1
EE2259  ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY  I
List of Experiments
1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately and self excited DC
shunt generators.
2. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and
cumulative connection.
3. Load characteristics of DC shunt and compound motor.
4. Load characteristics of DC series motor.
5. Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor.
6. Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set.
7. Load test on singlephase transformer and three phase transformer
connections.
8. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer.
9. Sumpner’s test on transformers.
10. Separation of noload losses in single phase transformer.
2
CONTENTS
S. 

No. 
Name of the experiment 
Page No. 
1 
Load test on dc shunt motor 
6 
2 
Load test on dc series motor 
10 
3 
Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited dc generator 
15 
4 
Open circuit and load characteristics of selfexcited shunt generator 
22 
5 
Speed control of dc shunt motor 
28 
6 
Load test on single phase transformer 
32 
7 
Open circuit and short circuit test on A single phase transformer 
36 
8 
Swinburne’s test 
44 
9 
Load test on dc compound motor 
50 
10 
Load test on dc compound generator 
55 
11 
Hopkinson’s test 
59 
12 
Three phase transformer connections 
65 
13 
Viva voce questionsDC machines 
71 
14 
Viva voce questionstransformers 
79 
3
INDEX
LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
4
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Model Graph:
Ex. No:
5
Date:
LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
AIM:
To perform load test on the given D.C shunt motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics.
1. Torque Vs armature current
2. Speed Vs armature current
3. Speed Vs Torque
4. %Efficiency Vs Power output
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 
O 

1. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300) V 
1 
2. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(020) A 
1 
3. 
Rheostat 
Variable 
350 /1.6A 
1 
4. 
Tachometer 
Analog 
 
1 
5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
As required 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
1. S=S _{1} – S _{2} in Kg. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S _{1}_{,} S _{2} = spring balance reading
2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm S= spring force in Kg. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. T=Torque in Nm.
Tabulation:
Radius of the brake drum =
6
Input 
Input 
Spring balance Reading 
Speed 
Input 
Outpu 

voltage 
curre 
N 
Torque 
t 
Efficien 

power P in 

S.N 
nt 
S 1 
S 2 
S _{1} – 
T 
power 
cy 

V 
in 
I 
in 
S 2 
P out 

volts 
Amps 
Kg 
Kg 
Kg 
Rpm 
Nm 
Watts 
Watts 
% 

Model Calculation:
3. P _{i}_{n} =V _{i}_{n} * I _{i}_{n} in watts.
7
V _{i}_{n} = Voltage input in volts. I _{i}_{n} =Input current in Amps. P _{i}_{n} =Input power in watts.
4. P _{o}_{u}_{t} = (2
NT) /60 in watts.
P _{o}_{u}_{t} = output power in watts.
N= Speed in rpm. T=Torque in Nm. 5. Percentage Efficiency PRECAUTIONS:
= P _{o}_{u}_{t} /P _{i}_{n} *100
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance
position.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing the MCB, 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.
3. The motor is started by using three point starters.
4. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at
rated speed.
5. Vary the load up to the rated current.
6. Pour some water on brake drum.
7. For each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage input current,
spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.
8. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and Efficiency and Characteristics curves were drawn.
RESULT:
The load test on the given D.C shunt motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
8
Load test on DC series motor
Ex.No:
9
Date:
LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR
AIM:
To perform load test on the given D.C series motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics.
1. Torque Vs armature current 3. Speed Vs Torque
2.Speed Vs armature current 4.Efficiency Vs Power output
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 


1 



1 


Analog 
 
1 

4 
Connecting wires 
As required 
FORMULAE USED:
1. S=S _{1} – S _{2} in Kg. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S _{1}_{,} S _{2} = spring balance reading
2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm S=spring force in Kg. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. T=Torque in Nm.
3. P _{i}_{n} =V _{i}_{n} * I _{i}_{n} in watts. V _{i}_{n} = Voltage input in volts. I _{i}_{n} =Input current in Amps. P _{i}_{n} =Input power in watts.
Tabulation:
drum =
10
Radius of the brake
voltag Input 
Input 
Spring balance Reading 
Speed 
Torqu 
Input 
Output 
% 

