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JOB ANALYSIS AND JOB DESIGN

ABSTRACT

Job Analysis forms the core of most human resource activities and can perform a number
of functions. Researchers in strategic human resource management have established a
relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational
performance, but the relationship between HRM practice like Job Analysis – Job
Performance, the intervening process recruitment, connecting Job Analysis and Job
Performance remains unexplored. This research attempts to assess the impact of Job
Analysis on Job Design on the basis of the opinions of the employees of organization.

A survey questionnaire was designed and pre-tested. The study was carried out by taking
a sample size of 50 employees of conceptual framework of human resource practices in
relation to recruitment process and its impact on employees Job performance and
subsequent Job analysis and Job design.

Results supported the HR-Performance conceptual model by showing significant impact


of Human Resource Management practices on Job analysis and Job design. Here we deal
with quantitative data collection technique. Researcher use descriptive as well as
explorative research design. Future research should observe the outcome of booming
execution of HR practices and the survival of assured practices on employee's job
excellence and reliability. Also future studies by the researcher having keep interest in the
association of these constructs can use this model to prepare new research or increase the
generalize ability of this study in diverse sectors.
Table of Contents

CHAPTER NO. Title Page No.

CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION 1-13


1.1 Background of Study 1-2
1.2 Introduction of Company 2-6
1.3 Objective of Company 6-9
1.4 Statement of Problem 10
1.5 Significance of Study 11-12
1.6 Limitations of Study 12
1.7 Organization of Study 13
1.8 Profile Of The Company

CHAPTER - 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14-49


2. Conceptual Review 14
2.1.1 Key Steps in Job Analysis Process 15
2.1.2 Input- output model of job analysis 16
2.1.3 Importance of Job Analysis 17
2.1.4 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer 17
2.1.5 Conducting Job Analysis 18
2.1.6 Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis 18
2.1.7 Uses of Job Analysis 18-19
2.1.8 Job Specification and Job Description 20-21
2.1.9 Advantages 22
2.1.10 Challenges in Conducting a Job Analysis 23-24
2.1.11 Summary of Types of Data Collected 25
Through Job Analysis 25
2.1.12 Timeliness of Job Analysis 25
2.1.13 Job Analysis for Team Members 25
2.1.14 Job Analysis and the Law 25
2.1.15 Building Blocks of Job Analysis Methods 26-28
2.1.16 Work Function and the Level of Difficult 28
2.1.17 Job Design 29
2.1.18 Interdependencies in Job and organization Design 29
2.1.19 Principles of Job Design 29
2.1.20 Objectives of job design 30
2.1.21 Typical Job Design Process 30
2.1.22 Characteristics of a well-designed job 30
2.1.23 Job classification, its needs and importance 31
2.1.24 Need for Job Classification 31
2.1.25 When and where is a Job Classification System Used?
31-31
2.1.26 Job Design factors 32-34
2.1.27 Job Design for Team 34-37
2.1.28 Where the design unit is the team 38
2.1.29 Approaches to job design 38-43
2.1.30 Comparison of Five Job Design Approaches 43
2.1.31 Issues in job design 43-45
2.1.32 Challenges related to job design 45
2.1.33 Job Redesign: How will you know if
Job redesign has made a difference? 46
2.1.34 An example of a job design checklist 46
2.2 Review of Thesis 47
2.3 Research Gap 48
2.4 Review of Articles 48-49

CHAPTER - 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Introduction 50-51

3.2 Research Design 51-55

3.3 Population and Sample Procedures 56-60


3.4 Source of Data 61-62
3.5 Data Collection Techniques 62-64
CHAPTER -4 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data Processing Procedures 65-73


4.2 Analysis of Secondary Data 74
4.3 Analysis of Primary Data 75-80
4.4 List of figures as per Table for secondary data 81
4.5 List of figures as per Table for Primary data 82-89
4.6 Major Findings 90-91

CHAPTER - 5 SUMMARIES, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary 92
5.2 Conclusion 93
5.3 Recommendation 94-95

Bibliography
CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study


Job analysis is a very important human resources function. It involves matching the
employee with the most appropriate skills to the best suited job position at the most
opportune time. The Human Resources department and management define job
descriptions and specifications for each position within the organization. Each position in
the organization is unique and, therefore, has different needs and necessities. The skills,
past experience and education qualifications differ for each job. Companies undertake job
analysis to understand the requirements for the job. This is a mechanism through which
the company fixes on duties, responsibilities and authority for each of its positions.
Through this, it is able to define the skill set needed for each job. The human resource
department prepares this analysis for each job in the organization and then appoints the
appropriate employees for them.
Analyzing Job Requirements
This is a procedure where the HR department and management sit down and define the
roles, duties and authority for each individual job. The management then gets a very clear
idea on all the chores an individual would be required to perform for discharging her
duties. The duties and authority of a software engineer would be different from those of a
production manager. Accordingly, the qualifications, expertise and experience would also
differ. Unless, the most suited and eligible candidates are placed on the job, the company
cannot expect to have full performance levels.
Analyzing Present Conditions
Job analysis also enables the management in analyzing whether or not its employees
are aptly placed. For example, the management may have incorrectly placed marketing
executive in the IT department. The management then takes stock of the situation and
transfers the inappropriately placed employee. Also, the training needs of the employees
are highlighted. Some employees may need to be already polished on the requirements of
their jobs. At other times, the employees may need to be trained on using the new systems
and assets acquired by the company.
Job analysis is also very imperative for defining safety standards for each job position.
Some jobs in the organization are sedentary; other jobs need the employee to commute to

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different places to carry out his duties. Certain types of jobs require the company to
provide for additional safety of the employees. For example, laborers who are engaged in
the production process may be working with heavy duty electrical equipment. It is the
duty of the management to train its employees to use the machines cautiously. Also, it is
required to provide them protective gear.
Future Initiatives
Job analysis is also necessary whenever the company is about to grow its operations.
Presently, the company may be producing X units of output, it may estimate that there
exists additional demand. If the company has to produce 2X units, it needs additional
employees. The management needs to analyze the requirements for the new jobs.

1.2 Introduction of Company


Being Telecommunication Company it provides various services as internet services,
landline and network to network connection. It connect world as a unit and satisfy
customers by providing different types of services as per their requirements. Nepal
Doorsanchar Company Limited, popularly known to the general public with its registered
trademark name as NEPAL TELECOM was registered on 2060-10-22 under Company
Act, 2053. Its Head Office is located in near Singha Darbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Regarding data collection they are collected for central branch which is located in
chhauni. The then Nepal Telecommunications Corporation (NTC) was dissolved and all
assets and liabilities were transferred to Nepal Telecom with effect from 2061-01-01 i.e.
13th April 2004). The company with its long history is on the way of customer service
and nation building.
The fast pace of development in telecommunication and information technology has
changed the way we live and work. To the general public this means increased
expectations and diversified needs for multiple of the latest and higher quality services;
and to the telecommunications service provider, this means increased investment in
Modern equipment and advanced technologies, and new challenges. Company as the
official operator has been continuously expanding its foot print throughout the country,
and as such at least from the perspective of telecommunications service, people
living in the remote rural areas of the country are enjoying services like those available
in urban areas although wider divide remains in terms of scope and scale.

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NT has the highest portfolio of services and its total customer base in PSTN,
GSM and CDMA services. Quality, availability and affordability are the
foundations for better relationship with customers, and better relationship with
customers is the key to a company’s long term success. Focusing on these major
considerations, NT is providing competitive prices, and working to improve quality of its
services. In order to serve the customers more effectively, company is putting increased
emphasis on IVR-based(national volunteer register) complaint handling system,
payment through banks and recharging through prepaid systems.
To realize its goal of providing cost effective telecommunication services to every
nook and corner of the country, Nepal Telecom is committed to provide nation-
wide reliable telecommunication services even to the most inaccessible remote
terrains of the country and serve as an impetus to the social, political and
economic development of the country. Nepal Telecom’s services have reached 3500 VDC
of the country out of which 199 VDC (Village development committee) have not been
served by any other telecom operator of the country. Nepal Telecom provides vast
number of services with priority for customer satisfaction which strengthens its bond with
the society and in turn serves as an impetus for its stability and growth.
Human resource management is a distinctive approach to people management, which
seeks to achieve competitive advantage of organizations through the strategic deployment
of a committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural
and personnel techniques.
we are concerned with HRM department so we got to related how the work is going on
regarding analyzing of jobs and it design.
The existence of the Human Resource Management in the company is very essential
because they are the first department to answer the questions of every employee. The HR
staffs are carefully chosen to assist the mission of the department. The responsibilities
that include in their workload can be determined as an on-going process. The HR
department’s roles involve employment and recruiting that includes interviewing and
testing the labor coordination. It seems like a stage because the training and development
takes place where the orientation, performance management skills is measured, and
enhancing the productivity. Their duty is also engage in the compensation or wage and
salary matters, and benefits such as insurance, administering vacation leaves, or
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retirement plans. It also includes the ensuring of the health and safety of all the
employees. And if possible, based on the job analysis that they conducted upon the
employee, they can be serve as the partner of the whole organization in the decision for
promotion and transfer. Their main duty is to prepare the assessed data of the candidates
in making the decision.
Major jobs of HRM Department:
Strategic Human Resource Planning
HR Auditing and Needs Assessments
Workforce Planning
Change Management
Performance Management
Total Compensation, Benefits & Rewards
Industrial & employee Relation services
Some of the department under HRM Department
 Recruitment Secretariat
This section deals with overall design and accomplishment of personnel
recruitment policy and criterion.
 Personnel Admin Section
It is concern for personnel selection, retention, promotion, termination and
disciplinary action.
 Planning & Record Section:
It is concern to upkeep and update personnel record with strict confidence and
manpower planning for forthcoming telecom project
 Training & Vehicle Section
This is Concern for periodic education and training management. It is also
concern for vehicle operation, maintenance and distribution.
 Management dept. & General Admin Section
It deals staff benefit, trade union activity, building upkeep and sanitation.
 Performance Appraisal Section
Concern for maintaining the record of personnel performance appraisal
 Legal Section
It relates all legal issues of the company and performs the legal advisory role and
advocacy.

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Overall Organizational Structure:

MANAGING DIRECTOR

DEPUTY MD
DEPUTY MD (Internal audit and
(company secretary inspection)

corporate office Service Regional directorate


directorate

DMD: DMD: DMD:


 Finance  Satellite  Kathmandu RD
 Planning service  Central RD
 Business  Wireless  Eastern RD
 Maintenance telephony  Western RD
and  Mobile  Mid-Western RD
operation services  Far Western RD
 HRM,  IT
 Development  Fixed
 Change services
management  Telecom
Training
Centre

Figure: 1 Organization Structure

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Structure under HRM:

Figure: 2 Departments under HRM

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1.3 Objective of Company
Mission
A personal mission or a business mission statement deals with questions like, why are we
here. Why do we exist? Why do we get up each day and do what we do? And what is it
that we get paid for? What function does the organization perform? For whom? How?
The mission is a broad statement of personal or Business scope, purpose and operation
that distinguishes me, or my farm, from others.
A business cannot have values, beliefs or a mission outside of the people who Makeup
that business. Therefore, especially for small closely held businesses, it’s important that
each principle in the business write their own personal mission statement first, and then
come together as a group or team to develop a mission statement for the business.
In addition to giving structure and direction to an individual or business, well-written
mission statements are excellent tools to inform others about what’s important to you and
how you operate your business.
Mission statements serve to inform employees, friends, neighbors, and agribusiness
people about what’s important to you and your business. They also serve as anchors and
guideposts for both strategic and operational or tactical decision making on the farm.
Nepal Telecom as a progressive, customer spirited and consumer responsive Entity is
committed to provide nation-wide reliable telecommunication service to serve as an
impetus to the social, political and economic development of the Country.
It is the initial stage or platform for company to carry on meeting goals and objectives.
During the period of mission there may comes various obstacles. So it needs to be
handled carefully and keeping in mind that time required to meet the target is within it.
Here Nepal telecom is totally customer oriented company which has been providing
services since last decade. So during its mission period keeping in mind regarding
customer needs and services that customer can prefer it has to be designed. One should
also be aware of certain terms like political condition of country, surrounding regarding
the social activities and mostly economic condition of country. It is a path having definite
objective to meet the goal.

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Vision
While a mission is a statement of what is, a vision is a statement of what or how you
would like things to be. A picture of the future you’re working to create, what you want
to be when you grow up, what you want your business to become. Without a vision of
where you’re going how can you develop a plan to get there and how will you know
when you’ve arrived? Without a vision of where we would like to be, we can continue
hiking various trails through life, climbing mountain after mountain, only to discover
each time that we’ve arrived somewhere we really don’t want to be. Nothing was ever
created without a vision. It guides us, gives us direction and purpose, and can serve as a
powerful motivator for those around us and ourselves.
The more precise and detailed you can be in writing a description of your vision of the
future, the easier it will be to communicate it to others and gain their commitment to it,
and the more likely you will be to achieve it.
Being able to articulate a clear vision of the future is essential if you expect employees
and agric-service consultants to help you get there. Success comes through bringing
aboard people as partners, employees or consultants with core values that fit well with the
business, and who understand and accept the business mission and vision as matching
closely with their own.
Developing visions and missions that are truly shared takes time, effort, energy and
commitment. You can’t expect that just because you develop mission and vision
statements, read them at a staff meeting and even hand them out in printed form that
everyone will immediately accept and work toward achieving them. You need to walk
the talk and be totally committed to them yourself first, and then discuss them with your
employees and consultants at least eight or ten times before they will believe you’re really
serious and begin to internalize these statements.
Vision of Nepal Telecom is to remain a dominant player in telecommunication sector in
the Country while also extending reliable and cost effective services to all.
Vision is regarded as foresight of future. Based on some criteria and existing position of
company one can visualize where it will be in upcoming future. So the main aim of vision
of NTC is to lead in telecommunication sector and to be dominating player by providing
continuous updated services as per the changing environment. One should also keep in
mind regarding the cost of service which should be affordable and reliable.
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Goal
Mission and vision frequently short statements. They are broad, encompassing and far-
reaching. They can often seem overwhelming and perhaps even impossible to achieve.
The metaphors, “How do you eat an elephant? – One bite at a time” and “A journey of a
thousand miles begins with the first step”, fit well in regard to achieving a mission and
vision. Goals and objectives create the bite size pieces, the road map and manageable
stepping stones to achieve the mission, make the vision a reality, and navigate the course
we have set for our business, or for ourselves.
To be effective goals and objectives must be written. If they aren’t in writing they’re
merely ideas with no real power or conviction behind them. Written goals and objectives
provide motivation to achieve them and can then be used as a reminder to you and others.
Clearly and specifically written, they also eliminate confusion and misunderstanding.
Among all the attributes of a well-written objective, the most important are measurable
results and a timeframe for completion. Being able to quantify results and evaluate the
timeliness of accomplishing goals allows owners or managers to assess the performance
and progress of the overall business as well as individuals and teams within the business.
Having well developed goals and objectives also helps:
- Maintain focus and perspective
- Establish priorities
- Lead to greater job satisfaction
- Improve employee performance
As time goes on and goals are achieved, or conditions and situations change, it’s
important to reevaluate and establish new goals and objectives. Failure to periodically set
new or more challenging goals can lead to stagnation in the business and boredom among
employees.
Goal of Nepal Telecom is to provide cost effective telecommunication services to every
nook and corner of country. After going through mission and vision as they are ongoing
process our main objective is to reach destination within time limit without any
disturbance. So telecom goal is to reach the every parts of country forming a network of
people and uniting them as one unit and providing the services as affordable cost. If there
is an option people may shift from one network to another so the service should have
certain image and weight so that people have enough fate and believe in it.
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1.4 Statement of Problem

There is a conflict and unclearness in identifying right man for the right job in an
organization. Attempts to increase the productivity and reduce the turnover through
proper job analysis which is the foundation of a successful recruitment process that
can be met with success and other contributing factors like implementation of a
suitable human resource model to improve the process through a strategy is needed to
be examined. Identification of the right person for the right job presents a challenge
and no single perfect method exists. The challenge of the identification of the right
person for the right job through an effective human resource planning, keeping in
view the recruitment process, is the pillar on which this research is based. Different
tools are required to aid the recruitment process. In order to ensure their value-added
and continuous use, however, assessments need to prove their predictive power and
link to job performance. Lowery, Beadles & Krilowicz, 2004, (pg .304) studied that
the defining factor in the effectiveness of an organization was the quality of its human
resources, any procedure which can assist in making better recruitment decisions was
of immense benefit.
Lack of systemic structuring of a job portfolio (job analysis, job design, job
evaluation, job security and job succession planning) results in flawed recruitment.
This leads to low productivity due to inadequate job performance and eventually
results in high turnover. The practice in vogue of only carrying out job analysis for
successful recruitment process has met with little success and therefore other
contributing factors need to be examined.

a. Job Analysis as mechanism for right people to right job with required skills
remuneration with changing time.
b. Job Rotation leads to employee work efficiently.
c. Departmental and structuring as a road map to integration and synchronizing
d. Division of workforce lead to uniformity or deformities.

