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LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM FISIOLOGI

MODUL MUSKULOSKELETAL

Disusun Oleh :

Windy Valentine I11112085

Regina Grace I1011141002

Tasya Ayulga Setya I1011151010

Nabila Firyal Ananda I1011151052

Veneranda Istya Hadi I1011151054

Gaudensius I1011151073

PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN DOKTER

FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN

UNIVERSITAS TANJUNGPURA

2019

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Name : Windy Valentine

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 1 : The Muscle Twitch and the Latent
Period Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results



You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.

1. Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by

You correctly answered : b. tendons.

2. Skeletal muscles are composed of hundreds to thousands of individual cells called

You correctly answered : c. fibers.

3. The term motor unit refers to



You correctly answered : c. one motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates.

4. The motor neuron and muscle fiber intersect at what is called

You correctly answered : d. the neuromuscular junction.

5. A twitch is

You correctly answered : a. one contractile response to a single action potential.

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Experiment Results 

Predict Question : Will changes to the stimulus voltage alter the duration of the latent period?

Your answer : a. Yes, changing the stimulus voltage will change the latent period duration
proportionately.

Stop & Think Questions :



What is the period of time that elapses between the generation of an action potential and the start
of muscle tension development in a muscle fiber?

You correctly answered : c. the latent period

What occurs during the latent period of these isometric contractions?



You correctly answered : b. All the steps of excitation-contraction coupling occur.

Experiment Data:

Passive
Voltage Length Active Force Total Force Latent Period
Force
0.0 75 0.0 0.0 0.0 ----
3.0 75 1.04 0.0 1.04 ----
4.0 75 1.32 0.0 1.32 ----
2.0 75 0.66 0.0 0.66 ----
6.0 75 1.65 0.0 1.65 ----
8.0 75 1.81 0.0 1.81 ----
10.0 75 1.82 0.0 1.82 ----

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 83% by answering 5 out of 6 questions correctly.

1. An action potential in a motor neuron triggers the release of which neurotransmitter?

You correctly answered : b. acetylcholine

2. The term skeletal muscle fiber refers to



You correctly answered : a. an individual skeletal muscle cell.

3. The graded depolarization in the skeletal muscle fiber that is elicited in response to one action
potential from the motor neuron is called

You correctly answered : c. an EPP (end-plate potential).

4. Which of the following is not a phase of a skeletal muscle twitch? Your answer: a. contraction
phase

Correct answer : b. hyperpolarization phase

5. A skeletal muscle twitch is



You correctly answered : a. one contractile response to a single action potential.

6. Which of the following correctly matches the twitch phase with its definition?

You correctly answered : d. the contraction phase: the time between the end of the latent period
and peak muscle tension

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Review Sheet Results

1. Define the terms skeletal muscle fiber, motor unit, skeletal muscle twitch, electrical stimulus, and
latent period.

Your answer :

-Skeletal muscle fibres: satu sel otot.

-Skeletal muscle unit: Semua serabut otot yang dipersarafi oleh satu serat saraf.

-Skeletal muscle twitch: satu potensial aksi disebuah serat otot yang menghasilkan kontralsi
singkat lemah. -Electrical stimulus: membuat otot berkontraksi.

-Latend period: penundaan waktu antara beberapa milidetik antara stimulasi dan awitan kontraksi.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

2. What is the role of acetylcholine in a skeletal muscle contraction?



Your answer :

Otot rangka dirangsang untuk berkontraksi oleh pelepasan asetilkolin (Ach) di taut neuromuskulus
antara terminal neuron motoric dan serat otot. Peningkatan Ach dengan cakram mototrik suatu
serat otot menyebabkan perubahan permeabilitas di serat otot, menghasilkan potensial aksi yang
dihantarkan ke seluruh permukaan membran sel otot.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

3. Describe the process of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers.



Your answer :

Serangkaian yang mengaitkan eksitasiotot (adanya potensial aksi di serat otot) dengan kontraksi
otot (aktivitas jembatan silang yang menyebabkan filamen-filamen tipis yang bergeser bersama
untuk memperpendek sarkomer).

Sumber: Sherwood, 2014. (1)

4. Describe the three phases of a skeletal muscle twitch.



Your answer :

-Peroide laten : Penundaan waktu antara beberapa milidetik antara stimulasi dan awitan kontraksi.

-Kontraksi : Waktu dari awitan kontraksi hingga pembentukan tenggangan puncak. Waktu
kontraksi bervariasi dari 5 hingga 50 mdet, meskipun waktu ini bervariasi bergantung pada jenis
serat otot. Respon kontraksi belum berakhir hingga kantong lateral menyerap kembali semua
Ca2+ yang dibebaskan sebagai respons terhadap potensial aksi.

-Relaksasi : Waktu antara tegangan puncak hingga relaksasi sempurna. Waktu relaksasi bervariasi
dari 15 hingga 50 m/det, juga bergantung pada jenis serat otot. Karena itu respon kontraksi
keseluruhan terhadap satu potensial aksi dapat berlangsung dari 30 m/det pada serat kontraksi
cepat hingga 100 mdet atau lebih pada serat kontraksi lambat.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

5. Does the duration of the latent period change with different stimulus voltages? How well did the
results compare with your prediction?

