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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

II Year/IV Semester – BE (EEE)

EE2259 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY I Manual cum Observation (As per Anna University)

2008 Regulation Academic year 2009 - 2010

1

SYLLABUS

EE2259 - ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY - I

List of Experiments

  • 1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately and self excited DC

shunt generators.

  • 2. Load characteristics of DC compound generator with differential and

cumulative connection.

  • 3. Load characteristics of DC shunt and compound motor.

  • 4. Load characteristics of DC series motor.

  • 5. Swinburne’s test and speed control of DC shunt motor.

  • 6. Hopkinson’s test on DC motor – generator set.

  • 7. Load test on single-phase transformer and three phase transformer

connections.

  • 8. Open circuit and short circuit tests on single phase transformer.

  • 9. Sumpner’s test on transformers.

10. Separation of no-load losses in single phase transformer.

2

CONTENTS

S.

   

No.

Name of the experiment

Page No.

1

Load test on dc shunt motor

6

2

Load test on dc series motor

10

3

Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited dc generator

15

4

Open circuit and load characteristics of self-excited shunt generator

22

5

Speed control of dc shunt motor

28

6

Load test on single phase transformer

32

7

Open circuit and short circuit test on A single phase transformer

36

8

Swinburne’s test

44

9

Load test on dc compound motor

50

10

Load test on dc compound generator

55

11

Hopkinson’s test

59

12

Three phase transformer connections

65

13

Viva voce questions-DC machines

71

14

Viva voce questions-transformers

79

3

INDEX

No S. Date Name of the experiment Mark Staff Remark s Initial s .
No
S.
Date
Name of the experiment
Mark
Staff
Remark
s
Initial
s
.

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

4

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Model Graph: Ex. No: 5 Date:

Model Graph:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Model Graph: Ex. No: 5 Date:

Ex. No:

5

Date:

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:

To perform load test on the given D.C shunt motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics.

  • 1. Torque Vs armature current

  • 2. Speed Vs armature current

  • 3. Speed Vs Torque

  • 4. %Efficiency Vs Power output

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

O

1.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300) V

1

2.

Ammeter

mc

(0-20) A

1

3.

Rheostat

Variable

350 /1.6A

1

4.

Tachometer

Analog

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

As required

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

  • 1. S=S 1 – S 2 in Kg. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S 1, S 2 = spring balance reading

  • 2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm S= spring force in Kg. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. T=Torque in Nm.

Tabulation:

Radius of the brake drum =

6

 

Input

Input

Spring balance Reading

Speed

 

Input

Outpu

 

voltage

curre

N

Torque

t

Efficien

     

power

P in

S.N

 

nt

S 1

S 2

S 1

T

power

cy

V

in

I

in

S 2

 

P out

 

volts

Amps

Kg

Kg

Kg

Rpm

Nm

Watts

Watts

%

                     

Model Calculation:

3. P in =V in * I in in watts.

7

V in = Voltage input in volts. I in =Input current in Amps. P in =Input power in watts.

4. P out = (2

NT) /60 in watts.

P out = output power in watts.

N= Speed in rpm. T=Torque in Nm. 5. Percentage Efficiency PRECAUTIONS:

= P out /P in *100

  • 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance

position.

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. By closing the MCB, 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.

  • 3. The motor is started by using three point starters.

  • 4. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at

rated speed.

  • 5. Vary the load up to the rated current.

  • 6. Pour some water on brake drum.

  • 7. For each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage input current,

spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.

8. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and Efficiency and Characteristics curves were drawn.

RESULT:

The load test on the given D.C shunt motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

8

Load test on DC series motor

Load test on DC series motor Ex.No: 9 Date:

Ex.No:

9

Date:

LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

AIM:

To perform load test on the given D.C series motor and to obtain the following performance characteristics.

1. Torque Vs armature current 3. Speed Vs Torque

2.Speed Vs armature current 4.Efficiency Vs Power output

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

 
  • 1. Voltmeter

 
  • mc (0-300) V

1

 
  • 2. Ammeter

 
  • mc (0-20) A

1

 
  • 3. Tachometer

Analog

-

1

4

Connecting wires

   

As required

FORMULAE USED:

  • 1. S=S 1 – S 2 in Kg. S =spring balance (Weight in Kg) S 1, S 2 = spring balance reading

  • 2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm S=spring force in Kg. R=Radius of the brake drum in meter. T=Torque in Nm.

