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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 3 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Nirankar: The judgement delivered yesterday,


I feel, is fair to all concerned. What
(´÷ Ææ÷\™x ¢Á÷Ææ-Æˇ -Å-ØË öÃ˝ -Ñ expressions
do you feel? ÖçúË¢√®Ω’. Çߪ’† á°æ¤púø÷ îÁ°æ¤hç-úË-¢√®Ω’– ÅFo èπÿú≈ E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπûª,
(E†o É*a† B®Ω’p Ææç•ç-Cμ-ûª’-©ç-ü¿-Jéà à N≠æ-ߪ’ç-™-ØÁjØ√ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ ´u´-£æ«-Jç--î√- üμ¿®Ωtç, Ø√uߪ’ Ææ´’t-ûª-
Ø√uߪ’çí¬ Öçü¿E ؈’ ¶μ«N-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. ©E. û√´· îÁÊ°p Fûª’-©-†’ -Ç-îª-JçîË ¢Á’i† ÅØË ´÷ô-©èπ◊
´’J †’¢Ëy-´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?) •£æ› éÌCl ´’çC™ Çߪ’† äéπúø’. Çߪ’† Ææç•ç-Cμç* ûª®Ωîª÷
Alankar: I don't doubt it the least. How impar- á°æ¤púø÷ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ ÖçúË-¢√úø’.) ¢√úË °æüΔ©’ (High
tial the judge was! Even as he was Nirankar: Lucky that you had such a teacher. I frequency words).
reading the judgement every one felt remember your telling me of him
that it was a very objective view of
ÉN ´’† Eûªu
some time ago. You told me how 4) fair-minded=
the situation. Very rarely do we come @Nûªç™ Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ ´u´-£æ«-JçîË°æ¤púø’ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úË ûª† ÅGμ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷-©Íé é¬èπ◊çú≈
across such judgements and such unbiassed he was whenever the °æü¿-ñ«©-N’-C. ØË®Ω’a-éÌE ¢√úø’üΔç. -Ñ °æ-üΔ-© Éûª-®Ω’© ÅGμ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷-©èπ◊ ûªT-†çûª v§ƒüμΔ†uç ÉîËa/
judges occasion demanded it. Ø√uߪ’-*ç-ûª† -Ö-†o.
í∫’Jç* É°æ¤púø’ N´®Ωçí¬ îª÷üΔlç.
(Ø√éπ-Ææ©’ ÆæçüË£æ«ç ™‰ü¿’. Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh (F Åü¿%≠ædç Féπ-™«çöÀ öÃ˝ Öçúøôç. 1) fair = Ø√uߪ’-¢Á’i†, üμ¿®Ωt-¢Á’i† a) The boss is fair-minded and is open to
áçûª E≥ƒp-éÀ~éπç! Çߪ’† B®Ω’p îªü¿’-´¤- éÌçûª-鬩ç véÀûªç -†’--´¤y -Ç-ߪ’-†-†’ í∫’-Jç-* a) This umpire has always been fair in giving suggestions = -¶«Æˇ ûª†’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ éπÈ®é˙d
decisions/ His decisions have always
ûª’-†o-°æ¤púË v°æA-¢√®Ω÷ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’, °æ-J îÁ°æpôç Ø√èπ◊ í∫’®Ω’hçC. Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç ´*a-†- ņ’-éÓèπ◊çú≈ Éûª-®Ω’© ÅGμ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈
ÆœnAE ®√í∫-üËy-≥ƒ-©èπ◊ -Å-B-ûªçí¬ -îª÷-¨»-úø-E. °æ¤púø’ Çߪ’-ØÁçûª E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπçí¬ ÖçúË-¢√-úÓ- been fair = umpire
Ñ á°æ¤púø÷ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ N©’-N-≤ƒhúø’/ Ø√uߪ’-*ç-ûª† Ö-†o-¢√úø’.
Å™«çöÀ B®Ω’p©’, Ø√uߪ’-´‚-®Ω’h©÷ †E.) ´u´-£æ«-J-≤ƒhúø’. b) Sukumar is fair-minded enough to share
Å®Ω’ü¿’í¬ éπE°œ≤ƒh®Ω’.) his profits with his employees = ûª†
؈éπ®ΩxûÓ ûª† ™«¶μ«©’ °æç-èπ◊-ØËçûª Ø√uߪ’

Ver y few media ar e unbiassed


*çûª† Ö-†o-¢√úø’.
