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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING the overall development of the village and

What Is Water Resources Engineering? people living within a watershed area.


• Water resources engineering also includes the
planning and management of facilities that
are constructed for these tasks like making Watershed Development Objectives
canals for irrigation and sewers for drainage  To mitigate the adverse effects of drought on
and to avoid waterlogging, and all other crops and livestock.
issues related with the usage and control of  To control desertification.
water.  To encourage restoration of ecological
• The majority of the fresh water is frozen in balance and
glaciers and the polar ice caps, and the  To promote economic development of village
remainder is found as ground water, with community.
only a fraction available above the ground. Benefits of Watershed Development in an Area
Water Cycle  It makes the land fertile and supports the
• The cycle of processes by which water growth of trees, plants and cultivation.
circulates between the earth`s ocean,  Help in the preservation of water and its
atmosphere and land, involving precipitation resources.
as rain aand snow, drainage in streams and  Prevents soil erosion.
rivers, and return to the atmosphere by Healthy Watersheds Have Impacts On:
evaporation and transpiration. • Human Health
• Ecological Health
Watershed Development • Ecological Health
 A watershed is an area of land that catches
rain and snow and drains or seeps into a Integrated Watershed
marsh, stream, river, lake or groundwater. - is the process of managing human activities
Homes, farms, cottages, forests, small towns, and natural resources on a watershed basis,
big cities and more can make up watersheds. taking into account social, economic, and
Some cross municipal, provincial and even environmental issues as well as local
international borders. They come in all community interests and issues such as the
shapes and sizes and can vary from millions impacts of growth and climate change
of acres, like the land that drains into the Importance
Great lakes, to a few acres that drain into a  Improve water quality and quantity
pond.  Flood and erosion management
Why Are Watersheds Important?  Biodiversity and resilient habitats
 Watersheds are important because the surface  Sustainable economic and recreation
water features and storm water runoff within opportunities
a watershed ultimately drain to other bodies  Improved quality of life and communities
of water. It is essential to consider these  Greater ability for the watershed to adapt to
downstream impacts when developing and the impacts of climate change, urbanization
implementing water quality protection and and other sectors.
restoration actions. Everything upstream ends Water Conservation and Harvesting
up downstream. We need to remember that
we all live downstream and that our everyday • Important step as a solution to the issues of
activities can affect downstream waters. water.
What Is a Watershed
• Environmental conservation by changing
 A watershed is an area of land that catches
people's attitude and habits.
rain and snow and drains or seeps into a
marsh, stream, river, lake or groundwater. BASIC HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
Homes, farms, cottages, forests, small towns,
big cities and more can make up watersheds. A hydraulic structure is a structure
Some cross municipal, provincial and even submerged or partially submerged in any body
international borders. They come in all of water, which is used to divert, disrupt or
shapes and sizes and can vary from millions completely stop the natural flow of water.
of acres, like the land that drains into the 1. Flow control structure - they are used
Great lakes, to a few acres that drain into a to regulate the flow and pass excess
pond. flow. They might be gates, spillways,
What Is Watershed Development? valves, or outlets.
 The term watershed development 2. Flow measurement structures - they
encompasses additional dimensions like are used to measure discharge. They are
equity, sustainability, gender and people’s weirs, orifices, flumes etc.
participation. It has become a trusted tool for 3. Conveyance structures - they are used
to guide the flow from one place to
another. They are open channels, What is sustainability in construction and civil
pressure conduit, pipes, canals and engineering?
sewers. Sustainability is defined the desire to perform
4. Collection structures - they are used to
activities without any depletion of resources or
collect water for disposal. They are
Drain inlets, infiltration galleries, wells. bringing any harmful effect on the environment.
5. Storage structures - they are used for Practicing sustainable construction methods will help
the purpose of storage of water. These avoiding harmful effects from construction activities.
may be dams or tanks etc.
Construction involves activities like use of
TYPES OF DAMS
Based On Material Used building materials from various sources, use of
machineries, demolition of existing structures, use of
Earthfill Dams green fields, cutting down of tress etc. which can
An earth dam is made of earth (or soil) built up impact environment in one or more ways. Civil
by compacting successive layers of earth such as a engineering field being the major part of the
complex semi-plastic mound of various compositions economy, it is very essential that sustainable
of soil, sand, clay, or rock.
construction practice dominate the past followed
Rockfill Dams conventional construction practice and methods.
A rockfill dam is built of rock fragments and
boulders of large size. Need for Sustainable Construction
Construction has a direct impact on the environment
CONCRETE DAMS due to following reasons:
1. Arch Dams 1. Generation of waste materials
2. Emissions from vehicles, machineries
An arch dam is curved in plan, with its
convexity towards the upstream side. They transfer 3. Noise pollution due to use of heavy vehicles
the water pressure and other forces mainly to the and construction machineries.
abutments or foundation. 4. Releases of wastes and pollutants into water,
ground and atmosphere.
2. Buttress Dams
This are dams that are supported by buttresses. Sustainability assessment of construction
Buttresses are triangular concrete walls which projects is essential to the fact that it does not create
transmit the water pressure from the deck slab to the
foundation. any harmful effects on the living ecosystem while
optimizing the cost of construction. This is to ensure
3. Steel Dams the availability of resources for the future
A steel dam consists of a steel framework, with a generations.
steel skin plate on its upstream face. Since steel is
more flexible than concrete, they are more resistant How to Ensure Sustainable Construction?
to catastrophic failure due to ground settling. In order to support sustainability in the field
4. Timber Dams of construction, the building and the built
environment have to satisfy some of the important
Timber dam is made of wood, primarily
criteria. This will include:
coniferous varieties such as pine and fir. Timber
dams are made for small heads (2-4 m or, rarely, 4-8 1. Biodiversity Enhancement
m). 2. Support to the Community
3. Effective Use of Resources
5. Rubber Dams
4. Pollution Reduction
A symbol of sophistication and simple and 5. Creating Healthy Environment
efficient design, this most recent type of dam uses 6. Process Management
huge cylindrical shells made of special synthetic
rubber and inflated by either compressed air or
pressurized water. 1. Biodiversity Enhancement