  • 3. P in =V in * I in in watts. V in = Voltage input in volts. I in =Input current in Amps. P in =Input power in watts.

Tabulation:

drum =

10

Radius of the brake

 

voltag

Input

Input

Spring balance Reading

Speed

Torqu

Input

Output

%

S.

current

e

power

power

e

     

N

Effficie

NO

V

in

I

in

S 1

S 2

S 1 – S 2

T

P in

P out

ncy

volts

Amps

Kg

Kg

Kg

Rpm

Nm

Watts

Watts

%

                     

MODEL CALCULATION:

11

4.

P out = (2

NT) /60 in watts.

P out = output power in watts. N= Speed in rpm. T=Torque in Nm.

  • 5. Percentage Efficiency %

= P out /P in *100

PRECAUTIONS:

  • 1. The motor should be started with some load.

  • 2. Brake drum should be cooled throughout the experiment.

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. Check whether the initial load is set up in the brake drum.

  • 3. By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.

  • 4. The motor is get started by using two point starter.

5. Pour some water to the brake drum and vary the load up to the rated current and for each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage, input current, spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.

6. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and efficiency and readings are noted down and tabulated.

7. After taking all the observation reduce the load up to 40% of the rated current and switch off the MCB.

12

13

13

RESULT:

The load test on the given D.C series motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.

14

15

15

Ex.No:

Date:

OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCITED DC GENERATOR

SEPERATELY

AIM:

To conduct no load and load test on the given separately excited DC

shunt generator to plot

the following characteristic curves,

i) Open circuit characteristic ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO

APPARTUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

1.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300) V

1

   

mc

(0-20) A

1

2.

Ammeter

mc

(0-2) A

1

mc

(0-10)A

1

3.

Rheostat

variable

350 /1.1A

1

variable

530 /0.8A

1

4.

Tachometer

Analog

-

1

5.

Variable rheostat load

-

-

1

6.

DPSTS

-

-

1

7.

SPSTS

-

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

As required

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

1. E g = V + I a R a

in volts.

E g = Generated voltage in volts, volts.

16

V = Terminal voltage in

I a =Armature current in Amps. ohms.

R a = Armature resistance in

TABULATION:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

S.NO.

Field current

Output voltage at no load

Amps

volts

     

V

a

Load

a =I L

Volts

Amps

Amps

LOAD TEST:

 

Load voltage

 

Field

   

S.NO

current I L

current I F

I

E g = V + I a R a

   

Amps

 

Volts

           

17

  • 2. Armature current I a = I L in Amps. Where, I L = Line current in Amps. I sh = Shunt field current in Amps.

  • 3. Input power = V in * I in in watts. Where,

V in

I in

= Input voltage in volts. = Input current in Amps.

  • 4. % of Efficiency

=P out / P in * 100

Where, P in = Input power in watts. P out = Output power in watts.

Precautions:

There should be no load at the time of starting.

Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position

PROCEDURE:

NO LOAD TEST:

The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum

position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB.

Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open.

18

Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current, induced emf are noted.

To Find Ra:

∑ Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated

TO FIND Ra:

 

Voltage

Current

R a =V a /I a

S.NO

(V a )

(I a )

Volts

Amps

Ohms

       

19

LOAD TEST:

Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by

TO FIND R a :

adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step

note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage, load current, and shunt field current up to its rated current. After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the

switch of the motor.

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

Gradually vary the rectifier unit knob for the corresponding settings note down the voltmeter, ammeter readings. From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each settings.

RESULT:

Thus the no load and load test on the given separately excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot the following characteristic curves,

i) Open circuit characteristic

20

ii) Internal characteristics

iii) External characteristics

OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-EXCITED SHUNT GENERATOR

CIRCUIT DIAGARM

ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-EXCITED SHUNT GENERATOR CIRCUIT

21

Ex.No:

Date:

OPEN CIRCUIT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF EXCITED DC SHUNT GENERATOR

AIM:

To conduct no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt

generator to plot

the following characteristic curves

i) Open circuit characteristic iii) External characteristics

ii) Internal characteristics

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

       

O

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

1.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300) V

1

   

mc

(0-20) A

1

2.

Ammeter

mc

(0-2) A

1

mc

(0-10)A

1

3.

