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Are All Cells Alike?

nucleus is the nucleolus where the assembly of

• All living things are made up of cells. Some ribosomes begins.
organisms are composed of only one cell. Other
organisms are made up of many cells. What are the functions of the major cell structures?
Early microscopes • Ribosomes: where proteins are assembled based
• Robert Hooke on instruction sent from the nucleus.
• Looked at a thin slice of cork under a compound • They are small particles of protein in the
microscope. cytoplasm.
• Anton van Leeuwenhoek What are the functions of the major cell structures?
• Viewed at pond water. • Endoplasmic Reticulum: the site where lipid
What is the cell theory? components of the cell membrane are
• The cell theory states: assembled, along with proteins and other
• All living things are composed of cells. materials that are exported from the cell.
• Cells are the basic units of structure and • Rough ER synthesizes proteins – called rough
function in living things. because there are ribosomes on the surface.
• New cells are produced from existing cells. • Smooth ER synthesizes lipids, detoxifies drugs
Electron microscopes – called smooth because there are no ribosomes
• Details as much as 1000 X on the surface.
• Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)
What are the functions of the major cell structures?
• Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM)
• Golgi apparatus: modify, sort, and package
What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and
proteins and other materials from the ER for
storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.
• Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is
not contained in a nucleus. What are the functions of the major cell structures?
• Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus in which their • Lysosomes: small organelles filled with
genetic material is separated from the rest of the enzymes.
• Digest and breakdown lipids, carbs, and
• A nucleus is a structure that contains the cell’s proteins. Also breakdown used up organelles.
genetic material in the form of DNA.
prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes What are the functions of the major cell structures?
• Prokaryotes carry out every activity associated • Vacuoles: saclike structure that stores materials.
with living things…..generally are bacteria. In plants the storage helps to keep the plant
• Eukaryotes are generally larger and more upright.
complex…..generally are plants, animals, fungi, What are the functions of the major cell structures?
and protists. • Mitochondria: convert the chemical energy
Division of Labor stored in food into compounds that are more
• A cell is made up of many parts with different convenient for the cell to use.
functions that work together. Similarly, the parts • Have an inner membrane and an outer
of a computer work together to carry out membrane that are folded up inside. Has its own
different functions. DNA.
What are the functions of the major cell structures?
• Chloroplast: capture light energy from sunlight
• Nucleus: contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and and convert it into chemical energy by
the coded instructions for making proteins and photosynthesis.
other important molecules and is surrounded by
• Surrounded by inner and out membrane with
the nuclear envelope made of two membranes.
stacks of membranes located inside. Has its own
• The DNA combines with protein to form DNA.
chromatin, which is found throughout the What are the functions of the major cell structures?
nucleus. Chromatin condenses to form
• Cytoskeleton: network of protein that maintains
chromosomes that have the genetic information
shape and movement.
that is passed on. The small dense region in the
• Microfilaments: made of protein called actin. work with other organs. Working together, these
• Microtubules: made of proteins called tubulins. organs carry out the life processes of the entire
Also important for cell division where they form organism.
centrioles that are only located in animal cells.
• Help build cilia and flagella….arranged in a 9+2 What is cell specialization?
arrangement. • Cells throughout an organism can develop in
What are the functions of the major cell structures? different ways to perform different tasks.
• Cytoskeleton: network of protein that maintains • Unicellular organisms can do everything a
shape and movement. living organism can do except with one cell.
• Microfilaments: made of protein called actin. • Multicellular organisms depend on
• Microtubules: made of proteins called tubulins. communication and cooperation among
Also important for cell division where they form specialized cells.
centrioles that are only located in animal cells. What are the four levels of organization in
• Help build cilia and flagella….arranged in a 9+2 multicellular organisms?
arrangement. • The levels of organization in a multicellular
Prokaryotes and nuclei… organism are individual cells, tissues, organs,
• Prokaryotes do not contain a nucleus. So, if the and organ systems.
nucleus controls most cell processes in • Tissues: similar cells grouped into units.
eukaryotes, how can prokaryotes live without a • Organs: many groups of tissues working
nucleus? together.
What are the main functions of the cell membrane • Organ systems: group of organs that work
and the cell wall? together to perform a specific function.
• The cell membrane regulates what enters and Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
leaves the cell and also provides protection and • Plants and some other types of organisms are
support. able to use light energy from the sun to produce
• Cell membranes are made up of a double food.
layered sheet called a lipid bilayer. • Autotrophs produce their own food.
• The main function of the cell wall is to provide • Heterotrophs cannot use the sun directly so they
support and protection for the cell. must obtain energy from the foods they
What happens during diffusion? consume.
• Because diffusion depends upon random Chemical energy and ATP
particle movements, substances diffuse across • One of the principal chemical compounds that
membranes without requiring the cell to use cells use to store and release energy adenosine
energy. triphosphate or ATP.
• When the concentration of the solute is the same • ATP is adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose,
throughout the system, the system has reached and three phosphate groups.
equilibrium. • Energy is release by breaking the bond between
• Particles tend to move to an area of less the 2nd and 3rd phosphate during a reaction.
concentration until equilibrium is reached.
What is osmosis? Investigating Photosynthesis
• Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a
selectively permeable membrane. • Van Helmont: after careful measurements of a
• Isotonic: “same strength”, concentrations are the plant’s water intake and mass increase, he
same on both sides of the membrane. concludes that trees gains most of their mass
• Hypertonic: “above strength” from water
• Hypotonic: “below strength” • Priestley: using a bell jar, a candle, and a plant,
From Simple to More Complex he finds that the plant releases oxygen.