Your answer :

Tidak, karena dalam percobaan prediksi sudah sesuai. Yaitu dilihat dari percobaan ketika
menaikkan tegangan dari 4 v menjadi 6 v dan terus ditambah 2 v sampai 10 v periode latennya
tetap sama.

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6. At the threshold stimulus, do sodium ions start to move into or out of the cell to bring about the
membrane depolarization?

Your answer :

Tebukanya kanal berpintu asetilkolin memungkinkan sejumlah besar ion natrium untuk berdifusi ke
bagian dalam membran serabut otot. Hal ini menyebabkan depolarisasi setempat yang kemudian
menyebabkan pembukaan kanal natrium berpintu listrik.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

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Name : Tasya Ayulga Setya

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 2 : The Effect of Stimulus Voltage on


Skeletal Muscle Contraction Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.

1. Skeletal muscle fibers are innervated (stimulated) by

You correctly answered : c. motor neurons.

2. A single action potential propagating down a motor axon results in

You correctly answered : d. a single action potential and a single contractile event in the muscle
fibers it innervates.

3. In resting skeletal muscle, calcium is stored in

You correctly answered : c. the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

4. During the latent period for an isometric contraction

You correctly answered : c. the cellular events involved in excitation-contraction coupling occur.

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Experiment Results

Predict Question : As the stimulus voltage is increased from 1.0 volt up to 10 volts, what will
happen to the amount of active force generated with each stimulus?

Your answer : a. The active force will continually increase.

Stop & Think Questions : What do you see in the active force display when the stimulus voltage is
set to 0.0, and why does this observation make sense?

You correctly answered : a. 0.00 g; there was no activation of skeletal muscle fibers by this
stimulus.

What is the lowest stimulus voltage that induces active force in the skeletal muscle?

You correctly answered : b. threshold voltage 6.

Enter the threshold voltage for this experiment in the field below and then click Submit Data to
record your answer in the lab report

You answered : 0,8 volts

Enter the maximal voltage for this experiment in the field below and then click Submit Data to
record your answer in the lab report.

You answered : 8,5 volts

Experiment Data :

Voltage Length Active Force Passive Force Total Force


0.0 75 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 75 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 75 0.02 0.0 0.02
1.0 75 0.15 0.0 0.15
1.5 75 0.43 0.0 0.43
2.0 75 0.66 0.0 0.66
2.5 75 0.87 0.0 0.87
3.0 75 1.04 0.0 1.04
3.5 75 1.19 0.0 1.19
4.0 75 1.32 0.0 1.32
4.5 75 1.42 0.0 1.42
5.0 75 1.51 0.0 1.51
5.5 75 1.59 0.0 1.59
6.0 75 1.65 0.0 1.65
6.5 75 1.70 0.0 1.70

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7.0 75 1.74 0.0 1.74
7.5 75 1.78 0.0 1.78
8.0 75 1.81 0.0 1.81
8.5 75 1.82 0.0 1.82
9.0 75 1.82 0.0 1.82
9.5 75 1.82 0.0 1.82

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 6 out of 6 questions correctly.

1. Motor unit recruitment refers to

You correctly answered : a. an increase in the number of active muscle fibers to increase the force
developed in a muscle.

2. Active tension (or force) in a skeletal muscle fiber results from



You correctly answered : a. activation of cross bridge cycling via increased intracellular calcium
levels.

3. The ________ is the minimal stimulus needed to cause a depolarization of the muscle plasma
membrane (sarcolemma). You correctly answered: d. threshold voltage

4. By definition, the ________ is the amount of stimulus required to successfully recruit all the
muscle fibers into developing active force.

You correctly answered : c. maximal voltage


5. Why was a maximal voltage observed in this experiment?

You correctly answered : b. At the maximal voltage, all the muscle fibers contained in this muscle
are depolarized and they all develop active force (that is, they were all successfully recruited).

6. A sufficiently strong electrical stimulus applied to an isolated, mounted skeletal muscle induces
the development of muscle force, or muscle tension. Which of the following statements concerning
this observation is true? You correctly answered: c. The electrical stimulus mimics acetylcholine
release at a neuromuscular junction

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Review Sheet Results

1. Describe the effect of increasing stimulus voltage on isolated skeletal muscle. Specifically, what
happened to the muscle force generated with stronger electrical stimulations and why did this
change occur? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer :

Kontraksi otot menggunakan stimulasi listrik dapat dirangsang melalui depolarisasi membran otot.
Aktivitas terus menerus dari pompa natrium dalam membran sel saraf, sel saraf terus bergerak,
Na+ dari dalam sel kemudian keluar dari membran sel sementara tegangan di aktifkan di saluran
kalium memungkinkan K+ untuk pindah ke dalam sel. Ini mempertahankan konsentrasi yang lebih
besar dari K+ pada bagian membran sel.

