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KEMENTERIAN PERHUBUNGAN

DIREKTORAT JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA

PERATURAN DIREKTUR JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA

NOMOR : 136 TAHUN 2018


TENTANG

PETUNJUK TEKNIS BAGIAN 8900- 3.4 {STAFFINSTRUCTION 8900- 3.4)


PROGRAM KONTROL HERAT DAN KESEIMBANGAN

( WEIGHT AND BALANCE CONTROL PROGRAM)

DENGAN RAHMAD TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA,

DIREKTUR JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA,

Menimbang : a. bahwa Subbagian 121.153 (b) Lampiran Peraturan


Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 28 Tahun 2013
tentang Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil
Bagian 121 {Civil Aviation Safety Regulation Part 121)
tentang Persyaratan-Persyaratan Sertifikasi dan Operasi
Bagi Perusahaan Angkutan Udara Yang Melakukan
Penerbangan Dalam Negeri, Intemasional dan Angkutan
Udara Niaga Tidak Berjadwal {Certification and
Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and
Supplemental Air Carriers) sebagaimana telah diubah
beberapa kali, terakhir dengan Peraturan Menteri
Perhubungan Nomor PM 61 Tahun 2017 telah mengatur
bahwa pemegang sertifikat operator pesawat udara
(AGO) 121 hams membuat program kontrol berat dan
keseimbangan dan disahkan oleh Direktur Jenderal
Perhubungan Udara;
b. bahwa Subbagian 135.153 (b) Lampiran Keputusan
Menteri Perhubungan Nomor KM 18 Tahun 2002
tentang Persyaratan - Persyaratan Sertifikasi dan
Operasi Bagi Pemsahaan Angkutan Udara Niaga Untuk
Penerbangan Komuter dan Charter sebagaimana telah
beberapa kali diubah, terakhir dengan Peraturan
Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 63 Tahun 2017 telah
mengatur bahwa pemegang sertiflkat operator pesawat
udara (AOC) 135 hams membuat program kontrol berat
dan keseimbangan dan disahkan oleh Direktur Jenderal
Perhubungan Udara;
c. bahwa perlu disusun panduan bagi personel di
lingkungan Direktorat Kelaikudaraan dan
Pengoperasian Pesawat Udara dan pemegang sertiflkat
operator pesawat udara dalam melakukan evaluasi
terhadap program kontrol berat dan keseimbangan;
d. bahwa berdas^kan pertimbangan sebagaimana
dimaksud pada butir a, butir b, dan butir c perlu
menetapkan Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Perhubungan
Udara tentang Petunjuk Teknis Bagian 8900- 3.4
(Staff Instruction 8900- 3.4) Program Kontrol Berat
Dan Keseimbangan ( Weight And Balance Control
Program);

Mengingat : 1. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 1 Tahun


2009 tentang Penerbangan (Lembaran Negara Republik
Indonesia Tahun 2009 Nomor 1, Tambahan Lembaran
Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 4956);
2. Peraturan Presiden Nomor 7 Tahun 2015 tentang
■ Organisasi Kementerian Negara (Lembaran Negara
Republik Indonesia Tahun 2015 Nomor 5);
3. Peraturan Presiden Nomor 40 Tahun 2015 tentang
Kementerian Perhubungan (Lembaran Negara Republik
Indonesia Tahun 2015 Nomor 75);
4. Keputusan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor KM 18 Tahun
2002 tentang Persyaratan - Persyaratan Sertifikasi dan
Operasi Bagi Pemsahaan Angkutan Udara Niaga Untuk
Penerbangan Komuter dan Charter sebagaimana telah
beberapa kali diubah, terakhir dengan Peraturan
Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 63 Tahun 2017;
5. Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 28 Tahun
2013 tentang Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil
Bagian 121 {Civil Aviation Safety Regulation Part 121)
tentang Persyarat^-Persyaratan Sertifikasi dan Operasi
Bagi Perusahaan Angkutan Udara Yang Melakukan
Penerbangan Dalam Negeri, Intemasional dan Angkutan
Udara Niaga Tidak Berjadwal {Certification and
Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and
Supplemental Air Carriers) sebagaimana telah diubah
beberapa kali, terakhir dengan Peraturan Menteri
Perhubungan Nomor PM 61 Tahun 2017;
6. Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 59 Tahun
2015 Tentang Kriteria, Tugas dan Wewenang Inspektur
sebagaimana telah diubah terakhir dengan Peraturan
Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 142 Tahun 2016;
7. Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 189 Tahun
2015 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian
Perhubungan sebagaimana telah diubah terakhir
dengan Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor PM 117
Tahun 2017;

MEMUTUSKAN

Menetapkan : PERATURAN DIREKTUR JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN


UDARA TENTANG PETUNJUK TEKNIS BAGIAN 8900-
3.4 {STAFF INSTRUCTION 8900- 3.4) PROGRAM
KONTROL BERAT DAN KESEIMBANGAN ( WEIGHT
AND BALANCE CONTROL PROGRAM);

Pasal 1

Memberlakukan Petunjuk Teknis Bagian 8900-3.4 {Staff


Instruction 8900- 3.4) Program Kontrol Berat dan
Keseimbangan {Weight And Balance Control Program)
sebagaimana tercantum dalam Lampiran yang
merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari Peraturan ini.
Pasal 2

Direktur Kelaikudaraan dan Pengoperasian Pesawat


Udara mengawasi Pelaksanaan Peraturan ini.

Pasal 3

Pada saat Peraturan ini mulai berlaku, ketentuan dalam


Volume 2 Bab 74 dan Bab 75 Lampiran Peraturan
Direktur Jenderal Perhubungan Udara Nomor
SKEP/44/III/2010 tentang Staff Instruction 8300
Airworthiness Inspector's Handbook, dicabut dan
dinyatakan tidak berlaku.

Pasal 4

Peraturan Direktur Jenderal ini mulai berlaku sejak


tanggal ditetapkan

Ditetapkan di Jakarta
pada tanggal 9 Mei 2018

DIREKTUR JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA

ttd.

Dr. Ir. AGUS SANTOSO, M.Sc

i dengan aslinya
<</ PALA IAN HUKUM,

TOfiAT
PEf--ll5-S ^

DA NAMA SARI
ina (IV/a)
N P. "80704 199503 2 001
LAMHRAN PERATURAN DIREKTUR JENDERAL PERHUBUNGAN UDARA
NOMOR :KP 136 TAHUN 2018
TANGGAL :9 MEI 2018

Staff Instruction

SI 8900-3.4
Weight and Balance Control Program

Edition :1

Amendment : 0

Date : 9 May 2018


REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA - MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION
JAKARTA - INDONESIA
SI 8900-3.4

AMENDMENT RECORD LIST

Amendment No. Issue Date Reference

0 9 May 2018
SI 8900-3.4

FOREWORD

1. PURPOSE This Staff Instruction has been prepared to guide


and assist all Directorate of Airworthiness and
Aircraft Operation personnel, Directorate General of
Civil Aviation, operators (AOC) or applicants dealing
with DGCA, in evaluating of Weight and Balance
Program.

2. REFERENCES This Staff Instruction should be used in accordance


with the applicable regulations.

3. CANCELLATION SI 8300 Volume 2 Chapter 74 and Chapter 75 dated


March 2010 have been cancelled.

4. AMENDMENT The amendment of this Staff Instruction shall be


approved by the Director General of Civil Aviation.

DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION

ttd.