6) fair and reasonable = -O-öÀ-E -áèπ◊\-´í¬ éπL°œ
¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. fair= Ø√uߪ’-¢Á’i†; reasonable= Ææ•-¶„j†.
a) A fair and reasonable settlement will be to
divide his property between his son and
b) Whatever you do it should be fair daughter equally
Nirankar: Even the parties to the case,
Mrinmoy and Manoj could not point to all concerned = †’¢ËyçîËÆœØ√, b) The workers' demand for a rise in bonus,
a finger at the judgment. Both were -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 617 üΔEûÓ Ææç•çüμ¿ç Ö†o ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿-Jéà because of a rise in profits is fair and reasonable
=
convinced of the disinterested atti- Ø√uߪ’ç éπ-LÍíCí¬ Öçú≈L. ™«¶μ«™x °®Ω’-í∫’-ü¿© Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x ¶†Æˇ èπÿú≈
tude the judge took in the case. Alankar: Yes; none could complain c) To be fair to Karna, he became °çî√-©-ØË v¨»N’èπ◊© úÕ´÷çú˛ Ø√uߪ’-¢Á’i-†üË.
Though it was a bit to the disadvan- of the marks he awarded what he was, mainly because of 7) Justice and fair play= Ø√uߪ’´‚, îªôd-Ææ-´’t-ûª´‚
tage of Mrinmoy, he said he had no to them. So fair he was in the secret of his birth = éπ®Ω’gúÕ a) Anybody believing in justice can never
reason to complain. judging the students. accept social inequalities =
M.SURESAN N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰, Ø√uߪ’ç îªôdç-
(ÍéÆæ’™ §ƒKd-©-®·† ´’%ùtß˝’, ´’ØÓñ¸ (Å´¤†’. Çߪ’† ÉîËa ´÷®Ω’\- Åûª-úÕ ï†t-®Ω-£æ«Ææuç ´©x Åûª-úø™« O’ü¿ †´’téπç Ö†o-¢√-∞Îx-´®Ω÷/ ņ’-Ææ-JçîË
èπÿú≈ à ™§ƒFo ¢Ë™„Ah îª÷°æ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷®√ ©†’ í∫’-Jç-* á´®Ω÷ °∂œ®√uü¿’îËÊÆ-¢√®Ω’é¬ü¿’. Åߪ÷uúø’. (Ææyûª-£æ…í¬ ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_úø’ é¬ü¿’) ¢√∞Îx-´®Ω÷ ≤ƒç°∂œ’éπ ÅÆæ-´÷-†-ûª©’ ä°æ¤p-éÓ-™‰®Ω’
B®Ω’p™. Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh -¢Áj-ê-J E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπ- NüΔu-®Ω’n-©-†’ -Åç-îªØ√-¢Ëߪ’-úøç™ Çߪ’† d) He did not get his fair share of the proper- b) Justice and fair play demand that all peo-
¢Á’i†üˆE ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ †´’téπç éπL-TçC. Ç Åçûª Ø√uߪ’çí¬ ÖçúË-¢√®Ω’.) ty = Ø√uߪ’-Ææ-´’tûªçí¬ ÇÆœh™ ®√-¢√-Lq† ¶μ«í∫ç ple should have equal opportunities =
Notes: delivered - Past tense. (PT) of deliver =
B®Ω’p ´’%ùtß˝’èπ◊ éÌçûª †≠ædç Åûª-úÕéÀ ®√™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿-Jéà Ææ´÷-Ø√-´-é¬-¨»-©’ç-ú≈-©-E Ø√uߪ’ç, îªôdç
éπLTçîËü¿®·Ø√, ûª†èπ◊ üΔE í∫’-Jç-* ¶«üμËç come across
B®Ω’p™«xçöÀN ¢Á©’-´-Jç-îª-úøç; 2&5) Impartial (× Partial) = E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπ-¢Á ’i†, éÓ®Ω’-ûª’-Ø√o®·/ Ø√uߪ’ç îªôdç v°æ鬮Ωç Åçü¿-JéÃ
™‰ü¿-Ø√oúø’.) = Point a finger °æéπ~§ƒûªç™‰E Ææ´÷-Ø√-´-é¬-¨»-©’ç-ú≈L.