Stimulus elektris pada prinsipnya dapat menimbulkan kontraksi otot sehingga akan merangsang
golgi tendon dan muscle spindle. Rangsangan pada muscle spindle dan golgi tendon akan di
informasikan melalui aferen ke susunan saraf pusat sehingga akan menimbulkan fasilitasi dan
inhibisi. Peningkatan stimulus pada otot rangka menyebabkan gaya total yang diproduksi oleh otot
meningkat.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

2. How is this change in whole-muscle force achieved in vivo?

Your answer :

Perubahan gaya pada keseluruhan otot tercapai secara in vivo, tempat satuan motorik dikerahkan
untuk meningkatkan gaya total pada otot yang diproduksi. Ketika stimulus yang berupa tegangan
melewati batas ambang letup maka gaya akan meningkat menjadi lebih kuat pada keseluruhan
otot.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

3. What happened in the isolated skeletal muscle when the maximal voltage was applied?

Your answer:

Semakin besar arus listrik yang masuk dalam tubuh, maka akan semakin besar juga efek yang
akan di timbulkan ke organ dalam tubuh. Hal ini sesuai dengan hipotesis yang telah diutarakan
oleh penelitian Fineschi (2006) bahwa arus listrik dapat menimbulkan kerusakan otot jantung
berupa myofibril break up yaitu teregangnya serabut otot karena hiperkontraksi.

Sumber : Fineschi, 2006. (3)

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Name : Nabila Firyal Ananda

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 3 : The Effect of Stimulus Frequency on


Skeletal Muscle Contraction Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.

1. During a single twitch of a skeletal muscle

You correctly answered : b. maximal force is never achieved.

2. When a skeletal muscle is repetitively stimulated, twitches can overlap each other and result in a
stronger muscle contraction than a stand-alone twitch. This phenomenon is known as

You correctly answered : c. wave summation.

3. Wave summation is achieved by

You correctly answered : a. increasing the stimulus frequency (the rate of stimulus delivery to the
muscle).

4. Wave summation increases the force produced in the muscle. Another way to increase the force
produced by a muscle is to

You correctly answered : d. increase the number of activated motor units.

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Experiment Results

Predict Question 1 : As the stimulus frequency increases, what will happen to the muscle force
generated with each successive stimulus? Will there be a limit to this response?

Your answer : d. As the stimulus frequency increases, the muscle force generated by each
successive stimulus will first increase and then decrease as the stimulus frequency becomes very
high.

Predict Question 2 : In order to produce sustained muscle contractions with an active force value of
5.2 grams, do you think you will need to increase the stimulus voltage?

Your answer : b. no


Stop & Think Questions :



Was there any change in the force generated by the muscle during the second stimulated twitch?
You correctly answered : c. Yes, the second twitch generated more muscle force.

Is the total muscle force generated by the higher frequency stimulation greater than the force
generated in previous stimulations?

You correctly answered : a. Yes, it is greater than the previous stimulations.

Does the force generated by the muscle change with each additional stimulus?

You did not answer this question.

Correct answer : b. As the stimulus frequency increased, the muscle tension generated by each
successive stimulus also increased, and a limiting maximum value was observed.

Experiment Data :

Voltage Length Stimulus Active Force Passive Force Total Force


8.5 75 Single 1.83 0.0 1.83
8.5 75 Single 2.40 0.0 2.40
8.5 75 Single 2.93 0.0 2.93
8.5 75 Multiple 4.82 0.0 4.82
10 75 Multiple 4.75 0.0 4.75
8.5 75 Multiple 5.42 0.0 5.42

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.

1. Which of the following is not one of the ways that the body can increase the force produced by a
skeletal muscle?

You correctly answered : d. application of higher voltages to the whole muscle

2. When a muscle receives a stimulus frequency that causes non-overlapping twitches to follow
each other closely in time such that the peak tension of each twitch rises in a stepwise fashion up
to a plateau value, the result is known as

You correctly answered : c. treppe.

3. In this experiment the isolated skeletal muscle was repetitively stimulated such that individual
twitches overlapped with each other and resulted in a stronger muscle contraction than a
standalone twitch. This phenomenon is known as

You correctly answered : c. wave summation.


4. Wave summation is achieved by

You correctly answered : a. increasing the rate of stimulus delivery (frequency) to the muscle.

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Review Sheet Results

1. What is the difference between stimulus intensity and stimulus frequency?

Your answer :

Stimulus intensitas merujuk pada intensitas atau kuatnya stimulus, sedangkan stimulus frekuensi
adalah frekuensi yang timbul dari stimulus yang diberikan.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

2. In this experiment you observed the effect of stimulating the isolated skeletal muscle multiple
times in a short period with complete relaxation between the stimuli. Describe the force of
contraction with each subsequent stimulus. Are these results called treppe or wave summation?

Your answer :

Treppe adalah kondisi dimana stimulus diberikan kemudian terjadi periode dimana terjadi relaksasi
sempurna pada otot rangka, gaya yang dihasilkan antar setiap stimulus akan menghasilkan
peningkatan. Treppe bukanlah bentuk kontraksi bergradasi otot melainkan fenomena pemanasan
ketika sel sel otot awalnya dirangsang ketika dingin, mereka akan menunjukkan respon secara
bertahap sampai mereka menghangat.