Rheostat

variable

350 /1.1A

1

variable

530 /0.8A

1

4.

Tachometer

Analog

-

1

5.

Variable rheostatic load

variable

5 KW

1

6.

DPSTS

-

-

1

7.

SPSTS

-

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

As required

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

22

1. E g = V + I a R a

in volts.

E g = Generated voltage in volts.

I a =Armature current in Amps. TABULATION:

V = Terminal voltage in volts. R a = Armature resistance in ohms.

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

S.NO.

Field current

Output voltage at no load

 

Amps

volts

     

LOAD TEST:

 

Load voltage

Load current

Field current

I

a =I L +I sh

E g =V a +I a R a

S.NO

V

I

L

I

sh

 

Volts

Amps

Amps

 

Amps

Volts

           

23

  • 2. Armature current I a = I L + I sh in Amps. Where, I L = Line current in Amps. I sh = Shunt field current in Amps.

  • 3. Input power = V in * I in in watts. Where,

V in

I in

= Input voltage in volts. = Input current in Amps.

  • 4. % of Efficiency

=P out / P in * 100

Where, P in = Input power in watts. P out = Output power in watts.

PRECAUTIONS:

There should be no load at the time of starting. Auto transformer must be kept at minimum position

PROCEDURE:

NO LOAD TEST:

The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

Verify whether field rheostats of the generator are kept at maximum

position and field rheostat of motor at minimum position. Give 230V DC supply to the connected circuit by closing MCB.

Adjusting the excitation of field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor to run at rated speed. The ammeter and voltmeter reading of the generator are noted when SPSTS switch is open.

24

Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated value and the corresponding field current, induced emf are noted.

To Find Ra:

∑ Then SPSTS switch is closed and excitation of the generator varied up to its rated

TO FIND Ra:

 

Voltage

Current

Ra=V a /I a

S.NO

(V a )

(I a )

Volts

Amps

Ohms

       

25

LOAD TEST:

Fix the armature voltage of the generator to the rated voltage by

adjusting the field rheostat of the generator. Close the DPSTS at the load side of the generator by step by step

note down the corresponding readings of terminal voltage, load current, and shunt field current up to its rated current. After the reading are noted the load to its initial position and the switch off the motor.

TO FIND Ra:

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

Gradually vary the loading rheostat knob for the corresponding

settings note down the voltmeter, ammeter readings. From the tabulated value calculate the armature resistance for each setting.

RESULT:

Thus the no load and load test on the given self excited DC shunt generator were conducted to plot the following characteristic curves,

i) Open circuit characteristic

26

ii) Internal characteristics

iii) External characteristics

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

ii) Internal characteristics iii) External characteristics CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL GRAPH:

NAME PLATE DETAILS

27

Ex.No: Date: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM: To control the speed of the given

Ex.No:

Date:

 

SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM:

To control the speed of the given DC shunt motor by, 1. Armature control method 2. Field control method

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

       

O

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

1.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300) V

1

2.

Ammeter

mc

(0-2) A

1

3.

Ammeter

mc

(0-5) A

1

3.

Rheostat

variable

350 /1.1A

1

50

/5A

1

4.

Tachometer

Analog

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

As required

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. Switch on the 230V DC supply by closing the MCB.

  • 3. Using three-point starter, start the motor.

28

Armature control method (Below rated speed)

1. Keep the field current constant by adjusting the field rheostat connected in field Circuit. 2. Vary the rheostat connected in armature circuit for each setting. Note the corresponding armature voltage, armature current and tabulate it. 3. From the recorded voltage values draw the graph between speed and armature voltage.

TABULATION:

FIELD CONTROL METHOD:

S.

V a1 =

volts

V a2 =

volts

NO

I f (A)

N (rpm)

I f (A)

N (rpm)

         

ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD:

 

S.

I f1 =

amps

I f2 =

amps

NO

V a (v)

N (rpm)

V a (v)

N (rpm)

29

Field control method: 1. For field control method, keep the armature voltage constant by adjusting the

Field control method:

  • 1. For field control method, keep the armature voltage constant by adjusting the rheostat connected in armature circuit.

  • 2. Vary the rheostat connected in the field circuit and for each settings note the corresponding field current and speed and tabulate it.

  • 3. From the recorded value draw the graph between speed and field current.