Alankar: Among the most difficult tasks for a
û√®Ω-Ææ-°æ-úøôç/ ûÁ-L-ߪ’-úøç;
a) An impartial referee is a good referee = Fair play = 1) üËØÁj oØ√ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ îªôd-•-ü¿l¥çí¬
person is to be fair-minded. Only a = convince =
¢Ë™„Ahîª÷°æ-úøç; †îªa-ñ„°æp-úøç;
referee (umpire) referee E•ç-üμ¿-†©††’-Ææ-Jç* îËߪ’-úøç
be convinced = fault =
few like Gandhi are capable of being †´’téπç éπ©í∫-úøç; E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπ-¢Á’i† ´’ç*
b) In any issue between India and Pak, the US 2) à Çô-ØÁjØ√ E•ç-üμ¿-†©’ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ Çúøôç.
impartial.
is never impartial, though it says it is = 8) Play fair = 1) E•ç-üμ¿-†-©-èπ◊ -Å-†’-í∫’-ùçí¬ Ø√uߪ’-
ûª°æ¤p/ ûª°æ¤p-°æ-ôd-úøç. ¶μ«®Ωû˝,
(E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπçí¬ Öçúø-ô-´’-ØËC ÅA-éπ-≠d¢æ Á’i† Now look at the following sentences from the §ƒé˙èπ◊ ´îËa à Ææ´’-Ææu-™ØÁjØ√, Å¢Á’-Jé¬ E≥ƒp-éÀ~éπçí¬
N≠æ-ߪ÷™x äéπöÀ. Å™« Öçúø-í∫©¢√∞¡Ÿx conversation above.
Ææ-´’t-ûªçí¬, Çô Çúøôç 2) Éûª-®Ω’-©ûÓ Ø√uߪ’çí¬
Öçö«-†E îÁ°œp-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, ÅC E≥ƒp-éÀ~éπçí¬ Öçúøü¿’ ´u´-£æ«-Jç-îª-úøç.
í¬çDμ™« -î√-™« ûªèπ◊\´ ´’çC.) 1) The judgement, I feel, was fair to all con- 3) Disinterested = Not interested in any one a) Winning a game any how is not important.
Nirankar: The judge's assessment of the situ- cerned. side in a dispute/ Not interested in self/ free Playing fair is important
ation was fair and reasonable. 2) How impartial the Judge was! from prejudice or favour
(ü¿’®Ω-Gμ-v§ƒßª’ç) =
Anyone believing in justice and fair-
Çô Èí©-´-úøç ´·êuç é¬ü¿’. E•ç-üμ¿-†©
3) They were ....... of the disinterested attitude =
play can never fault the judgement.
(ÅGμ-´÷†ç) äéπ N¢√ü¿ç™ à °æéπ~çO’üΔ ÅGμ- v°æ鬮Ωç, Ø√uߪ’çí¬ Çúøôç ÅØËC ´·êuç.
the judge took to the case. ´÷†ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ E≥ƒp-éÀ~éπçí¬ Öçúøôç (Dispute = b) I won't be his partner anymore because
(°æJ-ÆœnA-E ÅçîªØ√¢Ëߪ’-úøç™ Ø√uߪ’-´‚Jh 4) Among the most difficult tasks for a person is N¢√ü¿ç) ≤ƒy®Ωn *çûª† ™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç/ ü¿’®Ω-Gμ- he doesn't play fair
î√™« Ø√uߪ’Ææ´’t-ûªçí¬, ߪ·éπhçí¬ ´u´-£æ«- to be fair-minded. v§ƒ-ߪ÷©èπ◊- ÅBûªçí¬ Öçúøôç. = Åûª-úÕ-ûÓ ÉçÍé-´÷vûªç ؈’ ¶μ«í∫-Ææ’h-úÕí¬ Öçúø†’,
Jç-î√úø’. Ø√uߪ’ç, üμ¿®Ωtç™ †´’téπç Ö†o 5) Only a few like Gandhi are impartial a) In the Gita Lord Krishna tells us to do our áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ Åûªúø’ Ø√uߪ’çí¬ ´u´-£æ«-Jç-îªúø’.
á´-È®jØ√ ÆæÍ® Ñ Ø√uߪ’-´‚-JhE ûª°æ¤p- 6) ..... assessment was fair and reasonable duty in a disinterested manner = 9) unbiassed= impartial= E≠æp-éπ~-§ƒ-ûªçí¬ Öçúøôç.