S. 
current 
e 
power 
power 

e 
N 
Effficie 

NO 
V 
in 
I 
in 
S 1 
S 2 
S _{1} – S 2 
T 
P in 
P out 
ncy 

volts 
Amps 
Kg 
Kg 
Kg 
Rpm 
Nm 
Watts 
Watts 
% 

MODEL CALCULATION:
11
4.
P _{o}_{u}_{t} = (2
NT) /60 in watts.
P _{o}_{u}_{t} = output power in watts. N= Speed in rpm. T=Torque in Nm.
5. Percentage Efficiency %
= P _{o}_{u}_{t} /P _{i}_{n} *100
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor should be started with some load.
2. Brake drum should be cooled throughout the experiment.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Check whether the initial load is set up in the brake drum.
3. By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.
4. The motor is get started by using two point starter.
5. Pour some water to the brake drum and vary the load up to the rated current and for each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage, input current, spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.
6. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and efficiency and readings are noted down and tabulated.
7. After taking all the observation reduce the load up to 40% of the rated current and switch off the MCB.
12
13
RESULT:
The load test on the given D.C series motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.
14
15
Ex.No:
Date:
OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCITED DC GENERATOR
SEPERATELY
AIM:
To conduct no load and load test on the given separately excited DC
shunt generator to plot
the following characteristic curves,
i) Open circuit characteristic ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO 
APPARTUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 
1. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300) V 
1 
mc 
(020) A 
1 

2. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(02) A 
1 
mc 
(010)A 
1 

3. 
Rheostat 
variable 
350 /1.1A 
1 
variable 
530 /0.8A 
1 

4. 
Tachometer 
Analog 
 
1 
5. 
Variable rheostat load 
 
 
1 
6. 
DPSTS 
 
 
1 
7. 
SPSTS 
 
 
1 
5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
As required 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
1. E _{g} = V + I _{a} R _{a}
in volts.
E _{g} = Generated voltage in volts, volts.
16
V = Terminal voltage in
I _{a} =Armature current in Amps. ohms.
R _{a} = Armature resistance in
TABULATION:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
S.NO. 
Field current 
Output voltage at no load 

Amps 
volts 

V 
a 
Load 
_{a} =I _{L} 
Volts 
Amps 
Amps 
LOAD TEST:
Load voltage 
Field 

S.NO 
current I _{L} 
current I _{F} 
I 
E _{g} = V + I _{a} R _{a} 

Amps 
Volts 

17
2. Armature current I _{a} = I _{L} in Amps. Where, I _{L} = Line current in Amps. I _{s}_{h} = Shunt field current in Amps.
3. Input power = V _{i}_{n} * I _{i}_{n} in watts. Where,
V _{i}_{n}
I _{i}_{n}
= Input voltage in volts. = Input current in Amps.
4. % of Efficiency
=P _{o}_{u}_{t} / P _{i}_{n} * 100
Where, P _{i}_{n} = Input power in watts. P _{o}_{u}_{t} = Output power in watts.
Precautions:
∑ 
There should be no load at the time of starting. 
∑ 
Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position 
PROCEDURE:
NO LOAD TEST:
∑ 
The connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 
∑ 
Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum 
∑ 
position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB. 
∑ Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. ∑ The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open.
18
∑ Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current, induced emf are noted.
To Find Ra:
TO FIND Ra:
Voltage 
Current 
R _{a} =V _{a} /I _{a} 

S.NO 
(V _{a} ) 
(I _{a} ) 

Volts 
Amps 
Ohms 

19
LOAD TEST:
∑ 
Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by TO FIND R _{a} : 
∑ 
adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step 
∑ 
note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage, load current, and shunt field current up to its rated current. After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the 
switch of the motor. 

∑ 
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 
∑ Gradually vary the rectifier unit knob for the corresponding settings note down the voltmeter, ammeter readings. ∑ From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each settings.
RESULT:
Thus the no load and load test on the given separately excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot the following characteristic curves,
i) Open circuit characteristic
20
ii) Internal characteristics
iii) External characteristics
OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELFEXCITED SHUNT GENERATOR
CIRCUIT DIAGARM
21
Ex.No: 
Date: 
OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR 

AIM: 
To conduct no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt
generator to plot
the following characteristic curves
i) Open circuit characteristic iii) External characteristics
ii) Internal characteristics
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 

O 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 
1. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300) V 
1 
mc 
(020) A 
1 

2. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(02) A 
1 
mc 
(010)A 
1 

3. 
Rheostat 
variable 
350 /1.1A 
1 
variable 
530 /0.8A 
1 

4. 
Tachometer 
Analog 
 
1 
5. 
Variable rheostatic load 
variable 
5 KW 
1 
6. 
DPSTS 
 
 
1 
7. 
SPSTS 
 
 
1 
5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
As required 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
22
1. E _{g} = V + I _{a} R _{a}
in volts.
E _{g} = Generated voltage in volts.
I _{a} =Armature current in Amps. TABULATION:
V = Terminal voltage in volts. R _{a} = Armature resistance in ohms.
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
S.NO. 
Field current 
Output voltage at no load 
Amps 
volts 

LOAD TEST:
Load voltage 
Load current 
Field current 
I 
_{a} =I _{L} +I _{s}_{h} 
E _{g} =V _{a} +I _{a} R _{a} 

S.NO 
V 
I 
L 
I 
sh 

Volts 
Amps 
Amps 
Amps 
Volts 

23
2. Armature current I _{a} = I _{L} + I _{s}_{h} in Amps. Where, I _{L} = Line current in Amps. I _{s}_{h} = Shunt field current in Amps.
3. Input power = V _{i}_{n} * I _{i}_{n} in watts. Where,
V _{i}_{n}
I _{i}_{n}
= Input voltage in volts. = Input current in Amps.
4. % of Efficiency
=P _{o}_{u}_{t} / P _{i}_{n} * 100
Where, P _{i}_{n} = Input power in watts. P _{o}_{u}_{t} = Output power in watts.
PRECAUTIONS:
There should be no load at the time of starting. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position
PROCEDURE:
NO LOAD TEST:
∑ The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
∑ 
Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum 
∑ 
position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB. 
∑ Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. ∑ The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open.
24
∑ Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current, induced emf are noted.
To Find Ra:
TO FIND Ra:
Voltage 
Current 
Ra=V _{a} /I _{a} 

S.NO 
(V _{a} ) 
(I _{a} ) 

Volts 
Amps 
Ohms 

25
LOAD TEST:
∑ 
Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by 
∑ 
adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step 
∑ 
note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage, load current, and shunt field current up to its rated current. After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the switch off the motor. 
TO FIND Ra:
∑
Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
∑ Gradually vary the loading rheostat knob for the corresponding
∑
settings note down the voltmeter, ammeter readings. From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each setting.
RESULT:
Thus the no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot the following characteristic curves,
i) Open circuit characteristic
26
ii) Internal characteristics
iii) External characteristics
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR
MODEL GRAPH:
NAME PLATE DETAILS
27
Ex.No: 
Date: 

SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR 

AIM: 
To control the speed of the given DC shunt motor by, 1. Armature control method 2. Field control method
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 

O 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 

1. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300) V 
1 

2. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(02) A 
1 

3. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(05) A 
1 

3. 
Rheostat 
variable 
350 /1.1A 
1 

50 
/5A 
1 

4. 
Tachometer 
Analog 
 
1 

5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
As required 
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the 230V DC supply by closing the MCB.
3. Using threepoint starter, start the motor.
28
Armature control method (Below rated speed)
1. Keep the field current constant by adjusting the field rheostat connected in field Circuit. 2. Vary the rheostat connected in armature circuit for each setting. Note the corresponding armature voltage, armature current and tabulate it. 3. From the recorded voltage values draw the graph between speed and armature voltage.
TABULATION:
FIELD CONTROL METHOD:
S. 
V _{a}_{1} = 
volts 
V _{a}_{2} = 
volts 
NO 
I _{f} (A) 
N (rpm) 
I _{f} (A) 
N (rpm) 
ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD: 

S. 
I _{f}_{1} = 
amps 
I _{f}_{2} = 
amps 
NO 
V _{a} (v) 
N (rpm) 
V _{a} (v) 
N (rpm) 
29
Field control method:
1. For field control method, keep the armature voltage constant by adjusting the rheostat connected in armature circuit.
2. Vary the rheostat connected in the field circuit and for each settings note the corresponding field current and speed and tabulate it.
3. From the recorded value draw the graph between speed and field current.
30
RESULT:
Thus the speed of the given DC shunt motor was achieved by, 1. Armature control method 2. Field control method
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Load test on Single phase transformer
31
Model Graph:
Ex. No: 
Date: 

LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER 

AIM: 
32
To conduct the load test on singlephase transformer and to draw the characteristics curves.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 
APPARATUS 
RANGE 
TYPE 
QUANTIT 
O 
Y 

