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Chapter 6


 is a scalar quantity.
 A force acting on a body while the body undergoes a displacement.

 When a body undergoes a displacement with magnitude s along a straight line while a constant force with
magnitude F, directed along the same line, acts on it, we define the work W done by the force as
W = F s

 If the force doesn’t have the same direction as the displacement,



W = Fxs = F cos s

Where  is the angle between the direction of the force & that of the displacement.
 Units of Work
System Work = Force  Displacement
mks Joule (J) = N  meter (Nm)
cgs (abs) Erg = Dyn  cm (dyncm)
British (grav) Foot-pound = pound  ft (ftlb)


Whenever work is done on an object, it gains energy.
 The energy of a body is its ability to do work.
 Since the energy of a body is measured in terms of the work it can do, it has the same units as work.
 It is a scalar quantity.

The energy may be stored by the object in a variety forms:

1. Kinetic energy
 The energy an object has because it is moving.
2. Gravitational Potential energy
 The energy an object has because of its vertical separation from the earth.
3. Elastic Potential energy
 The energy stored in a stretched or compressed elastic material such as spring.
4. Internal energy
 The atomic & molecular energy of matter consisting of
o The kinetic energy of the atoms & molecules due to their random motion (called thermal
energy), &
o The energy atoms & molecules have as a result of their bonds & interactions w/ each
 The KE of an object is its ability to do work because of its motion.
Example: A car or bullet in motion, a stream of water, or a revolving flywheel possesses kinetic energy.
 The kinetic energy of a moving object can be measured by the amount of work it will do if brought
to rest or by the amount of work originally needed to impart the velocity to it.
 The work done by the force F that acts on an object for a distance s is
W = Fs or F cos s  (1)
 The object’s acceleration is related by Newton’s 2nd law
F = ma  (2) where m is the object’s mass
 The displacement s is related to the acceleration & change of speed by
𝐯 𝟐 − 𝐯𝟎𝟐
2as = v2 – v02 or s= 𝟐𝐚
 (3)
substitute (2) & (3) to (1)
𝐯 𝟐 − 𝐯𝟎𝟐 𝟏
W = (𝐦𝐚) ( 𝟐𝐚
) = 𝟐 𝐦(𝐯 𝟐 − 𝐯𝟎𝟐 )
 But, all the work done by the force has been converted to KE of the object, therefore If an object
of mass m has a velocity v, its translational KE is
KE = ½mv2
 The change in KE when the speed of the mass changes from an initial value v0 to a final value of
v is
KE = KE – KE0 = ½mv2 – ½mv02


 The PE is the energy which bodies possess by virtue of their positions, configurations, or internal
 Important forms of this type of energy are
o Electrical energy
o Elastic energy
o Chemical energy, &
o Nuclear potential energy
 The most common form of potential energy is gravitational potential energy.
 Since the earth attracts every body, work is required to lift the body to a higher level. By the virtue
of the body’s position at a higher level, the body possesses more ability to do work than it had
when it was at ground level. The body has increased its potential energy.
 The work done on the body, and hence the potential energy gained, is the product of the weight
W & the height h to which it is raised. This increase in potential energy is given by
PE = Wh = mgh


W = Fs
But F = W = mg & s = h – h0
s = h – h0
W = mg(h – h0) = GPE F

 This can be used to calculate the change in gravitational potential energy (GPE) of
any mass whose vertical position relative to the earth changes from an initial
position h0 to a final position h.
W = mg
 If the vertical separation of a mass m from the earth is changed from an initial position h0 to a final position
h, then there is a change in gravitational potential energy, GPE given by
GPE = GPE – GPE0 = mgh – mgh0 = Wh – Wh0 = Wnet

1. GPE depends only on the vertical separation (the height) of a mass from the earth, not on any horizontal
change in position.
2. Changes in GPE depend only on the initial & final heights of the mass, not on the path taken to change
3. The change in GPE depends on the change in vertical position (h – h0), which is independent of the origin.


Conservation of Energy
Energy is given to a body or system of bodies hen work is done upon it. In this process there is merely a
transfer of energy from one body to another. In such transfer, no energy is created or destroyed it merely
changes from one form to another. This statement is known as the law of conservation of energy.

Power is the time rate of doing work.
 The average power is the work performed divided by the time required for the performance.
work done by a force 𝑊 F∗s
Average Power = = = = F*v
time taken to do this work t t
 Units of power
1 watt (w) = 1 N*m/s = 1 J/s = 107 erg/s
1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft-lb/s = 33,000 ft-lb/min = 746 w
1 kilowatt (kw) = 1000 w = 1.34 hp

The kilowatt hour (kwh) is a unit of work.

1 kwh = 3.6  106 J


 A machine is a device for applying energy to do work in a way suitable for a given purpose.
 In a simple machine the energy is supplied by a single applied force & the machine does useful work
against a single resisting force.

Actual Mechanical Advantage (AMA)

The utility of a machine is chiefly that enables a person to perform some desirable work by changing the
amount, the direction, or the point of application of the force.

 The AMA of a machine is defined as the ratio of output force Fo exerted by the machine on a load to the
input force Fi exerted by the operator on the machine.
AMA = 𝐅𝐨

Ideal mechanical Advantage (IMA)

In any machine, because of the effects of
 The IMA is the ratio of the distance si through which the input force acts to the distance s0 through which
the output force act.
IMA = 𝐢