°æ-ôd-™‰®Ω’.) 7) Anyone believing in Justice and fair play can Uûª™ Xéπ%-≠æflgúø’, °∂æLûªç O’ü¿ ü¿%≠œd-™‰èπ◊çú≈, (Bias = °æéπ~-§ƒûªç/ ü¿’®Ω-Gμ-v§ƒßª’ç)
Alankar: At school I had a teacher Moses. He never fault the judgement. ´’†ç îËߪ÷-Lq†üΔEo îË-ߪ÷-©ç-ö«úø’. Very few media in India are unbiassed in
always used to advise us to play fair
8) He always advised us to play fair on any b) Gandhi served the Nation in a totally their news programmes and comments =
on any issue. He was one of those
issue disinterested manner =
rare people who practiced what he à ≤ƒy®Ωn*çûªØ√/ ¶μ«®Ω-û˝™ O’úÕ-ߪ÷-™ éÌ-Cl-´’ç-C ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√®√h
preached. He was always fair. 9) You told me how unbiassed he was! Ææy™«-¶μ«-Ê°éπ~ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ í¬çDμ ü˨»-EéÀ ÊÆ´ î˨»úø’. ¢√uêu 鬮Ωu-véπ-´÷™x E≥ƒp-éÀ~-éπçí¬ Öçô’-Ø√o®Ω’.
S. Naresh, Kothagudem. Had to - past tense of should/ must/ have to Till = until
and has to.
2) ´’† áç°œéπ ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√-úø-û√ç.
Q. Sir, Alien -
NüË-Q-ߪ·úø’, NüËQ (foreign); ví∫£æ…ç-ûª-®Ω-¢√Æœ.
éÀçC¢√öÀéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n-©†’ I'd rather walk than go by bus = -•Ææ’q-™  -¢Á-∞¡xúøç
As = ´™„ = like. Å®·ûË like ûª®√yûª clause (¢ËÍ® ví∫£æ…-EéÀ îÁçC†)
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. éπç-õ‰ †úø* ¢Á∞Ïxç-ü¿’èπ◊ É≠æd-°æ-úø’-ûª’Ø√o†’. (verb -ûÓ èπÿúÕ† °æü¿ Ææ´·-üΔߪ’ç) ®√ü¿’. As Monster = ¶μº÷ûªç, ®√éπ~-Ææ-v°æ-´%Ah éπ©-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
Bluffing, Rather, Here we go, I Here, we go = àüÁjØ√ v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç ÅßË’u-ô-°æ¤púø’ ûª®√yûª clause ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√-úø-û√ç. Alien èπ◊, monster èπÿ àç Ææç•ç-üμ¿ç-™‰ü¿’.
gotta go college, House - ÅØË-´÷ô. 'Ç! Ééπ ¢Á·ü¿-©-´¤-ûÓçC— ņo-ô’dí¬ 'Here a) He walks like his father = Åûª-úÕ ûªçvúÕ ™«í¬
Home, Should - Must - Had to, Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ English ™ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
we go', said Ram, 'Sachin is going to bat'. †úø’-≤ƒh-úø-ûª-úø’. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ.
As - like, Till - Until, Alien - = éÌAh-O’®Ω, üμ¿E-ߪ÷©’, éπJ-¢Ë-§ƒèπ◊, °æMx©’.
Ç! Ééπ v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç Å®·çC. Ææ*Ø˛ -¶«u-ö¸ like ûª®√yûª 'father' (noun) ´Ææ’hçC.
Monster. A. éÌAh-O’®Ω = coriander leaves.
îËߪ’¶ûª’-Ø√o-úÕéπ. b) He walks as his father does = Åûª-úø’ ûª†
A. Bluffing = ûÁL-ߪ’EN ûÁL-Æ œ-†ô’d, îËߪ’-™‰E, I gotta go = I got to go = ؈’ ¢Á∞«xL. ûªçvúÕ †úÕ-îË-™«-í¬-ØË †úø’-≤ƒhúø’. üμ¿E-ߪ÷©’ = coriander.
îËߪ÷-©-†’-éÓE °æ†’-©’ îËߪ’-í∫-L-T-†ô’x, îËÊÆ-ôô’x House - home - -O-öÀ í∫’-Jç--* -É-öÃ-´-™‰ N´-Jç-î √ç. as + his father does (clause)
éπJ-¢Ë-§ƒèπ◊ = curry leaves.