Dr. Ir. AGUS SANTOSO, M.Sc.

nalF aii dengan aslinya


EPA GIAN HUKUM,

■••'^x.endah'.Mrnama sari
fc ' ■ ■ '^^^^^ina (IV / a)
>80704 199503 2 001

u
SI 8900-3.4
April 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

AMENDMENT RECORD LIST i

FOREWORD "! ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS in

CHAPTER 1. EVALUATE CASR PART 121/135 OPERATOR'S WEIGHT AND


BALANCE CONTROL PROGRAM 1

1. OBJECTIVE 1

2. GENERAL 1
a. Operator's W&B Control Program 1
b. Program Authorization 1
c. Program Authorization Process 1
d. Aircraft W8bB 2
e. Aircraft Loading 2

3. CERTIFICATION BASIS(TC/AMENDED TC/STC) 3


a. TC and Type Certificate Data Sheet(TCDS) Issuance 3
b. Conformity to Type Design 3
c. Certificated Aircraft Information 3

4. DOCUMENTATION 4
a. Aircraft Weighing/W85B Documents 4
b. Aircraft Loading and Operation/W85B Document 4

5. OPERATOR/APPLICANT-DEVELOPED PROGRAM 4
a. Submitted Program 4
b. Unusual or Complex Programs 5
c. Load Schedules 5
d. Major Alterations 5
e. Determining the Loaded Weight and CG 5

6. AIRCRAFT WEIGHTS 6
a. Part 121 6
b. Part 135 6

7. WEIGH SCALES 6

8. AIRCRAFT LOADING SCHEDULE AND PROVISIONS 7


a. Aircraft Loading Schedule 7
b. Aircraft Loading Provisions 7
SI 8900-3.4

c. Passenger and Baggage Weights 7

9. OPERATOR'S CARGO OPERATIONS AND WSsB TRAINING 9


a. Responsibility for W85B Control 9
b. W&B (CG Control) 9
c. Training Program Curriculum 10

10.PASSENGER AND CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES 11

11. CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES 12

a. Cargo 12
b. Cargo Requiring Special Handling Procedures 12
c. Special Cargo 13
d. Unit Load Device 14

e. Active ULDs 15

f. Temperature-controlled Shipping Containers 15

12. OTHER RESTRAINTS 16

13. MULTIPLE ENTITIES 16

14. CLS Cargo Loading System 16


a. System Repairs 16
b. Missing Devices 17

15. VERIFYING MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION PROCEDURES 17

a. Addition or Removal of Equipment 17


b. W&B Revision Record 18

16. W&B RECORDS SURVEILLANCE 18

17. AUTHORITY FOR W&B 19

a. W&B Programs, Manuals, and Disciplines 19


b. Authorizations, Conditions and Limitation (ACL) 19

18. Operator's EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR W&B CONTROL 19


a. System List 19
b. System Performance 19
c. System Effectiveness 20

19. DGCA SURVEILLANCE 20

a. Review Qualifications 20
b. DGCA and Operator Communication 20

20.PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS 20


a. Prerequisites: 20

IV
SI 8900-3.4

b. Coordination 20

21. REFERENCES 20

22. PROCEDURES 21

a. Coordinate with the Operator/Applicant 21


b. Review the Operator's Manual/Program Document 21
c. Analyze the Results 24
d. Meet with Operator/Applicant 24

APPENDIX A - LIST OF APPLICABLE FORM 25

APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY/INDEX OF DEFINITION AND TERMS 26


SI 8900-3.4
April 2018

CHAPTER 1. EVALUATE CASH PART 121/135 OPERATOR'S WEIGHT AND


BALANCE CONTROL PROGRAM

1. OBJECTIVE.

This chapter provides guidance for evaluating (initial or revision)


an operator's Weight and Balance (WSbB) control program procedures.

2. GENERAL,

a. Operator's W&B Control Program.


The operator's W&B control program can be:

1) An independently controlled document that includes all the


instructions and procedures for W&B control; or

2) Included as a controlled part of another manual(s). The W&B


control program should undergo periodic reviews to ensure
compliance. The operator's manual system must include this
program. The W&B control and the carry-on baggage weight
programs contain approved data and acceptable methods which are
authorized for use in the Authorizations, Conditions and
Limitations (ACL) by the principal airworthiness inspector (PAI) in
coordination with the principal operations inspector (POI).

b. Program Authorization.

1) The PAI authorizes the aircraft's weighing procedures, and is


responsible for authorizing of all "E" series Authorizations,
Conditions and Limitations (ACL)

2) The POI authorizes the cariy-on baggage program, and is


responsible for authorizing of all "A" series Authorizations,
Conditions and Limitations (ACL)

c. Program Authorization Process.

1) POI Authorized Carry-On Baggage Program. Once the POI has


validated the accuracy of the operator's proposed average weights,
the POI will authorize the carry-on baggage program and specific
average passenger and baggage weights through ACL AO 11 in
conjunction with A097, A098, and A099, as applicable. As an
alternative to specific average passenger and baggage weights,
actual weights can be used and authorized for use through
ACL A096.

a) The operator's cariy-on baggage procedures must be designed


to ensure that the approved data derived from the type
certificate (TC)/Supplernental Type Certificate (STC) and
supplements are not compromised in the operator's W&B
control program.
SI 8900-3.4

b) ACL AO 11 should specily whether the operator is authorized to


have carry-on baggage or is authorized to use a
no-carry-on-baggage program. Authorization of an operator's
carry-on baggage program or no-carry-on baggage program is
authorized through ACL AO 11.

2) PAI Authorized Aircraft Average Fleet or Actual Weight Program.


The PAI is responsible for approving the aircraft average fleet or
actual weight program through the authorization of ACL E096.

NOTE: Depending on the complexity of the operation, coordination


with other inspector specialties may be required.

d. Aircraft W8&B.

1) WfisB Program Procedures. WSsB program procedures are the only


means for a DGCA PAI to authorize the use of either:

a) Individual aircraft weight program, or

b) Aircraft fleet weight program. The operator's manual system


must include how the operator manages the aircraft's basic
empty weight(BEW).

2) Develop Procedures for Aircraft W&B. The operator/applicant may


develop and submit for authorization any method or procedure by
which they can show that an aircraft:

• Has procedures for verifying aircraft configuration;

• Has procedures for weighing the aircraft;

• Will be periodically reweighed and its data reevaluated;

• Will have weight changes to the empty weight center of gravity


(EWCG) recorded, both in service and after reweigh; and

• Will have its data recalculated, if needed, due to changes.

Personnel accomplishing the above tasks must be adequately


trained.

e. Aircraft Loading.

1) Elements of Aircraft Loading. Aircraft loading, as it applies to W&B,


consists of the following two elements:

a) How to determine the unknown weights of crew, passengers,


or carry-on baggage.

• Authorized passenger and baggage weight program


procedures are the only means for a DGCA to authorize the
use of other than known weights for crew, passengers, or
carry-on baggage.

• Reports of the established average passenger and baggage


weights and surveys are also entered in the ACL.
SI 8900-3.4

b) Load contxol regarding the fuel, cargo, passenger, and baggage


weights is an operations furiction which the POI must oversee.
However, since it is part of the WSgB control program, the PAX
approves this element, in coordination with the POI, as part of
the W85B control program approval.

2) Develop Procedures For Aircraft Loading. The operator/applicant


may develop and submit for approval any method or procedure by
which they can show that:

a) An aircraft is properly loaded according to


approved/authorized configuration (loading schedules or
charts);

b) An aircraft will not exceed approved W8bB limitations during all


ground and flight operations;

c) Ground equipment is serviceable;

d) Unit load devices (ULD) have undergone a serviceability check;


and

e) Personnel are trained.

3. CERTIFICATION BASIS (TC/AMENDED TC/STC).

a. TC and Type Certificate Data Sheet(TCDS)Issuance.

When the DGCA approves the design of an aircraft, it issues an


approved TC and TCDS. The TCDS includes all pertinent specifications
for the aircraft. The W&B information is available in the TCDS under
"Data Pertinent to All Models."

NOTE: The TCDS may reference the aircraft manufacture's WBM


for this information.

b. Conformity to Type Design.

Conformity to type design is considered attained when the required and


proper components are installed, and they are consistent with the
drawings, specifications, and other data that are part of the TC.
Conformity would include amended TCs, applicable STCs, and
field-approved alterations.

c. Certificated Aircraft Information.

An operator/applicant must know certain information before it can


properly weigh an aircraft and compute its EWCG. The DGCA furnishes
this information for every certificated aircraft in the TCDS or aircraft
specifications available to all operators.

