolded specimen by Dynamic Compaction
1. Take representative sample of soil weighing approximately 7kg and sieve through 20 mm IS
sieve. Then mix thoroughly with water at OMC.
2. Record the empty weight of the mold with base plate, with extension collar removed.
3. Replace the extension collar of the mold.
4. Insert a spacer disc over the base plate and place a coarse filter paper on the top of the
spacer disc.
5. Place the mold on a solid base such as a concrete floor or plinth and compact the wet soil in
to the mold in five layers of approximately equal mass each layer being given 56 blows with
hammer equally distributed and dropped from a height of 450 mm above the soil.
6. The amount of soil used shall be sufficient to fill the mold, leaving not more than about
6mm to be struck off when the extension collar is removed. Remove the extension collar
and carefully level the compacted soil to the top of the mold by means of a straight edge.
7. Remove the spacer disc by inverting the mold and weigh the mold with compacted soil.
8. Place a filter paper between the base plate and the inverted mold.
9. Replace the extension collar of the mold.
10. Prepare two more specimens in the same procedure as described above.
11. Take representative samples of the material after compaction for the determination of
moisture content. This sample shall weigh not less than 100g for fine-grained soil and not
less than 500 for granular soil. Record its weight. Place the sample in the oven and then
record its oven dry weight.
B. Preparation of soaked specimen
12. Place another filter paper on the top of the surface of the sample.
13. Place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the compacted soil specimen in the mold.
14. Place the weights to produce a surcharge equal to the weight of base material and
pavement to the nearest 2.5kg on the perforated plate.
15. Immerse the whole mold and weights in a tank of water allowing free access of water to the
top and bottom of specimen for 96 hours.
C. Test the Specimen
16. After 96 hours of soaking take out the specimen from the water and remove the extension
collar, perforated disc, surcharge weights and filter paper.
17. Drain off the excess water by placing the mold inclined for about 15 minutes and weigh the
mold.
18. Place the mold on the lower plate of the testing machine with top face exposed.
19. To prevent upheaval of soil in to the hole of surcharge weights, place 2.5kg annular weights
on the soil surface prior to seating the penetration plunger after which place the reminder
of the surcharge weights.
20. Set the plunger under a load of 4 kg so that full contact is established between the surface
of the specimen and the plunger.
21. Set the stress and strain gauges to zero.
22. Consider the initial load applied to the plunger as the zero load.
23. Apply the load at the rate of 1.25 mm / min.
24. Take the readings of the load at penetration of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 7.5, 10 and
12.5.
25. Raise the plunger and detach the mold from the loading equipment.

2.6 PHOTO DOCUMENTATION

Water is added to achieve Optimum Moisture Content Rammer is used to compact soil with 5 layers at 56 blows
each
Attaching the Filter Paper on top of the Compacted Soil

Soil Settlement Dial Gauge of the CBR Machine

Proving Ring Dial Gauge of the CBR Machine

2.7 DATA, OBSERVATION and CALCULATIONS

Sample Type: Saturated Surface-Dry Garden Soil (Silt Clay)


Compaction Process: Dynamic Compaction
Weight of Rammer: 6.2 kg
Number of Blows: 56 blows per layer
Layers of Compaction: 5 Layers
Surcharge Weight Placed: 2.5 kg
Soaking Period: 72 hours
Proving Ring Conversion Factor: 2.923 (given by Engr. Mitra)
Diameter of Plunger: 50 mm
Area of Plunger: 1963.495 mm2

A. BEFORE SOAKING

Container No. 1

Weight of container with wet soil, W1 100 g

Weight of container with dry soil, W2 90 g

Weight of empty container, Wc 0g

Weight of water, Ww = W1 - W2 10 g

Weight of dry soil, Wd = W2 - Wc 90 g

Moisture Content, MC = (Ww / Wd) x100 11.111 %

Mold no. 1

Volume of mold, Vm 3246.9815 cm3

Weight of mold, Wm 7900 g

Weight of mold and compacted soil, Wb 11500 g

Wet Density ➰m = (Wb - Wm) / Vm 1.109 g/cc

Dry Density ➰d = ➰m / (1 + MC) 0.998 g/cc

Max Dry Density = 1.324 g/cc


Optimum Moisture Content = 9.12%
(from Experiment 1)
B. AFTER SOAKING

Penetration, y Standard Load Proving Ring Dial Load on Plunger,


No.
(mm) Value, P (kgf) Gauge Reading (R) PI = RxF (kgf)

