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Cascaded interconnections

LAPLACE TRANSFORM
– A system represented by a differential equation is difficult
to model as a block diagram
– That’s why we will use Laplace transform where we can
represent the input, output and the system as separate
entities
– Defined as
Lf(t)=Fs=0-∞f(t)e-stdt

Where s=σ+jω, a complex variable F(s), is called the Laplace


transform off f(t)

INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM, which allows us to find f(t) given


F(s) is
L-1Fs=12πjσ-j∞σ+j∞Fsestds

=ftut

Where,
ut=1 t>0

=0 t<0

Unit step function- multiplication of f(t) by ut yields a time


function that is zero for t<0.
Examples:
1. L{at2+bt+c}
2. L{(t-9)2}
3. Lde-tdt
4. L0te-τdτ

5. L{e4tcos3t}
6. L-115s2+4s+13
7. L-1s+1s2+6s+25
8. L-1s2-6s3+4s2+3s

Partial- fraction expansion


F1s=N(s)D(s)

Where the order of


N(s) is less than the
order of D(s) then a
partial fraction
expansion can be
made
If not, then Ns must
be divided by D(s)
successively until
the result has a
remainder whose
numerator is of
order less than its
denominator
F1s=s3+2s2+6s+7s2+s+5

Case 1. Roots of
the denominator
of F(s) are real
and distinct
Fs=2(s+1)(s+2)

Roots of the factor


are distinct since
each factor is raised
only to unity power. Solve equations.
In general, given an F(s) whose denominator has real and distinct
roots a partial fraction expansion,
Fs=NsDs=Nss+p1s+p2…s+pm…s+pn

=K1(s+p1)+K2(s+p2)+…+Kms+pm+…+Kn(s+pn)

We will see that the Laplace transform reduces the task of


finding the solution to simple algebra.
d2ydt2+12dydt+32y=32u(t)

Case 2. Roots of the denominator of F(s) are real and


repeated
Fs=2(s+1)(s+2)2

Fs=NsDs=Nss+p1rs+p2…s+pn

=K1(s+p1)r+K2(s+p1)r-1+…+Krs+p1+Kr+1s+p2+…+Kns+pn

Cases 3. Roots of the denominator of F(s) are complex or


imaginary
Fs=Nss+p1s2+as+b

=k1s+p1+(k22+k3)s2+as+b

Example: Fs=3s(s2+2s+5)