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1.5 Significance of Study
Researcher deals through the problem, methods and system that are adopted by the
company and modify them in systematic and scientific manner in right direction so that it
becomes easier for both the organization to deal and employee to follow it. This study
shows the current position of the company how the working process is going on and
identifies the barriers and hinder age that comes in between different level between
employees. We just try to deal whether the employee are posted as per the job and
position they are appointed for in right place and position.
Going through current and updating may be difficult but we have to do it be in market.
There should be good understanding between the employee and employer and other
certain factor that comes on the way. some time top management rely on the old
traditional system and they aspect to continue through it as it becomes easier for them and
it safe, they always wants to be in safe zone and play the game. Sometimes employee
themselves don’t want changes, union may also come in way similarly there are various
factor that may comes in between. As per the demand and situation if changes are not
implemented company lack behind and loose its identity.
Though the term job analysis and design may look simple it’s the base or important part
of organization, improper posting, appointing less skill and knowledge person, not
identifying on interest, positioning him to the wrong post or unrelated work may cause lot
of problem for both the organization and individual himself. So a lot of care should be
taken while hiring individual and positioning him to the right post after and clearly
informing him about his duties and responsibility. As in the current scenario big company
doesn’t have time to selection and hiring process i.e. its time consuming so they consult
with consults and select the as consultant deals with various methods and procedure and
select right candidates as per the requirement of organization. Organization may
concerned with the experts, may go through certain procedure and methods depends also
on organization size and budget selected to conduct.
Overall we can say that by conducting this research it becomes easier for the organization
to identify actual procedure they are following and to choose their right one or go through
it after analyzing it. It also benefits for researcher as on got to know how the organization
do the processes and implement it. this research material act as baseline for those who

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want to do the research in the coming days and update from the current content, it safe
both time and money they doesn’t have to go through the beginning.
 Changes need to be adopted as per the time and situation demands.
 Depending upon the coordination between employees it affects overall
performance.
 One should be posted as he/she is appointed for the job.

1.6 Limitation of Study

 Involves Personal Business: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of


the same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and
dislikes. This is a major hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data.
 Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source
of collecting data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from
few individuals needs to be standard.
 Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts.
As every job carries different information and there is no set pattern,
customized information is to be collected for different jobs. The process needs
to be conducted separately for collecting and recording job-related data.
 Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not
aware of the objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate
skills to conduct the process, it is a sheer wastage of company’s resources. He
or she needs to be trained in order to get authentic data.
 Mental Abilities Cannot be Directly Observed: Last but not the least,
mental abilities such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge,
aptitude, psychic and endurance are intangible things that cannot be observed
or measured directly. People act differently in different situations. Therefore,
general standards cannot be set for mental abilities.
 time consuming

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1.7 Organization of Study

Overall Project Report has been divided into five chapters as Introduction, Literature
Revive, Research Methodology, Data presentation & Analysis lastly Summary,
Conclusion and Recommendation.
First section gives formal information regarding importance of job analysis and
objectives of the study. It deals with the organization background and its mission, vision,
goals and related departments. This section also concern with statement of problem and
significance of study. It also goes through some limitation.
Second section deals with book and thesis concepts and principles. It also thesis finding
and recommendation related to other thesis. Literature review was given of those works
that uses job analysis as a tool for exploring new dimension or techniques of job analysis.
Some other research has been added to support thesis certain comments or application
procedures.
Third section deals with research methodology regarding the information such as
research introduction, what types of research design has been used, and terms like
population, what is the number of sample we have taken and what types of sampling
method we are implementing, also the sources of data whether it is primary or secondary
and finally technique of data collection like questionnaire, interview, log books, journals
etc.
Forth section deals with data presentation and analysis part. In this portion we deals with
various data processing procedures as editing data, classification and coding,
transcription, tabulation, construction of tables and charts and types of data whether it is
qualitative or quantitative.
Fifth section this portion deals with overall summary, conclusion and recommendation of
chapters.

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1.8 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

HYUNDAI MOTORS: COMPANY HISTORY

Hyundai (Korean pronunciation is a global conglomerate company, part of the


Korean Chaebol, that was founded in South Korea by one of the most famous
businessmen in Korean history: Chung Ju-yung . The first Hyundai Company was
founded in 1947 as a construction company.

Two of the best-known Hyundai divisions are Hyundai Motor Company, the world's
fourth largest automobile manufacturer by volume as of January 2011, and Hyundai
Heavy Industries, the world's largest shipbuilder. Other companies currently or formerly
controlled by members of Chung's extended family may be loosely referred to as a part of
the Hyundai chaebol.

In 1998 Hyundai bought Kia Motors, the oldest South Korean car company which had to
file for bankruptcy due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Kia is (as of 2011) somewhat
independent of Hyundai motors, as Hyundai no longer owns an outright majority of Kia
shares.

Hyundai Group underwent a massive restructuring following the 1997 East Asian
financial crisisand Chung Ju-yung's death in 2001. Chung was the CEO and directly in
control of the company until the end of his life. Today many companies bearing the name
Hyundai are not part of or legally connected to the Hyundai Group. These companies
include Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, Hyundai Department Store Group, Hyundai
Heavy Industries Group, and Hyundai Development Group. However, all of the named
companies are run by Chung's sons or their heirs.

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HYUNDAI MOTORS: COMPANY PROFILE

Hyundai Motor Company has a presence in 168 nations. Hyundai Motor India Limited
(HMIL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company, S. Korea and is the
second largest and the fastest growing car manufacturer in India.

The Korean company set up its subsidiary in India in 1996. HMIL’s fully integrated state-
of-the-art manufacturing plant near Chennai boasts some of the most advanced
production, quality and testing capabilities in the country. The company is investing an
additional US$ 220 Mn to expand capacity at this plant to 250,000 units a year in line
with its recent designation as HMC’s global export hub for small cars and to cater to its
upcoming product launches India.

HMIL presently markets over 18 variants of passenger cars across four models, the Santro
in the B segment, the Accent in the C segment, the Sonata in the E segment and the
Terracan in the SUV segment. The company recorded combined sales of 150,741 units
during calendar year 2003 with both Accent & Santro emerging leaders in their respective
segments. The company’s newest launch in India is the Accent Getz in B segment

HMIL was recently awarded the benchmark ISO 14001 certification for its sustainable
environment management practices.

Hyundai Motors is planning to shift certain research and development (R&D) facilities
from Korea and while basic R& D functions will remain in Korea, India will become the
R&D hub in specific areas such as engine, body design or transmission, taking advantage
of the available technology skill in India.

HMIL has sold over 500,000 cars in a record time of just over 5 years since
commencement of commercial production in September 1998 and is all set to emerge as
one of the largest exporters of passenger cars and components out of India.

Between 2003 and 2006 the company will invest $300 million in its Indian operations. It
will increase the assembly line as well as the capacity from the present level of 1.2 lakh to
1.5 lakh units in the next fiscal and to 2 lakh units between mid-2003 and 2006. Hyundai
is looking at exports of 40,000 units, mostly to Europe, from India.

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The planned capital infusion will also be used to expand capacities and fund product
launch, the multi-purpose vehicle Carens. The Carens is expected to be introduced with a
price tag of about Rs 10 lakh. The firm is also exploring the feasibility of rolling out
another sports utility vehicle Santa-Fe.

The company is likely to emerge as one of the top five auto giants in the world in the

future.

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Hyundai In India

Hyundai Motor India Limited is currently the second largest carmaker after Maruti
Suzuki and largest auto exporter in India. It is making India the global manufacturing
base for small cars. Hyundai sells several models in India, the most popular being the
Santro Xing, i10 and the i20. Other models include Getz Prime, Accent, Terracan, second
generation Verna, Tucson, Santa Fe and the Sonata Transform. Hyundai has two
manufacturing plants in India located at Sriperumbudur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Both plants have a combined annual capacity of 600,000 units.In the year 2007 Hyundai
opened its R&D facility in Hyderabad Andhra pradesh, employing now nearly 450
engineers from different parts of the country.Basically the Hyundai Motor India
Engineering (HMIE) gives technical & engineering support in Vehicle development and
CAD & CAE support to Hyundai's main R&D center in Namyang Korea. In 2010,
Hyundai started its design activities at Hyderabad R&D Center with Styling, Digital
Design & Skin CAD Teams.

South Korean car maker Hyundai, which as per reports is also world’s fastest growing
automaker and fourth largest car manufacturer across the globe, has launched a new car,
Hyundai EON in October in India.[45] Eon is an entry-level car but at the same time it is
very spacious with a large boot. The car has 814 cc engine, promising to deliver the
mileage of over 20 km per litre. The new Hyundai’s small car is sure to stir competition
in the under Rs 3 lakh price range. Hyundai EON price has kept its price around Rs 2.5
lakh.

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SALES OF HYUNDAI MOTORS LTD. IN INDIA

In year 2010 HMIL grew by 7.8% cumulatively registering total sales of 6,03,819 units as
against 5,59,880 units of 2009 with domestic sales surging by 23.1% over 2009. Domestic
sales accounted for 3,56,717 units in 2010 as against 2,89,863 in the year 2009. Overseas
sales accounted for 2,47,102 units as against 2,70,017 units in 2009 which reflects a decline
of 8.5% for the calendar year 2010.

18
PRODUCT CATEGORY AND ITS DIMENSION

1) SMALL SEGMENT CARS:

HYUNDAI - SANTRO XING

LENGTH 3565mm

BREATH 1525mm

HEIGHT 1590mm
WHEEL BASE 2380mm

CURB WEIGHT 854kg(MT), 868kg(AT)

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HYUNDAI – i10

LENGTH 3565mm

BREATH 1595mm
HEIGHT 1550mm
WHEEL BASE 2380mm

CURB WEIGHT 1010kg

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HYUNDAI - Eon

LENGTH 3495mm

BREATH 1595mm

HEIGHT 1550mm
WHEEL BASE 2380mm

CURB WEIGHT 940kg

21
2) LARGE SEGMENT CARS (SUV’s):

HYUNDAI –SANTA FE

LENGTH 4676mm

BREATH 1615mm

HEIGHT 1725mm
WHEEL BASE 2700mm

CURB WEIGHT 1676kg

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HYUNDAI – TUCSON

LENGTH 4400mm

BREATH 1820mm

HEIGHT 1685mm
WHEEL BASE 2640mm

CURB WEIGHT 1440kg

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SWOT ANALYSIS

A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic
planning process. Environmental factors internal to the firm usually can be classified as
strengths (S) or weaknesses (W), and those external to the firm can be classified as
opportunities (O) or threats (T). Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred
to as a SWOT analysis.
The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the firm’s resources
and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. AS such, it is
instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. The following diagram shows how a
SWOT analysis fits into an environmental scan:

SWOT Analysis Framework


Environmental Scan
/ \
Internal Analysis External Analysis
/ \ / \
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threat
!
SWOT Matrix

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STRENGTHS:
A firm’s strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for
developing a competitive advantage Examples of such strengths of HYUNDAI:

 Hyundai have a good reputation among customers.

 Well established co. since 1993

 Trusted brand in INDIA.

 Strong distribution network all over India.

 It has the maximum number of service station all over.

 Exclusive access to high grade natural resources.

WEAKNESSES:
The absence of certain strengths may be viewed as a weakness. For example, each of the
following may be considered weaknesses;

 Lack of patent protection.

 The company has low brand recognition in A segment and passenger car.

 High cost structure.

 Lack of access to the best natural resources.

 Lack of access to provide the services for dealing of second hand cars.

In some case, a weakness maybe the flip side of a strength . Take the case in which a
firm has a large amount of manufacturing capacity. While this capacity may be
considered a strength that competitors do not share, it also may be a considered a

25
weakness if the large investment in manufacturing capacity prevents the firm from
reacting quickly to changes in the strategic environment.

Opportunities
The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and
growth. Some examples of such
Opportunities include;

 An unfulfilled customer need.

 Arrival of new technologies.

 Loosening of regulations.

 Removal of international trade barriers.

Threats:
Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some
examples of such threats include;

 Shifts in consumer tastes away from the firms products.

 Emergence of substitute products.

 New regulations.

 Increased trade barriers.

26
The SWOT Matrix

A firm should not necessarily pursue the more lucrative opportunities. Rather, it may
have a better chance at developing a competitive advantage by identifying a fit between
the firm’s strengths and upcoming opportunities. In some cases , the firm can overcome a
weakness in order to prepare itself to pursue a compelling opportunity.

To develop strategies that take into account the SWOT profile, a matrix of these factors
can be constructed. The SWOT matrix (also known as a TOWS Matrix) is shown below;

SWOT / TOWS Matrix

Strengths Weaknesses

Opportunities S-O strategies W-O strategies

Threats S-T strategies W-T strategies

 S-O strategies pursue opportunities that are a good fit to the company s strengths.
 W-O strategies overcome weaknesses to pursue opportunities.
 S-T strategies identify ways that the firm can use its strengths to reduce its
vulnerability to external threats.
 W-T strategies establish a defensive plan to prevent the firm’s weaknesses from
making it highly susceptible to external threats

27
MARKET STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATON

1) Product development with vendors: In case product development part a team


of engineers would be talking to its major vendors for reducing the cost of equipments
supplied by them. These vendors are the major suppliers of Hyundai components
such as Deep Hyundai, Hans and Himgiri etc
.
2) Advertising: The advertising may involve the process of advertisements on
Television, Radio, Newspaper, Auto Magazines and events like Auto Expo

a) T.V. Advertising ; T.V. advertising may involve the advertisement at peck hours
of television viewing or during the cricket match time in the slog over which in
turn may lead to maximize exposure and thus maximum impact on final buyers.

b) Advertising in news paper (twice in weak); The concept of advertising on


newspaper may increase the sale since the newspaper would be able to explain the
characteristics and features of cars, because it is an easy way to reaching the
decision makers and thus in turn may directly influence their decision.

c) Advertising on Radio; with FM catching more and more popularity amongst


people especially people love to listen to FM while driving. Thus this could be
another mean of influencing the prospects for services like True Value at the time
of 1hour in the morning and 1 hour in the evening when the people are actually
traveling towards their office or coming come back.

d) Auto Magazines (monthly) and Auto expo (yearly); The Company would
advertise on auto magazine like Auto cars, Motoring etc where entire information
on product and newer features would be explained. The cover page or back page
advertisement would be used for PRODUCT COMMUNICATION

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3 Celebrity Endorsement; This entirely depends on the company’s policy whether
they would like to spend a fixed amount (which may depending upon
the personality). The celebrity would be the Brand Ambassador for the
company like Actor SHAH RUKH KHAN is the Brand Ambassador
for Hyundai Santro.