NOTE: The operator's equipment list that comprises the basic


operating weight(BOW) of the aircraft must be validated to
ensure that it is current.
SI 8900-3.4

4. DOCUMENTATION

a. Aircraft Weighing/W&B Documents.

1) Review the manufacturer's maintenance program in the Aircraft


Maintenance Manual(AMM)or aircraft service manual.

2) Verify that the W85B weighing information in the aircraft's W&B


control program document and AMM include current W8bB
information such as:

• Empty weight and EWCG limits;


• Weighing the aircraft;
• Configuration control;
• Weighing schedule; and
• Personnel training.

b. Aircraft Loading and Operation/W8bB Document.

1) Review the manufacturer's program documents for cargo loading,


W&B control, and Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)/Rotorcraft Flight
Manual (RFM).

2) Verify that the W&B information in the loading and operation W&B
control document and AFM includes current information such as;

• EWCG;
• Loading graphs;
• Center of gravity (CG) envelopes;
• Loading schedules;
• Index tables;
• Load manifest; and
• Personnel training.

The manual may refer to a W&B plotter. If so, ensure that this
device is available.

3) Ensure that the manufacturer's procedures cover all aspects of the


CASR part 121/135 operator's intended operation.

5. OPERATOR/APPLICANT-DEVELOPED PROGRAM.

a. Submitted Program.

The operator/applicant may submit any method or procedure by which


it can show that all aircraft are properly weighed, loaded, and will not
exceed approved W&B limitations during all operations.

1) The operator's manual can provide these procedures, or they may


be an independently controlled document that includes all
instructions and procedures for maintenance, operations, and
cargo handling.
SI 8900-3.4

2) The W85B document must include company procedures and


instructions for completing forms used in aircraft weight control
and aircraft loading. The submitted information should include
mathematical justification for loading provisions or schedules.
3) The W&B document must indicate the source of the data used to
develop the program. This data may come from the manufacturer's
W&B documentation referenced from the TCDS, the AFM/RFM,
and STC information.

4) The program must contain the duties, responsibilities, and


authority for flight, ground operations, maintenance, and
management personnel.

5) The program must identify the training requirements for flight,


ground operations, maintenance, and management personnel.

Note: Weight should be a consistent measure, either pounds or


kilograms. If both pounds and kilograms are used,
procedures must include a method of conversion to ensure
accurate weights and measures are used in the calculation
of aircraft W&B.

b. Unusual or Complex Programs.

If the operator/applicant proposes an unusual or complex W&B


program, or if that program is substantially different from the W&B
document or approved AFM/RFM, request assistance from specialists.

c. Load Schedules.

The load schedule must include a system for aircraft loading under all
loading situations, including alternate procedures for nonstandard
weight of persons or groups. The operator's procedures must provide all
necessaiy information (e.g., charts, graphs, and tables) with related
instructions for the loading.

d. Major Alterations.

Occasionally, an operator/applicant may request approval to operate an


aircraft with an increase in gross weight and/or change in CG range.
This constitutes a major design change, and requires approval by the
CASR Part 21.113.

e. Determining the Loaded Weight and CG.

An important part of preflight planning is to determine that the aircraft


is loaded so that its weight and CG location are within the allowable
limits. There are two ways of doing this:

1) By the computational method, using weights, arms, and moments;


and

2) By the loading graph method, using weight and moment indexes.


SI 8900-3.4

6. AIRCRAFT WEIGHTS.

a. Part 121.
Operators/applicants are required to weigh aircraft operated under
CASR Part 121.165.

1) No person may operate an airplane unless the current empty


weight and center of gravity are calculated from values established
by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding 36 calendar
months.

2) Paragraph (1)) of this section does not apply to-

a) Aircraft issued an original airworthiness certificate within the


preceding 36 calendar months; and

b) Aircraft operated under a weight and balance system approved


in the operations specifications/ACL of the certificate holder.

b. Part 135,
Operators/applicants are required to weigh aircraft operated under
CASR Part 135.360.

1) No person may operate an airplane unless the current empty


weight and center of gravity are calculated from values established
by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding 36 calendar
months.

2) Paragraph (1)) of this section does not apply to-

a) Aircraft issued an original airworthiness certificate within the


preceding 36 calendar months; and

b) Aircraft operated under a weight and balance system approved


in the operations specifications/ACL of the certificate holder.

NOTE: Procedures that establish an aircraft's BOW, establishment of zone


weights and compartment weight within the aircraft, and tables or
charts that depict proper weight and CG ranges and limitations are
contained in the Original Equipment Manufacturer's (OEM) W&B
requirements, the STC holder's W&B supplement, or other
DGCA-acceptable means.

7. WEIGH SCALES

Scales used to weigh passengers, aircraft, and cargo must be calibrated and
traceable to a Komite Akreditasi Nasional (KAN) or equivalent.
Operators/applicants must perform calibration in accordance with the civil
authority for weights and measures having jurisdiction over the area in
which they are using the scales. The frequency of calibration testing depends
on use and handling. Certification documents should be in the English
language. Cargo weigh scales should be calibrated and periodically and
functionally checked for accuracy in conformance with the operators
program. A functional check should consist of field-testing the scale's
accuracy to within ±1 % with a specific item of a known weight. Operators
must have procedures in their manuals to control the use, calibration.
SI 8900-3.4

and/or verification of weigh scales, and record retention of calibration or


verification for scales used by operators and vendors.
8. AIRCRAFT LOADING SCHEDULE AND PROVISIONS.

a. Aircraft Loading Schedule.

Operators/applicants should design loading schedules to reduce the


elements of human error. These loading schedules may apply to
individual aircraft or to a complete fleet.
b. Aircraft Loading Provisions.

Operators/applicants should properly mark all seats, compartments,


and other loading stations, and the identification used should
correspond with the instructions established for computing the WSsB of
the aircraft. When the loading procedures provide for blocking off seats
or compartments to remain within the CG limits, the operator/applicant
should provide effective means to ensure that such seats or
compartments are not occupied during the operations specified. In such
cases, operators/applicants should prepare instructions for
crewmembers, load agents, cargo handlers, and other personnel
concerned, giving complete information regarding distribution of
passengers, cargo, fuel, and other items. Information relative to
maximum capacities and other pertinent limitations affecting the weight
or balance of the aircraft should be included in these instructions. When
adverse distribution of passengers and/or cargo exceeds the approved
CG limits of the aircraft, special instructions should be issued to the
pilot in command (PIC) and appropriate personnel so that the load
distribution can be maintained within the approved limitation.
c. Passenger and Baggage Weights.

There are three methods available to operators to determine passenger


and bag weights: standard average weights, average weights based on
survey and actual weights.

1) Standard Average Passenger Weights. Standard average passenger


weights were established based on data from Ministry of Health
Republic of Indonesia surveys.

The standard average passenger weights in Table 8-1 include 2,3


kilograms (5 pounds) for clothing, and a 7,3 kilograms (16-pounds)
allowance for personal items ^d cariy-on bags. Where no gender is
given, the standard average passenger weights are based on the
assumption that 50 percent of passengers are male and 50 percent
of passengers are female
SI 8900-3.4

TABLE 8-1. STANDARD AVERAGE PASSENGER WEIGHTS

Weight Per Passenger


Standard Average
Passenger Weight
kilograms pounds

Average adult
71kg 157 lbs
passenger weight

• Average adult male


73 kg 161 lbs
passenger weight

• Average adult female


69 kg 152 lbs
passenger weight

Child weight (2 years to


less than 9 years of 35 kg 77 lbs
age)

2) Average Weights Based on Survey. Average weights based on survey


allows operators with an acceptable survey method to use it in
determining average weights for a W85B control program.

The operator will provide the DGCA with the results of a reliable
survey to establish an average passenger weight for its specific
operation.