Å•-üΔl¥©’ îÁ°æp-úøç. îª÷úøçúÕ. (Å®·ûË modern usage ™ like ûª®√yûª °æMx©’ = ground nuts;
He does not know how to do it. He is bluffing èπÿú≈ clause ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. He cannot sing Q. çC-¢√-öÀéÀ Abbreviations ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
should = must = have to - àüÁjØ√ 1) NCμí¬ éÀ
= ÅüÁ™« îËߪ÷™ Åûª-úÕéÀ ûÁ-L-ߪ’ü¿’. ûÁ©’-ÆæE like I do = Åûª-úø’ Ø√™« §ƒúø-™‰úø’. Correct í¬ HTTP, URL, .Com, USB
2) ´’† Å´-Ææ-®√-Eo-•öÀd 3) äéπJ Çñ«c-†’-≤ƒ-®Ωçí¬
Å•-üΔl¥©’ îÁ°æ¤h-Ø√oúø’. îËߪ÷Lq ®√´-úøç. Å®·ûË, He cannot sing as I do ÅØ√L. A. HTTP = Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Rather = 1) éÌçûª-´’-ô’èπ◊/ é¬Ææh. ´’†-éÀ-≠dç É°æ¤púø’ like I do èπÿú≈, English ¢√∞Ïx URL = Uniform/ Universal Resource Locator
I should go = I must go = I have to go = ؈’
æ -™‰-E/
-´’-†èπ◊ †îªaE N≠æ-ߪ÷© í∫’Jç* îÁÊ°p--ô°æ¤púø’. ¢Á∞«xL. ÅØËÆæ’hØ√o®Ω’. ®√ûª™ ´÷vûªç (formal writing .Com - Internet O’ü¿ ¢√u§ƒ-®√Eo E®Ωy-£œ«çîË
The day is rather hot= -É-¢√-∞¡ é¬Ææh áçúø-í¬ØË ÖçC. ™) ÉC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.)
He should do it/ He must do it/ He has to do it ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn Ê°®Ω’™ ¶μ«í∫ç.
The train is rather slow = Ñ train é¬Ææh EüΔ-†¢Ë’. He is tall like his father = He is tall as his USB = Universal Serial Bus.
= Åûª-úøC îËߪ÷L (Å´-Ææ-®Ωç/ -Ç-ïc/- NCμ) father is.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 10 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Tushar: (I) heard you were fined Rs.250/- for Dhaval: True. I could have done that. In fact 5) I know you are a
violation of some traffic rule. Were you? the constable was expecting it. But in law-abiding citizen
(àüÓ Traffic rule Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Fèπ◊ no time I made him understand that I 6) ... that I would go
would go by the book. by the book
®Ω÷.250 V™«tØ√ °æúÕç-ü¿E NØ√o†’ Eï-
¢Ë’Ø√?) (Eï¢Ë’ Ç °æE ؈’ îËÆœ ÖçúÌa. ÅÆ晫 7) Sometimes
Dhaval: I was, of course. It was in the old town §ÚM-Ææ-ûª†’ ÅüË ÇP-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. é¬F ؈’ îªôd- observing rules
area. I didn't know I was driving the v°æ-é¬-®Ω¢Ë’ §Úû√-†E Åûªúø’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’èπ◊ØË™« may be expen-
wrong way. So I got booked and paid î˨»†’ ûªy®Ω-™ØË.) sive....
the fine. Tushar: That's a good thing you did. 8) Conforming to
Sometimes observing rules may be rules is always the best thing Violate law × abide by law.
(Eï¢Ë’. ÅC old town™. ûª°æ¤p-üΔ-J† ûÓ©’- 5)
ûª’-Ø√o-††o N≠æߪ’ç ûÁM-™‰ü¿’ Ø√èπ◊. Åçü¿’-éπE expensive but violating them may °j† underline îËÆœ† ´÷ô-©Fo îªö«d-©†’ ņ’- Abide by law/ rules, etc = îªö«d©’, E•ç-üμ¿-†-©èπ◊
prove more expensive. That is, in ÆæJç-îªúøç Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-îªúøç Å¢Ë ¢√öÀéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*-†N
؈’ °æô’d-•-ú≈f†’. V™«tØ√ éπö«d†’.) terms of time and money. Most road
™•úÕ †úø--éÓ-´úøç.