30

RESULT:

Thus the speed of the given DC shunt motor was achieved by, 1. Armature control method 2. Field control method

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Load test on Single phase transformer

31

Model Graph:

Model Graph: Ex. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: 32

Ex. No:

Date:

 

LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:

32

Model Graph: Ex. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: 32

To conduct the load test on single-phase transformer and to draw the characteristics curves.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

APPARATUS

RANGE

TYPE

QUANTIT

O

Y

1.

Voltmeter

(0-300) V

MI

2

2.

Ammeter

(0-5) A

MI

2

3.

Wattmeter

300V/5A

UPF

2

4.

Transformer

1KVA/230V

-

1

       

As

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

required

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

Percentage efficiency

=

(Output power/Input power) *100

Percentage Regulation =(V 02 –V 2 )/ V 02 * 100 Where, V 02 =Secondary voltage on no load. V 2 = Secondary voltage on load. Precautions:

Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point There should be no load at the time of starting the experiment PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. By closing MCB, 230v

transformer.

single

phase, 50Hz ac supply

is

given to

the

  • 3. Note the readings from all meters on no load.

TABULATION:

33

 

Primary

Primary

 

Secondar

   

%

%

Secondary

y

Input

Output

Effici

Regula

S.

Voltage

current

Voltage

power

power

ency

current

tion

NO

     

Volts

Amps

Volts

Amps

Watts

Watts

%

%

                 

MODEL CALCULATION:

4. Now load is applied to the transformer in step by step, up to the rated primary current and the corresponding readings are noted.

34

5. From the recorded values calculate the percentage efficiency and percentage regulation and draw the required graph.

RESULT:

Thus the load test on single-phase transformer was conducted and characteristics curves were drawn.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

35

Open circuit test on Single phase transformer

Open circuit test on Single phase transformer TABULATION: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: S.NO. Open circuit primary Voltage

TABULATION:

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

S.NO.

Open circuit primary Voltage (V 0 )

No load current (I 0 )

No load power (W 0 )

volts

Amps

Watts

       

Ex.No:

Date:

OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON

36

A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:

  • 1. To calculate the equivalent circuit parameter by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on single-phase transformer.

  • 2. To predetermine the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

       

O

ITEM

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

 
  • 1. Voltmeter

MI

(0-150)V

1

(0-300)V

1

 
  • 2. Ammeter

MI

(0-2)A

1

(0-5)A

1

 
  • 3. Wattmeter

UPF

300v/5A

1

LPF

75v/5A

1

 

transformer

  • 4. Auto

 

2.7kva,10A,240

1

-

V

 

Connecting

  • 5. wires

-

-

As required

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

Open circuit test:

1. W 0 = I 0 V 0 cos Where,

0

watts.

cos

0 = (W 0 / I 0 V 0 )

W 0 = Real power consumed V 0 = Primary no load voltage in volts

I 0 =No load primary current

0 =Phase angle at no load

Short circuit test on Single phase transformer

37

TABULATION: SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: Short circuit Short circuit Short circuit S.NO. voltage current power V sc

TABULATION:

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

 

Short circuit

Short circuit

Short circuit

S.NO.

voltage

current

power

V

sc

I

sc

W sc

Volts

Amps

Watts

       

2. Magnetizing current

I m = I 0 sin

0

38

Loss compensating current

Iw = I 0 cos

0

  • 3. No load reactance

X 0 = V 1 / I m

  • 4. No load resistance

R 0 = V 1 /I w

Short circuit test:

  • 1. ,

Z 01 =V sc /I sc

R01=W sc /I sc 2

X

  • 2. R 02 =k * R 01 ;

X 02 =k 2 X 01 ;

Z

01 =÷Z 01 2 -R 01 02 =k 2 Z 01

2

Where, V sc =Short-circuiting voltage in volts. I sc =Short circuit current in Amps.