3) Actual Weights. To determine the actual weight of a personal item,


cany-on bag, checked bag, plane-side loaded bag, or a heavy bag, a
operator should weigh the item on a scale. A operator may
determine the actual weight of passengers by:

a) Weighing each passenger on a scale before boarding the


aircraft (types of weight scales and scale tolerances -will be
defined in the operator's W85B control program); or

b) Asking each passenger his or her weight. An operator should


add to this asked (volunteered) weight at least 10 pounds to
account for clothing. A operator may increase this allowance
for clothing on certain routes or during certain seasons, if
appropriate.

Special Passenger Groups. Nonstandard actual group weight or


established survey weights may be used for nonstandard weight groups
(e.g., sports teams).

Crewmembers. An operator may choose to use actual crewmember


weights or conduct a survey to establish average crewmember weights
appropriate for its operation.

Average Baggage Weight or Actual Weights. An operator may establish


average passenger baggage weights predicated on a study of actual
baggage weights for the operations or routes involved that consider
seasonal and other variables.
SI 8900-3.4

NOTE: Unless otherwise authorized by the W85B control manual, the


operator shall use the actual passenger and baggage weights in
computing the WfisB of charter flights and other special services
involving the carriage of special groups.
Passenger and Crew Baggage. Operators/applicants must provide
procedures so that all baggage, including that carried on board by the
flightcrew, is properly accounted for. If desired by the operator, it may
use a standard crew baggage weight.

9. OPERATOR'S CARGO OPERATIONS AND W8bB TRAINING.

a. Responsibility for W&B Control.

W&B is one of the most important factors affecting safety of flight. The
responsibility for proper W&B control begins with the air
carrier/operator, and extends to ground operations persons who load
the aircraft, the Aviation Maintenance Engineer who maintains the
aircraft, and the flightcrew members who operate the aircraft. The
operator must have procedures and training to ensure proper W&B,
with a system to direct the proper loading of the aircraft within limits.
1) Personnel Qualification Identification. Personnel involved in cargo
operations (e.g., cargo acceptance, cargo build-up, aircraft loading
and supervising aircraft loading) must be trained, qualified, and
authorized, as defined in the operator's manual. This training must
be easily identified by documentation in training records and
authorization documents readily available.

2) Responsibility. Operators should develop cargo operations and


W&B training programs. Training should explain employee
functions, and express expectations of job duties and
responsibilities, according to the operator's procedures. An operator
should have procedures to train all its employees and vendors to its
standards. Personnel involved in cargo operations must be trained,
qualified, and authorized, as defined in the operator's manual. This
training must be easily identified by documentation in training
records and authorization documents readily available.
b. W&B(CG Control).

Operators must have training programs for personnel involved with


W&B. These programs should contain the processes and procedures to
maintain the weight and CG of aircraft dispatched. All operator and
vendor personnel involved in W&B should receive fundamental W&B
training at a general subject matter level. The operator's training course
for personnel or vendors involved with W&B and CG calculations should
include, at a minimum:

1) Aircraft manufacturer's requirements or the STC instructions;

2) Minimum equipment list(MEL);


I

3) Position of cargo and baggage;

4) Notification of flightcrew;
SI 8900-3.4

5) Calculations for average weights of persons and baggage, seasonal


changes, and unusual loads, such as sports teams, military, and
manifest weights of cargo;
6) Calculations for actual weights and when to use them;
7) Processes that take into account CG offsets for cargo, both loaded
into ULDs or loaded onto the aircraft;
8) Computer programs or other methods used to calculate CO;- and
9) Processes and procedures to certify personnel to calculate W&B.
c. Training Program Curriculum.

Operators must provide:

1) Programs for Load Personnel. Training programs are to include:


• Basic aircraft load procedures, such as step-loading containers
on all-cargo aircraft, loading containers in passenger aircraft,
and bulk loading in lower and upper lobes;
• CLS and cargo handling procedures;
• Procedures for training load vendors and audit requirements for
those vendors;
• Training on expectations of loaders and proper load procedures,
including safety and hazardous materials (hazmat); and
• Frangible cargo requirements for certain positions.
2) Programs for Load Supervisors. In addition to the requirements for
load personnel listed in subparagraph Cl) above, training for
persons responsible for the load on an aircraft ensures
understanding of those responsibilities, to include:

• ULDload;
• Aircraft load;
• Serviceability of ULDs;
• Aircraft cargo loading;
• Restraint systems; and
• Special cargo.

3) Training on Cargo Buildup. This training should include:

• Recognition of proper ULD configuration;


• Operational standards;
• Net attachments;
• Restraints;
• Weigh procedures;
• Container configurations and condition;
• CG offsets, profiling, and authorization for use on particular
aircraft;
• Cargo buildup to comply with CG control; and
• Special cargo.
• Personnel to receive this training include vendors and
freight forwarders.

10
SI 8900-3.4

4) Programs for Maintenance Personnel. Training for maintenance


personnel must consist of:

• Aircraft weighing procedures;


• WSsB changes due to alterations;
• CLS maintenance;
• W&B control program audit function under the Continuing
Analysis and Surveillance System (CASS) program
(parts 121/135);
• Repair of ULDs and cargo restraint systems;
• Inspection requirements;
• Receiving inspection requirements for components contracted
out; and
• Recording requirements.

5) Flightcrew and flight operation officer (FOO) Awareness Training.


Programs should include procedures to train flightcrews and flight
operation officer (FOO)in cargo loading, to include examples of:
• Unserviceable ULDs;
• Restraints;
• CLS;
• Aircraft configuration;
• Hazmat;
• Special cargo; and
• Duties and responsibilities of ground personnel.

6) Recurrent Training. An operator's cargo operations and W&B


training programs should establish recurrent training requirements
and intervals not to exceed 24 months, unless the DGCA grants an
extension.

7) Training Records and Retention. Programs should include


procedures to retain training records for personnel. Operators
should retain training records for the duration of personnel
employment plus 90 days.

In accordance with CASR part 121.463, pilots and flight operation


officer (FOO) require recurrent W&B training every 12 calendar-months.
Training records for these individuals must be retained in accordance
with training record retention periods.

10. PASSENGER AND CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES.

The air carrier's/operator's manuals should include passenger and cargo


loading procedures. These procedures should be consistent across all
manuals throughout the company.

11
SI 8900-3.4

11. CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES.

a. Cargo.

Operators/applicants must provide procedures for loading/unloading


freight into upper main cargo compartments on all-cargo aircraft and
into lower lobe compartments on all aircraft. Cargo loading should
include procedures for:

1) Loading, based on aircraft configuration (i.e., all-cargo, passenger


and convertible). These procedures may vary depending on the type
of CLS installed, restraint equipment installed or used, and cargo
door configuration.

2) Ensuring cargo loads are in compliance vdth the manufacturer's


WBM or the STC instructions.

3) Loading aircraft to prevent tail tipping.

4) Ensuring that if containers are used, they are properly restrained.

5) Ensuring that cargo or baggage is properly restrained using the


restraint system required by the airplane W85B documents.

6) Ensuring that cargo is loaded per the OEM and operator's W86B
procedures.

b. Cargo Requiring Special Handling Procedures.

Some cargo may require additional or unique procedures to protect


cargo or the aircraft during handling acceptance, loading, or in flight.
Examples of special handling procedures include ceremony or
instructions for transporting human remains, feeding live animals in
transit, signature service forms for tracking mail/cargo, compatibility
with hazmat, protective gear when handling cryogenics, etc. This cargo
could also be classified as special cargo. The operator's procedures
should address cargo loads requiring special handling. The operator
should establish procedures for cargo requiring unique or special
handling, which may include the following:

1) Offset cargo;

2) Overweight cargo;

3) Overhanging cargo;

4) Outsized cargo;

5) Sharp or piercing cargo;

6) Crated heavy machineiy;

7) Reels or spools;

8) Motor vehicles and other wheeled cargo;

9) Tall cargo;

12
SI 8900-3.4

10) Rigid cargo;

11) Tall rigid cargo (TRC);


12) Cargo not fully restrained by the CLS;

13) Human remains;

14) Foodstuff, feed, and postal mail;

15) Hazmat;

16) Active ULDs;

17) Temperature control ULD containers;

18) Live animals;

19) ULDs;

20) Special cargo; and

21) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) cargo,


c. Special Cargo.