Tushar: We've to comply with the rules, you éπüΔ? ¢√öÀE É°æ¤púø’ N´-®Ωçí¬ îª÷üΔlç. Abide by the rules of the club or else you
users don't understand this simple 1) Violation: Rules (E•ç-üμ¿-†©’), îªö«d©’ (Law)
know. Sometimes a one-way traffic cease to be a member of the club = club
point. After all, the rules are for us and
road may be a short cut. It may save †’ Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-îªúøç/ ÅA-véπ-N’ç-îªúøç.
our safety. E•ç-üμ¿-†© v°æ鬮Ωç †úø’--éÓçúÕ ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ O’®Ω’
us some time and fuel. But we've to a) Any violation of this law will be viewed
pay more than we save if we are (´’ç* °æE î˨»´¤. éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x îªö«dEo Ææ¶μº’u-©’í¬ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫®Ω’.
seriously = Ñ îªôdç Ö©xç-°∂æ’-†/ ÅA-véπ´’ù He refused to abide by the law of the land
caught. §ƒöÀç-îª-úøç ê®Ω’aûÓ èπÿúø’-èπ◊-†o-üÁjØ√, Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç
and was expelled = Ç ü˨»-EéÀ îÁçC† -îª-ö«d-Eo
ņ’-Ææ-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åûªúø’ ä°æ¤p-éÓ-éπ-§Ú-´-úøçûÓ

How on ear th did he become so rich?


ÅûªúÕE -•£œ«-≠æ \-Jç-î√®Ω’. Expel = ¢Á∞¡x-íÌ-ôdúøç.
Law abiding = îªôd-v°æ-鬮Ωç †úø’--éÓ-´úøç–
DEo ´·êuçí¬, Law - abiding citizen = îªôd-
•-ü¿’l¥-©’í¬ Ö†o §˘®Ω’©’ ÅØË expressioní¬
(Road rules §ƒöÀç-î√-L™‰ ´’†ç. éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x Bv´çí¬ °æJ-í∫ùÀç-îª-•-úø’-ûª’ç-C. (´÷´‚©’ ¢√úøû√ç.
One way traffice ´÷®√_©’ Åúøf-üΔ-®Ωx®· Law abiding citizens have no reason to

-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 618
ûÁ©’í∫’: Bv´çí¬ °æJ-í∫-ùÀ-≤ƒh®Ω’) fear anything = îªôd-•-ü¿’l¥-©’í¬ ÖçúË §˘®Ω’©’
ü¿÷®Ωç ûªíÌ_a. üΔE-´©x éÌçûª Æ洒ߪ’ç, b) Kumar was jailed for three months
Éçüμ¿†ç ÇüΔ é¬´îª’a. é¬F °æô’d•úÕûË for the violation of the act = Ç üËEéà ¶μºßª’-°æ-úø-†-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’.
´÷vûªç ÇüΔ îËÊÆ üΔE-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë The police did not suspect him in the
îªúøç Åçûª-éπçõ‰ êKü¿’ 鬴a, îªö«dEo Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-*-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ èπ◊´÷-®˝èπ◊ beginning because of his record as a law-
îÁLxçî√Lq ´Ææ’hçC. ´‚úø’ ØÁ©© ñ„j©’ Péπ~ °æúÕçC.
Dhaval: I didn't intend to break any rule, and I Åçõ‰ Æ洒ߪ’ç, úø•’s ®Ω÷°æç™. abiding citizen = îªôd-•-ü¿l¥çí¬ ´u´-£æ«-JçîË §˘®Ω’-
2) I was booked - ÉC (was booked),
usually don't. The trouble was I wasn't Ñ *†o N≠æߪ’ç î√-™« ´’çCéÀ M.SURESAN úø’í¬ îªJvûª Öçúøôç´©x §ÚM-Ææ’©’ ¢Á·ü¿ô
booked èπ◊ passive voice - to book
familiar with the area. Whatever I Å®Ωnç é¬ü¿’. àüË-¢Á’iØ√ ÅûªúÕE ņ’-´÷-Eç-îª-™‰ü¿’.
might say, the traffic cop insisted that I = àüÁjØ√ îªôdç v°æ鬮Ωç ÍéÆæ’ †¢Á÷ü¿’
Eߪ’´’E•ç-üμ¿†©’ ´’† Íé~´÷-EÍé í∫üΔ?) 6) To go by the book = E•ç-üμ¿-†©’, Eߪ’-´÷©
pay the fine. He was saying, 'igno- Dhaval: Conforming to rules is always the best îËߪ’úøç. v°æ鬮Ωç †úø’--éÓ-´úøç.