1 0.0 --- 0 0

2 0.5 --- 13 37.999

3 1.0 --- 30 87.960

4 1.5 --- 45 131.535

5 2.0 --- 55 160.765

6 2.5 1370 60 175.380


7 3.0 --- 70 204.610

8 3.5 --- 80 233.840

9 4.0 --- 93 271.839

10 4.5 --- 103 301.069

11 5.0 2055 113 330.299


12 5.5 --- 121 353.683

13 6.0 --- 130 379.990


14 6.5 --- 135 394.605
15 7.0 --- 142 415.066

16 7.5 --- 150 438.450

17 8.0 --- 155 453.065

18 8.5 --- 160 467.680

19 9.0 --- 165 482.295

20 10.0 --- 172 502.756


21 10.5 --- 175 511.525

22 11.0 --- 180 526.140

23 11.5 --- 188 549.524

24 12.0 --- 190 555.370


25 12.5 --- 195 569.985

!!!! AXL INSERT TABLE HERE TNX !!!!

Penetration, y Standard Load Value of Load from CBR


S No.
(mm) Value, Ps (kgf) Graph, Pg (kgf) (Pg / Ps) x 100%

1 2.5 1370 175.380 12.801 %

2 5.0 2055 330.299 16.073 %

CALCULATIONS
Volume of Compaction Mold = 3272.6 𝑐𝑚3
Wt. of Compaction Mold = 7900 g

Moisture Content of Soil Sample


𝑊𝑤 10 𝑔
MOLD 1 𝑀𝑐 = 𝑥 100% = 𝑥 100% = 11.111%
𝑊𝑐 90 𝑔

Wet Density of Soil Sample


𝑊𝑏 −𝑊𝑚 11500 𝑔−7900 𝑔 𝑔
MOLD 1 𝜌𝑚 = 𝑉𝑚
= 3246.9815 𝑐𝑐
= 1.109 𝑐𝑐

Dry Density of Soil Sample


𝑔
𝜌 1.109 𝑔
MOLD 1 𝜌𝑑 = 1 +𝑚𝑀 = 1+0.11111
𝑐𝑐
= 0.998 𝑐𝑐
𝑐

Water Absorbed
𝑊 −𝑊 11800𝑔−11500𝑔
MOLD 1 𝑊𝑤 = 𝑊𝑎−𝑊𝑏 𝑥 100% = 11500𝑔−7900𝑔
𝑥 100% = 8.333%
𝑏 𝑚

Expansion Ratio
𝑑𝑓−𝑑𝑖 9.5𝑚𝑚−0𝑚𝑚
MOLD 1 𝐸𝑟 = ℎ
𝑥 100% = 118 𝑚𝑚
𝑥 100% = 8.051%

2.8 ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION of DATA / RESULTS

The CBR test, using the same soil from soil compaction and swelling, was performed
with the use of the testing machine. It was prepared by removing the extension collar,
perforated disc, surcharge weights and filter paper, then draining excess water afterwards
(before putting it on the testing machine). With the consecutive penetrations, at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5,
2.0, 2.5, 3.5, 4, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5, the readings for the loads on plunger were 0, 37.999, 87.960,
131.535, 160.765, 175.380, 233.840, 301.069, 415.066, 502.756, and 569.985, respectively.

As a result, the soil used has a CBR of 12.081% at 2.5mm penetration and 1370kgf
standard load value and a CBR of 16.073% at 5.0mm penetration and 2055kgf standard load
value.

2.9 CONCLUSION

I therefore conclude that the soil that has undergone the California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
Test was able to have a fair result, given its properties and its condition. The experiment has
successfully interpreted the use of the CBR test and was able to attain a reasonable ratio at 2.5
and 5.0 millimeter penetration.

2.10 REFERENCE

California Bearing Ratio Test-


http://www.iricen.gov.in/LAB/res/pdf/test-07.pdf

An Analysis of the California Bearing Ratio Test in Saturated Clays-


https://trid.trb.org/view/188920

California Bearing Ratio Test on Subgrade Soil- Procedure and Values-


https://theconstructor.org/geotechnical/california-bearing-ratio-test/2578/

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