Cargo not contained in an ULD certified for the airplane CLS or enclosed
in a cargo compartment certified for bulk loading is special cargo. This
type of cargo requires special handling and securing/restraining
procedures. In addition to special cargo requirements, all such cargo will
require special handling procedures.

1) Operators should:

• Develop policies and procedures for the identification,


acceptance, and carriage of special cargo with a high degree of
safety;
• Have policies and procedures to ensure special cargo loads are
in compliance with the manufacturer's WBM or the STC
instructions;
• Have policies, procedures, and controls in place when
transporting special cargo;
• Flightcrew, FOG and Aircraft Maintenance Engineer are
trained, qualified, and authorized to perform special cargo
functions; and
• Distribute load schematic to appropriate personnel and ensure
it is retained with load manifest.

2) The responsible person will identify special cargo, evaluate special


cargo risks, and develop a plan to ensure safety of flight using
DGCA-approved TC/STC WBM data:

• Use certificate-holder-developed procedures for planning and


evaluating special cargo transport;
• Determine restraint;

13
SI 8900-3.4

• Develop a load schematic, which includes a tiedown scheme


and load calculations.
• Special cargo with a tiedown scheme that complies with
a DGCA-approved airplane WBM/supplement can be
incorporated into the operator's manuals. The load schematic
will not be necessary for special cargo items identified in the
operator's manual. However, when using the authorized
manual procedure, the operator should reference the manual
and page number on a cargo loading document and retain it
with load manifest.

d. Unit Load Device

ULDs are certified to a Technical Standard Order (TSO), STC, production


certificate, or militaiy standard. Noncertified ULDs are built to an
industry standard and are allowed only on certain aircraft as described
in the aircraft WBM or STC W&B,_ supplement. Operators must have
procedures for:

1) Ensuring their manual lists the certified ULDs and pallet-net


combinations approved for each aircraft.

2) Buildup of containers and pallets to ensure proper CG control so as


not to exceed certification limitations for horizontal and vertical CG.

3) Buildup of palletized and bulk cargo that ensure that the load fits
the fuselage profile of the aircr^t that they are loading.
4) CG offsets control to ensure that loaded pallets or containers do not
exceed certification limitations for horizontal and vertical CG, Bulk
load procedures ensure that the load does not exceed CG offset for
the compartment that they are loading. This would include ULDs
loaded in double configuration with vacant adjacent positions.

5) Ensuring that ULDs are operational before loading on an aircraft,


and designate a responsible person to perform these checks and
validate to the flightcrew on the load sheet, manifest, or other form
that the designated person has,performed the operational checks.

6) Ensuring owned or leased ULDs, pallet, and nets are maintained


under a operator's or vendor/supplier's maintenance program that
satisfies the instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) of the
ULD manufacturer. The operator should have a program to
determine the serviceability of, the ULD when it is intended to be
placed onboard the aircraft and ULD traceability through their
authorized vendor list which is made available to the DGCA.

7) Routing unserviceable ULDs to repair facilities listed on the


operator's authorized vendor lists.

8) Ensuring that after any repair, maintenance, or modification of


equipment such as dollies, slave frames, containers, and carts, a
new tare weight is reestablished by reweighing the equipment.
t
)

14
SI 8900-3.4

e. Active ULDs.

ULDs with active temperature control systems for transporting


temperature-sensitive cargo.
Unlike the typical ULD, active ULDs are capable of heating and/or
refrigerating as required. These systems consist of a highly insulated
container with a batteiy-operated heating/cooling system integrated into
the construction of the container. Active ULDs are intended to be
operating during flight. Active ULDs are battery-powered in flight and
are only recharged while on the ground. The "active" component of these
units consists of a vapor cycle refrigeration/heat pump type system that
is powered by various types of large batteries, depending on the
manufacturer.

f. Temperature-controlled Shipping Containers.


Temperature-controlled shipping containers are devices designed to
maintain their contents within strict temperature controls. These
devices may bear a TSO, STC, Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA), or be
allowed by the TC. These units will be approved in the limitations
section of the certification document for use with certain net-pallet
combinations. Any aircraft that is eligible to carry the approved
net-pallet combinations may carry these devices. For an air
carrier/operator to carry these devices, it must incorporate or reference
the pertinent parts of the device's certification documents into its
manual. These may include:

1) Required markings, placards, and labeling, including:


Marking required by CASR Part 45, Any other placards or labeling
required for the safe handling, operation, and carriage of the device.
2) ICAs containing:

• A complete set of instructions for maintenance, inspection, and


return to service after maintenance, and a list of people
authorized to perform these functions.
• All proposed limitations and restrictions necessary to safely
carry the device on an aircraft. This includes the list of
approved pallet/cargo-net combinations, the number of devices
allowed for each of these combinations, and instructions that
no loose cargo is allowed u^der the cargo-net.
3) Operating instructions for the device, which include:

• Procedures for preflight preparation and inspection, including


identification of any serviceable tags or other instrument
required to certify airworthiness prior to carriage.
• Instructions to ensure air carrier and ground handling
personnel can identify the unit is operating properly and ensure
the unit is removed from service in case of failure.
• Procedures for normal and emergency operations.
• Procedures for handling of the device.

15
SI 8900-3.4

• Instructions for the proper loading of the device for each


approved pallet/cargo net combination, including the number
of devices allowed, and instructions that no loose cargo is
allowed under the cargo net.
• All limitations (as approved in the ICA).
• Training requirements for the above.
• Hazmat and dangerous goods procedures may apply to these
devices and/or their contents.

Prior to transport of the temperature-controlled shipping container on


its aircraft, ensure the operator or air carrier complies with the
guidance in this paragraph. It is imperative to note that all operators
(e.g., transfer and interline) must have these procedures in their
manuals, or referenced in their manuals, and provide training to their
personnel prior to carriage on their aircraft.

12. OTHER RESTRAINTS.

A TSO, original type design, STC, or major alteration may be the certification
basis for restraints such as straps, tiedowns, or nets. The WBM, STC W85B
supplement, or major alteration documentation for each aircraft lists the
restraints allowed on an individual aircraft.

13. MULTIPLE ENTITIES.

The operator/applicant may use multiple entities to perform functions


associated with the movement of cargo. Examples of these entities include
shippers, vendors, and freight forwarders, which may perform cargo buildup,
weighing, freight staging, cargo loading, interlining, and restraint. The
operator's manual must contain procedures to address these activities. The
operator is ultimately responsible for safety of flight and the security of the
cargo. The operator must:

• Ensure entities are trained, qualified, and authorized to perform duties


per the operator's W85B control program,
• Audit third-party operations, and
• Ensure third-party adherence to the operator's procedures.
14. CLS Cargo Loading System.

CLSs, both upper and lower deck, are approved by various means. They may
be certified as part of the certification basis of an aircraft, by STC, or by
major alteration for an individual aircraft installation. These systems consist
of locks, end stops, vertical side restraints, ball mats, roller sections, side
guides, etc. CLSs are also designed as a conveyance for ULDs, allowing them
to move easily in and out of the aircraft. In addition, some CLSs are powered.
a. System Repairs.

Repair of system components should be part of the operator's manual


system, along with the ability to substitute load-bearing components.
Substitution should be based on DGCA-approved data. Substitution
would include those subparts of a load-bearing component. The operator
should show that, if a substitution is done, it is backed up with
approved data. The operator's manual system should show the modified

16
SI 8900-3.4

configuration and how that configuration is controlled. That control may


be in the form of an Engineering Order (EG), engineering report, or other
document described in the operator's manual.
b. Missing Devices.

Regardless of the approval method used, MEL concerns should be


addressed. This includes operation with missing restraint devices along
with weight and/or performance penalties for the missing device
(i.e., reduced compartment weight limits).
15. VERIFYING MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION PROCEDURES,

a. Addition or Removal of Equipment.