Efficiency:

  • 1. Efficiency = Output power/input power

=Output power/(Output power + total losses)

  • 2. Output power =(x *kva* cos )

  • 3. Total loss = copper loss + iron loss X - Assumed fraction of load

Kva-Rating of the transformer

cos

- Assumed power factor

W sc =Short circuit wattmeter reading (cu loss)

W 0 =Open circuit wattmeter reading (Iron loss)

Regulation:

% Regulation = xI sc (R 02 cos

+ X 02 sin

)/V 2

0

Where,

V 2 0 = Open circuit voltage at secondary

+ = for lagging load ;

-

= for leading load

39

TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY: Iron Cu Load Total loss = Output power Input power % Efficiency
TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY: Iron Cu Load Total loss = Output power Input power % Efficiency

TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY:

 

Iron

Cu

Load

Total loss

=

Output

power

Input power

% Efficiency

loss

loss

 

2 W sc

S.N

x

W 0 +x

UPF

0.8PF

UPF

0.8PF

UPF

0.8PF

O.

 

Watt

   

Watt

 

Watt

     

Watts

s

%

Watts

s

Watts

s

Watts

%

%

                     

PRECAUTIONS:

40

Auto transformer must be kept at minimum potential point.

PROCEDURE:

Open circuit test:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. To conduct open circuit test, HV winding must be open circuited and LV

winding must be supplied with its rated voltage by using single-phase Transformer.

  • 3. By closing

the

DPSTS the rated voltage

impressed across the primary winding.

at normal frequency

is

  • 4. The ammeter,

tabulated.

voltmeter and wattmeter readings are noted and

Short circuit test:

1. To conduct the short circuit test, the HV winding must be shorted and the rated current must be allowed to flow in the primary winding using single- phase auto transformer.

  • 2. By closing MCB, the supply is given to the transformer and the rated

current is applied to the primary winding.

41

TABULATION FOR PERCENTAGE REGULATION:

 

Powe

125% of load

100% of load

50% of load

25% of load

r

x =1.25

x = 1.00

x = 0.5

x = 0.25

S.

Facto

NO.

               

r

Laggin

Leadin

Laggin

Leadin

Laggin

Leadin

Laggin

Leadin

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

cos

                   

42

RESULT:

Thus the equivalent circuit parameter was calculated by conducting open circuit and short circuit test on single-phase transformer. And also the efficiency and regulation of the given transformer from equivalent circuit parameter was predetermined.

43

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

SWINBURNE’S TEST

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SWINBURNE’S TEST MODEL GRAPH: 44

MODEL GRAPH:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SWINBURNE’S TEST MODEL GRAPH: 44

44

Ex. No:

AIM:

SWINBURNE’S TEST

Date:

To conduct Swinburne’s test on dc shunt motor and to predetermine efficiency while machine is running as a motor and generator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

1.

Voltmeter

MC

(0-300) V

1

2.

Ammeter

MC

(0-2) A

1

MC

(0-15) A

1

   

Wire

   

3.

Rheostat

wound

350Ώ/1.1A

1

4.

Tachometer

Digital

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

As required

FORMULA TO BE USED:

FOR MOTOR:

Input Power, P i

= V L I L (watts)

Armature current,I a

= I L I F (amps)

Copper loss, W cu

Total losses, P L

Constant losses, W c

= I a 2 R a (watts)

= W c + W cu (watts)

= I L V L - I a 2 R a (watts)

Output Power, P o

= P in – P L (watts)

% Efficiency

= output power (P o )/ Input power (P i )*100

TABULATION TO FIND OUT CONSTANT LOSS (W co )

45

 

No-

Field

Terminal

No load

 

load

Current

Voltage

Constant Loss

current

S.NO

(I o )

(I f )

(V)

Armature current

(I ao )

W co =VI o - I ao

2

Amps

Amps

Volts

Volts

Watts

           

TABULATION TO FIND OUT THE EFFICIENCY RUNNING AS MOTOR

 

Armature Resistance (R a ) (I r )=

=

Rated current

 

Constant loss

(W co ) =

 

Field current (I f )=

Terminal Voltage

(V)

=

   

Load

Armatur

Armatur

Total

Input

Output

Efficienc

curren

e current

e loss

loss

power

power

y

t

Fraction

I a =I L +I f

W cu =I a 2 R a

W t

W i =VI

Wo=Wi

η =

S.NO

of load

I L = x*I r

L

-Wt

W o /W i

(x)

     

Watt

     

Amps

Amps

Amps

s

Watts

Watts

%

                 
                 
                 
                 

FOR GENERATOR:

46

Input Power, P O

Armature current,I a

Copper loss, W cu

Total losses, P L

Constant losses, W c

= V L I L (watts)

= I L + I F (amps)

= I a 2 R a (watts)

= W c + W cu (watts)

= I L V L - I a 2 R a (watts)

Input Power, Pi

= P o + P L (watts)

% Efficiency

= output power (P o )/ Input power (P i )*100

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. By using three-point starter the motor is started to run

at the rated speed.