Sumber : UNM Class Notes - Muscle Contractions and Metabolism. (4)

3. How did the frequency of stimulation affect the amount of force generated by the isolated
skeletal muscle when the frequency of stimulation was increased such that the muscle twitches did
not fully relax between subsequent stimuli? Are these results called treppe or wave summation?
How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer :

Ketika kedutan dari dua potensial aksi dijumlahkan untuk menghasilkan tegangan serat yang lebih
besar daripada yang dihasilkan oleh suatu potensial aksi suatu proses itu disebut dengan wave
summation. Setelah terbentuk potensial aksi, akan timbul periode refrakter singkat saat tidak dapat
terjadi potensial aksi berikutnya karena itu membran harus kembali ke potensial istirahatnya dan
pulih dari periode refrakter sebelum potensial aksi berikutnya terjadi.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

4. To achieve an active force of 5.2 g, did you have to increase the stimulus voltage above 8.5
volts? If not, how did you achieve an active force of 5.2 g? How well did the results compare with
your prediction?

Your answer :

Tidak. Tanpa harus menaikkan voltase dari 8,5 v kita sudah bisa mendapatkan gaya aktif sebesar
5,2 g dengan cara menambah melakukan percobaan dengan stimulus tetap, namun dilakukan
berulang-ulang dalam waktu yang sama hingga memperoleh 5,2g. Hasilnya sama antara prediksi
dengan hasil percobaan.


Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

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5. Compare and contrast frequency-dependent wave summation with motor unit recruitment
(previously observed by increasing the stimulus voltage). How are they similar? How was each
achieved in the experiment? Explain how each is achieved in vivo.

Your answer : Karena kenaikkan frekuensi terjadi saat kontraksi sedang berlangsung dan hal itu
juga bisa disebut dengan wave summation. Maka semakin tinggi frekuensi diberikan akan semakin
tinggi pula gaya aktif dan wave summation yang terjadi.

Sumber : Guyton,2014. (2)

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Name : Veneranda Istya Hadi

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 4 : Tetanus in Isolated Skeletal Muscle


Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results



You scored 100% by answering 3 out of 3 questions correctly.

1. Stimulus frequency refers to

You correctly answered : b. the rate that stimulating voltage pulses are applied to an isolated whole
skeletal muscle.

2. Which of the following distinguishes a state of unfused tetanus from a state of complete (fused)
tetanus?

You correctly answered : d. Muscle tension increases and decreases during a state of unfused
tetanus.

3. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increases in force are
generated by the muscle, the muscle has reached its

You correctly answered : a. maximal tetanic tension.

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Experiment Results

Predict Question : As the stimulus frequency increases further, what will happen to the muscle
tension and twitch appearance with each successive stimulus? Will there be a limit to this
response?

Your answer : b. As the stimulus frequency increases, the muscle tension generated by each
successive stimulus will increase. There will be a limit to this increase.

Stop & Think Questions :



What begins to happen at around 80 msec?

You correctly answered : c. unfused tetanus develops

How does the trace at 130 stimuli/sec compare with the trace at 50 stimuli/sec?

You correctly answered : b. Fused tetanus develops at this greater stimulus frequency.

How do the traces with 146–150 stimuli per second compare with the trace at 130 stimuli per
second?

You correctly answered : d. Maximal tetanic tension develops with these very high stimulation
frequencies.

Experiment Data :

Passive
Voltage Length Stimuli/sec Active Force Total Force
Force
8.5 75 50 5.12 0.0 5.12
8.5 75 130 5.88 0.0 5.88
8.5 75 140 5.91 0.0 5.91
8.5 75 142 5.92 0.0 5.92
8.5 75 144 5.94 0.0 5.94
8.5 75 146 5.95 0.0 5.95
8.5 75 148 5.95 0.0 5.95
8.5 75 150 5.95 0.0 5.95

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 3 out of 3 questions correctly.

1. The term tetanus refers to



You correctly answered : b. sustained muscle tension due to very frequent stimuli.

2. Which of the following distinguishes a state of unfused tetanus from a state of complete (fused)
tetanus?

You correctly answered : d. Muscle tension increases and decreases between different values for
an unfused tetanus.

3. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increases in force are
generated by the muscle, the muscle has reached its

You correctly answered : a. maximal tetanic tension.

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Review Sheet Results

1. Describe how increasing the stimulus frequency affected the force developed by the isolated
whole skeletal muscle in this activity. How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer :

Increasing stimulus frequency increases muscle tension generated by each successive force and
had limit, as predicted.

Peningkatan frekuensi stimulus meningkatkan ketegangan otot yang dihasilkan oleh setiap
kekuatan yang berurutan dan memiliki batas, seperti yang diperkirakan.

Setelah memperoleh nilai ambang batas yang dapat menimbulkan aksi potensial (8.5 mV), otot di
berikan perlakuan yang berbeda. Perlakuannya adalah dengan merubah nilai stimulus/sec dan
membiarkan nilai voltage tetap 8.5 mV, karena kita sudah mengetahui ambang batas dari aktivitas
sebelumnnya, maka aktivitas 4 ini adalah untuk melihat sumasi yang terjadi. Dari diagram hasil
ada garis yang tidak rata. Menurut (Guyton dan Hall, 2014:82), bahwa sumasi sendiri terdiri dari 2
macam yaitu sumasi multiple dan sumasi frekuensi. Sumasi serabut multiple ini dapat terjadi
dikarenakan meningkatnya jumlah unit motor yang berkontaksi secara bersama-sama sedangkan
sumasi frekuensi adalah karena meningkatnya frekuensi kontraksi yang pada akhirnya dapat
menimbulkan tetanisasi. Dalam hal ini karena ada satu otot, maka jenis sumasi yang teramati
adalah sumasi frekuensi.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

2. Indicate what type of force was developed by the isolated skeletal muscle in this activity at the
following stimulus frequencies: at 50 stimuli/sec, at 140 stimuli/sec, and above 146 stimuli/sec.