CIVIL ENGINEERING SUSTAINABILITY Sustainable Construction must stop threatening use


AND THE FUTURE of environment or species wherever possible so that
the natural habitat is not affected.
2. Support to the Community 5. Creating Healthy Environment

Support and help should reach to the real Instead of endangering the health of worker,
need, aspirations and real requirements. Also involve builders and occupants’ construction must enhance
the needed in the key decisions. leisure, living and the working environments.

3. Effective use of resources Around 40% of total energy consumption and


greenhouse gas emissions are directly due to
Overconsumption of misappropriate amount construction and operation of buildings. The best of
of resources like land, money, use or disposal, to reduce this impact is the use of green buildings
construction must be stopped. Wastage of resources, construction techniques.
materials, water, poor design is not recommended.
The building constructed have to be affordable and The use of transparent concrete in buildings
manageable. also helps to reduce the use of energy for lighting
during day time.
Sand and Gravel are being used for thousands
of years in construction. The demand for these is 6. Process Management
increasing day by day as demand for infrastructure
development is increasing. Too many aspirations for a project will won’t
give sustainable construction. Hence, identification
Overuse of construction materials such river of appropriate targets, benchmarks and tools along
sand and gravels also have negative impact on with their proper management will give
environment. Excessive sand-and-gravel mining sustainability in construction.
causes the degradation of rivers. Sand mining results
in the lowering of the stream bottom, that results in ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY
bank erosion. The alternate to river sand is Environment
Manufactured Sand (M-Sand) which can be used in
Environment is everything that is around us.
construction works reduce impacts of mining river
It can be living (biotic) or non-living (abiotic) things.
sand. It includes physical, chemical and other natural
forces. Living things live in their environment. They
4. Pollution Reduction constantly interact with it and adapt themselves to
conditions in their environment. In the environment
Less dependency on pollution causing there are different interactions
products and materials, transports, power and energy between animals, plants, soil, water, and other living
are encouraged. and non-living things.
Natural Environment - refers to the non-
Annually billions of tons of demolition waste human-made surroundings and conditions in which
are generated worldwide for the need for new all living and non-living things exist on Earth. The
construction activities. Improper disposal of these common concept of the natural
waste tends to be hazardous to the environment. environment encompasses two different
components: Ecological units that operate
Below mentioned are some of the methods to make
as natural systems (such as soil, vegetation and so
the construction waste sustainable: on).