  • 3. The motor is switched off using the DPST switch

  • 4. After that the armature resistance test is conducted as

per the circuit diagram and the voltage and current are noted

for various resistive loads.

  • 5. After the observation

gradually.

of reading the load is released

RUNNING AS GENERATOR

47

Armature Resistance (R a )

=

Rated current (I r )=

 

Constant loss

(W co ) =

 

Field current (I f )=

 

Terminal Voltage

(V)

=

   

Load

Armatur

Armatur

Total

Output

Input

Efficienc

curren

e loss

loss

power

y

t

e current

power

Fraction

I a =I L +I f

W cu =I a 2 R a

W t

W o =VI L

W i =W o +

η =

S.NO

of load

I L = x*I r

W t

W o /W i

(x)

     

Watt

     

Amps

Amps

Amps

s

Watts

Watts

%

                 
                 
                 
                 

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

2. The motor should be run in anti clockwise direction.

3.

The

motor

should

be

at

no

load

condition

throughout

the

experiment.

 

48

RESULT:

Thus the efficiency on DC shunt motor was predetermined by conducting Swinburne’s test while machine is running as a motor and generator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Load test on DC compound motor

49

MODEL GRAPH Ex. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR AIM: 50

MODEL GRAPH

MODEL GRAPH Ex. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR AIM: 50

Ex. No:

Date:

 

LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR

AIM:

50

To conduct the load test on the given DC Compound motor and to draw the following characteristics curves,

1.Torque Vs armature current

2.Speed Vs armature current

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.N

       

O

APPARATUS

TYPE

RANGE

QUANTITY

1.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300) V

1

2.

Ammeter

mc

(0-20) A

1

3.

Rheostat

variable

350 /1.1A

1

4.

Tachometer

Analog

-

1

5.

Connecting wires

-

-

Few

FORMULAE TO BE USED:

  • 1. S=S 1 – S 2 in Kg.

S =spring balance (Weight in Kg)

S 1, S 2 = spring balance reading

  • 2. T=S*R*9.81 Nm

S=spring force in Kg.

R=Radius of the brake drum in meter.

T=Torque in Nm.

Tabulation:

Radius of the brake drum =

S.N

Input

Input

Spring balance

Speed

 

Input

Outpu

Efficien

o

voltage

curre

nt

Reading

N

Torque

power

t

cy

51

             

T

 

powe

 

V

in

I

in

S 1

S 1

P in

r

   

S 2

S 2

P out

 

volts

Amps

Kg

Kg

Kg

Rpm

Nm

Watts

Watts

%

                     

M0del Calculation:

  • 3. P in =V in * I in in watts.

V in = Voltage input in volts.

I in =Input current in Amps.

P in =Input power in watts.

52

4.

P out = (2

NT) /60 in watts.

P out = output power in watts.

N= Speed in rpm.

T=Torque in Nm.

5. Percentage Efficiency

%

= (P out /P in ) *100

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. By closing the MCB 230v Dc supply is given to the circuit.

  • 3. The motor is started by using four point starters.

  • 4. Adjust the field rheostat of the motor so as to make the motor run at

rated speed.

  • 5. Vary the load up to the rated current.

  • 6. Pour some water on break drum.

  • 7. For each load setting on brake drum, the input voltage, input

current,

spring balance readings are noted down and tabulated.

  • 8. Repeat the same procedure for differential mode.

  • 9. From the recorded value, calculate input power, output power and efficiency and characteristics curves were drawn.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.

53

2. At the time of starting, the motor should be in no load condition.

RESULT:

The load test on the given D.C compound motor was conducted and its performance characteristics were drawn.

54

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Load test on DC compound generator

MODEL GRAPH:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Load test on DC compound generator MODEL GRAPH: 55

55

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Load test on DC compound generator MODEL GRAPH: 55

Ex. No:

Date:

LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND GENERATOR

AIM:

To conduct the load test on a given DC compound generator and to draw the characteristics curves.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO

Name of the apparatus

Type

Range

Quantity

1.

Ammeter

mc

(0-20A)

1

2.