Your answer:

At 50 stimuli/sec, the force generated is in a state called unfused tetanus, the musle tension
increase and decrease at different values.

At 140 stimuli/sec, the force generated is in a state called complated (fused) tetanus, the muscle
tension are not wavering anymore.

At above 146 stimuli/sec, the force generated is in a state called maximal tetanic tension which
means it is highest value.

Pada 50 stimuli / detik, gaya yang dihasilkan berada dalam keadaan yang disebut tetanus yang
tidak dikompensasi, ketegangan otot meningkat dan berkurang pada nilai yang berbeda.

Pada 140 stimuli / detik, gaya yang dihasilkan berada dalam keadaan yang disebut dengan
tetanus yang dikompensasi (menyatu), ketegangan otot tidak goyah lagi.

Pada di atas 146 stimuli / detik, gaya yang dihasilkan berada dalam keadaan yang disebut
tegangan tetanik maksimal yang berarti itu adalah nilai tertinggi. Terlihat pada grafik bahwa sumasi
yang terjadi jarak gelombang yang satu dengan gelombang lainnya terlihat lama-kelamaan
semakin menghilang. Menurut (Guyton dan Hall, 2014:83), ini karena kontraksi yang baru muncul
sebelum kontraksi yang terdahulu berakhir.

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Sebagai akibatnya, sebagian frekuensi yang kedua akan ditambahkan pada kontraksi yang
pertama, sehigga kekuatan kontraksi meningkat secara progresif bersama dengan peningkatan
frekuensi. Ketika frekuensi berikutnya mencapai titik kritis, kontraksi berikutnya akan berlangsung
begitu cepat yang pada akhirnya akan menyatu. Kontraksi berikutnya setelah menyatu tidak akan
terlihat lagi gelombang, karena garisnya akan lurus dan mulus. Peristiwa ini disebut tetanisasi atau
pada kondisi ini otot mengalami tetanus.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

3. Beyond what stimulus frequency is there no further increase in the peak force? What is the
muscle tension called at this frequency?

Your answer:

This muscle tension is called maximal tetanic tension.

Ketegangan otot ini disebut ketegangan tetanik maksimal.

Dari gambar dapat dibedakan mana yang sumasi dan mana yang tetanus. Pada saat sumasi
masih terdapat gelombangnya sedangkan pada tetanus grafik terlihat rata.

Otot memiliki nilai ambang batas maksimum atau yang dikenal dengan istilah Threshold Voltage
dimana ketika otot sudah mencapai nilai ambang batas ini otot sudah berkontraksi secara
maksimal.

Sumber : Sloane, Ethel. 2003. (5)

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Name : Gaudensius

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 5 : Fatigue in Isolated Skeletal Muscle Lab
Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results



You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.

1. When skeletal muscle twitches fuse so that the peaks and valleys of each twitch become
indistinguishable from each other, the muscle is in a state known as

You correctly answered : d. complete (fused) tetanus.

2. When the stimulus frequency reaches a value beyond which no further increase of skeletal
muscle force can occur, the muscle has reached its

You correctly answered : c. maximal tetanic tension.

3. A decline in a muscle's ability to maintain a constant level of force, or tension, after prolonged,
repetitive stimulation is called

You correctly answered : c. fatigue.

4. Which of the following is not thought to be a contributing factor to the development of fatigue?
You correctly answered : a. buildup of Ca2+ in the muscle fibers

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Experiment Results


Predict Question : If the stimulator is briefly turned off for defined periods of time, what will happen
to the length of time that the muscle is able to sustain maximal developed tension when the
stimulator is turned on again?

Your answer : a. The length of the rest period will not substantially impact the length of time for
sustained muscle tension.

Stop & Think Questions : Why does the stimulated muscle force begin to decrease over time
despite the maintained stimuli? (Note that a decrease in maximal force indicates muscle fatigue is
developing.)

You correctly answered : d. More than one of these answers could be correct.

Why did the length of the intervening rest period affect the length of time the skeletal muscle can
maintain maximum tension once the stimulator is turned on again?

You correctly answered : c. Intracellular concentrations of ADP and Pi declined during the rest
period.

Experiment Data:

Rest Period Sustained Maximal


Voltage Stimuli/sec Active Force (g)
(sec) Force (sec)

8.5 120 0 5.86 10


8.5 120 0 5.86 10
8.5 120 11 5.86 1.40
8.5 120 22 5.86 5.80

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.

1. During cross bridge cycling in skeletal muscle, force is created by the

You correctly answered : c. power stroke of the myosin heads.

2. The term tetanus refers to



You correctly answered : b. sustained muscle tension due to repetitive stimuli.

3. A decline in a muscle's ability to maintain a constant level of force, or tension, after prolonged,
repetitive stimulation is called

You correctly answered : c. fatigue.

4. During fatigue

You correctly answered : c. the number of active cross bridges begins to decline although the rate
of stimulus delivery (frequency) remains constant.