4 Incentives / Penalty on meeting a sales target: The company would work

with dealers with the policy of carrot and stick which may involve incentives like a
foreign tour package, gifts and monetary incentives such as increased margin for
meeting a sales target or working with dealers on contractual basis rather than a
permanent basis if they are not able to reach sales over a period of time.

5 Financing through various Banks: currently Hyundai has its tie up with SBI
financing and the process is limited to getting the car financed through 9000 branches
which the firm would go out to increase along with the financing tie ups with other banks
in a way increasing the reach and more customers.
For rural market a finance scheme for farmers would provide for installments to coincide
with the times when his crop is sold in the market .i.e. CROP CYCLE (paid every six
months after the rabi and kharif harvests).

6 Assemble line modifications: Since in A1 and A2 segments there is need of


change in the design and specification this would involve change in assembly line.

7 Vehicle for corporate: Their N2N feet management system would be used for this
purpose in which their main purpose would be to finance the vehicles for corporate.

29
Achievements of Hyundai Motors India Ltd :

 Hyundai Santro Crosses the Million Mark; HMIL achieved yet another mile stone
by selling more than 1 million Santro in the domestic and Export market since its introduction
in 1998. Santro is India s first high Technology compact car. Commenting on the
achievement, H.S. Lheem, MD, HMIL, said,” This new record of selling 1 million Santro
exemplifies the unmatched equity of the Santro brand across the world. Santro offers refined
ride, impressive fuel economy and comfortable interiors.

 Hyundai’s 2nd all India free car care clinic; HMIL, recently Conducted its second
nationwide free car care clinic campaign from Jan29th- Feb 11th 07 at over 310 Hyundai dealer
workshops across the country. The clinic was conducted to facilitate Hyundai car better and at
a reasonable cost. The Free Car Care Clinic offered a comprehensive 80-point thorough
examination of the engine compartment, under body, AC, body, interior and exterior etc.
Customers also availed free car wash and attractive discounts ranging between 5to20 percent
with a special discount on the Emblem. Special discounts were offered on service
merchandising like engine flush, anti- rust coating, engine de-carbonization and car polish.

30
CHAPTER- 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual Review:

Job analysis is the foundation of all human resource activities, including personnel
selection, training, performance appraisal, career de elopement, workforce planning, and
safety (Bran nick & Levine, 2002).
Job analysis is also necessary to meet legal requirements for validation of selection
procedures (Uniform Guidelines, 1978), and conducting a job analysis can be a time -
consuming process with estimated average annual costs of job analyses ranging from
$150,000 to $4,000,000 per large organization (Levine, Sis trunk, McNutt, & Gael, 1988).
Job analysis is the fundamental process that forms the basis of all human resource
activities. The importance of job analysis has been well-established for years, dating back
to at least the First World War. The United States government’s Uniform Guidelines on
Employee Selection Procedures (1978) and the American Psychological Association’s
Principles for the Validation and use of Personnel Selection Procedures Stipulate that job
analysis is essential to the valediction of any and all major human resources activities.
In its simplest terms, a job analysis is a systematic process for gathering, documenting
and analyzing date about the work required for a job. The data collected in a job analysis,
and reflected through a job description, includes a description of the context and principal
duties of the job, and information about the skills, responsibilities, mental models and
techniques for job analysis. These include the Position Analysis Questionnaire, which
focuses on generalized human behaviors and interviews, task inventories, functional job
analysis and the job element method.
A job analysis provides an objective picture of the job, not the person performing the job,
and as such, provides fundamental information to support all subsequent and related HR
activities, such as recruitment, training, development, performance management and
succession planning. Job analysis serves two critical functions with respect to these
processes. Job analysis helps ensure that decisions made with respect to HR processes are
good decisions i.e., fair and accurate (e.g., selection of the right person for the job,
appropriate decisions about training, performance management, development, etc.) and its
helps ensure the defensibility of decisions made to employee (resulting in good HR
management) and to the courts (resulting in saving of costs, time and reputation).

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2.1.1 Key Steps in Job Analysis Process
Step 1) Gathering Information:
Use the official and current position description, review organization charts, review the
skills of the previous incumbent.
Step 2) Ask for Assistance:
Involve a Subject Matter Expert (SME) and contact an HR professional for information
on qualifications standards, classification standards and evaluation statements.
Step 3) Identify critical Job duties:
Identify and document three to five critical or major duties, which are duties that directly
impact the mission and occupy at least 25% of an employee’s time.
Step 4) Identify needs KSAs and Competencies:
For each critical or major duty, identify the essential knowledge, skill, ability or
competency required to successfully perform that duty.
Step 5) Identify selective placement factor:
After identifying the duties and the relevant KSAs and competencies, determine if there
are any additional factors that a highly qualified candidate must possess prior to starting
the new position.
Step 6) Validate KSAs & competencies to your assessment method:
Ensure that each KSA and competency can be evaluated and is ratable from information
provided in an applicant’s resume and can be validated by an assessment tool such as a
questionnaire, an interview, reference checks, etc.
STEP 7) Document your rating criteria:
Arrange the non-selective KSAs and competencies in order of importance, using a 1, 2
and 3 rating scale from “Most Important” to “Least Important.”
STEP 8) Link job task to KSAs or competencies:
For each KSA or competency identified, create a list of the important tasks and activities
to perform on the job.

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2.1.2 Input- output model of job analysis
1.PERSON
knowledge, skills and ability
effort
2. ORGANIZATION 3.ACTIVITIES 4.OUTPUT
resources, materials physical, mental quality, quantity
tools, methods, interactional, sequential time, data,
constraints, policy people, objects
supervision
5. REWARDS
intrinsic, extrinsic, satisfaction

Figure: 3 Input-Output Models


Since the job is the connection between the organization and the employee, it may be
useful to develop a model based upon this common connection. We can say that both the
organization and the employee contribute to the job and expect to receive something from
it. In order for these results to come about, something has to happen inside the job. This
dual systems-exchange model is illustrated in Figure above. The vertical dimension of the
model is the person-job relationship. The person brings his or her knowledge, skills and
abilities as well as effort to the job (cell 1). These are used in activities, which are divided
into physical, mental, and interactional types (cell 3). The results, for the person, are the
rewards and satisfaction received from working on the job (cell 5). These rewards can be
both intrinsic and extrinsic.
The horizontal dimension of the model is the organization-job relationship. The
organization brings to the job resources needed to perform the job and ways to do the job
that coordinate with organizational needs; the latter are perceived as constraints (cell 2).
These resources and constraints determine the way the job activities (cell 3) are carried
out. The organizational results are some product created or service performed by the
employee; these outcomes are in the form of a change in data, people, and/or objects (cell
4). These results can be defined in terms of quantity, quality, and time.
This model suggests that information (descriptors of jobs) can be collected on the
purpose of the job (cell 4), the activities of the job (cell 3), the worker requirements of the
job (cell 1), the organizational context of the job (cell 2), and the rewards of the job to the
worker (cell 5)

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2.1.3 Importance of Job Analysis
According to scientific management, the key to productivity is a precise
understanding of the tasks that constitute a job. If the motions of workers are to become
standardized and machine-like, then it is necessary to be certain about what is to be
accomplished, as well as what abilities and materials are necessary to do the job. For
many years, job analysis was considered the backbone of the scientific clipboards and
stopwatches was the method used to determine the most efficient way to perform specific
jobs.
As the popularity of scientific management declined after World War II, however, so did
the popularity of job analysis. With the new emphasis on human relations as the key to
productivity job analysis was used primarily to set salary scales. But in the modern times
workers and employers began to take renewed interest in this area because of concerns
about two issues: unfair discrimination and comparable worth.
There are two areas where unfair discrimination in hiring can occur: in the standards set
for being hired; and in the procedures used to assess the applicant’s ability to meet those
standards. Job analysis addresses the question of what tasks, taken together actually
constitutes a job. Without this information, standards for hiring may appear to be arbitrary
or worse, designed to exclude certain individual or groups from the workplace.
More recently, the issue of comparable worth has also contributed to a new interest in job
analysis. Comparable worth refers to equal pay for individuals who hold different jobs but
perform work that is comparable in terms of knowledge required or level of
responsibility. The major issue of the comparable worth controversy is that women who
are employed in jobs that are comparable to those held by men are paid, on the average,
about 65 percent of what a man would earn. In order to determine the comparability of
job tasks so that salaries can also be compared, a proper job analysis is necessary.
Comparable work is an issue of considerable interest to many people.
2.1.4 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
 What physical and mental tasks does worker accomplish?
 When is job to be completed?
 Where is job to be accomplished?
 How does worker do job?
 Why is job done?

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2.1.5 Conducting Job Analysis
People who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum:
 Employee
 Employee’s immediate supervisor
2.1.6 Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis
 Staffing - Haphazard if recruiter does not know qualifications needed for
job
 Training and Development - If specification lists particular knowledge,
skill, or ability, and person filling position does not possess all necessary
qualifications, training and/or development is needed.
 Performance Appraisal - Employees should be evaluated in terms of how
well they accomplish the duties specified in their job descriptions and any
other specific goals that may have been established.
 Compensation – Value of job must be known before dollar value can be
placed on it.
 Safety and Health – Helps identify safety and health considerations
 Employee and Labor Relations – Lead to more objective human resource
decisions
 Legal Considerations – Having done job analysis important for supporting
legality of employment practices
2.1.7 Uses of Job Analysis
This knowledge about jobs is used for many purposes, certainly in the field of Human
Resource Management [HRM]. In particular, where the job is the basis for pay,
knowledge of the job is essential either to make comparisons with other jobs in market
pricing or as the first step in evaluating jobs internally. Thus, failure to secure complete
and accurate job information will result in inaccurate wage setting. Later steps in job
evaluation become virtually impossible without adequate job information.
Job knowledge has many uses in HRM. Organizations use information obtained by job
analysis for recruitment, selection, and placement; organization planning and job design;
training; grievance settlement; as well as job evaluation and other compensation programs
People outside the organization also use information about jobs. Career placement
requires the same type of person-job matching that organizations do. Getting a disabled
worker back to work requires knowledge of jobs in order to determine what jobs the

35
worker can do or can be trained to do. Lastly, job knowledge is needed in a number of
regulatory situations as will be discussed later in this chapter.

Work design

Job Content
Information
HR planning

Job Analysis Job Specification


and Job
Staffing
Description

Job Context Training


Information

Compensation

Figure: 4 Use of job analysis

These different uses of job information may require specialized job descriptions. Job
evaluation requires information that permits distinguishing jobs from one another, usually
on the basis of work activities and/or job required worker characteristics. Recruitment and
selection require information on the human attributes a successful jobholder must bring to
the job. Training requires information on the knowledge and skills that the successful
jobholder must evidence. Job design may require identifying employee perceptions of
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Although there is overlap among these different
requirements, arguments for separate job analysis for separate purposes are
understandable.

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2.1.8 Job Specification and Job Description:
Job Descriptions:
It describes the job and not the individual who fills the job. They are the result of job
analysis within a given organization and are essential to the selection and evaluation of
employees. Job advertisements or postings are based on the job description. The character
of the organization is the basis for the description of positions.
Information about the organization might include
Name of Company
Main Product(s) and/or Service(s)
Location
Number of Employees, Company Structure, Names of Officers, Hours of Work
Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results
expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job.
Typically it includes is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and
results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job.
Typically it includes
Job Title
Date
Title of immediate supervisor
Statement of the Purpose of the Job
Primary Responsibilities
List of Typical Duties and Responsibilities
General Information related to the job
Training requirements
Tool use
Transportation
Signature of the person who has prepared the job description

37
Job Specification:
It is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the
qualifications. Normally, this would include is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to
do the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications.
Typically this would include
Degree of education
Desirable amount of previous experience in similar work
Specific Skills required
Health Considerations
Problems If Job Specifications Are Inflated:
 May systematically eliminate minorities or women from considerations
 Compensation costs will increase
 Job vacancies will be harder to fill

Figure: 5 Job Analyses as a Basic Human Resources Tools

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2.1.9 Advantages
Though job analysis plays a vital role in all other human related activities but every
process that has human interventions also suffers from some limitations. The process of
job analysis also has its own constraints.
 Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process
provides with valuable job-related data that helps managers and job analyst the
duties and responsibilities of a particular job, risks and hazards involved in it,
skills and abilities required to perform the job and other related info.
 Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial
management activities. Filling the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of
skills, understanding and competencies of HR managers. Job Analysis helps them
understand what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a specific job
successfully.
 Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and
when? Who to target and how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process
gives answers to all these questions and helps managers in creating, establishing
and maintaining effective hiring practices.
 Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job
Analysis helps managers evaluating the performance of employees by comparing
the standard or desired output with delivered or actual output. On these bases, they
appraise their performances. The process helps in deciding whom to promote and
when. It also guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that right person
can be fit at that particular place in order to get desired output.
 Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job
analysis gives answer to following questions:
 Who to impart training
 When to impart training
 What should be the content of training
 What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical
 Who will conduct training
 Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job

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2.1.10 Challenges in Conducting a Job Analysis
No process can be entirely accurate and fully serves the purpose. Job analysis is no
exception to it. The process involves a variety of methods, tools, plans and a lot of human
effort. And where there people are involved, nothing can be 100 percent accurate.
However, they may be appropriate considering various factors including organizational
requirements, time, effort and financial resources. Since the entire job analysis processes,
methods and tools are designed by humans only, they tend to have practical issues
associated with them. Human brain suffers with some limitations, therefore, everything
created, designed or developed by humans too have some or other constraints.
Coming back to the subject, even the process of job analysis have lot of practical
problems associated with it. Though the process can be effective, appropriate, practical,
efficient and focused but it can be costly, time consuming and disruptive for employees at
the same time. It is because there are some typical problems that are encountered by a job
analyst while carrying out the process. Jobs are complex by nature. Because they are
performed by a range of individuals who work within changeable environments, it can be
difficult to accurately define job demands and the human requirements to perform them.
Even if there are defined outputs and expected performance levels for a job, the actual
approaches and nuances associated with executing the job demands may result in very
different actions, depending on the worker and how he or she gets the job done. The job
itself may vary in terms of demand levels or activities performed, depending on
workload, workflow, teamwork, and variances in the services, products or activities that
are the focus of the job at any point in time. As Fine, et al. (1999), note, it is important to
describe jobs holistically, considering the requirement of workers to perform both
instrumentally in executing work tasks, and latently, in adapting to situations in which
work takes place.
A number of factors associated with the measurement process can challenge the validity
and reliability of job analyses. One of these is the properties of the rating scales in use,
including content validity across job types, definitions used for the scale items, and clarity
of the rating procedures (Lysaght et al. 2008). Another lies in the quality of information
gathered through worker or supervisor report based on ability or willingness to provide
accurate descriptions. Observational data may be compromised through lack of rater
familiarity with the job type or milieu, or inability to observe sufficient and representative
time samples of the job, especially one that is highly variable. Finally, raters themselves

40
present with different training and levels of experience in performing job analysis, a
factor that may compromise both validity and reliability of the report.
Let’s discuss them and understand how the process of job analysis can be made more
effective by treating them carefully.
 Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst
does not get proper support from the management. The top management needs to
communicate it to the middle level managers and employees to enhance the output
or productivity of the process. In case of improper communication, employees
may take it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available options.
They may have a notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any
action against them. In order to avoid such circumstances, top management must
effectively communicate the right message to their incumbents.
 Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and
accurate job-data, it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the
support of employees. If they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of
time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis process.
 Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job
analysis process are not properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation
and carrying out research is futile. Managers must decide in advance why this
process is being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be done with the
collected and recorded data.
 Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while
carrying out the process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst
must be impartial in his or her approach.
 Single Data Source: Multi source for collection of correct information.
Collecting data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore,
defeats the whole purpose of conducting the job analysis process.
However, this is not the end. There may be many other problems involved in a job
analysis process such as insufficient time and resources, distortion from incumbent, lack
of proper communication, improper questionnaires and other forms, absence of
verification and review of job analysis process and lack of reward or recognition for
providing genuine and quality information.