1. 
Voltmeter 
(0300) V 
MI 
2 
2. 
Ammeter 
(05) A 
MI 
2 
3. 
Wattmeter 
300V/5A 
UPF 
2 
4. 
Transformer 
1KVA/230V 
 
1 
As 

5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
required 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
Percentage efficiency
=
(Output power/Input power) *100
Percentage Regulation =(V _{0}_{2} –V _{2} )/ V _{0}_{2} * 100 Where, V _{0}_{2} =Secondary voltage on no load. V _{2} = Secondary voltage on load. Precautions:
Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point There should be no load at the time of starting the experiment PROCEDURE:
1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing MCB, 230v
transformer.
single
phase, 50Hz ac supply
is
given to
the
3. Note the readings from all meters on no load.
TABULATION:
33
Primary 
Primary 
Secondar 
% 
% 

Secondary 
y 
Input 
Output 
Effici 
Regula 

S. 
Voltage 
current 
Voltage 
power 
power 
ency 

current 
tion 

NO 

Volts 
Amps 
Volts 
Amps 
Watts 
Watts 
% 
% 

MODEL CALCULATION:
4. Now load is applied to the transformer in step by step, up to the rated primary current and the corresponding readings are noted.
34
5. From the recorded values calculate the percentage efficiency and percentage regulation and draw the required graph.
RESULT:
Thus the load test on singlephase transformer was conducted and characteristics curves were drawn.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
35
Open circuit test on Single phase transformer
TABULATION:
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:
S.NO. 
Open circuit primary Voltage (V _{0} ) 
No load current (I _{0} ) 
No load power (W _{0} ) 
volts 
Amps 
Watts 

Ex.No:
Date:
OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON
36
A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM:
1. To calculate the equivalent circuit parameter by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on singlephase transformer.
2. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 

O 
ITEM 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 

MI 
(0150)V 
1 

(0300)V 
1 


MI 
(02)A 
1 

(05)A 
1 


UPF 
300v/5A 
1 

LPF 
75v/5A 
1 

transformer

2.7kva,10A,240 
1 

 
V 

Connecting

 
 
As required 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
Open circuit test:
1. W _{0} = I _{0} V _{0} cos Where,
_{0}
watts.
cos
_{0} = (W _{0} / I _{0} V _{0} )
W _{0} = Real power consumed V _{0} = Primary no load voltage in volts
I _{0} =No load primary current
_{0} =Phase angle at no load
Short circuit test on Single phase transformer
37
TABULATION:
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:
Short circuit 
Short circuit 
Short circuit 

S.NO. 
voltage 
current 
power 

V 
sc 
I 
sc 
W sc 

Volts 
Amps 
Watts 

2. Magnetizing current
I _{m} = I _{0} sin
_{0}
38
Loss compensating current 
_{I}_{w} = I _{0} cos 
_{0} 

X _{0} = V _{1} / I _{m} 


R _{0} = V _{1} /I _{w} 

Short circuit test: 

Z _{0}_{1} =V _{s}_{c} /I _{s}_{c} 
R01=W _{s}_{c} /I _{s}_{c} ^{2} 
X 

X _{0}_{2} =k ^{2} X _{0}_{1} ; 
Z 
_{0}_{1} =÷Z _{0}_{1} ^{2} R _{0}_{1} _{0}_{2} =k ^{2} Z _{0}_{1}
2
Where, V _{s}_{c} =Shortcircuiting voltage in volts. I _{s}_{c} =Short circuit current in Amps.
Efficiency:
1. Efficiency = Output power/input power
=Output power/(Output power + total losses)
2. Output power =(x *kva* cos )
3. Total loss = copper loss + iron loss X  Assumed fraction of load
KvaRating of the transformer
cos
 Assumed power factor
W _{s}_{c} =Short circuit wattmeter reading (cu loss)
W _{0} =Open circuit wattmeter reading (Iron loss)
Regulation:
% Regulation = xI _{s}_{c} (R _{0}_{2} cos
+ X _{0}_{2} sin
)/V _{2}
0
Where,
V _{2} ^{0} = Open circuit voltage at secondary
+ = for lagging load ;