1) CO Change after Repair or Alteration. The largest weight changes


that occur during the lifetime of an aircraft are those caused by
alterations and repairs. It is the responsibility of the air
carrier/operator doing the work to accurately document the weight
change and record it in the aircraft record.

a) When operators make conversions, modifications, repairs, or


major alterations to an aircraft that change the current WSeB
requirements and/or limitations, the DGCA generally approves
a WSsB supplement or other control documents, such as STCs;
DGCA Form 43-337, Major Repair and Alteration (Airframe,
Powerplant, Propeller, or Appliance); or other WSgB reports.
This supplementary information describes the effect of the
conversion or modification on the aircraft, and the DGCA
generally approves it as part of an STC or major alteration.
b) When an operator makes a conversion, modification, or major
alteration to an aircraft that changes its W&B characteristics,
operator should have a procedure in place to ensure that all
supplemental information developed, issued, and approved for
that aircraft is incorporated into the air carrier's/operator's
WSsB control program. An air carrier/operator must apply the
most restrictive ranges of the incorporated modifications to the
operation of that aircraft. For example, if multiple STCs apply,
the air carrier/operator must use the STC with the most
restrictive W8eB limitations when incorporating the
supplemental information into air carrier's/operator's WSsB
control programs. In all cases of multiple STCs applied to a
single aircraft, the STCs should be evaluated for effect on each
other and the appropriate limitations applied. At a minimum,
an air carrier/operator should:

• Include the supplemental information described above or


cross-reference the supplemental information in the air
carrier's/operator's WBM;
• Organize the supplemental information according to
aircraft type or in away that facilitates use by loading
personnel; and

17
SI 8900-3.4

• Include the supplemental information in its air


carrier's/operator's WBM and any charts or tables that
indicate proper weight and CG range limitations.
2) Permanent Ballast. If a repair or alteration causes the aircraft CG
to fall outside of its limits, permanent ballast can be installed.
Permanent ballast may consist of blocks of lead or other material. It
should be marked, "Permanent Ballast/Do Not Remove." It should
be attached to the structure so that it does not interfere with any
control action, and be attached rigidly enough that it cannot be
dislodged by any flight maneuvers or rough landing. Two things
must first be known to determine the amount of ballast needed to
bring the CG within limits:

• The amount the CG is out of limits; and


• The distance between the location of the ballast and the limit
that is affected.

3) Temporary Ballast. Temporary ballast, in the form of lead bars or


heavy canvas bags of sand or lead shot, is often carried in the
baggage compartments to adjust the balance for certain flight
conditions. The bags should be marked as ballast and secured.
Removal may require recalculation of the aircraft BOW. Temporary
ballast must be secured so that it cannot shift its location in flight,
and the structural limits of the baggage compartment must not be
exceeded. All temporary ballast must be removed before the aircraft
is weighed.

b. WSbB Revision Record.

1) Each revision record should be identified by the date and the


aircraft make, model, and serial number. The pages should be
signed by the person making the revision.

2) The computations for a W&B revision are included on a W&B


revision form. Appropriate fore and aft extreme loading conditions
should be investigated and the computations shown. The WSsB
revision sheet should clearly show the revised empty weight, empty
weight arm, and/or moment index, and the new Basic Operating
Weight(BOW).

NOTE: BOW is defined as the weight of an aircraft with unusable fuel,


all fluids, crew, and installed equipment, as defined by the
operator's program based on TC, STC, or other DGCA-approved
data.

16. W85B RECORDS SURVEILLANCE.

Maintenance weighing records, training records, and air cargo operations


audit records must reflect compliance with the WSsB control program. CLSs
and ULDs must have records of maintenance, preventive maintenance, and
inspections located in the aircraft maintenance records. The following must
reflect compliance with the W85B control program:
• Ground operations load manifest records;
• Load verification sheets;

18
SI 8900-3.4

• Flight operations records; and


• Personnel training records.

17. AUTHORITY FOR W&B.

a. W85B Programs, Manuals, and Disciplines.

The W85B control program is not just an isolated program for


maintenance to comply with weighing the aircraft. It covers all employee
disciplines that must interact together to operate the aircraft within the
W85B limitations. Manuals must be consistent in text to provide
guidance for the W&B system to work properly.
b. Authorizations, Conditions and Limitation (ACL).

W&B control programs are authorized on ACL will list the appropriate
documents used for W&B control. The operator/applicant will enter
average passenger and baggage weights, along with surveys to validate
these weights, into the current ACL, as appropriate.

18. Operator's EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR W&B CONTROL.

An operator should establish and maintain a closed-loop system for the


continuing analysis, evaluation and surveillance of the performance and
effectiveness of its W&B control program. The closed-loop system should
include at least: surveillance. Root Cause Analysis (RCA), corrective action,
and follow up. This system periodically monitors (minimum once a year) the
performance and effectiveness of the W&B control program, which includes
cargo operations, to ensure constant compliance. Operators can add this
system to their CASS or they can develop their own closed-loop system.

NOTE: This is a shared responsibility between operations and maintenance


roles. A process should be in place to ensure that the operator reports
and tracks this information to the CASS or similar parallel closed-loop
system.

a. System List.

The system should define how and when the operators/applicants audit
the W&B cargo operation control system to include, at a minimum;

• Aircraft loading;
• Cargo buildup;
• Carriage of special cargo;
• Vendors;
• Personnel training;
• Freight forwarders; and
• CLS.

b. System Performance.

System performance should be monitored to include such items as load


plans, load manifests, aircraft configuration changes, cargo loading and
restraint system performance (e.g., broken straps identified after use in
flight and in-flight shift of cargo), and human factors issues with
loaders, load supervisors, and vendors.

19
SI 8900-3.4

c. System Effectiveness.

System effectiveness should be monitored to identify the reliability of the


overall performance for cargo operations.
19. DGCA SURVEILLANCE.

a. Review Qualifications.

The PAI and POI are to review their assigned air carrier/operator's WSsB
control procedures. This review shall include the subject areas
discussed in this chapter, along with the appropriate air
carrier's/operator's manuals. It is imperative that the operator qualifies
and authorizes any vendors used for cargo loading to perform these
functions. The DGCA encourages PAI and POI to review any training
program their operator accomplishes for personnel who supervise the
loading of aircraft, prepare load manifest forms, or qualify and authorize
other persons to accomplish these requirements.
b. DGCA and Operator Communication.

Operators have a statutory mandate to perform their services with the


highest possible degree of safety. Achievement of that goal requires a
concerted effort between the DGCA and the air carrier. The DGCA
conducts special emphasis ramp checks to validate the current state of
W&B control procedures and cargo loading operations. The DGCA
should make special efforts to keep all apprised of the methods by which
inspectors conduct these inspections and inform them of any instances
of noncompliance discovered in those inspections. The DGCA
encourages operators, in turn, to use such information to evaluate their
own systems, programs, and operations, and make any necessaiy
corrections.

20. PREREQUISITES AND COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS.

a. Prerequisites:

1) Knowledge of the regulatory requirements of CASR Parts 91,


121and 135;
2) Successful completion of the Airworthiness Inspector Indoctrination
course(s) or equivalent; and
3) Previous experience with part 91, 121 or 135 W&B programs.
b. Coordination.

This task requires close coordination between Airworthiness and


Operations inspectors.

21. REFERENCES.

• CASR Parts 21, 23, 25, 43, 91, 121 and 135.
• Approved AFMs.
• Aircraft equipment lists.
• Aircraft maintenance records(W&B Records).
• Approved pilot's operating handbooks (POH).
• STCs.

20
SI 8900-3.4

• TCDS and aircraft specifications.


• Approved WBMs.

DGCA Form No. 120-35 (Apr 2017) Evaluation and Approval Of Weight
and Balance Control Program
22. PROCEDURES.

a. Coordinate with the Operator/Applicant.