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2.1.11 Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis:
 Work Activities - Work activities and processes; activity records (in film
form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility
 Worker-oriented activities - Human behaviors, such as physical actions
and communicating on job; elemental motions for methods analysis;
personal job demands, such as energy expenditure
 Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
 Job-related tangibles and intangibles - Knowledge dealt with or applied (as
in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed
 Work performance - Error analysis; work standards; work measurements,
such as time taken for a task
 Job context - Work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives;
physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts
 Personal requirements for job - Personal attributes such as personality and
interests; education and training required; work experience

2.1.12 Timeliness of Job Analysis


Due to Rapid change of technological change it makes need for accurate job analysis
even more important, now and in the future.

2.1.13 Job Analysis for Team Members


 With team design, there are no narrow jobs
 Work departments do is often bundled into teams
 Last duty shown on proverbial job description, “And any other duty that
may be assigned,” is increasingly becoming THE job description.
2.1.14 Job Analysis and the Law
 Equal Pay Act
 Fair Labor Standards Act
 Civil Rights Act
 Occupational Safety and Health Act - Specify job elements that endanger health or
are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people
 Americans with Disabilities Act - Make reasonable accommodations for disabled
worker.

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2.1.15 Building Blocks of Job Analysis Methods
Job analysis methods are made up of a large number of building blocks, but these all
fall into four categories:
1. Kinds of job data collected
2. Methods of gathering data
3. Sources of job information
4. Units of analysis—what gets analyzed, including the level of detail
Summary of building blocks
Descriptor Methods of data collection

 organization philosophy and structure  Interviewing groups


 Licensing and other government-  interviewing individuals
mandated requirements  observations
 Responsibilities  Technical conferences
 Professional standards  Questionnaires
 Job context  Diaries
 Products and services  Equipment-based methods
 Work performance indicators  Reviewing records
 Personal job demands  Reviewing literature
 Elemental motions  studying equipment design specifications
 Worker activities  Doing the work
 Work activities
 Worker trait requirements
 Future changes
 Critical incidents

Source of job analysis data Units of analysis

 Job analyst  Duties


 Job holder’s supervisor  Tasks
 High-level executive  Activities
 Job holder  Elemental motions
 Technical expert  Job dimensions
 Organizational training specialist  Worker characteristic requirements
 Clients or customers  Scales applied to units of work
 Other organizational units  Scales applied to worker characteristic
 Written document requirements
 Previous job analyses  Qualitative versus quantitative
considerations

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Regarding books researcher has concerned 'A Practical Guide to Job Analysis' written by
Erich P. Prien, Leonard D. Goodstein, Jeanette Goodstein, Louis G. Gamble, JR. in year
2009. Competent job analysis is the keystone of the entire human resource management
process. Without understanding the nature of each specific job in an organization, it is not
possible to recruit, select, evaluate, train, develop, and promote or terminate an employee
competently.
Entry level job analysis contain
Target Job Title:
1. Name of Analyst:
2. Location:
3. Analyst’s Job Title:
4. Time in present position (years): (months): 5. Time with company (years): (months):
This procedure is designed to identify those job activities and competencies most
important for entry-level jobs. The information from this analysis will be used to conduct
a job-related selection assessment for this position.
Details explained as
Plan and organize
 Work with team members to organize assigned tasks.
 Determine the general nature of a job through discussion with others
doing the same work.
 Break down work assignment into sequential steps to ensure accuracy and
completeness.

Solve problems
 Work with team members to troubleshoot and solve problems.
 Seek assistance when standard procedures are not successful in solving
problems.
Manage Personal/Interpersonal Relations
 Work cooperatively with others.
 Observe other workers on a team to learn and practice work tasks and
skills.
 Respond to requests for assistance from co-workers or customers/clients.
 Empathize with others experiencing personal difficulty.
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 Observe and anticipate needs of others without waiting for them to
request assistance.
Understand Verbal Communications
 Meet with supervisor(s) to receive and discuss work assignments.
 Greet customers/clients and respond to them accurately and
appropriately.
 Remain attentive when receiving instructions, and follow directions or
seek clarification when necessary.
 Respond to crew leader instructions to carry out assignments.
 Discuss work assignments with co-workers to assess progress or status.
Construction Helper
 Provide general assistance to experienced craftsperson such as getting
requested tools, holding materials in place for additional work, etc.
 Disassemble and remove worn or damaged materials or structures.
 Prepare new parts or materials for installation or construction.
 Complete basic construction or installation.
 Use basic tools and equipment.
Others are as Nursing Aides, Orderlies, Attendants, Manufacturing Production and
Maintenance, Dishwasher clerical assistance etc.

2.1.16 Work Function and the Level of Difficult


DATA PEOPLE THINGS
0 Synthesizing 0 mentoring 0 setting up
1 coordinating 1 negotiating 1 precision working
2 analyzing 2 instructing 2 operating- controlling
3 compiling 3 supervising 3 driving - operating
4 computing 4 diversity 4 manipulating
5 copying 5 persuading 5 tending
6 comparing 6 speaking-signaling 6 feeding
7 serving 7 handling
8 helping

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2.1.17 Job Design:
Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as: “the specification of the content,
methods and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational
requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder”. Job
design is the conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into one unit
of work. Job design involves:
 identification of individual tasks
 specification of methods of performing the tasks
 combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals

2.1.18 Interdependencies in Job and Organisation Design

Process Design

Team Design
Job Design

Organization Structure

Figure: 6 Jobs and Organization Design


 Process Design: how the work is done.
 Team Design: what each team does and how it is organized.
 Organization Structure: management responsibilities organizational units etc.
 Job Design: what each person is responsible for.

2.1.19 Principles of Job Design


 To influence skill variety, provide opportunities for people to do several
tasks and combine tasks
 To influence task identity and form natural work units
 To influence task significance
 To influence autonomy, give people responsibility for determining their
own working system

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 To influence feedback, establish good relationships and open feedback
channels
2.1.20 Objectives of job design:
 greater job satisfaction
 increase performance
 reduces absenteeism and turnover
 greater profitability

2.1.21 Typical Job Design Process:

Overall change vision and goals

Develop overall business design Formulate job design goals

Develop a straw model

Refine if necessary

Identify issues Hold consultation workshop

Revise and sign off

Plan implementation

Figure: 7 Job Design Process


2.1.22 Characteristics of a well-designed job
 Forms a logical whole
 Makes a significant and visible contribution
 Provides variety of methods, tasks and skills
 Provides feedback on performance
 Provides autonomy and allows discretion
 Carries responsibility for outcomes
 Offers opportunities for personal development
 Entails dynamic posture and does not require continuous use of a terminal or PC

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2.1.23 Job classification, its needs and importance
Job classification is a scheme of classifying a job according to the current responsibilities
and duties associated with the job. It is different than job design in that the person
assigned to the job is not taken into consideration. Jobs are classified with the purpose of
studying jobs in a holistic perspective.
Job classifications group’s jobs into various grades, each grade having a certain specific
class description and many times a pay scale that is used for job comparisons. Often the
title is also assigned on the basis of grade arrived at after the job classification.

2.1.24 Need for Job Classification


There are various methods available for classifying jobs and often these vary across
organisations and the industries. The basic purposes of classifying jobs are:
 To help in recruitment and selection by defining significant qualification
standards.
 To help in designing and developing standards for performance and appraisals.
 Allocating responsibilities aligned to the company mission and vision and those
that help in the realization of organisations business plans and strategies.
 Identification of career and growth paths in organisations.
 Establish standards for compensation.

2.1.25 when and where is a Job Classification System Used?


A job classification system cannot be used for positions which do not match in terms of
their duties and responsibilities. Instead it is used to group positions that have similar
duties and responsibilities, require same qualifications, experience and training
interventions. As mentioned above it is beneficial in recruitment, selection and
compensation in a standard way across the whole organization.
The most important aspect of job classification is that it is based upon the objective
aspects of the job and does not take into consideration the person assigned, the skills and
the performance levels for the job. Instead factors like scope and level of responsibilities
and duties, decision making authority and its relationship to other jobs is taken into
consideration.

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Job classification as a system empowers the administration to handle a wide variety of job
functions and rather than just one, at a single time. Different positions are named and
assigned titles and grades, keeping the job characteristics into consideration.
Job classification is not a constant or one time process; it is an ever changing one. They
change due to introduction of new policies and procedures, new management initiatives
and in many cases due to introduction of new technologies. The flip side of this is that it
may affect employee productivity or performance and their reporting relationships.
People resources may be redeployed and employees may find it difficult to adjust with the
new people environment, affecting the performance due to change in benchmark
standards. Then again in certain cases the productivity may increase in case of certain
employees and decline in case of others depending upon how these employees deal with
the stressors.
Many organizations use the tools of job balance assessment and competency matrix
assessment for dealing with the changes associated with job classification. These tools
help in aligning the employees with changes in the external environment such that their
productivity levels are enhanced and not otherwise.

2.1.26 Job Design factors


A well defined job will make the job interesting and satisfying for the employee.
The result is increased performance and productivity. If a job fails to appear compelling
or interesting and leads to employee dissatisfaction, it means the job has to be
redesigned based upon the feedback from the employees.

Figure: 8 Job design factors

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Broadly speaking the various factors that affect a job design can classified under three
heads. They are:
 Organizational Factors
 Environmental Factors
 Behavioral Factors

Organizational Factors
Organizational factors that affect job design can be work nature or characteristics, work
flow, organizational practices and ergonomics.
Work Nature: There are various elements of a job and job design is required to classify
various tasks into a job or a coherent set of jobs. The various tasks may be planning,
executing, monitoring, controlling etc and all these are to be taken into consideration
while designing a job.
 Ergonomics: Ergonomics aims at designing jobs in such a way that the physical
abilities and individual traits of employees are taken into consideration so as to
ensure efficiency and productivity.
 Workflow: Product and service type often determines the sequence of work flow.
A balance is required between various product or service processes and a job
design ensures this.
 Culture: Organizational culture determines the way tasks are carried out at the
work places. Practices are methods or standards laid out for carrying out a certain
task. These practices often affect the job design especially when the practices are
not aligned to the interests of the unions.

Environmental Factors
Environmental factors affect the job design to a considerable extent. These factors include
both the internal as well as external factors. They include factors like employee skills and
abilities, their availability, and their socio economic and cultural prospects.
Employee availability and abilities: Employee skills, abilities and time of availability play
a crucial role while designing of the jobs. The above mentioned factors of employees who
will actually perform the job are taken into consideration. Work should be designed as per
employee skill and ability else decreases productivity and employee satisfaction.

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Socio economic and cultural expectations: Jobs are nowadays becoming more employee
centered rather than process centered. They are therefore designed keeping the employees
into consideration. In addition the literacy level among the employees is also on the rise.
They now demand jobs that are to their liking and competency and which they can
perform the best.

Behavioral Factors
Behavioral factors or human factors are those that pertain to the human need and that
need to be satisfied for ensuring productivity at workplace. They include the elements like
autonomy, diversity, feedback etc. A brief explanation of some is given below:
Autonomy: Employees should work in an open environment rather than one that contains
fear. It promotes creativity, independence and leads to increased efficiency.
Feedback: Feedback should be an integral part of work. Each employee should receive
proper feedback about his work performance.
Diversity: Repetitive jobs often make work monotonous which leads to boredom. A job
should carry sufficient diversity and variety so that it remains as interesting with every
passing day. Job variety / diversity should be given due importance while designing a job.
Use of Skills and abilities: Jobs should be employee rather than process centered. Though
due emphasis needs to be given to the latter but jobs should be designed in a manner such
that an employee is able to make full use of his abilities and perform the job effectively.

2.1.27 Job Design for Team


Most theories of team effectiveness follow an input-process-output model. The input
factors include such items as organizational resources and other contextual factors. The
process factors concern what the team actually does, such as communicate. The output
factors typically include effectiveness measures (Did they win?) as well as satisfaction
with the team (Can the team members stand to work together again?).Campion and his
colleagues (Campion, Medsker, & Higgs, 1993; Campion,Papper, & Medsker, 1996)
reviewed the literature and compiled a list of factors that they believed could be used to
design effective teams. They developed a survey that can be used to measure teams on the
characteristics of interest. Four of five factors considered under job design are factors
considered in the job characteristics theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). The factors from
job characteristics theory are autonomy, variety, task identity, and task significance.

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 Self-management: it in teams is similar to autonomy in individual jobs. Teams
may have formal leaders who are given responsibility and authority to make
decisions such as the assignment of tasks and hiring and firing members of the
team. As self-management increases, the leader becomes more of a coach than a
boss, and in extreme cases, there may be no formal leader; the functions of
management are taken over by the team.
 Participation: it refers to the degree that all members contribute to team decision
making, and it is highly related to self-management. Self-management and
participation are thought to help promote feelings of responsibility in team
members.
 Task variety, task identity, and task significance are all attributes of jobs that
are thought to motivate people. A job with variety causes people to develop and
use multiple skills. Task identity refers to the work being a whole entity rather
than a fraction (for example, building a whole car versus just seat covers). Task
significance refers to the impact of the work on other people (for example, a
surgeon has a significant job). Identity and significance are thought to influence
team members’ sense that their work is meaningful and important.
 Interdependence factors include task and goal interdependence, which are two
of our defining properties of teams. The interdependent Feedback and rewards
concerns the degree to which individual members 'feedback and rewards depend
on team outcomes. The interdependence of the work will influence the degree to
which members feel that they are part of a Team.
 Composition factors refer to the mix of people that belong to the team.
Heterogeneity refers to the variability of backgrounds in team members in such
characteristics as race, sex, and cognitive ability. Flexibility refers to the degree to
which team members can change their assignments. To be flexible, the team must
have the authority to change assignments and the skill by some members to cover
the jobs of other members. Relative size refers to the number of people relative to
the amount of work that needs to be done. As the size of a team increases,
coordination demands also increase. According to the theory, there is an optimal
size for each team.
 Context factors are so labeled because they come from outside the team. Training
of team members is a support activity provided by management that is intended to

52
increase the effectiveness of the team either through improved task functioning,
improved process such as better decision making, or both. Managerial support
concerns other types of support such as provision of materials and information.
Communication and cooperation between groups concerns the quality of relations
across teams within an organization. The organization may be characterized as
relatively cooperative or relatively competitive.
According to input-process-output models of team effectiveness, all of the factors we
have described so far fall into the input part of the model.
 Process factors fall into the process part of the model (surprise!). Potency is the
team’s belief in its own competence. For example, a football team may feel
confident that it will win an upcoming game or it may feel that a win would be
miraculous. Social support refers to team members getting along well
interpersonally. Workload sharing is the adjustment of work across individuals to
avoid lacking by some team members. Communication and cooperation within the
team refers to passing information among members. The process variables are
thought to influence team effectiveness either by motivating team members to
work hard and to persist (potency and social support) or by directly increasing the
effectiveness of work (workload sharing and communication).
According to the theory, the factors are supposed to be related to effectiveness and
subject to control by management (that is, they can be changed). The research to date,
however, deals only with differences in existing teams rather than the results of
experiments in which team characteristics were manipulated.