= for leading load
39
TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY:
Iron 
Cu 
Load 
Total loss = 
Output power 
Input power 
% Efficiency 

loss 
loss 
^{2} W _{s}_{c} 

S.N 
x 
W _{0} +x 
UPF 
0.8PF 
UPF 
0.8PF 
UPF 
0.8PF 

O. 
Watt 
Watt 
Watt 

Watts 
s 
% 
Watts 
s 
Watts 
s 
Watts 
% 
% 

PRECAUTIONS:
40
Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point.
PROCEDURE:
Open circuit test:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. To conduct open circuit test, HV winding must be open circuited and LV
winding must be supplied with its rated voltage by using singlephase Transformer.
3. By closing
the
DPSTS the rated voltage
impressed across the primary winding.
at normal frequency
is
4. The ammeter,
tabulated.
voltmeter and wattmeter readings are noted and
Short circuit test:
1. To conduct the short circuit test, the HV winding must be shorted and the rated current must be allowed to flow in the primary winding using single phase auto transformer.
2. By closing MCB, the supply is given to the transformer and the rated
current is applied to the primary winding.
41
TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE REGULATION:
Powe 
125% of load 
100% of load 
50% of load 
25% of load 

r 

x =1.25 
x = 1.00 
x = 0.5 
x = 0.25 

S. 
Facto 

NO. 

r 
Laggin 
Leadin 
Laggin 
Leadin 
Laggin 
Leadin 
Laggin 
Leadin 

g 
g 
g 
g 
g 
g 
g 
g 

cos 

42
RESULT:
Thus the equivalent circuit parameter was calculated by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on singlephase transformer. And also the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter was predetermined.
43
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
SWINBURNE’S TEST
MODEL GRAPH:
44
Ex. No:
AIM:
SWINBURNE’S TEST
Date:
To conduct Swinburne’s test on dc shunt motor and to predetermine efficiency while machine is running as a motor and generator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 
1. 
Voltmeter 
MC 
(0300) V 
1 
2. 
Ammeter 
MC 
(02) A 
1 
MC 
(015) A 
1 

Wire 

3. 
Rheostat 
wound 
350Ώ/1.1A 
1 
4. 
Tachometer 
Digital 
 
1 
5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
As required 
FORMULA TO BE USED:
FOR MOTOR:
Input Power, P _{i} 
= V _{L} I _{L} (watts) 
Armature current,I _{a} 
= I _{L} _{–} I _{F} (amps) 
Copper loss, W _{c}_{u}
Total losses, P _{L}
Constant losses, W _{c}
= I _{a} ^{2} R _{a} (watts)
= W _{c} + W _{c}_{u} (watts)
= I _{L} V _{L} _{} I _{a} ^{2} R _{a} (watts)
Output Power, P _{o}
= P _{i}_{n} – P _{L} (watts)
% Efficiency
= output power (P _{o} )/ Input power (P _{i} )*100
TABULATION TO FIND OUT CONSTANT LOSS (W _{c}_{o} )
45
No 
Field 
Terminal 
No load 

load 
Current 
Voltage 
Constant Loss 

current 

S.NO 
(I _{o} ) 
(I _{f} ) 
(V) 
Armature current (I _{a}_{o} ) 
W _{c}_{o} =VI _{o}  I _{a}_{o} 
2 
Amps 
Amps 
Volts 
Volts 
Watts 

TABULATION TO FIND OUT THE EFFICIENCY RUNNING AS MOTOR
Armature Resistance (R _{a} ) (I _{r} )= 
= 
Rated current 

Constant loss 
(W _{c}_{o} ) = 
Field current (I _{f} )= 

Terminal Voltage 
(V) 
= 

Load 
Armatur 
Armatur 
Total 
Input 
Output 
Efficienc 

curren 
e current 
e loss 
loss 
power 
power 
y 

t 

Fraction 
I _{a} =I _{L} +I _{f} 
W cu =I a ^{2} R a 
W t 
W _{i} =VI 
Wo=Wi 
η = 

S.NO 
of load 
I _{L} = x*I _{r} 
L 
Wt 
W _{o} /W _{i} 

(x) 
Watt 

Amps 
Amps 
Amps 
s 
Watts 
Watts 
% 

FOR GENERATOR:
46
Input Power, P _{O}
Armature current,I _{a}
Copper loss, W _{c}_{u}
Total losses, P _{L}
Constant losses, W _{c}
= V _{L} I _{L} (watts)
= I _{L} _{+} I _{F} (amps)
= I _{a} ^{2} R _{a} (watts)
= W _{c} + W _{c}_{u} (watts)
= I _{L} V _{L} _{} I _{a} ^{2} R _{a} (watts)
Input Power, Pi
= P _{o} + P _{L} (watts)
% Efficiency
= output power (P _{o} )/ Input power (P _{i} )*100
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. By using threepoint starter the motor is started to run
at the rated speed.
3. The motor is switched off using the DPST switch
4. After that the armature resistance test is conducted as
per the circuit diagram and the voltage and current are noted
for various resistive loads.
5. After the observation
gradually.
of reading the load is released
RUNNING AS GENERATOR
47
Armature Resistance (R _{a} )
=
Rated current (I _{r} )=
Constant loss 
(W _{c}_{o} ) = 
Field current (I _{f} )= 