The operator/applicant must submit the following for review:


1) Manual or revision;

2) W8bB program document (if not part of a manual);


3) Pertinent company procedures;

4) Instructions for completing forms used in aircraft weight control


and aircraft loading; and

5) Mathematical justification for loading provisions or schedules.


b. Review the Operator's Manual/Program Document.
The manual must include procedures, levels of authority, and
information appropriate to CASR Part 91, 121, or 135. In addition, the
PAI and POI must confirm that the manual includes the following:
1) Manual introduction, to include:

• Description of the philosophy and the goals of the manual;


• Description of the division of contents between volumes, if more
than one volume; and
• List of Effective Pages (LEP), including dates.
2) Manual revision and distribution procedures to ensure:

• Current information is provided to all manual holders; and


• Manuals are available to maintenance, operations, and ground
personnel, and the operator/applicant furnishes them to the
DGCA.

3) Definitions of all significant terms used in the program. The


definitions must reflect their intended use and include any
acronyms or abbreviations unique to the manual.

4) Description of the organizational unit responsible for the control


and maintenance of the W&B program, to include:

• Definitions of lines of authority, and


• Description of the support structure.

21
SI 8900-3.4

5) Training programs for the following (including vendors):

• Maintenance personnel,
• Operations and dispatch personnel, and
• Ground handling personnel.

6) A means of documenting and retaining individual training records.

7) Procedures for:

• Determining standards and schedules for calibration of aircraft


scales;
• Pre-weighing instructions and requirements;
• Determining which aircraft are to be weighed;
• Establishing and maintaining BOW equipment lists for each
aircraft;
• Recording the type and serial number for each scale used,
airplane weight, residual fluids, and scale tare weights;
• Initial weighing of aircraft;
• Monitoring and adjusting individual aircraft or fleet, empty
weight, and CG;
• Periodic reweighing of aircraft;
• Ensuring aircraft are configured under approved data;
• Ensuring the operator's manual lists the certified ULDs and
pallet-net combinations approved for each aircraft;
• Control of ULDs, including serviceability standards, CG offset,
and buildup;
• Ensuring cargo is loaded in accordance with the manufacturer's
WBM or the STC instructions; and
• Control and oversight of vendors, including freight forwarders.

8) A loading schedule consisting of graphs/tables or a special loading


schedule for a calculator or computerized program. These
schedules must ensure that pertinent data is available for all
probable W65B conditions of the aircraft.

9) Load manifest procedures for:

• Completing the load manifest per CASR Partl21.665 and


121.693;
• Ensuring the load manifest is carried on the aircraft per CASR
Partl21.695 and/or 121.697 (as applicable);
• Ensuring the load schematic is retained with the load manifest
for special cargo loads;
• Retaining the load manifest for the time periods specified in the
CFR; and
• Distributing the load manifest under CASR Part 91, 121.695
and/or 121.697 (as applicable).

10) Procedures to be used by crewmembers, cargo handlers, and other


personnel concerned with aircraft loading, for the following:

• Distribution of passengers;
• Distribution of fuel;

22
SI 8900-3.4

• Distribution of cargo;
• Verification and acceptance of actual cargo weights as listed on
a bill of lading;
• Restriction of passenger movement during flight, if applicable;
and
• Hazmat requirements, if applicable.

11) A drawing of each cargo and/or passenger configuration that


includes emergency equipment locations.
12) Mathematical justification for loading provisions or schedules. This
may be included under separate cover and not as part of the
company manual.

13) An alternate procedure for allowing manual computations, if a


computerized W8bB program is used.

14) Procedures for a weight range system, if applicable, that ensures:

• The range is typical of passengers carried on similar operations;


• Computations for critical load considerations support the
ranges;
• Personnel responsible for loading the aircraft are required to
prepare appropriate loading records;
• The system includes methods for loading passengers whose
weights are outside the range; and
• Loading records indicate the number of passengers within the
stated range and account for passengers who fall outside the
range.

15) A system for loading nonstandard weight groups, such as athletic


squads or militaiy groups and their baggage, which must use
actual weights for both passengers and baggage.
16) Procedures to verify actual weight of cargo.

17) Standards and schedules for calibration of commercial scales used


to determine baggage/cargo weights.

18) Procedures to ensure that carry-on baggage is limited to articles


that may be placed in overhead compartments or under seats. The
operator must account for carry-on baggage weight in the same
manner as checked baggage or added to the average passenger
weight.

19) Review the operator's OpSpecs &ACL for the following:

a) Aircraft make/model/series (M/M/S).

b) Type of loading schedule.

c) Loading schedule instructions for:

• Passengers and crew (average weight by survey or actual


weight),

23
SI 8900-3.4

• Baggage (average weight by survey or actual weight) and


cargo (actual), and
• Nonstandard weight groups.

d) W&B control procedures.

The above items must be referenced by indicating the locations in


the operator's manuals (e.g., volume, chapter).

c. Analyze the Results.

Upon completion of review, analyze the results and determine whether


the operator's manual meet all requirements.

d. Meet with Operator/Applicant.

Discuss any discrepancies with the operator/applicant and advise them


on areas that need corrective action.

24
SI 8900-3.4

APPENDIX A - LIST OF APPLICABLE FORM

1. DGCA Form No. 120-35 (Apr 2017) Evaluation and Approval Of Weight and
Balance Control Program

25
SI 8900-3.4

APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY/INDEX OF DEFINITION AND TERMS

Active Unit Load Devices ULDs with active temperature control systems for
(ULD) transporting temperature-sensitive cargo. These systems
consist of a highly insulated container with a
battery-operated heating/cooling system integrated into
the construction of the container. Active ULDs are
intended to be operating during flight. Active ULDs are
batteiy powered in flight and are only recharged while on
the ground. The "active" component of these units
typically consists of a vapor cycle refrigeration/heat
pump type system that is powered by various types of
large batteries, depending on the manufacturer.
Aircraft Arms, Weights, and The term arm, usually measured in inches, refers to the
Moments distance between the center of gravity (CG) of an item or
object and the reference datum. Arms ahead or to the left
of the datum are negative (-), and those behind or to the
right of the datum are positive (+). When the datum is
ahead of the aircraft, all of the arms are positive and
computational errors are minimized. Weight is normally
measured in pounds. When weight is removed from an
aircraft, it is negative (-), and when weight is added to
the aircraft, it is positive (+). A moment is a force that
tries to cause rotation, and it is the product of the arm in
inches and the weight in pounds. Moments are generally
expressed in pound-inches (Ib-in) and may be either
positive or negative.
A number of weights must be considered in aircraft
Weight and Balance (W85B).
Aircraft Flight Manual DGCA-approved document, prepared by the holder of a
(AFM) type certificate (TC) for an airplane or rotorcraft, which
specifies the operating limitations and contains the
required markings, placards, and other information
applicable to the regulations.
Aircraft Loading Schedule The loading schedule is used to document compliance
with the certificated Weight and Balance {W8sB)
limitations contained in the manufacturer's Aircraft
Flight Manual (AFM) and W85B manual. The loading
schedule is developed by the operator based on its
specific loading calculation procedures and provides the
operational limits for use with the operator's W85B
program.

26
SI 8900-3.4

Aircraft Specifications Documentation containing the pertinent specifications


for aircraft certificated under the Civil Aviation Safety
Regulations (CASR).
Approved Type Certificate A certificate of approval issued by the DGCA for the
(TC) design of an airplane, engine, or propeller.
Basic Empty Weight(HEW) The empty weight of the aircraft plus the weight of the
un-drainable fuel, oils, and hydraulic fluid outlined in
the manufacturer's maintenance manual.