• Ingenhousz: find that aquatic plants produce
• Many multicellular organisms have structures oxygen bubbles in the light but not in the dark.
called organs that have a specific function and
Concludes that plants need sunlight to produce What is the Calvin cycle?
oxygen.  The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH
What did the experiments of van Helmont, from the light dependent reactions to produce high
Priestley, and Ingenhousz reveal about how plants energy sugars.
grow? • Uses 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a
single 6-carbon sugar molecule. As
The experiments performed by these scientists led photosynthesis proceeds, the cycle works
to work by other scientists who finally discovered steadily removing carbon dioxide from the
that in the presence of light, plants transform carbon atmosphere and turning out energy rich sugars.
dioxide and water into carbohydrates, and they also Factors that affect photosynthesis
release oxygen. • Availability of water
What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? • Temperature
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to • Intensity of light
convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy Chemical energy and food
sugars and oxygen. • A calorie is the amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree
Light and pigments
• Living things get the energy they need from
In addition to water and carbon dioxide,
food. Both plant and animal cells carry out the
photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll, a
final stages of cellular respiration in the
molecule in chloroplasts.
Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing
molecules called pigments. The principal pigment • The process of breaking down energy from
is chlorophyll. calories begins with glycolysis of cellular
Inside a chloroplast What is cellular respiration?
• Cellular respiration is the process that releases
• Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic energy by breaking down glucose and other
membranes called thylakoids. food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
• Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana.
• 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
• Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organized
chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters
What happens during the process of glycolysis?
called photosystems.
• Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule
• The stroma is the region just outside of the
of glucose is broken in half, producing two
thylakoid membrane.
molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon
Electron carriers • After glycolysis the cells ends up netting 2 ATP
molecules – the cell invested 2 molecules of
• A carrier molecule is a compound that can
ATP to begin the process and finished up with 4
accept a pair of high energy electrons and
ATP. One of the reactions sends 4 high energy
transfer them along with most of their energy to
electrons to an electron carrier called NAD+ and
another molecule in a process called the electron
on to the electron transport chain.
transport chain.
What are the two main types of fermentation?
• One of these is called NADP+
• The two main types of fermentation are
What happens in the light dependent reactions?
alcoholic fermentation (responsible for bread
• The light dependent reactions produce oxygen dough rising):
gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the
• Pyruvic acid+NADH alcohol+CO2+NAD+
energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
and lactic acid fermentation (responsible for many
• Take place in the thylakoid membranes of foods):
• Pyruvic acid+NADH lactic acid+NAD+
The Krebs Cycle • Made up of two identical sister chromatids
• During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid from attached by a centromere that is located in the
glycolysis is broken down into carbon dioxide center. Shaped like an ‘X’ held together at the
in a series of energy extracting reactions. center with a “.”
• Carbon dioxide from this is the source of all of What are the main events of the cell cycle?
the carbon dioxide in your breath. • During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for
• ATP that is produced is used for cellular division, and divides to form two daughter cells,
activities. each of which then begins the cycle again.
Electron transport chain • We call this entire resting period Interphase.
• The electron transport chain uses the high • The cell cycle consists of four phases – the M,
energy electrons for the Krebs cycle to convert S, G1, and G2 phases.
ADP to ATP. • The first stage of the division of the cell nucleus
• NADH and FADH2 is mitosis.
Totals… • The second stage of division of the cytoplasm is
• The total number of ATP molecules formed called cytokinesis.
during cellular respiration = 36 ATP!!
Getting Through What are the four phases of mitosis?
• Materials move through cells by diffusion. • Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four
Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and
products move out of cells. How does the size telophase.
of a cell affect how efficiently materials get to • Prophase: chromatin condenses into
all parts of a cell? chromosomes. The centrioles separate (only in
What problems does growth cause for cells? animal cells, there are no centrioles in plant
• The larger a cell becomes, the more demands cells), and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear
the cell places on its DNA. In addition, the cell envelope breaks down.
has more trouble moving enough nutrients and • Metaphase: the chromosomes line up across the
wastes across the cell membrane. center of the cell. Each chromosome is
• As a cell increases in size, it usually does not connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
make extra copies of DNA.
• Rate of exchanging materials changes. What are the four phases of mitosis?
Division of the cell • Anaphase: the sister chromatids separate into
• A growing cell will divide forming two individual chromosomes and are moved apart.
daughter cells in a process called cell division. • Telophase: the chromosomes gather at opposite
• Before this can happen the cell has to make ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes.
copies of its DNA. Two new nuclear envelopes will form.
Cell Cycle
• The cell cycle represents recurring events that How is the cell cycle regulated?
take place in the period of time from the • Cyclins regulate the timing of the cell cycle in
beginning of one cell division to the beginning eukaryotic cells.
of the next. In addition to cell division, the cell • Proteins that respond to events inside the cell
cycle includes periods when the cell is growing are internal regulators.
and actively producing materials it needs for the • Proteins that respond to events outside the cell
next division. are external regulators.
How are cancer cells different from other cells?
Chromosomes • Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that
• Human cells have 46 chromosomes that are regulate the growth of most cells.
made up of DNA. • They divide uncontrollably and form masses of
• Are not visible except during cell division (the cells called tumors.
phases of mitosis).