5. If an intervening rest period is imposed on active skeletal muscle

You correctly answered : c. the development of fatigue will be delayed.

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Review Sheet Results

1. When a skeletal muscle fatigues, what happens to the contractile force over time?

Your answer :

When a skeletal muscle fatigues the contractile activity. once the muscle hasreached maximum
tetanic tension, there is no longer an increase in force generated by the muscle. at this stage, the
muscle becomes fatigued and contractile force starts to decrease over time.

Ketika otot rangka kelelahan aktivitas kontraktil. begitu otot mencapai tensi tetanik maksimum,
tidak ada lagi peningkatan kekuatan yang ditimbulkan oleh otot. pada tahap ini, otot menjadi lelah
dan kekuatan kontraktil mulai berkurang dari waktu ke waktu.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

2. What are some proposed causes of skeletal muscle fatigue?

Your answer :

The buildup of lactic acid, ADP, and Pi in the muscle fibers. One other reason comes from calcium
levels dereasing frommuscle contractions.

Penumpukan asam laktat, ADP, dan Pi dalam serat otot. Salah satu alasan lain berasal dari kadar
kalsium yang menurun dari kontraksi otot.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

3. Turning the stimulator off allows a small measure of muscle recovery. Thus, the muscle will
produce more force for a longer time period if the stimulator is briefly turned off than if the stimuli
were allowed to continue without interruption. Explain why this might occur. How well did the
results compare with your prediction?

Your answer :

By turning the stimulator off, a period of rest is created; thus allowing the concentrations being at a
decreased level, the length of time that the muscle is able to maintain maximum tension increases.
if the stimulator was not be allowed to reach a rest period and further fatigue would continue. the
results proved my prediction to be incorrect.

Dengan mematikan stimulator, periode istirahat dibuat; sehingga memungkinkan konsentrasi


berada pada level yang menurun, lamanya waktu otot mampu mempertahankan ketegangan
maksimum meningkat. jika stimulator tidak diizinkan mencapai periode istirahat dan kelelahan
lebih lanjut akan berlanjut. hasilnya membuktikan prediksi saya salah.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

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4. List a few ways that humans could delay the onset of fatigue when they are vigorously using
their skeletal muscles.

Your answer :

Doing multiple sets of low repetition exercise-allowing for multiple times of rest periods-healthy
diet, along with adequate exercise. (frequent exercise creates endurance, and endurance resists
fatigue).

Melakukan beberapa set latihan pengulangan rendah-memungkinkan untuk beberapa kali periode
istirahat-diet sehat, bersama dengan olahraga yang memadai.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

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Name : Regina Grace

Exercise 2: Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Activity 6: The Skeletal Muscle Length-Tension


Relationship Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results



You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.

1.During an isometric contraction

You correctly answered : d. the skeletal muscle is generating force, but it remains at a fixed length.

2.The force that results from muscles being stretched is

You correctly answered : a. passive force.

3. Active force

You correctly answered : b. is determined by the amount of myosin bound to actin.

4.When you generate the isometric length-tension curve, which of the following forces will not be
indicated on your screen?

You correctly answered : c. tetanic force

5.Passive force in skeletal muscle is largely caused by

You correctly answered : c. the protein titin.

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Experiment Results

Predict Question : As the resting length of the muscle is changed, what will happen to the amount
of total force the muscle generates during the stimulated twitch?

Your answer : a. An increase in muscle length will increase total force.

Stop & Think Questions : Note the dip in total force at a muscle length of 90 mm as compared to
the total force at a muscle length of 80 and 100 mm. Why does this occur?

You correctly answered : d. At this muscle length, active force has decreased in value and passive
force has not yet increased to a significant value.


Experiment Data :

Voltage Length Active Force Passive Force Total Force


8.5 75 1.82 0.0 1.82
8.5 70 1.75 0.0 1.75
8.5 65 1.55 0.0 1.55
8.5 60 1.21 0.0 1.21
8.5 55 0.73 0.0 0.73
8.5 50 0.11 0.0 0.11
8.5 80 1.75 0.02 0.12
8.5 90 1.21 0.25 1.46
8.5 100 0.11 1.75 1.86

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.

1. When a skeletal muscle is stimulated and generates force but remains at a fixed length

You correctly answered : d. the muscle is contracting isometrically.

2. Which protein is mostly responsible for the development of passive force in a muscle?

You correctly answered : d. titin

3. In skeletal muscle, active force stimulated through a range of muscle lengths

You correctly answered : b. will utilize ATP hydrolysis to drive the cross bridge cycle.

4. Which of the following is not depicted in a typical skeletal muscle isometric length-tension curve?
You correctly answered : a. time

5. Maximal active tension will be produced in a skeletal muscle fiber when

You correctly answered : a. the fiber is at its resting length.