Basic Operating Index The moment of the airplane at its basic operating weight
(BOW) divided by the appropriate reduction factor.
Basic Operating Weight The weight of an aircraft with unusable fuel, all fluids,
(BOW) crew, and installed equipment as defined by the
operator's program based on the TC, the Supplemental
Type Certificate (STC), or other DGCA-approved data.
Cargo Cargo refers to passenger-checked baggage, freight.
Company Materials (COMAT), special cargo, and
hazardous materials (hazmat). Cargo does not include
passenger carry-on baggage.
Cargo Handling An operator's methods of accepting, weighing, securing,
transporting cargo on the ground, and the loading and
unloading of an aircraft.
Cargo Loading System Equipment installed to the floor of an aircraft cargo
(CLS) compartment to restrain aircraft unit load devices (ULD)
against the ground/flight loads. It usually consists of
such items as rollers, side guides, and locks for
securing ULDs to the aircraft structure. It does not
include ULDs, barriers, and tie down straps.
Certified Restraint Straps These devices should meet the requirements of TSO-
C172, Cargo Restraint Strap Assemblies.
Certified Unit Load Device A ULD meeting the requirements of TSO-C90, Cargo
(ULD) Pallets, Nets and Containers (Unit Load Devices), as
amended; STC requirements, if applicable; or other
DGCA-approved certification standards.
Company Materials Company Material, commonly called COMAT, is an
(COMAT) industry term used by operators to describe nonrevenue
materials and supplies owned by the operator that are
shipped by the operator in support of its operations.

27
SI 8900-3.4

Emergency Equipment Required emergency equipment must be part of the


preweight checklist and be stored in its assigned
position specified by the operator's manual.
Empty-Weight Center of The CG of an aircraft when it contains only the items
Gravity(EWCG) specified in the aircraft empty weight.
Empty-Weight Center of The distance between the allowable forward and aft
Gravity(EWCG) Range empty-weight CG limits.
Equipment List A list of items approved by the DGCA for installation in
a particular aircraft. The list includes the name, Part
Number (P/N), weight, and arm of the component.
Installation or removal of an item in the equipment list
is considered to be a minor alteration.

Fleet Weight An average weight accepted by the DGCA for aircraft of


identical make and model that have the same
equipment installed. When a fleet weight control
program is in effect, the fleet weight of the aircraft can
be used rather than having to weigh every individual
aircraft.

Flyaway Kit A flyaway kit is considered part of the empty weight


when installed. Spare parts loaded on board must be
considered as COMAT.

Frangible (Compressible) Frangible cargo may be required in certain positions for


Cargo protection of the aircraft and its ability to withstand
emergency landing conditions, as required by the
aircraft manufacturer's W85B document or the STC
instructions. Aircraft manufacturers' W85B documents
vary on this definition; therefore you should reference
their documents.

Freight Staging The holding of cargo awaiting transportation and the


delivery of cargo to the aircraft in the right sequencing
of cargo according to the load plan.
Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials are also referred to as hazmat,
(hazmat) dangerous goods, and DG.
Index Point A location specified by the aircraft manufacturer from
which arms used in W&B computations are measured.
Arms measured from the index point are called index
arms.

Interlining Transfer from one operator to another, whether the


same or different aircraft t5rpes are used. For example, a
ULD transferred from a domestic operator to a foreign
operator.

28
SI 8900-3.4

Load Supervisor A certificate-holder-determined name, such as


Loadmaster or Load Lead, identifying the job function of
the person with overall responsibility for supervising the
loading of the aircraft. This person is responsible for
signing the load manifest. Refer to CASR part 121.665,
Load Manifest.

Manufacturer's Empty The manufacturer's empty weight contains only the


Wei^t basic equipment when the aircraft is delivered to the
operator. The operator may install additional equipment
required for its specific operation, creating the BEW for
that operator.
Maximum Allowable Gross The maximum weight authorized for the aircraft and all
Wei^t of its contents as specified in the Type Certificate Data
Sheet(TCDS) or aircraft specifications for the aircraft.
Maximum Landing Weight The greatest weight that an aircraft normally is allowed
to have when it lands.

Maximum Ramp Weight The total weight of a loaded aircraft, including all fuel. It
is greater than the takeoff weight due to the fuel that
will be burned during the taxi and run-up operations.
Ramp weight is also called taxi weight.
Maximum Takeoff Weight The maximum allowable weight at the start of the
(MTOW) takeoff run.

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight The maximum authorized weight of an aircraft without
(MZFW) fuel. This is the sum of the BOW and payload.
Noncertified Unit Load A ULD that is not certified by the ULD manufacturer,
Device (ULD) does not meet the TSO C-90 or Parts Manufacturer
Authority (PMA) certification requirements, and/or is
not listed in the OEM aircraft WSsB manual (TC or STC)
as a certified ULD for use on that aircraft.

Offset Cargo Cargo positioned on the pallet in a manner that the


cargo is shifted beyond the perimeter of the pallet
resulting in either 1) the center of gravity (CO) limits of
the pallet are exceeded, or 2) the restraint by the net to
the pallet becomes ineffective in protecting the airplane
and preventing cargo shift.
Outsized Cargo Cargo that exceeds the maximum allowable contour of
an aircraft ULD such that the ULD must be loaded
on board an aircraft as a non-CLS restrained ULD.

29
SI 8900-3.4

Overhang Cargo Cargo that extends beyond the perimeter of the pallet in
at least one direction but still allows the net to perform
its intended function. The pallet can still be restrained
by the CLS and does not require additional straps to the
airplane structure.
Overweight Cargo Cargo that exceeds the maximum allowable weight as
defined by the aircraft W8bB manual for aircraft ULD
position.
Pallet (Air Cargo) A flat platform with flat under-surface of standard
dimensions, on which cargo is assembled and secured
and which interfaces directly with the aircraft handling
and restraint system.
Payload The weight of the passengers, baggage, and cargo that
produces revenue.
Piercing Cargo Piece of cargo of a piercing or penetrating nature, such
as rods, pipes, extrusions, beams, etc., that could
become a projectile hazard under flight operational
loads.

Pilot's Operating Handbook A DGCA-approved document published by the airframe


(POH) manufacturer that lists the operating conditions for a
particular model of aircraft and its engines.
Pod An external container attached to an aircraft for
carrying cargo.
Primary Restraint The restraint of the cargo payload to the aircraft
structure for flight and other loads.
Special Cargo Cargo that is not contained in a ULD certified for the
airplane CLS or enclosed in a cargo compartment
certified for bulk loading is special cargo. This typo of
cargo requires special handling and
securing/restraining procedures.
Special Handling Additional procedures, as determined by the operator
Procedures that may be required for some cargo in order to protect
the cargo or the aircraft during handling acceptance,
loading, or in flight. Hazmat must be handled per
regulatory requirement. Examples of special handling
procedures include ceremony or instructions for
transporting human remains, feeding live animals in
transit, signature service forms for tracking mail/cargo,
compatibility of hazmat, protective gear when handling
ciyogenics, etc. This cargo could also be classified as
special cargo.
Supplemental Restraint Restraint that is utilized in addition to primary restraint
in order to stabilize cargo and prevent shifting.

30
SI 8900-3.4

Standard Empty Weight The weight of the airframe, engines, and all items of
operation weight that have fixed locations and are
permanently installed in the aircraft. This weight must
be recorded in the aircraft W&B records. The BEW
includes the standard empty weight plus any optional
equipment that has been installed. Depending upon the
part of the regulations under which the aircraft was
certificated, either the undrainable oil or full reservoir of
oil is included.

Supplemental Type Provided it specifically applies to the item being


Certificate (STC) Data repaired/altered, such data may be used in whole or in
part as included within the design data associated with
the STC.

Tall Rigid Cargo (TRC) Tall cargo is cargo greater than 98 inches tall. Certain
sections of tall cargo can be frangible and certain
sections can be rigid. If any part of the rigid section of
tall cargo is above 98 inches, the tall cargo is TRC. TRC
is only applies to the Boeing 747 aircraft.
Unit Load Device (ULD) A device for grouping, transferring, and restraining
cargo for transit. The ULD may consist of a pallet and
net or may be a container.
Vendor Any person or entity performing a service for the
operator. This includes, but is not limited to, a freight
forwarder, service providers, contractor, subcontractors,
customs broker, shipper, and another operator that
performs cargo buildup, aircraft loading, and unloading
for the operator. This also includes repair services
provided by a DGCA-certificated entity.

DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION

ttd.

Dr. Ir. AGUS SANTOSO, M.Sc.

tean* ai dengan aslinya


kepala^Aoian HUKUM,

/^NDAH
'L LT *- ^
RORNAMA sari
fmbina (IV/a)
NIP. 19680704 199503 2 001

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