rance of the law is no excuse.' thing for any one. a) The police have booked him/ booked a
a) Our officer always goes by the book;
(é¬F, Rules ÅA-véπ-N’ç-îªúøç Ø√ ÖüËl¨¡ç case against him for cheating = ¢Á÷Ææç îËÆœ-
(á´-J-ÈéjØ√ îªö«d-†o-†’-Ææ-Jç* §Ú´úøç ´’ç* favours none, ill-treats none = Officer´÷
é¬ü¿’. ´÷´‚-©’í¬ Å™«-îË-ߪ’†’ èπÿú≈. °æü¿l¥A.) †ç-ü¿’èπ◊, §ÚM-Ææ’©’ Åûª-E-O’ü¿ ÍéÆæ’ Â°ö«d®Ω’. á°æ¤púø÷ Eߪ’-´’-E-•ç-üμ¿-†-©-†-†’-Ææ-Jç* §Úû√úø’,
ÅÆæ©’ *éπ\çû√ Ç àJߪ÷ Ø√èπ◊ °æJ-îªßª’ç Notes: 1. Got (was) booked: Past Tense (PT) b) They have booked a case against him
á´Ko ÅGμ-´÷-Eç-îªúø’, á´Ko Å´-´÷-Eç-îªúø’.
™‰éπ-§Ú-´-úø¢Ë’. ØËØËç îÁ°œpØ√ Traffic police of 'get booked' = 2. Short
°æô’d-•-úøôç (ØË®√-EéÀ); under anticorruption act = ÅN-FA E®Ó-üμ¿éπ b) You cannot always go by the book; at
NE-°œç--éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ fine éπö«d-Lqç-üË-†E °æô’d- cut = 3. fuel =
Åúøf-üΔJ (ü¿÷®Ωç ûªèπ◊\-´-îËÊÆ); case
îªôdç éÀçü¿ ÅûªE O’ü¿ ¢√∞¡Ÿx °ö«d®Ω’. times you have to use your discretion =
•ö«dúø’. 'îªôdç ûÁM-éπ-§Ú-´úøç éπ~´÷®Ω|ç é¬ü¿—E Éçüμ¿†ç; 4. Intend = ÖüËl-Pç-îªúøç/ ÖüËl¨¡ç éπLT 3) To comply with law/ rules/ order/ resolution á°æ¤púø÷ -îª-ö«d-†o-†’Ææ-Jç--* -´·èπ◊\Ææ÷-öÀí¬ -¢Á-∞¡x-™‰ç;
äéπ-õ‰-¢√ü¿ç.) Öçúøôç; 5. familiar (with) = °æJ-îªßª’ç Öçúøôç; (B®√t†ç) = îªôdç/ E•ç-üμ¿† /Çïc/ B®√t-Ø√-©†’ ´’-† -N-îªéπ~-ù -ñc«-Ø√-Eo èπÿ-ú≈ -¢√-ú≈-L.
Tushar: I know you are a law-abiding citizen 6. cop = constable 7. Insist =
(Discretion = -N-îªéπ~-ù)
; °æô’d-•-ôdúøç.; ņ’-Ææ-Jç-îªúøç/ Å´’™x °ôdúøç.
and have respect the law. But I feel 8. Ignorance = 9. expen-
ûÁM-éπ-§Ú-´úøç/ Åñ«c†ç; a) A subordinate has to comply with the 7) Observe (Rules) = (--E-•ç-üμ¿-†-©-†’) -§ƒ-öÀç-îª-úøç.
you could have got away by bribing sive = 10. Interms of =
the constable. That'd have cost you
êK-üÁj†; ®Ω÷°æç™. orders of the superior =
Observe rules and you won't have trouble =
éÀçC-¢√∞¡Ÿx °j ÅCμ-é¬J
Look at the following expressions from the
less than the fine. Çïc-©†’ §ƒöÀç-î√L. Rules
conversation above: -§ƒ-öÀç-, -FÍé -¶«-üμΔ -Öç-úø-ü¿’.
b) Complying with the law is a sign of culture 8) Conform = follow (rules) etc.
(Ø√èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ †’´¤y îªö«dEo §ƒöÀçîË 1) you were fined Rs.250 for violation of some
traffic rule =
a) conforming to rules is always good =
§˘®Ω’úÕ´E, îªôdç Åçõ‰ †’´¤y íı®Ω-N-≤ƒh-´E, îªôdv°æ鬮Ωç †úø--éÓ-´úøç Ææç≤ƒ\-®√-EéÀ *£æ«oç.