 Elimination of production of construction Energy – the ability to do work


waste. Law of Conservation of Energy:
 Reduction of amount of construction waste. “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can
 Reuse construction wastes in other works. only be transferred to one source to another.”
 Recover (recycling, composting, energy) –
Two forms of energy:
recycle what you can only after you have
reused it. 1. Kinetic Energy
 Dispose what is left in a responsible way. 2. Potential Energy
Use of durable construction materials and Common Sources of Energy
quality control at site for durability of
1. Solar Energy
structure is one step towards minimization of
2. Wind Energy
construction waste generation.
3. Hydroelectric Energy  Submitting permits
4. Biomass Energy
5. Nuclear Power  Civil engineering provides you with a greater
6. Electric Energy range of job opportunities.
7. Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil, & Natural Gas)  plays the role of supporting the economic
development and the standard of living of her
CIVIL ENGINEER AND ENVIRONMENTAL people.
SCIENCES
 Civil engineers must always find solution to
Civil Engineer complex problems and implement them; they
Civil engineering is a professional engineering shape the world we live in.
discipline that deals with the design, construction, Environmental Science
and maintenance of the physical and naturally built
environment, including public works such as roads, Environmental science, interdisciplinary
bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, academic field that draws
pipelines, structural components of buildings, and on ecology, geology, meteorology, biology, chemistr
railways. y, engineering, and physics to study environmental
problems and human impacts on the environment.
Five Essential Fields of Civil Engineering Environmental science is a
1. Structural engineering quantitative discipline with both applied and
theoretical aspects and has been influential in
2. Transportation engineering informing the policies of governments around the
3. Water resources engineering world.

4. Geo-technical engineering ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE VS.


ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
5. Construction engineering and management.
Environmental science is considered separate
What is the best branch of civil engineering?
from environmental studies, which emphasizes the
Structural Engineering is usually the most human relationship with the environment and the
preferred branch in civil eng for mtech. But it can social and political dimensions thereof. For example,
purely depend on your interests. Structural is whereas a researcher in environmental studies might
considered to have more scope because it is one of focus on the economic and political dimensions of
the most core subjects in Civil Engineering. Then international climate-change protocols, an
comes Transportation, Environmental, GT. environmental scientist would seek to
understand climate change by quantifying its effects
What Does a Civil Engineer Do? with models and evaluating means of mitigation.
 create, improve and protect the environment Importance of Environmental Sciences
in which we live
 To realize that environmental problems are
 plan, design and oversee construction and
maintenance of building structures and global
infrastructure  To understand the impacts of development on
environment
 design and build tall buildings and large  To discover sustainable ways of living
structures
 To utilize natural resources efficiently
Two types of Civil Engineering  To shed light on contemporary concepts such
as how to conserve biodiversity
 Consulting Engineers are responsible for the
design work of projects and work  To understand the interrelationship between
predominantly in an office. organisms in population and communities
 To learn and create awareness about
 Contracting Engineers then take the designs environmental problems at local, national and
and implement them during construction.
international levels.
Importance of a Civil Engineer
Job responsibilities of a civil engineer include:
 Testing materials used in building
 Presenting findings to the community
 Supervising repairs and maintenance