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Job Design elements
characteristics sample items
Job Design
1. self management My team rather than my manager decides who does what tasks
within the team.
2. participative My team is designed to let everyone participate in
Decision making.
3. task variety Most everyone on my team gets a chance to do the more interesting
tasks.
4. task significance My team helps me feel that my work is important to the company.
My team is responsible for all aspects of a product for its area.

5. task identify
Interdependence
6. Task interdependence Within my team, jobs performed by team members are related to
one another.
7. Goal interdependence My work goals come directly from the goals of my team.
My performance evaluation is strongly influenced by how well my
8. Interdependent feedback and team performs.
rewards

Composition
9. Heterogeneity The members of my team vary widely in their areas of expertise.
Most members of my team know each other’s jobs.
10. Flexibility
The number of people in my team is sufficient for the work to
11. Relative size
accomplish.

12. Preference for group work


I generally prefer to work as part of a team
Context
13. Training The company provides adequate technical training for my team.

14. Managerial support Higher management in the company supports the concept of teams.

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2.1.28 where the design unit is the team
 4-10 members is the most manageable size
 A designated leader or the whole team are accountable for performance
 Activities make up a discrete whole task
 Interdependence between members
 Autonomy extends to planning own work
 Feedback on performance is available
 All required skills are available or easily obtained

2.1.29 Approaches to job design:


 Job rotation
 Job enlargement
 Job enrichment
 job engineering
 Human approach

Job Rotation:
It is systematically moving workers from one job to another. A closer look at
some Indian companies shows that job rotation is becoming an increasingly accepted
practice. At McDonald's, cross-functional job rotations are encouraged, globally and in
India. "It is a win-win situation -- win for the organization, the team and the employee,"
says Amit Jatia, joint venture partner and managing director, McDonald's, Western India.
Job rotation is considered as an effective tool for successful implementation of HR
strategy. It is about settling employees at the right place where they can deliver the
maximum results. In today’s highly competitive world, this can be proved as the best
strategy to find the immediate replacement of a high-worth employee from within the
organization. Finding the most suitable people and shifting them to take on the
responsibilities of a higher level is a tough task. Job rotation helps HR managers
determine who can be replaced by whom and create a suitable and beneficial fit. A
properly planned and carried job rotation process plays an essential role in strengthening
the position of an organization and helps it deal with uncertain and tentative outer
environment. Let’s discuss the benefits of job rotation process at length in order to realize
its importance and the potential.

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Benefits of Job Rotation
 Helps Managers Explore the Hidden Talent: Job Rotation is designed to expose
employees to a wider range of operations in order to assist managers in exploring
their hidden talent. In the process, they are moved through a variety of
assignments so that they can gain awareness about the actual working style of the
organization and understand the problems that crop up at every stage. Through
this process, managers identify what a particular employee is good at and
accordingly he or she is assigned a specific task.
 Helps Individuals Explore Their Interests: Sometimes, employees are not
aware of what would like to do until they have their hands on some specific job. If
their job is rotated or they are exposed to different operations, they can identify
what they are good at and what they enjoy doing. They get a chance to explore
their interests and hidden potential.
 Identifies Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Job Rotation helps managers as well
as individuals identify their KSA (Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes). It can be
used in determining who needs to improve or upgrade his or skills in order to
perform better. This helps in analyzing training and development needs of
employees so that they can produce more output.
 Motivates Employees to Deal with New Challenges: When employees are
exposed to different jobs or assigned new tasks, they try to give their best while
effectively dealing with the challenges coming their way. It encourages them to
perform better at every stage and prove that they are no less than others. This
gives rise to a healthy competition within the organization where everyone wants
to perform better than others.
 Increases Satisfaction and Decreases Attrition Rate: Exposing employees to
different tasks and functions increase their satisfaction level. Job variation reduces
the boredom of doing same task every day. Moreover, it decreases attrition rate of
the organization. Employees develop a sense of belongingness towards the
organization and stick to it till long.
 Helps Align Competencies with Requirements: Alignment of competencies
with requirements means directing the resources when and where they are
required. It assesses the employees and places them at a place where their skills,
competencies and caliber are used to the highest possible extent.

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Job rotation is an alternative to reduce the boredom caused due to repetitiveness of tasks
and revive their willingness to handle a job and challenges involved in it with same
excitement and zeal.

Job enrichment:
its Aims to maximize the interests and challenges of work by providing the employee
with a job that has these characteristics Complete piece of work in the sense that the
worker can identify a series of tasks or activities that end in a recognizable and definable
product, It affords the employee as much variety, decision- making responsibility and
control as possible in carrying out the work, It provide the direct feedback through the
work itself on how well the employee is doing his work. Job enrichment as proposed by
Herzberg (1986) is not just increasing the number or variety of tasks. It is claimed by
supporters of job enrichment that these approaches may relieve boredom, but they do not
result in positive increase in motivation.
Organizations are increasingly facing the heat of attrition, which is not good to health of
the same. Lots of time, money and resources are spent into training an individual for a
particular job and when he / she leaves the return on that investment equals null. Often it
is not for the money that people leave; that may be the reason with the frontline staff but
as we move towards the upper levels of organizational hierarchy, other reasons gain
prominence. Many of those who quit their jobs complain of their jobs as uninteresting!
All this has compelled organisations to think of ways to make the job they offer
interesting. Lots of efforts are made to keep monotony at bay; job enrichment is one of
them. It is the process of making a job more interesting, challenging and satisfying for the
employees. It can either be in the form of up gradation of responsibilities, increase in the
range of influence and the challenges.
How does an Organisation Enrich a Job?
Typically job enrichment involves combining various existing and new tasks into one
large module of work. The work is then handed over to an employee, which means there
is an increase in responsibilities and scope. This increase in responsibility is often
vertical. The idea is to group various tasks together such that natural work units are
created. In addition expanding jobs vertically also gives employee direct control over
works units and employees that were formerly under the jurisdiction of top management
only. While on one hand this increases the ownership of the employees in their work, it
also relieves the unnecessary burden from the top management. Job enrichment also
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opens up a feedback channel for the employees. Employees are frequently apprised of
their performance. This keeps them on track and helps them know their weak and strong
points. Performance standards are set for the employees themselves and future
performances are matched against the benchmarks. All this without any serious
intervention or involvement of the top management! In a certain bank that dealt with
commercial credit letters for import and export trade, the employees processed the
documents in a sequence with each employee being specialized for certain aspect of
verification. Often it so happened that a mistake at preceding level lead to a series of
mistakes at succeeding level. Errors accumulated at each level and this result in huge loss
of productivity.
The organisation decided to go for job enrichment where each employee or clerk was
specialized in all aspects of processing. Each employee was now able to handle a client
on his own. After some time it was found out that the transaction volume increased by
100 percent.
Benefits of Job Enrichment
Research studies on job enrichment found out decreased levels of absenteeism among the
employees, reduced employee turnover and a manifold increase in job satisfaction. There
are certain cases however where job enrichment can lead to a decrease in productivity,
especially when the employees have not been trained properly. Even after the training the
process may not show results immediately, it takes time to reflect in the profit line.

Job Enlargement:
Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at
the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It
is different than job enrichment .Thus the worker who previously only bolted the seat to
legs might attach the back as well. Examples: Small companies may not have as many
opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.
Job enlargement is a job design technique wherein there is an increase in the number of
tasks associated with a certain job. In other words, it means increasing the scope of one’s
duties and responsibilities. The increase in scope is quantitative in nature and not
qualitative and at the same level. Job enlargement is a horizontal restructuring method
that aims at increase in the workforce flexibility and at the same time reducing monotony
that may creep up over a period of time. It is also known as horizontal loading in that the
responsibilities increase at the same level and not vertically.
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Many believe that since the enlargement is horizontal in nature there is not a great need
for training! Contrary to this, job enlargement requires appropriate training especially on
time and people management. Task related training is not required much since the person
is already aware of the same or doing it for some time.
Benefits of Job Enlargement
The following are the major benefits of Job enlargement
 Reduced Monotony: Howsoever interesting the job may appear in the beginning,
sooner or later people complain of boredom and monotony. Job enlargement if
planned carefully can help reduce boredom and make it more satisfying and
fulfilling for the employees.
 Increased Work Flexibility: There is an addition to the number of tasks an
individual performs. There is thus an increased scope of carrying out tasks that are
versatile and yet very similar in certain aspects.
 No Skills Training Required: Since the individual has already been performing
the task in the past, there is no great requirement for imparting of new skills.
However people and time management interventions may be required. The job
thus gets more motivational for the one performing it.
Engineering Approach
The engineering approach was devised by FW Taylors et al. They introduced the idea
of the task that gained prominence in due course of time. According to this approach
the work or task of each employee is planned by the management a day in advance.
The instructions for the same are sent to each employee describing the tasks to e
undertaken in detail. The details include things like what, how and when of the task
along with the time deadlines.
The approach is based on the application of scientific principles to job design. Work,
according to this approach should be scientifically analyzed and fragmented into
logical tasks. Due emphasis is then laid on organizing the tasks so that a certain
logical sequence is followed for efficient execution of the same. The approach also
lies due emphasis on compensating employees appropriately and training them
continuously for work efficiency.

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Human Approach
The human approach of job design laid emphasis on designing a job around the people
or employees and not around the organizational processes. In other words it recognizes
the need of designing jobs that are rewarding (financially and otherwise) and
interesting at the same time.
According to this approach jobs should gratify an individual’s need for recognition,
respect, growth and responsibility. Job enrichment as popularized by Herzberg’s
research is one the ways in human approach of job design. Herzberg classified these
factors into two categories - the hygiene factors and the motivators.
Motivators include factors like achievement, work nature, responsibility, learning and
growth etc that can motivate an individual to perform better at the work place. Hygiene
factor on the other hand include things like working conditions, organizational
policies, salary etc that may not motivate directly but the absence of which can lead to
dissatisfaction at the work place.
2.1.30 Comparison of Five Job Design Approaches

Figure: 9 Comparisons of Job Design Approaches

2.1.31 Issues in job design


As we know, job design is a systematic organization of job-related tasks, responsibilities,
functions and duties. It is a continuous process of integration of content related to job in
order to achieve certain objectives. The process plays a vital role as it affects the
productivity of employees and organizations. However, there are a number of existing
issues emerged recently while designing the jobs in organizations. These are alternative
work patterns that are equally effective in handling organization’s functions.
 Telecommuting / Work from Home: Telecommuting or work from home is
considered as the best alternative of working from the actual office. The concept

60
of virtual office is gaining more and more popularity because of ease and
convenience associated with it. By using computer networks, fax machines,
telephones and internet connection, employees can communicate and perform the
job from home. It eliminates the need of coming to office everyday and offers
employees the convenience to work at the comfort of their home.
 Though there are lots of advantages associated with this working style but it
suffers from many limitations. It allows employees to stay at home and manage
their job tasks and functions without actually being present in the office but it
doesn’t allow them to communicate with other employees and establishing
relationships with them. They only deal with machines whole day, thus lose
creativity. Moreover, it is a great hindrance in their way as it does not allow skill
up gradation.
 Job Sharing: It is the second most preferable alternative of traditional working
styles where two or more individuals share the responsibilities of a full time job.
They divide the tasks, responsibilities and compensation according to their mutual
consent. This option is generally used by women who are on maternity leave or
have family and kids to look after but want to continue their job. These days,
organizations are open to this kind of working style where two or more
individuals can share a job.
 Flexi-Working Hours: These days, organizations allow their employees to work
according to the timings that suit them best. There are 3-4 working schedules and
individuals can choose any one of them depending upon their availability.
Employees can work in early hours as well as night hours. This is good for those
individuals who have colleges or some other engagements during the day or
specific hours of the day. The best part is that unlike telecommuting, flexi-timings
give them chance to communicate with other employees too.
 Alternative Work-Patterns: Companies these days allow their employees to
work on alternate months or seasons. Though the concept is not that common in
India but can be seen in European and American world of work. They also have
the option of working two to three full days and can relax after that.
According to the latest concept, employees can work for fixed number of hours and then
can attend to their personal needs during the left days.

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 Techno stress: Techno stress is the latest technology to keep a check on
employees’ performance even when they choose to work from home. Because of
the introduction of new machines, there performance can be electronically
monitored even when they are not aware of it.
 Task Revision: Task revision is nothing but modification of existing work design
by reducing or adding the new job duties and responsibilities to a specific job.

2.1.32 Challenges related to job design


Job redesign may be seen as a magic solution to large organization issues and those wary
of change or magic solutions will have their doubts that job redesign can offer any
movement in the right direction. It is important to note that it is not known exactly what
job redesign processes work or what exact combinations of job characteristics and
contextual variables are influential to certain outcomes. Even if this was known, it may
mean that they will not work in every environment. Job redesign may easily be set up to
fail but what is important is to understand that although a magic formula does not exist,
movement towards a more effective system through future research is worth
investigating.
One of the primary challenges associated with job redesign will be employee resistance.
Gunderson (2002) explains that employees may resist adoption of new ways of practice
as they feel threatened or it involves unlearning the traditional more comfortable ways.
Others may feel ‘job ownership’ around their position. Change can be stressful and create
uncertainty, new demands, and increased workloads as well as threaten job security.
Other forms of resistance that could be encountered include managerial resistance, and
union resistance. Attention to process will assist with minimizing all forms of resistance.

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2.1.33 Job Redesign: How will you know if job redesign has made a difference?
Although we may know a lot about job redesign, the fact seems to be that we may not
know what exactly works. Most job redesign studies have measured only those variables
presented in the job characteristics model (Kelly, 1992). It is not conclusive what
processes and mechanisms link interventions to certain outcomes and what combinations
of workplace contexts and employee attitudes (satisfaction, motivation, commitment) and
behaviour (absenteeism, turnover, effort) impact on organizational performance outcomes
(Gunderson, 2002). The measurement of both productivity and performance is
notoriously difficult given the complexity of interrelated factors but they require further
evaluation. Consideration needs to be given to the impact of job redesign beyond
satisfaction and motivation. Kelly (1992) suggests that attention needs to be given to
employee extrinsic motivation, the role of goal setting, job expectancies and
instrumentalities, rewards, and the impact of work methods improvements. Further to
this, attention to efficiency, role scope, role ambiguity, training requirements, workload
and productivity must be underscored. In particular for nursing, it will be important to
measure organizational and patient outcomes that are sensitive to the provision of nursing
care.

