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Module 2 recap:

DEVELOPING THE WHOLE SELF

HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT
4 ASPECTS OF THE SELF
THE COGNITIVE TRIANGLE
Ultimately, parenting style
has an extreme effect on
child development, which
lasts well into adolescence
and adulthood.
Sigmund Freud

"I cannot think of any need in


childhood as strong as the
need for a father's
protection"

May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939


Jacob Koloman Freud
- Freud’s father was a relatively
unsuccessful wool merchant.
- When Freud was born, his father was
40 years old and his mother (the elder
Freud’s third wife) only 20.
- The father was strict and authoritarian.
As an adult, Freud recalled his childhood
hostility, hatred, and rage toward his
father.
- He wrote that he felt superior to his
father as early as the age of 2.
Amalia Nathansohn Freud
- Amalia was slender and attractive. Her
behavior toward her first-born son was
protective and loving.
- Freud felt a passionate, sexual
attachment to her, a situation that set
the stage for his later concept of the
Oedipus complex.
- eight children in the Freud family
(eldest), Freud resented them all and
became jealous and angry when
competitors for his mother’s affection
were born.
Victorian era
(1837 - 1901)
- highly repressive society, to women in particular (CHILDREN, SEX, DOMESTIC
LABOR)
- women were forced to repress their sexual needs. In many cases, the result was
some form of neurotic illness.
- Freud sought to understand the nature and variety of these illnesses by
retracing the sexual history of his patients. (patient’s wishes and desires, their
experience of love, hate, shame, guilt and fear – and how they handled these
powerful emotions)

It was this that led to the most controversial part of Freud’s work – his theory of
PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT and the Oedipus complex.

Victorian era
(1837 - 1901)
MODULE 3
Developmental Stages in Middle and Late Adolescence

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

JOANNA CHRISTELLE NAVARRO, RPM


Objectives
1. Identify Freud's different
AT THE END OF THIS
MODULE, LEARNERS WILL Psychosexual stages

BE ABLE TO: 2. Evaluate their development in


comparison with persons of the
same age group, and
3. Understand the significance of the
various stages of development
FIXATION
A condition in which a portion of
libido remains invested in one of the
psychosexual stages because of
excessive frustration or gratification.
REPRESSION
A defense mechanism that involves
unconscious denial of the existence
of something that causes anxiety.
EROGENOUS ZONE
Parts of the body that have strong
pleasure-giving qualities at
particular stages of development.
Oral stage
(Birth-18 months)
EZ: mouth
Id is dominant
Chewing, sucking, biting and swallowing (chief
sources of pleasure + reduces tension)
State of dependence on the mother or
caregiver who becomes the primary object of
the child’s libido.
How the mother responds to the infant’s
demands, determines how the infant perceive
the world as good or bad, satisfying or
frustrating, safe or perilous.
Oral-dependent
TOO MUCH STIMULATION (over-fed)

child may become very dependent

and submissive

person will be gullible, passive, and

need lots of attention


Oral-aggressive
TOO LITTLE GRATIFICATION

(under-fed)

child will be very aggressive and

will get what he wants through

force

adults who like to argue, cynical,

and exploits others.


Oral Fixations
Anal stage
(1 ½ - 3 years old)
EZ: anus
expelling or retaining feces

control over their bowel movements and can

choose to comply or not with their parents’

demands (Potty training)

Defecation = erotic pleasure for the child, but with

the onset of toilet training, the child must learn to

postpone or delay this pleasure. For the first time,

gratification of an instinctual impulse is interfered

with as parents attempt to regulate the time and

place for defecation.


Anal-retentive
holding back or retaining the feces.

technique for manipulating the parents.

(Parents become concerned if the child

goes several days without a bowel

movement, thus securing parental

attention and affection)

Stubborn and stingy, hoards or retains

things because feelings of security

The person is likely to be rigid, compulsively

neat, not easily swayed, and overly

conscientious (Uptight)
Anal-expulsive/aggressive
defecate when and where the parents

disapprove, thus defying their

attempts at regulation

the basis for many forms of hostile

and sadistic behavior in adult life,

including cruelty, destructiveness,

and temper tantrums. Such a person

is likely to be disorderly and to view

other people as objects to be

possessed.
Anal Fixations
Phallic stage
(3 - 6 years old)
EZ: genital area
“phallic” (Latin: “phallus”) = “penis”

child discovers self-stimulation is enjoyable


(masturbation or fantasies)
sexuality identification
The child becomes curious about birth and
about why boys have penises and girls do
not.
The child may talk about wanting to marry
the parent of the opposite sex.
Phallic stage
OEDIPUS COMPLEX
(castration anxiety)

Intense feelings of desire for opposite-sex parent and


jealousy and anger toward same-sex parent.
Essentially, a boy feels that he is competing with his
father for possession of his mother, while a girl feels that
she is competing with her mother for her father's
affections.
successful completion of this stage involved identifying
with the same-sex parent which ultimately would lead
to developing a mature sexual identity.
Phallic stage
ELECTRA COMPLEX
(penis-envy)
girls discover that they do not have a penis,
penis envy and resentment toward their
mothers for "sending her into the world
so insufficiently equipped."
Resentment gives way to identification
with her mother and the process of
internalizing the attributes and
characteristics of her same-sex parent.
PhallicFixations

They need continual recognition and appreciation of


their attractive and unique qualities.
As long as they receive such support they function
well, but when it is lacking they feel inadequate and
inferior.
PhallicFixations
Girl to become a woman
who continually strives
to dominate men

- either as an unusually
seductive woman (high
self-esteem)
- as an unusually
submissive woman (low
self-esteem)
PhallicFixations
- "Phallic character": reckless,

resolute, self-assured, and

narcissistic--excessively vain

and proud.

- FAILURE TO RESOLVE: cause

a person to be afraid or

incapable of close love; could

be a root cause of

homosexuality.
Latency stage
(6 years old to puberty)

sexual drive lies dormant "SLEEPING LIBIDO"


a period of unparalleled repression of sexual
desires and erogenous impulses.
During this period, children pour this
repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits
such as school, athletics, and same-sex
friendships.
Genital stage
(Puberty - onwards)
EZ: Genitals
genitals once again become a central focus of

libidal energy (sexual reawakening)

unresolved conflicts with parents re-emerge

The genital stage ends with heterosexual love and

the realization of full adult sexuality.

If, however, he remains fixated, particularly on the

phallic stage, his development will be troubled as

he struggles with further repression and defenses.


NEXT MEETING:
Criticisms of the Psychosexual Stages
Significance of Freud's Psychosexual theory
Oral Recitation
(Topics covered: Knowing Oneself - Psychosexual Stages)