Terminal Voltage (V) 
= 

Load 
Armatur 
Armatur 
Total 
Output 
Input 
Efficienc 

curren 
e loss 
loss 
power 
y 

t 
e current 
power 

Fraction 
I _{a} =I _{L} +I _{f} 
W cu =I a ^{2} R a 
W t 
W _{o} =VI _{L} 
W _{i} =W _{o} + 
η = 

S.NO 
of load 
I _{L} = x*I _{r} 
W t 
W _{o} /W _{i} 

(x) 
Watt 

Amps 
Amps 
Amps 
s 
Watts 
Watts 
% 

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The motor should be run in anti clockwise direction.
3. 
The 
motor 
should 
be 
at 
no 
load 
condition 
throughout 
the 
experiment. 
48
RESULT:
Thus the efficiency on DC shunt motor was predetermined by conducting Swinburne’s test while machine is running as a motor and generator.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Load test on DC compound motor
49
MODEL GRAPH
Ex. No: 
Date: 

LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR 

AIM: 
50
To conduct the load test on the given DC Compound motor and to draw the following characteristics curves,
1.Torque Vs armature current
2.Speed Vs armature current
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.N 

O 
APPARATUS 
TYPE 
RANGE 
QUANTITY 
1. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300) V 
1 
2. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(020) A 
1 
3. 
Rheostat 
variable 
350 /1.1A 
1 
4. 
Tachometer 
Analog 
 
1 
5. 
Connecting wires 
 
 
Few 
FORMULAE TO BE USED:
1. S=S _{1} – S _{2} in Kg.
S =spring balance (Weight in Kg)
S _{1}_{,} S _{2} = spring balance reading
2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm
S=spring force in Kg.
R=Radius of the brake drum in meter.
T=Torque in Nm.
Tabulation:
Radius of the brake drum =
S.N 
Input 
Input 
Spring balance 
Speed 
Input 
Outpu 
Efficien 

o 
voltage 
curre nt 
Reading 
N 
Torque 
power 
t 
cy 
51
T 
powe 

V 
in 
I 
in 
S 1 
S _{1} – 
P in 
r 

S 2 
S 2 
P out 

volts 
Amps 
Kg 
Kg 
Kg 
Rpm 
Nm 
Watts 
Watts 
% 

M0del Calculation:
3. P _{i}_{n} =V _{i}_{n} * I _{i}_{n} in watts.
V _{i}_{n} = Voltage input in volts.
I _{i}_{n} =Input current in Amps.
P _{i}_{n} =Input power in watts.
52
4.
P _{o}_{u}_{t} = (2
NT) /60 in watts.
P _{o}_{u}_{t} = output power in watts.
N= Speed in rpm.
T=Torque in Nm.
5. Percentage Efficiency
%
= (P _{o}_{u}_{t} /P _{i}_{n} ) *100
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.
3. The motor is started by using four point starters.
4. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at
rated speed.
5. Vary the load up to the rated current.
6. Pour some water on break drum.
7. For each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage, input
current,
spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.
8. Repeat the same procedure for differential mode.
9. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and efficiency and characteristics curves were drawn.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
53
2. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.
RESULT:
The load test on the given D.C compound motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.
54
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Load test on DC compound generator
MODEL GRAPH:
55
Ex. No: 
Date: 
LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND GENERATOR 

AIM: 
To conduct the load test on a given DC compound generator and to draw the characteristics curves.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO 
Name of the apparatus 
Type 
Range 
Quantity 