Voltmeter

mc

(0-300)V

1

3

Rheostat

Wire wound

300

,1.7A

1

.4.

Rheostat

Wire wound

500

,1.2A

1

5.

Tachometer

Digital

-

1

6.

Variable Resistive Load

-

5kw

1

PRECAUTION:

  • 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum position.

  • 2. The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum position.

  • 3. At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.

  • 4. The

machine

experiment.

should

be

run

at

its

rated

speed

throughout

the

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. The circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. The prime mover is started with the help of the three-point starter and

it is made to run at rated speed when the generator is disconnected from

the load by DPST switch.

56

TABULATION:

 

Differential compound

Cumulative compound

Load

 

Load

Load

S.no

voltage

Load current

voltage

current

(volts)

(amps)

(volts)

(amps)

         

57

  • 3. By varying the generator field rheostat gradually, the rated voltage

(E g ) is obtained.

  • 4. The

ammeter

and

condition.

voltmeter

readings

are

tabulated

at

no

load

  • 5. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed for different loads

up to the rated current by closing the DPST switch.

  • 6. After tabulating all the readings,

position.

the load

is brought

in

its initial

  • 7. The prime mover is switched off using the DPST Switch after bringing all

the rheostat to initial position.

GRAPH:

The graph is drawn between load voltage V s load current.

RESULT:

Thus the load test on a DC compound generator was conducted and its characteristics curves were drawn.

58

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Hopkinson’s Test

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Hopkinson’s Test NAME PLATE DETAILS 59

NAME PLATE DETAILS

59

Ex.No :

Date:

 

HOPKINSON’S TEST

 

AIM:

To conduct Hopkinson’s

test

to

find

stray losses

and hence

to

calculate the efficiency of the machines as a motor and generator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO

APPARATUS

RANGE

TYPE

QTY

1

Ammeter

(0-10A)

MC

3

2

Ammeter

(0-1A)

MC

2

3

Voltmeter

(0-300V)

MC

2

4

Rheostat

270Ω/0.8A

variable

1

5

Rheostat

770Ω/0.6A

variable

1

6

Tachometer

-

Digital

1

       

As

7

Connecting wires

-

required

FORMULAE USED;

For stray loss

  • 1. Total input power = V L . I L

Where,

V L - Line voltage in volts

I L – Line current in Amps

  • 2. Total losses for motor and generator is

60

= I a 2 g .R a +I fg .V L +I a 2 m .R a +I fm .V L +Stray loss

TABULATION:

S.No

V

L

I

L

I

ag

I

fg

I

am

I

fm

Volts

Amps

Amps

Amps

Amps

Amps

             

Calculation of stray loss:

 
 

I

L

S.No

 

P L

P ag

P am

V

L .I fg

V

L .I fm

W s

Amps

Watts

Watts

Watts

Watts

Watts

Watts

               

61

Where,

I a 2 g .R a - Generator armature Cu loss

I fg . V L – Generator field current loss

I a 2 m .R a - Motor armature Cu loss

I fm . V L – Motor field current loss

  • 3. Stray loss of each machine

= (V L . I L - I a 2 g .R a -I fg .V L -I a 2 m .R a -I fm .V L ) / 2

For efficiency as a motor

  • 1. Input power to motor = V L (I L +I fm +I ag ) I fm – Motor field current I ag _ Generator armature current

  • 2. Total losses = (I ag + I fm ) 2. R a + V L .I fm +W c

For efficiency as a generator

  • 1. Output power of generator = V L .I ag = P out

  • 2. Generator field current loss = I fg . V L

  • 3. Generator armature Cu loss = I a 2 g .R a

  • 4. Input power = Output power + Total losses = P in

  • 5. % Efficiency = (Pout / Pin) * 100

PROCEDURE:

  • 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

  • 2. With SPST switch is open condition supply is given by closing DPST switch.

62

3. Motor is started using four point starter and speed is brought rated value by adjusting motor field rheostat.

4. The SPSTS is closed when voltmeter connected across reads zero. The voltmeter reads double the rated value when polarity of motor and generator are inter changed.

Determination of Efficiency as a motor:

S.No

P inm

W s

P cu

P fm

P om

% η

watts

watts

watts

watts

watts

%

             

Determination of Efficiency as a Generator:

S.No

I

a

W s

P og

P cu

P