2.1.34 an example of a job design checklist

Job design Yes No


Task variety Repetitive tasks - are the same muscle groups or mental tasks
done over and over?
Static positions - are there few or no opportunities to change
position?
Fast work pace - is there muscle tension and stress?
work/rest Long work period(s) -- is there potential for fatigue?
scheduling
adjustment Are there allowances for adjustment periods or varying pace
period of work for new/returning employees?
training Have employees had adequate training?
mental variety Is there some variety or ability to choose what to do next?

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2.2 Review of Thesis
Researcher read a research regarding job analysis which was conducted by
Muhammad Usman Zafar (national college of business administration and economics) in
Pakistan in November 2005. Human resource experts were involved in for identification
the effect and use of different variables for analyzing job analysis. Reason for conducting
this research is also to know the job design process and practices. As per researcher
suggested scopes for future studies is as:
Objectives from the researcher point of view:
The primary objective of this research is to explore the different job analysis practices in
Pakistani organization. It aims to develop a model technique that may provide
convenience to managers to understand and conduct proper job analysis.
Recommendation as per researcher
Researcher has recommended under two stages as
 First is to explore the current job analysis practices so that one has a fair enough
ideas that where Human Resources Practices stand in business word.
 Second is to strive for betterment of job analysis and HR planning. It can be done
by investing the soft links between HR variables through extensive casual studies.
It is stated earlier and assumed that gathering information (both exploratory and
casual) regarding these factors would help managers to conduct job analysis more
effectively and successfully. To add cultural aspects (related to society and related
to individual organizations) in analysis processes and measuring job satisfaction
will introduce many interesting debates and provides insights for managerial
guidance in the field of human resources.

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2.3 Research Gap:
 In the 1980s and 1990s, European and Asian firms revolutionized job design by
embracing the quality management movement

 More recently, self-directed teams have become important in the success of


manufacturers worldwide
 American firms are also implementing self-directed work teams and are
reengineering their work process to regain a competitive advantage
 Many organizations have learned that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful
attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills

 The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s


competency alignment process (CAP)
– CAP determines the skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps
– When a gap is identified, it can be eliminated through a variety of
programs, including training, redeployment, and outsourcing

 Without these or similar efforts, reengineering will probably not succeed

2.5 Review of Articles

1. Job Analysis Using Six Sigma: by Kanakdurga prasad Dinanath Irabatti


(2012, may 25)
Conclusion drawn as

Utilizing six sigma techniques to this process is very interesting thing. Six sigma is a way
of creating excellence in organization through an application of continuous quality
improvement. Till now six sigma is applied to various functions in organization, but not
to job analysis.

As job analysis is an essential process of HRM department, six sigma fits best here. Job
description is an identification of various job roles required in company, so there should
be a proper differentiation among every type of job role. To hire people with exact skills,
abilities, knowledge, and experience job specification should be done properly.

Whenever jobs are analyzed, there might be change in internal structure, positions of
earlier employees, flow of activities etc. Applying six sigma benefits organization to
improve quality of work, reduce time, efforts and mistakes in process. A consistent but

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continuous approach is followed in organization. Applying six sigma processes i.e.
DMAIC for job analysis includes: DEFINE, MEASURE, ANALYSIS, IMPROVE &
CONTROL.

Recommendation

All the above steps in six sigma implementation needed to be applied for analyzing jobs
so that HR department will achieve highest level of quality in various functions such as
recruitment, selection, placement, training, compensation and performance appraisal of
employees.

2. Job Analysis (What it is and how it is used) Rosemary Lysaght, Ph.D.


Queen's University, Kingston, Canada and Lynn Shaw, Ph.D.
University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. Published in International
encyclopedia of rehabilitation.

Result of the article

Job analysis serves as a valuable guide to evaluation, program planning, and disability
management in the field of vocational rehabilitation. By tailoring methods of job analysis
to the rehabilitative or preventive goal, analyses can provide a rich resource for promoting
safe and inclusive work place.

3. ArticleID: 270027 http://www.hrcrossing.com/article/270027/Job-Analysis.


Published in Employee Crossing
Under Job Analysis in HR Conclusion mentioned in article is as
 Identifying training needs of personnel
 Creating recruitment strategies
 Making performance reviews
Without proper job analysis by the human resources department, it is difficult for any
organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent. In-Human-
Resources/ article title: Job Analysis in Human Resources

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CHAPTER- 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
3.1 Research Introduction
This chapter addresses the approach to the study. It provides rationalization of the
research design (Sample size, questionnaire development, Survey, instruments
description) details regarding the sample, research model and variables (Independent
variables, intervening and dependent variables), hypotheses and response rate, selected
measurement instruments, data collection means and data analysis. The core objective of
this chapter is to outline the steps followed in carrying out the research. The broader
purpose of the present study is to explore the association among job analysis and job
performance and in detail the linkage of job design.
Research in common refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a
scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact,
research is an art of scientific investigation.
The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of
research as “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in
any branch of knowledge."
Redman and Moray define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge."
Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the
unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of
inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness
makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This
inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for
obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research
is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense.
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data;
making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions
to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
D. Salinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedias of Social Sciences define research as
“the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to
extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of
theory or in the practice of an art. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the

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existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the
help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for
knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is
research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a
theory is also research. As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method
consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or
data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of
solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some
theoretical formulation.

3.2 Research Design


A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.
in many research project the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean
after they have been collected in much greater than time taken to design a research which
yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. Research design is a series of
guide posts to keep on going in the right direction. It is tentative plan which undergoes
modification, as circumstances demands when the study progresses new aspects new
conditions and new relationship comes to light and insight into the study deepens.
Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulate research studies. The main
purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or
of developing the working hypothesis from a operational point of view. Descriptive
research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics
of a particular individual or of a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the
frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. In order to
obtain the most valid findings, research design relates to the planning and structuring of
research. Research design relates largely to decision-making which impacts the research
question; formulating the research problem, conceptualizing and taking action on the
research, collecting the research data and analyzing and interpreting the results (Mouton
& Marais, 1990). Research design entails consideration of the measurement of the
research variables (Bailey, 1987).

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Durkheim (2002) suggested that the following dimensions be considered in selecting the
appropriate research design:-
 Purpose of the research.
 Paradigm perspective.
 Research context and the techniques utilized to gather and process research data.

Types of research design


1. Action Research Design
The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially
an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and
plans are made for some form of intervention strategy. Then the intervention is carried
out (the action in Action Research) during which time, pertinent observations are
collected in various forms. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and the
cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of (or implement able
solution for) the problem is achieved. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is
intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with conceptualizing
and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and
evaluations.

What do these studies tell you?

 A collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or
community situations.
 Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research rather than testing theories.
 When practitioners use action research it has the potential to increase the amount
they learn consciously from their experience. The action research cycle can also be
regarded as a learning cycle.
 Action search studies often have direct and obvious relevance to practice.
 There are no hidden controls or pre-emption of direction by the researcher.

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2. Descriptive Research Design
Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what,
when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive
study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why. Descriptive research is used to
obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe
"what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.

What do these studies tell you?

 The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural


environment. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence
the normal behavior of the subject.
 Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitatively research
designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are
worth testing quantitatively.
 If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more
focused study.
 Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations.
 Approach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis.

What these studies don't tell you?

 The results from a descriptive research cannot be used to discover a definitive answer
or to disprove a hypothesis.
 Because descriptive designs often utilize observational methods [as opposed to
quantitative methods], the results cannot be replicated.
 The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for
measurement and observation.

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3. Exploratory Research Design
An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or
no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later
investigation or undertaken when problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation.

The goals of exploratory research are intended produce the following possible
insights:

 Familiarity with basic details, settings and concerns.


 Well grounded picture of the situation being developed.
 Generation of new ideas and assumption, development of tentative theories or
hypotheses.
 Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future.
 Issues get refined for more systematic investigation and formulation of new research
questions.
 Direction for future research and techniques get developed.

What do these studies tell you?

 Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic.


 Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what,
why, how).
 Provides an opportunity to define new terms and clarify existing concepts.
 Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and develop more
precise research problems.
 Exploratory studies help establish research priorities.

What these studies don't tell you?

 Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are
typically not generalized to the population at large.
 The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive
conclusions about the findings.
 The research process underpinning exploratory studies is flexible but often
unstructured, leading to only tentative results that have limited value in decision-
making.

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 Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis
because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or
methodologies best fit the research problem.

The research takes the form of a descriptive study with the researcher setting out to
illustrate the association that exists among the dependent and independent variables. The
researcher’s main goal in a descriptive study is to describe accurately the relationship
between two phenomena (Mouton & Marais, 1990). Descriptive studies require accurate
observations and issues of validity, reliability and sample representatives are critical
elements in research design (Durkheim, 2002).
A quantitative approach will be adopted in this research. The quantitative approach is
described as “that approach to research in the social sciences that is more highly
formalized as well as more explicitly controlled, with a range that is more exactly
defined, and which in 75 terms of the methods used, is relatively close to the physical
sciences” (Mouton & Marais, 1990, p.155). By nature, quantitative research involves
measurement. It focuses on causality with a view to making generalizations and is geared
towards replication and verification (Bryman, 1995). Quantitative research entails the
gathering of data in numbers and the statistical analysis thereof. Results of these data
analyses are used to make generalizations (Durkheim, 2002).
Mostly in primary researches survey is considered the most effective tool. This research
study is relational for exploring link among job analysis and job design.
For the tangible research work, information regarding regulatory authorities,
organizations being controlled number of employees and employee data was collected
through a questionnaire from the officers / officials of targeted organizations. The
officials were requested to respond all questions up to the best of their knowledge with
reference to the operational practices implemented in their organizations.

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3.3 Population and Sample Procedures
Statistical method of obtaining representative data or observations from a group (lot,
batch, population, or universe).
Researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups by taking a sample.
A Sample is a segment of the population selected to represent the population as a whole.
Ideally, the sample should be representative and allow the researcher to make accurate
estimates of the thoughts and behavior of the larger population. Designing the sample
calls for three decisions:
Who will be surveyed? (The Sample)
 The researcher must determine what type of information is needed and who
is most likely to have it.
How many people will be surveyed? (Sample Size)
 Large samples give more reliable results than small samples. However it is
not necessary to sample the entire target population.
How should the sample be chosen? (Sampling)
 Sample members may be chosen at random from the entire population
(Probability sample)
 The researcher might select people who are easier to obtain information
from(non-probability sample) The needs of the research project will
determine which method is most effective
Characteristic of good Sampling:
Ideally, representative samples should be:
1. Taken at random so that every member of the population of data has an
equal chance of selection.
2. Large enough to give sufficient precision.
3. Unbiased by the sampling procedure or equipment.

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Types of samples

The best sampling is probability sampling, because it increases the likelihood of obtaining
samples that are representative of the population.

Probability Sampling (Representative Samples):


Probability samples are selected in such a way as to be representative of the population.
They provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristics of
the population from which they are selected (e.g., residents of a particular community,
students at an elementary school, etc.). There are two types of probability samples:
random and stratified.
a. Random Sampling:
The term random has a very precise meaning. Each individual in the population of
interest has an equal likelihood of selection. This is a very strict meaning -- you can't just
collect responses on the street and have a random sample.
The assumption of an equal chance of selection means that sources such as a telephone
book or voter registration lists are not adequate for providing a random sample of a
community. In both these cases there will be a number of residents whose names are not
listed. Telephone surveys get around this problem by random-digit dialing -- but that
assumes that everyone in the population has a telephone. The key to random selection is
that there is no bias involved in the selection of the sample. Any variation between the
sample characteristics and the population characteristics is only a matter of chance.

Steps for selecting RANDOM sampling:


1. Specify the population
2. Decide on the desired sample size
3. List all the cases
4. Make a decision rules(i.e. selection of lowest and highest random numbers)
5. Assign a random numbers to each cases
6. Sort cases by random numbers

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Systematic Sampling: Used in those cases where a complete list of the population from
which sampling is to be drawn is available. The method is to select every kth item from
the list where ‘k’ refers to the sampling interval.
N
k= —
n

Stratified Sample:
A stratified sample is a mini-reproduction of the population. Before sampling, the
population is divided into characteristics of importance for the research. For example, by
gender, social class, education level, religion, etc. Then the population is randomly
sampled within each category or stratum. If 38% of the population is college-educated,
then 38% of the sample is randomly selected from the college-educated population.
Stratified samples are as good as or better than random samples, but they require fairly
detailed advance knowledge of the population characteristics, and therefore are more
difficult to construct.

Non-probability Samples (Non-representative Samples)

As they are not truly representative, non-probability samples are less desirable than
probability samples. However, a researcher may not be able to obtain a random or
stratified sample, or it may be too expensive. A researcher may not care about
generalizing to a larger population. The validity of non-probability samples can be
increased by trying to approximate random selection, and by eliminating as many sources
of bias as possible.

a. Quota Sample

The defining characteristic of a quota sample is that the researcher deliberately sets the
proportions of levels or strata within the sample. This is generally done to insure the
inclusion of a particular segment of the population. The proportions may or may not
differ dramatically from the actual proportion in the population. The researcher sets a
quota, independent of population characteristics.

75
 Example: A researcher is interested in the attitudes of members of different religions
towards the death penalty. In Iowa a random sample might miss Muslims (because there
are not many in that state). To be sure of their inclusion, a researcher could set a quota of
3% Muslim for the sample. However, the sample will no longer be representative of the
actual proportions in the population. This may limit generalizing to the state population.
But the quota will guarantee that the views of Muslims are represented in the survey.

b. Purposive Sample

A purposive sample is a non-representative subset of some larger population, and is


constructed to serve a very specific need or purpose. A researcher may have a specific
group in mind, such as high level business executives. It may not be possible to specify
the population -- they would not all be known, and access will be difficult. The researcher
will attempt to zero in on the target group, interviewing whoever is available.

A subset of a purposive sample is a snowball sample -- so named because one picks up


the sample along the way, analogous to a snowball accumulating snow. A snowball
sample is achieved by asking a participant to suggest someone else who might be willing
or appropriate for the study. Snowball samples are particularly useful in hard-to-track
populations, such as truants, drug users, etc

c. Convenience Sample
A convenience sample is a matter of taking what you can get. It is an accidental sample.
Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct
definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected.
Volunteers would constitute a convenience sample.
Non-probability samples are limited with regard to generalization. Because they do not
truly represent a population, we cannot make valid inferences about the larger group from
which they are drawn. Validity can be increased by approximating random selection as
much as possible, and making every attempt to avoid introducing bias into sample
selection.