1. 
Ammeter 
mc 
(020A) 
1 

2. 
Voltmeter 
mc 
(0300)V 
1 

3 
Rheostat 
Wire wound 
300 
,1.7A 
1 
.4. 
Rheostat 
Wire wound 
500 
,1.2A 
1 
5. 
Tachometer 
Digital 
 
1 

6. 
Variable Resistive Load 
 
5kw 
1 
PRECAUTION:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum position.
2. The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum position.
3. At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.
4. The
machine
experiment.
should
be
run
at
its
rated
speed
throughout
the
PROCEDURE:
1. The circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. The prime mover is started with the help of the threepoint starter and
it is made to run at rated speed when the generator is disconnected from
the load by DPST switch.
56
TABULATION:
Differential compound 
Cumulative compound 

Load 
Load 
Load 

S.no 
voltage 
Load current 
voltage 
current 
(volts) 
(amps) 
(volts) 
(amps) 

57
3. By varying the generator field rheostat gradually, the rated voltage
(E _{g} ) is obtained.
4. The
ammeter
and
condition.
voltmeter
readings
are
tabulated
at
no
load
5. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed for different loads
up to the rated current by closing the DPST switch.
6. After tabulating all the readings,
position.
the load
is brought
in
its initial
7. The prime mover is switched off using the DPST Switch after bringing all
the rheostat to initial position.
GRAPH:
The graph is drawn between load voltage V _{s} load current.
RESULT:
Thus the load test on a DC compound generator was conducted and its characteristics curves were drawn.
58
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Hopkinson’s Test
NAME PLATE DETAILS
59
Ex.No : 
Date: 

HOPKINSON’S TEST 

AIM: 

To conduct Hopkinson’s 
test 
to 
find 
stray losses 
and hence 
to 
calculate the efficiency of the machines as a motor and generator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO 
APPARATUS 
RANGE 
TYPE 
QTY 
1 
Ammeter 
(010A) 
MC 
3 
2 
Ammeter 
(01A) 
MC 
2 
3 
Voltmeter 
(0300V) 
MC 
2 
4 
Rheostat 
270Ω/0.8A 
variable 
1 
5 
Rheostat 
770Ω/0.6A 
variable 
1 
6 
Tachometer 
 
Digital 
1 
As 

7 
Connecting wires 
 
required 
FORMULAE USED;
For stray loss
1. Total input power = V _{L} _{.} I _{L}
Where,
V _{L} _{} Line voltage in volts
I _{L} – Line current in Amps
2. Total losses for motor and generator is
60
TABULATION:
S.No 
V 
L 
I 
L 
I 
ag 
I 
fg 
I 
am 
I 
fm 

Volts 
Amps 
Amps 
Amps 
Amps 
Amps 

Calculation of stray loss: 

I 
L 
S.No 
P L 
P ag 
P am 
V 
L .I fg 
V 
L .I fm 
W s 

Amps 
Watts 
Watts 
Watts 
Watts 
Watts 
Watts 

61
Where,
I _{a} ^{2} _{g} .R _{a}  Generator armature Cu loss
I _{f}_{g} . V _{L} – Generator field current loss
I _{a} ^{2} _{m} .R _{a}  Motor armature Cu loss
I _{f}_{m} . V _{L} – Motor field current loss
3. Stray loss of each machine
For efficiency as a motor
1. Input power to motor = V _{L} (I _{L} +I _{f}_{m} +I _{a}_{g} ) I _{f}_{m} – Motor field current I _{a}_{g} _ Generator armature current
2. Total losses = (I _{a}_{g} + I _{f}_{m} ) ^{2}^{.} R _{a} + V _{L} .I _{f}_{m} +W _{c}
For efficiency as a generator
1. Output power of generator = V _{L} .I _{a}_{g} = P _{o}_{u}_{t}
2. Generator field current loss = I _{f}_{g} . V _{L}
3. Generator armature Cu loss = I _{a} ^{2} _{g} .R _{a}
4. Input power = Output power + Total losses = P _{i}_{n}
5. % Efficiency = (Pout / Pin) * 100
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. With SPST switch is open condition supply is given by closing DPST switch.
62
3. Motor is started using four point starter and speed is brought rated value by adjusting motor field rheostat.
4. The SPSTS is closed when voltmeter connected across reads zero. The voltmeter reads double the rated value when polarity of motor and generator are inter changed.
Determination of Efficiency as a motor:
S.No 
P inm 
W s 
P cu 
P fm 
P om 
% η 
watts 
watts 
watts 
watts 
watts 
% 

Determination of Efficiency as a Generator:
S.No 
I 
a 
W s 
P og 
P cu 
P 