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Review Sheet Results

1. What happens to the amount of total force the muscle generates during the stimulated twitch?
How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answers :

Ketika otot mengalami panjang istirahat, aktin dan miosin berada pada posisi optimum sehingga
terjadi kontraksi dengan kekuatan terbesar. Otot yang membentang melebihi panjang istirahatnya
akan berkontraksi dengan lemah akibat cross bridge yang terbentuk antara aktin dan miosin
sedikit.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

2. What is the key variable in an isometric contraction of a skeletal muscle?

Your answer :

Kontraksi isometrik adalah kontraksi yang disertai perubahan tonus otot tanpa disertai perubahan
panjang otot atau kontraksi dapat terjadi tanpa pemendekan yang berarti diseluruh berkas otot.
Kontraksi isometrik terjadi ketika memindahkan beban yang lebih besar dari kekuatan otot yang
dihasilkan. Fungsi dari kontraksi isometrik untuk mempertahankan postur tubuh dan untuk
menstabilisasi sendi. kontraksi yang terjadi untuk meningkatkan tonus otot namun tidak disertai
oleh pemanjangan ataupunpemendekan otot.

Sumber : Feito, 2013. (6)

3. Based on the unique arrangement of myosin and actin in skeletal muscle sarcomeres, explain
why active force varies with changes in the muscle's resting length.

Your answer :

Semakin lama waktu istirahat maka semakin banyak waktu yang memungkinkan untuk semua
jembatan myosin untuk banyak bergerak pada posisi semula.

Sumber : Sherwood, 2014. (1)

4. What skeletal muscle lengths generated passive force? (Provide a range.)

Your answer :

80-100 mm. Luas penampang merupakan faktor utama yang mempengaruhi produksi kekuatan
otot. Kekuatan otot lebih berhubungan dengan ketebalan otot dibandingkan dengan volume
totalnya. Otot yang lebih pendek dan lebih tebal akan menghasilkan kekuatan yang lebih lama
dibandingkan otot yang tipis. Luas penampang berkaitan dengan ukuran miofibril. Semakin besar
ukuran miofibril maka luas penampang otot akan menjadi lebih besar, sehingga mampu
menghasilkan kekuatan yang lebih besar. Panjang otot berpengaruh terhadap hubungan aktin dan
miosin. Pada otot yang memendek, aktin dan miosin mengalami overlaping sehingga hubungan
yang diperlukan antara filamen tipis dan tebal untuk membentuk cross bridge terdistorsi dan
kekuatan kontraksi akan berkurang.

Sumber : Feito, 2013. (6)

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5. If you were curling a 7-kg dumbbell, when would your bicep muscles be contracting
isometrically?

Your answer :

Saat mengangkat dumbbel karena Latihan isometrik adalah latihan statik, dimana tidak terjadi
perubahan panjang otot saat otot berkontraksi. Bentuk dari latihan ini dapat berupa mengangkat,
menarik, atau mendorong benda yang tidak dapat digerakan.

Sumber : Basuki, 2009. (7)

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Name: Tasya Ayulga Setya dan Nabila Firyal Ananda 

Exercise 2 : Skeletal Muscle Physiology : Activity 7 : Isotonic Contractions and the Load-
Velocity Relationship Lab Report

Pre-lab Quiz Results



You scored 100% by answering 5 out of 5 questions correctly.

1. During an isotonic concentric contraction, the



You correctly answered : b. force generated by the muscle is greater than the weight of the
attached load.

2. During an isotonic concentric contraction



You correctly answered: b. the latent period increases with heavier loads.

3. During the latent period for an isotonic concentric contraction



You correctly answered : c. cross bridges cycle and, when muscle tension exceeds the load,
muscle shortening occurs.

4. Muscle shortening velocity



You correctly answered : a. decreases with heavier loads.

5. An isotonic contraction of a muscle is one in which



You correctly answered : a. the length of the muscle changes.

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Experiment Results

Predict Question : As the load on the muscle increases, what will happen to the latent period, the
shortening velocity, the distance that the weight moves, and the contraction duration?

Your answer : b. The latent period will increase, the shortening velocity will decrease, the distance
will decrease, and the contraction duration will decrease.

Stop & Think Questions :



What kind of contraction did you observe when you attached the 2.0 gram weight to the skeletal
muscle and stimulated a contraction?

You correctly answered : c. isometric

Experiment Data :

Velocity
Twitch Duration
Voltage Length Weight (mm/ Distance Lifted (mm)
(msec)
msec)
8.5 75 0.5 100 78.00 4.0
8.5 75 1.0 57 49.00 2.0
8.5 75 1.5 22 30.00 0.5
8.5 75 2.0 0 0.00 0.0

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Post-lab Quiz Results

You scored 100% by answering 6 out of 6 questions correctly.

1. Which of the weights allowed the fastest muscle shortening velocity?

You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight

2. Which of the weights induced the longest latent period of the muscle contraction?

You correctly answered: c. 1.5-g weight

3. Which weight did the muscle contraction move the greatest distance?

You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight

4. Which of the weights allowed the longest duration of muscle contraction?

You correctly answered: a. 0.5-g weight

5. An isotonic contraction of a muscle is one in which

You correctly answered: a. the length of the muscle changes.

6. When lifting a heavy load

You correctly answered: d. the muscle shortening velocity is decreased in comparison with lighter
loads.