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Sampling: Sample size

In general sense the larger the sample, the better because larger samples tend to be more
similar to the population from which they are drawn. However, if the population of
interest is small, then the sample can be relatively small. Large samples require more time
for data collection and analysis, and are therefore more costly than smaller ones.
If a treatment is known to have a fairly strong effect, it may show up in an experiment
involving a small sample. On the other hand, a small sample for a survey may miss
individuals holding a minority point of view. For surveys one has to consider refusal and
spoilage rates (incomplete responses, illegible answers, nonsensical replies). In such cases
the researcher should aim for a larger sample in order to cover the losses.
Appropriate sample size depends on

1. population size
2. available resources (time, money)
3. strength of effect being measured
4. refusal and spoilage rates
5. number of analyses to be performed

Sampling procedures:
Criteria governing the choice of the sampling techniques are:
1. Purpose of the survey
2. Measurability
3. Degree of precision
4. Information about Population
5. the nature of the population
6. Geographical area of the study and the size of Population
7. Financial Resources
8. Time limits
9. Economy

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3.4 Source of Data:
a. primary sources
Primary data is original and thus accurate and reliable. It is expensive and time
consuming. Primary data are Document or record containing first-hand information or
original data on topic.
Primary sources are works created
 at the time of an event, or
 By a person who directly experienced an event.
It is the content, not necessarily the format, of a work that makes it a primary source. For
example, an online copy of a newspaper from March 20, 1897, is still a primary source
even though the article viewed on your computer was digitized more than a century after
the article was first printed.
Primary sources can include:
 Interviews, diaries, letters, journals, speeches, autobiographies, and witness
statements
 Articles containing original research, data, or findings never before shared
 Original hand-written manuscripts
 Government documents and public records
 Art, photographs, films, maps, fiction, and music
 Newspaper and magazine clippings
 Artifacts, buildings, furniture, and clothing
b. Secondary Data:
Any published or unpublished work that is one step removed from the original source,
usually describing, summarizing, analyzing, evaluating, derived from, or based on
primary source materials. Secondary sources are also important to help inform your
research, and are usually acceptable sources to cite.
Secondary sources are works that
 are one step removed from the original event or experience
 provide criticism or interpretation of a primary source

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Secondary sources can include
 Textbooks
 Review articles and critical analysis essays
 Biographies
 Historical films, music, and art
 Articles about people and events from the past

3.5 Data Collection Techniques


When collecting job analysis data, these basic methods can be use separately or in some
combination:
 Observation
 Interview
 Questionnaires
 Job incumbent diaries or logs
 In each method, information about the job is collected and then studied in terms of
tasks completed by the job incumbent (job oriented analysis)
 A job can also be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does
to perform the job (work-oriented analysis)
 Both orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee
Selection Procedures if they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to
performing the job
 Because time and cost are considerations, managers must collect comparable,
valid data
 Core information is needed no matter which data collection method is used
 A job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the core information for any
job analysis method
 This questionnaire provides a thorough picture of the job, job duties, and
requirements
 After job incumbents complete the JAIF, the answers are used to structure the data
collection technique that will eventually be implemented
 Not all incumbents or their supervisors view a job in the same way
 Collect information from a variety of incumbents: young and old, male and
female, high- and low-performing
 Do not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of
knowledge about a job

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Observation
 Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-
job-cycle activities (assembly-line worker, insurance filing clerk,)
 Direct observation is not usually appropriate when the job involves significant
mental activity (scientist, lawyer, mathematician)
 This technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job
behaviors and to be as unobtrusive as possible

Interviews
 Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation
 The most widely used technique
 Allows the job analyst to talk with job incumbents face-to-face
– The job incumbent can ask the analyst questions
– Allows the analyst to explain how the information gained will be used

 Interviews can be conducted with a single incumbent, a group of incumbents, or a


supervisor who is familiar with the job
 A structured set of questions is used so that answers from individuals or groups
can be compared
 Interviews are difficult to standardize
 Different interviewers may ask different questions
 The same interviewer might ask different questions of different respondents
 Information may be unintentionally distorted by the interviewer
 Interviewing costs can be high, especially if group interviews aren’t practical

Questionnaires
 Questionnaires are the least costly method for collecting information
 It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of
time
 A structured questionnaire includes specific questions about the job, working
conditions, and equipment
 An open-ended format permits job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to
describe the job
 The format and structure of a questionnaire are debatable issues
 There really is no best format
 Hints for making a questionnaire easier to use:
 Keep it as short as possible
 Explain what the questionnaire is being used for

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 Keep it simple
 Test the questionnaire before using it
Job Incumbent Diary or Log
 The diary or log is a recording by incumbents of:
 Job duties
 Frequency of the duties
 When the duties are accomplished
 Most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a log
 If the log is kept properly, it provides good information from which comparisons
can be made
 This permits an examination of the routine and exceptions to job duties
 The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to
observe
Which Method to Use?
 There is no agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best
information
 Many experts agree that interviews should not be the sole data collection method
 Certain methods may be better suited to a given situation than others
 Most organizations base their choice on:
– The purpose of the analysis
– Time and budget constraints

 Many organizations are turning to a multi methods job analysis approach


 The analyst interviews incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site
observation
 A task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered
 A statistical analysis of the responses is conducted in order to assess their
consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them
 Using a comprehensive process is relatively expensive and time-consuming
 However, the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive
approach is strongly endorsed by courts

Specific Quantitative Techniques


Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are the:
 Functional job analysis
 Position analysis questionnaire
 Management position description questionnaire

81
CHAPTER- 4
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
3.1 Data Processing Procedures
Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collection and data
analysis. The completed instruments of data collection, viz., interview schedules/
questionnaires/ data sheets/field notes contain a vast mass of data. They cannot
straightaway provide answers to research questions. They, like raw materials, need
processing. Data processing involves classification and summarized on of data in order to
make them amenable to analysis

Processing of data requires advance planning at the stage of planning the research design.
This advance planning may covey such aspects as categorization of variables and
preparation of dummy tables. This should be done with reference to the requirements of
testing hypotheses/investigative questions. This type of preplanning ensures better
identification of data needs and their adequate coverage in the tools for collection of data.
Data processing consists of a number of closely related operations, viz., (1) editing, (2)
classification and coding, (3) transcription and (4) tabulation.

1. Editing the Data

The first step in processing of data is editing of complete schedules/questionnaires.


Editing is a process of checking to detect and or correct errors and omissions. Editing is
done at two stages: first at the fieldwork stage and second at office.
Field editing:
During the stress of interviewing the interviewer cannot always record responses
completely and legibly. Therefore after each interview is over, he should review the
schedule to complete abbreviated responses, rewrite illegible responses and correct
omissions.
Office editing
All completed schedules/questionnaires should be thoroughly checked in the office for
Completeness, accuracy and. Uniformity

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2. Classification and coding

The edited data are classified and coded. The responses are classified into meaningful
categories so as to bring out essential pattern. By this method, several hundred responses
are reduced to five or six appropriate categories containing critical information needed for
analysis.
 When to classify: Classification can be done at any phase prior to the tabulation.
Certain items like sex, age, type of house, and the like are structured and pre
classified in the data collection form itself. The responses to open-ended questions
are classified at the processing stage.
 Categorization Rules: A classification system should meet certain requirements or
be guided by certain rules.
First, classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular study.
Second, the scheme should be exhaustive. That is, there must be a category for every
response.
Third, the categories must also be mutually exclusive, so that each case is classified only
once.
 Number of categories: How many categories should a scheme include? It is
preferable to include many categories rather than a few, since reducing the
number later is easier than splitting an already classified group of responses.
However, the number of categories is-limited by the number of cases and the
anticipated statistical analysis.

Coding the Data

Coding means assigning numerals or other symbols to the categories or responses. For
each question a coding scheme is designed on the basis of the con med categories. The
coding schemes with their assigned symbols together with specific coding instructions
may be assembled in a book. The codebook will identify a specific item of
variable/observation and the code number assigned to each category of that item. If the
data are to be transferred to machine punch cards, the codebook will also identify the
column in which it is entered.

83
3. Transcription of data

When only a few schedules are processed and hand-tabulated, tabulation can directly be
made from the schedules. On the other hand, direct tabulation from the edited schedules/
questionnaires is difficult if the number of the schedules and the number of responses in
them are large/ suppose an interview schedule contains 180 responses requiring tabulation
and 210 simple and cross tables are to be constructed, each schedule has to be handled at
least 210 for tabulation. This will result in mutilation of the schedule, and. omissions and
commissions may easily occur in tabulation. In order to avoid these drawbacks, data
contained in schedules/questionnaires are transferred to another material for the purpose
of tabulation. This intermediary process is called 'transcription.’
Methods of Transaction
The material to be used for transaction depends on the method of tabulation - manual or
mechanical. Long work sheets, sorting cards or sorting strips are used for transcription
when tabulation is done manually, and punch cards or magnetic tape (or disks) are used in
a system of machine sorting and tabulation.

4. Tabulation

After the transcription of data is over, data are summarised and arranged in a compact
form for further analysis. This process is called tabulation. Thus, tabulation is the process
of summarising raw data and displaying them on compact statistical tables for further
analysis. It involves counting of the number of cases falling into each of several
categories.
Tabulation can be done by hand or by mechanical or electronic devices. The choice
depends upon the size and type of study, cost considerations, time pressures and the
availability of tabulating machines or computers. Hand tabulation is suitable for small and
simple studies. Electronic or mechanical tabulation is more appropriate for large and
complex studies.
Electronic Computers
The uses of electronic computers have revolutionized data analysis. They can perform all
the specialized functions at a much higher speed. The use of computers has facilitated
large-scale studies and above all the use of complex techniques of analysis such as
multivariate analysis, factor analysis and the like. The operating speed of computers is
fantastic. The time required for computers to perform such basic operations as adding and

84
subtracting is less than a billionth of a second. The large computers can perform many
million operations in a second. In addition to being very fast, computers are very
accurate.
Construction of Tables
After the data have been tabulated, they are arranged in statistical tables in vertical
columns and horizontal rows according to some classification. Tables provide a
“shorthand” summary of data. The importance of presenting statistical data in tabular
form needs no emphasis. Tables facilitate comprehending masses of data at a glance; they
conserve space and reduce explanations and descriptions to a minimum; they give a
visual picture of relationships between variables and categories; they facilitate summation
of items and the detection of errors and omissions; and they provide a basis for
computations.
It is important to make a distinction between the general-purpose tables and the special
tables. The general-purpose tables are primary or reference tables designed to include
large amounts of source data in convenient and accessible form. The special purpose
tables are analytical or derivative ones, which demonstrate significant relationships in the
data or the results of statistical analysis. Tables in reports of government on population,
vital statistics, agriculture, industries etc. are of general-purpose type. They represent
extensive repositories of statistical information. Special purpose tables are found in
monographs, research reports and articles, and are used as instruments of analysis. In
research we are primarily concerned with special purpose tables.
Components of a Table
The major components of a table are:
A. Heading
Table Number
Title of the table
Designation of units
B. Body
Stub-head - heading of all rows or blocks of stub items.
Box head - headings of all columns or main captions and their sub captions
Field or body - the cells in rows and columns

85
C. Notations

1. Footnotes, if necessary
2. Source

Principles of Table construction:


There are certain generally accepted principles of rules relating to construction of tables.
They are:
 Every table should have a title.
 Every table should be identified by a number to facilitate easy reference
 The captions (or column headings) should be clear and brief.
 The units of measurement under each heading must always be indicated.
 Any explanatory footnotes concerning the table itself are placed directly beneath
The table and in order to obviate any possible confusion with the textual footnotes such
reference symbols as the asterisk (*) dagger (+) and the like may be used.
 If the data in a series of tables have been obtained from different sources, it is
ordinarily advisable to indicate the specific sources in a place just below the table.
 Usually columns are separated from one another by lines. Lines are always drawn
at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions.
 The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference.
 All column figures should be properly aligned. Decimal points and 'plus' or
'minus' signs should be in perfect alignment.
 Columns and rows which are to be compared with one another should be brought
close together.
 Totals of rows should be placed at the extreme right column and totals of columns
at the bottom.
 In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories, different
kinds of type, spacing and indentations can be used.
 The arrangement of the categories in a table may be chronological, geographical,
alphabetical or according to magnitude. Numerical categories are usually arranged
in descending order of magnitude.
 Miscellaneous and exceptional items are generally placed in the last row of the
table.

86
 Usually the larger number of items is listed vertically. This means that a table's
length is more than its width.
 Abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible and ditto marks should not be
used in a table.
 The table should be made as logical, clear, accurate and simple as possible.

Frequency Distribution and Class-intervals

Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form
of a frequency table. In constructing this table it is necessary to determine the number of
class-intervals to be used and the size of the class-intervals.
A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. A continuous
variable has an unlimited number of possible values racing between the lowest and the
highest, with no gaps or breaks, e.g., Age, Weight and Temperature. A Discrete variable
can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between those points.
Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate, e.g., persons, houses, books.
In practice, all variables are treated as discrete units, the continuous variables being stated
in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. For example,
length is described in discrete units of millimetres or tenth of an inch.
Class-intervals: Ordinarily the number of class-intervals may not be less than 5 and not
more than 15, depending on the nature of the data and the number of cases being studied.
After noting the highest and lowest values and the features of the data, the number of
intervals can be easily determined.
One-way tables: Frequency tables present the distribution of cases on only a single
dimension or variable. For example, distribution of respondents by sex, distribution of
respondents by religion, socio-economic status of respondents and the like are shown in
one-way tables.
Two-way tables: Distribution in terms of two or more variables and the relationship
between two variables are shown in two-way tables. The categories of one variable are
presented, one below another, on the left margin of the table and those of another variable
at the upper part of the table, one by the side of another. The cells represent particular
combinations of both variables. To compare the distribution of cases raw numbers are
converted into percentages based on the number of cases in each category.

87
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Data analysis involves critical thinking. This is done only after collecting all the data and
always focused on the research problems and the hypothesis and questions rose in the
statement of the problem. Here the research compiles or summarizes the results in a
logical order usually in relation to the hypotheses and objectives of the study. After a
brief introduction on the main results or features of the findings of the study, the data are
described and interpreted in sufficient detail leading to the ultimate conclusion. Tables,
graphs and illustrations are used to present the data more clearly and economically.
In brief, analysis involves examination and evaluation of some phenomenon by dividing
it into some constituent parts and identifying the relationships among the parts in the
context of the whole. You then interpret the relationships to explain or make some
intended generalization governing the behaviour of the phenomenon.
Drawing Conclusions and Recommendations
The researcher summarizes the main findings of his study and the implications.
Conclusions summarize the main results of the research and describe what they mean for
the general field. Briefly describe what you did, consider suggesting future research to
follow up where your research ended.

Graphic Representation
Graphic presentation involves use of graphics, charts and other pictorial devices. These
forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly
understood at a glance. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the
mind to grasp or retain. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of
burdensome details by portraying facts concisely, logically and simply.” They, by
emphasizing new and significant relationships, are also useful in discovering new facts
and in developing hypotheses.
The device of graphic representation is particularly useful when the prospective readers
are non-technical people or general public. It is useful to even technical people for
dramatizing certain points about the data, for important points can be more effective
captured in pictures than in tables. However, graphic forms are not substitutes for tables,
but are additional devices.

88
Types and General Rules
The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories:
 Line graphs or charts
 Bar Charts
 Segmental representations
 Pictographs.

 Line Graphs
The line graph is useful for showing changes in data relationships over a period of time.
In this graph, figures are plotted in relation to two interesting lines or axes. The horizontal
line is called the abscissa or X-axis and the vertical, the ordinal or Y-axis. The point at
which the two axes, interest is zero for both X and Y. The '0' is the origin of coordinates.
The two lines divide the region of the plane into four sections known as quadrants, which
are numbered anti-clockwise. Measurements to the right and above '0' are positive (plus),
and measurements to the left and below '0' are negative (minus). Any point in the plane of
the two axes is plotted in terms of the two axes reading from the origin '0'. Scale intervals
in both the axes should he equal. If a part of the scale is omitted, a set of parallel jagged
lines should be used to indicate the break in the scale. The time dimension or independent
variable is represented by the X-axis and the other variable by Y-axis.