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Review Sheet Results

1. If you were using your bicep muscles to curl a 7-kg dumbbell, when would your muscles be
contracting isotonically?

Your answer:

Hal ini di sebabkan kontraksi isotonik, karena dalam kondisi kontraksi isotonik sendiri terjadi
perubahan panjang otot dimana otot akan memendek untuk melawan beban yang ringan dan
konstan. pada kontraksi ini terbentuk kerja eksterna tanpa disertai perubahan tegangan pada otot.
jenis kontraksi ini terjasi pada saat mengangkat beban yang tergolong ringan.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

2. Explain why the latent period became longer as the load became heavier in the experiment.
How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer:

Periode laten adalah waktu mulai di berikan rangsangan sampai terjadinya kontraksi. sedangkan
periode kontraksi merupakan waktu dari puncak kontraksi sampai ke garis datar. karena periode
laten merupakan waktu antara saat pemberi rangsangan dengan permulaan terjadinya
rangsangan dan biasanya berlangsung selama 0,01 detik. pada periode laten akan lama pada
respon yang terus-menerus sehingga akan menimbulkan kelelahan otot. perubahan pada saat
periode laten ke periode kontraksi akan menimbulkan perubahan permeabilitas thdp ion kalium
dan natrium.

Sumber : Ganong, 2009. (8)

3. Explain why the shortening velocity became slower as the load became heavier in this
experiment. How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer:

Saat otot menerima beban yang ringan kontraksinya terjadi dengan cepat, tetapu ketika otot
menerima beban yang berat maka kontraksinya mulai melambat. hingga pada akhirnya otot tidak
mampu berkontraksi atau otot sudah berkontraksi secara maksimal. hal ini dapat menyebabkan
kelemahan pada otot.

Sumber : Ganong, 2009. (8)

4. Describe how the shortening distance changed as the load became heavier in this experiment.
How well did the results compare with your prediction?

Your answer:

Pada saat pemendekan sarkomer panjang filamen tidak berubah, dengan melihat tetapnya lebar
lurik A dan jarak disk Z sampai ujung daerah H. namun pada daerah lurik dan daerah H mengalami
reduksi yang sama besarnya. gaya kontraksi otot di hasilkan oleh suatu proses yang membuat
beberapa set filamen tebal dan tipis dapat bergeser antar sesamanya, Selanjutnya aktin akan
merangsang aktivasi ATPase miosin. maka dari itu ATP akan mengurangi daya tarik atau afinitas
miosin terhadap aktin, kemudian ATP akan dihidrolisis oleh komplek aktin-miosin yang mengubah
ATP menjadi ADP-Pi. Selanjutnya akan terjadi kontraksi kecepatan otot atau pemendekan otot
yang menghasilkan gaya vektorial.

Sumber : Ganong , 2009. (8)

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5. Explain why it would take you longer to perform 10 repetitions lifting a 10-kg weight than it would
to perform the same number of repetitions with a 5-kg weight.

Your answer:

Di saat otot mengangkat beban dengan kecepatan kinetik yg sama, otot akan menjadi lebih
pendek. kemudian pada saat otot mengangkat beban, otot akan mengalami kontraksi otot.
kekuatan dari otot dilakukan sedikit penulangan gerakan dengan beban yang relatif ringan terlebih
dahulu. Saat otot mengangkat beban seberat 10 kg, otot akan bekerja lebih maksimal sehingga
membutuhkan waktu yang lebih lama pada saat akan mengangkat beban. tetapi ketika di
bandingkan dengan mengangkat beban yang lebih ringan seberat 5 kg, otot tidak perlu bekerja
terlalu maksimal.

Sumber : Chozin, N. 2009. (9)

6. Describe what would happen in the following experiment: A 2.5-g weight is attached to the end
of the isolated whole skeletal muscle used in these experiments. Simultaneously, the muscle is
maximally stimulated by 8.5 volts and the platform supporting the weight is removed. Will the
muscle generate force? Will the muscle change length? What is the name for this type of
contraction?

Your answer:

Panjang otot tidak akan berubah, karena pada beban 0,2 g otot tidak mampu lagi melakukan
kontraksi. jika di berikan beban seberat 2.5 g maka otot tidak bisa menahan beban, karena pada
beban seberat 2.0 g otot sudah mencapai kontraksi maksimumnya.

respon kontraksi bergantung pada beban yang di berikan. semakin ringan beban yang di berikan
otot akan semakin memendek dan semakin berat beban yang di berikan otot akan memanjang.

Sumber : Guyton, 2014. (2)

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Daftar Pustaka

1. Sherwood. Lauralee. Fisiologi Manusia Dari Sel ke Sistem. Edisi 8. Jakarta: EGC.2014

2. Guyton, A. C., Hall, J.E. Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran. Edisi 12. Jakarta: EGC. 2014

3. Fineschi V. Cardiac pathology in death from electrocution. Int J Legal Med. 2006 Mar; 120 (2);
79-82. Available from: URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16078070

4. UNM Class Notes - Muscle Contractions and Metabolism . [dikutip 14 November 2019].
Tersedia pada : http://www.unm.edu/-jimmy/muscle3_notes.htm

5. Sloane, Ethel. Anatomi dan Fisiologi untuk Pemula. Jakarta: EGC. 2003

6. Feito JMP, Delgado D. Physical Education. Spanyol: Pila Teleña; 2013

7. Basuki. Faktor Fleksibilitas Hamstring. Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta. 2009.

8. Ganong. W. F. Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran. Edisi 22. Jakarta: EGC. 2009

9. Chozin, N. Latihan Kekuatan dan Daya Tahan Otot. Jakarta Barat: CV Pamularsih. 2009

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