 Histogram.
This is another form of line chart used for presenting a frequency distribution. It is
constructed by erecting vertical lines on the limits of the class intervals marked on the
base line. The vertical lines are drawn from a series of contiguous rectangles or columns.
The Width of each rectangle represents its class interval, and the height represents the
class frequency.
 Lorenz Curve
The Lorenz Curve is a line chart used to compare the proportionality in two quantitative
variables. It is commonly used to show the degree by which the distribution of income per
family departs from the distribution' of the number of families; it shows that it disparate
proportion of the income goes to a few families.

89
 Frequency Polygons
It is often more convenient to draw a frequency polygon instead of drawing a histogram
of a distribution. In laying out a frequency polygon, the frequency of each class is located
at the midpoint of the interval and the plotted points are then connected by straight lines.
If two or more series are shown on the same graph, the curves can be made with different
kinds of ruling. If the total number of cases in the two series is of different size, the
frequencies are often reduced to percentages. The frequency polygon is particularly
appropriate for portraying continuous series. It is sometimes desirable to portray the data
by a smoothed curve. The chart is then called a frequency curve.
 Bar Charts
These charts consist of either vertical or horizontal bars to represent variables. The length
of the bars varies corresponding to the values of the variable. Bar charts are the most
effective pictorial device for comparing data. The bars may be depicted in solid blocks or
in patterns of dots, dishes etc. They may be of different forms: (1) linear or one-
dimensional, (2) areal or two-dimensional, and (3) cubic or three-dimensional. The actual
numerical values may be shown on the X-axis or Y-axis, as the case may be, or at the
immediate ends of the bars.
 Pie or Circle Charts
The circle or pie chart is a component parts chart. The component parts from the
segments of the circle. The circle chart is usually a percentage chart. The data are
converted to percentage of the total; and the proportional segments, therefore, give a clear
picture of the relationship among the component parts.
 Pictograms
A pictogram is a variation of the bar chart. In it the values are represented by identical
symbol or pictures. The symbols used may be appropriate to the type of data.

90
4.2 Analysis of Secondary Data

The annual report 2010-2011 published on Hyundai official web sites. This data is
considered as secondary source as data is as:

Table No: 4.2.1


Overall Human Resource
Human 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010-2011
Resources 2007 2008 2009 2010

Total 6984 7030 7088 7094 7074


Approved
Post
Total 5699 5592 5876 5826 5712
Working
Manpower
Overall 2588 3199 3787 4672 5225
Manpower
per 1000
lines

source: NTC Annual Report 2010-2011, Date: 8th May 2012

91
4.3 Analysis of Primary Data

Research has been conducted using Questionnaire as Data collection Technique.


Here we deals with Random sampling method and taken sample from 50 respondent and
analysis the in the form of table and graph as they responded.

Table No: 4.2.2 Job Analysis helps in Selection of Right Candidate


Answers Options Number of Responses Percentage
Always 26 52%
Often 15 30 %
Seldom 8 16%
Never 1 2%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.3 Impact of Technology


Answers Options Number of Responses Percentage
Always 43 86%
Often 7 14%
Seldom 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2012

92
Table No: 4.2.4 Changes in Organization environment
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly dynamic 19 38%
moderate 17 34%
low 5 10%
no changes 9 18%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.5 Job Rotation helps in align competencies


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 33 66%
often 11 22%
seldom 6 12%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2012

Table No: 4.2.6 Requirement of Change in Structure


Answer Option no. of responses Percentage
always 23 46%
often 14 28%
seldom 10 20%
never 3 6%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

93
Table No: 4.2.7 Level of co-ordination between team members
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
high 17 34%
medium 26 52%
low 5 10%
neutral 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.8 Personal interest during job analysis


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 25 50%
often 12 24%
seldom 8 16%
never 5 10%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.9 Level of satisfaction with payment


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly satisfied 7 14%
satisfied 23 46%
neutral 11 22%
not satisfied 9 18%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

94
Table No: 4.2.10 Important of working Hour during Job Analysis
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 13 26%
often 27 54%
seldom 10 20%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.11 Level of satisfaction as per appointed for the post
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly satisfied 8 16%
satisfied 20 40%
neutral 10 20%
not satisfied 12 24%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.12 Matching Personal Interest Result


Answer Options no. of respondent Percentage
highly satisfaction 23 46%
satisfaction 14 28%
neutral 11 22%
not satisfaction 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

95
Table No: 4.2.13 Good Working Environment leads to Job Satisfaction
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly 29 58%
medium 11 22%
neutral 8 16%
low 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.14 Departmental leads to Systematic arrangement of Organization


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
strongly agree 32 64%
agree 10 20%
neutral 8 16%
disagree 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

Table No: 4.2.15 My Job provides Self feedback


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
strongly agree 9 18%
agree 27 54%
neutral 10 20%
disagree 4 8%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

96
Table No: 4.2.16 Job Rotation as tools for identifying KSAs
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 5 10%
often 39 78%
seldom 6 12%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2012

Table No: 4.2.17 My Work influences day-to- day company success.


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 11 22%
often 16 32%
seldom 23 46%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2012

97
4.4 List of figures as per Table for secondary data
.

Division of Manpower
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

6984 7030 7088 7094 7074

5699 5592 5876 5826 5712


5225
4672
3787
3199
2588

Total approved post Total Working Manpower MANPOVER PER 1000 LINES

Figure No. 4.4.1


Figure Name: Division of Manpower
Source Table: Overall Human Resources, Pg. 74

4.5 List of Figure as per Primary Data mention above table

98
60

50

40

30 no. of responses
percentage
20

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.1


Figure Name: Analyzing based on selection candidates
Source Table: Job Analysis helps in Selection of Right Candidate, Pg. 75

100
90
80
70
60
50 no. of responses
40 percentage
30
20
10
0
always often seldom

Figure No: 4.5.2


Figure Name: analysis of need of technology
Source Table: Impact of Technology, Pg. 75

99
40

35

30

25

20 no. of responses
percentage
15

10

0
highly dynamic moderate low no changes

Figure No: 4.5.3


Figure Name: Analyzing of organization environment
Source Table: Changes in organization environment, Pg. 76

70

60

50

40
no. of responses
30 percentage

20

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.4


Figure Name: Analyzing competencies as per Job Rotation
Source Table: Job Rotation helps in align competencies, Pg. 76

100
50
45
40
35
30
25 no. of response

20 percentage

15
10
5
0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.5


Figure Name: Analysis of structural changes
Source Table: Requirement of Change in Structure, Pg. 76

60

50

40

30 no. of responses
Percentage
20

10

0
high medium low neutral

Figure No: 4.5.6


Figure Name: Analysis of team work
Source Table: Level of co-ordination between team members, Pg. 77

101
60

50

40

30 no. of responses
Percentage
20

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.7


Figure Name: Analysis of Personal interest
Source Table: Personal interest during job analysis, Pg. 77

50

45

40

35

30

25 no. of responses
Percentagees 2
20

15

10

0
highly satisfied satisfied neutral not satisfied

Figure No: 4.5.8


Figure Name: salary/ wages
Source Table: level of satisfaction with payment, Pg. 77

102
60

50

40

30 no. of responses
percentage

20

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.9


Figure Name: level of working hours
Source Table: Importance of working hours during Job Analysis, Pg. 78

45
40
35
30
25
no.of responses
20
Percentage
15
10
5
0
highly satisfied satisfied neutral not satisfied

Figure No: 4.5.10


Figure Name: satisfaction with the post
Source Table: level of satisfaction as per appointed for the post, Pg. 78

103
50

45

40

35

30

25 no. of responses
Percentage
20

15

10

0
highly satisfaction satisfaction neutral not satisfaction

Figure No: 4.5.11


Figure Name: Personal interest with Job
Source Table: Matching personal interest result in. Pg. 78

70

60

50

40
no.of responses
30 Percentage

20

10

0
highly medium neutral low

Figure No: 4.5.12


Figure Name: Level of Job Satisfaction
Source Table: Good Working Environment leads to job satisfaction, Pg. 79

104
70

60

50

40
no. of responses
30 Percentage

20

10

0
strongly agree agree neutral disagree

Figure No: 4.5.13


Figure Name: Departmentalization
Source Table: Departmental leads to systematic agreement of organization, Pg. 79

60

50

40

30 no. of responses
Percentage
20

10

0
strong agree agree neutral disagree

Figure No: 4.5.14


Figure Name: Level of self-feedback
Source Table: My Job provides self-feedback, Pg. 79

105
90

80

70

60

50
no. of responses
40 Percentage

30

20

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.15


Figure Name: Importance of Job Rotation
Source Table: Job rotation as tools for identifying KSAs, Pg. 80

50

45

40

35

30

25 no. of responses
Percentage
20

15

10

0
always often seldom never

Figure No: 4.5.16


Figure Name: work influence
Source Table: My work influences day-to-day company success, Pg. 80

106
4.6 Major Findings

A realistic approach of Job Analysis ensures maximum relationship between job content
and job context that is supportive of the recruitment process. Many organizations
therefore carry a job re-design as a component of the ongoing process of Job Analysis. An
effective Job analysis can be conducted after the job has been designed, the employees
have been trained and the work has been performed.

Most of the research on job design was based on the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
presented by Hack man & Oldham in 1976 and 1980 which focused on five core job
characteristics (task identity, tasks significance, skill variety, and autonomy and job
feedback) which contributed to job stimulation and in turn affected motivation, job
performance and job satisfaction.

 In the findings, study provides evidence that fair selection for an organization
produces better results.

 Employee's high commitment and productivity, developing desired knowledge based


skills, attitudes and other behaviors does result in higher Job Satisfaction and Job
Performance.

 Job analysis is a process which has certain impact on work design, HR Planning,
Performance Appraisal, compensation, training etc.

 Job analysis key elements are Job description (tasks, responsibilities and duties) and
Job Specification (skills, knowledge and abilities) once we are clear about these
terms, it further helps in selection for right candidates at right place and at right time.

 Here are certain factors regarding Job Design as organizational factors, environmental
factors and behavioral factors, proper mobilization of these factors results in job
satisfaction and high productivity.

107
 some of the approaches related to job design as job rotation, job enlargement job
enrichment, job engineering and human approaches, proper guideline and good
understanding what what exactly this terms means can help employee retention and
interest toward work and working environment.

 Division of workforce as per their specification like KSAs helps forming a team to
perform specific task which saves time and cost.

 In an Organization everything should be systematic, updated system, departmental


and structured so that work flow smoothly without any disturbance and conflict.

 In most of the organization they plan bigger and make strategies but during the period
of implementation it goes wrong or incomplete. So for this one should have proper
mission, vision, and goal. Here lacks proper guidelines, monitoring and controlling. It
should be in such an order that after completion of first portion then only we go for
the second portion.

108
CHAPTER - 5

CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion

Job Analysis is an organized study of a job to categorize its major components. The
job analysis process normally observe the job which is being carried out, asking
employees and supervisors questions about the job, tasks, working conditions and KSAs
(Knowledge, Skills and Abilities). In an increasingly competitive and turbulent market,
organizations are largely dependent on their employees for success. The challenge of
identifying the right man for the right job, individuals to fulfill organization need. A large
number of potential workforces are available in the employment market but the challenge
for organizations is to identify and select those candidates who could perform effectively
and efficiently. The research highlighted that the starting point in any recruitment process
is an accurate analysis of the job.

This important aspect of human resource management was being ignored particularly in
public sector jobs. Selection and the assessments chosen for the selection process should
be done on the basis of the requirements of the job. Knowledge is essential on part of the
organization in terms of what constitutes good job performance; what kind of knowledge,
skills and abilities are required and what measures would be effective in assessing these.
Despite of the limitations mentioned above, the results of this study move about the field
of human resource management forward by empirically viewing a link between HR
practices like job analysis, job design, job evaluation, job security , job succession
planning and job performance. Impact of job analysis on job performance reflects that job
analysis is in reality a foundation of human resource practices and an imperative
management practice to develop competitive advantage.

The implications of the typical event of the job analysis and other human resource
practices on job performance measures were found remarkable. Altogether this research
makes an effort signifying a substantial positive contribution by Job analysis to job
performance. Generally, the findings of this study were found reliable with the studies
conducted in western countries on the contribution of human resource practices related to

109
the job performance. The worth of present study lies in the reality that it offers a requisite
rationale of theoretical models built on the basis of studies conducted in the western
organizations.

110
5.2 Recommendation

Despite the strengths and limitations of current study, the study was capable of
providing a well-designed direction for future research. One prospect for future research
would be to broaden the current model with these human resources practices and their
impact on organizational performance instead of employee job performance. The present
study may serve as a drive for human resource professionals and practitioners alike to
undertake such studies.
Future research directions may include:
 To improve peripheral strength, future research efforts should get hold of a
representative sample from more organizations.

 Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance with the intervening role of training.

 Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance with the intervening role of human
resource information system.

 Future research should seek out further job performance outcomes from larger
samples with enlarged statistical power.

 Future research should look for developing entire measures of employee job
performance tapping numerous proportions of their job quality.

Bowen & Ostroff discussed in 2000 that future research should observe the strength of the
human resource practices of job quality and their survival.
McDuffie, (1995) stressed that high performance human resource practices like
recruitment and selection processes, job analysis and performance evaluation systems
were theorized to impact job performance. It was the usefulness of such human resource
practices in conveying the organization's goals and the value which places in the
employees.

Bowen & Ostroff further discussed in 2000 that the common assurance should be
stronger when the human resource process was clear and practices successfully

111
communicated the significance of employees to the organization. Thus, future research
should observe the outcome of booming execution of human resource practices and the
survival of assured practices on employee's job excellence and reliability.
Contribution of this study was in designing a conceptual model, graphically depicting the
association with job analysis, job design, job evaluation, job security and job succession
planning with job performance. Future studies by the researchers having keen interest in
the association of these constructs can use this model to prepare new research or increase
the generalize ability of this study in diverse sectors.

112
Bibliography

Books
 MARKETING RESEARCH – CR Kothari

 MARKETING MANAGEMENT - PHILIP KOTLER

 COMPANY MAGZINES AND MANUALS

Web Sites:

https://www.hyundai.com

https://www.wikipedia.org
APPENDIX – 1

Questionnaire:

1) What are/is the product and services provided by your organization?


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2) What is the size (operational wise) of your company?
a) large b) medium c) small
3) What is your designation?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4) How often job analysis helped in selection right people at right time?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

5) How technological play their role in change in your organization environment?


a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

6) What is the level of change in your organization environment?


a) high dynamic b) moderate c) low d) no change

7) Does job rotation help in align competencies when required?


a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

8) When your structure changes do you require new jobs to face these changes?
a) always b) often c) seldom d)never
9) What is the level of understanding between your team members?
a) high b) medium c) low d) neutral

10) Do you consider personal interest related to his/her while job analysis?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

11) Are you satisfied with the wages /salary you are paid for?
a) high satisfied b) satisfied c) neutral d) not satisfied

12) How often working hours is considered while doing his/her job analysis?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

13) Are you satisfied with the post you are appointed as per your qualification?
a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) not satisfied d) neutral

14) If personal interest matches with his/her job then it result in?
a) job satisfaction b) neutral c) dissatisfaction

15) Does good working environment leads to Job Satisfaction?


a) highly b) medium c) low d) neutral

16) Department and structuring leads to systematic arrangement of organization?


a) strongly agree b) agree c) neutral d) disagree

17) My job itself provides feedback on how well I am performing.


a) strongly Agree b) agree c) neutral d) disagree

18) How often job rotation helped in identifying your knowledge, skills and ability?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

19) My work influences day to day company success.


a) always b) often c) seldom d) never