Comply × violate/ break (4)
E•ç-
é¬F, Ç §ÚM-Ææ-ûª-EéÀ àüÁjØ√ ´÷´‚-L*a 2) So I got (was) booked 3) üμ¿-†-©èπ◊ ™•úÕ Öçúøôç á°æp-öÀéà ´’ç*C.
•ßª’ô °æúø’ç-úÌ-a-éπüΔ. Ç Nüμ¿çí¬ fine 3) We have to comply with the rules 4) Breaking rules will be punished severely = b) His behaviour conforms to a pattern =
éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\-´-ßË’C.) 4) I didn't want to break any rule E•ç-üμ¿-†©’ Ö©xç-°∂œ’ÊÆh Bv´ -Péπ~ °æ-úø’-ûª’ç-C. ÅûªúÕ †úø-´úÕ äéπ °æü¿l¥A v°æ鬮Ωç Öçô’çC.
Simhachalam, Vijayawada
°æ¤púø’, ¢√úË Üûª-°æü¿ç, ûÁ©’-í∫’™ '´’J—™«. ´’†ç 4) Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÖ It was very costly, but I bought v°æ´-Jh-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. (°œÆœ-Ø√-Jí¬ ÖØ√o´¤)
Q. Sir, it anyway = ÅC î√-™« êKü¿’, Å®·Ø√ ؈C Not really! =
éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ à Ææçü¿- ´÷ö«xúË ´·çü¿’, '´’J— ÅE Åçô÷ Öçö«ç éπüΔ, Å´¤Ø√? (†´’téπç éπ©-í∫-úøç-™‰-ü¿E
®Ωs¥ç™, ᙫ °æ©-鬙 äéπ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù Å™«. (ÅÆæ-©®Ωnç well = ¶«í¬. He is well = Çߪ’† éÌØ√o. îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊)
ÉÆæ÷h N´-Jçîªí∫©®Ω’. yummy, hmn, ¶«í¬ ÖØ√oúø’) No way = Å≤ƒüμ¿uç (Impossible) A: She has passed in I Class
oh shucks, yup, um, suppose,
Shut the hell up = Shut up. Shut the hell up Are you buying that house? B: Not Really?
well, shut the hell up, nope, any- (Eï´÷?/ Å´¤Ø√?) †¢Ë’tç-ü¿’èπ◊
¶«í¬ éÓ°æç/ NÆæ’-í∫’ûÓ Åçö«ç. 'No way, with the money I have'
way, noway, wow, solong then, Æœü¿l¥çí¬ ™‰†ô’x.
Hell = †®Ωéπç. é¬F ÉC English™ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ Wow = Hold on, blokes: Bloke = guy =
oh! my gosh, sure as hell, come Ç£æ…!/ ã£æ«Ù! ÅE ¢Á’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË ´uéÀh
off it, that's so mean, not really, hold on blokes, He is a nice bloke =
NÆæ’í∫’ éÓ°æç, E®√¨¡, EÆæp %-£æ«í¬ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úø- ´÷ô. Åûª†’ ´’ç*-¢√úø’. äéÌ-éπ\-
How on earth, hell, How come, what are you û√®Ω’. Solong = bye (Goodbye); then = Ç ûª®√yûª °æ¤púø’ ´’†friends †’ èπÿú≈ É™« Åçö«ç.
upto today. Nope = No. Oh! my gosh = Oh! my God. Holdon, blockes = Çí∫çvú≈ (friends†’)
A. Yummy = î√™« ®Ω’*í¬ Ö†o/ ØÓ®Ω÷-JçîË Anyway = 1) ᙫí∫÷/ àüÁj-ûËØËç. Sure as hell = éπ*aûªçí¬/ EÆæqç-üË-£æ«çí¬/ (Holdon = Çí∫úøç)
Hmn- ´’† Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù™ á´-È®jØ√ àü¿-®·Ø√ îÁGûË, 1) I don't have the money to buy the car, (´·êuçí¬ îÁúø’ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç*). How on earth = ᙫ? àü¿-®·Ø√ N≠æߪ’ç †´’t-
'Ü— éÌúøû√ç éπüΔ? üΔEéÀ English = um anyway, I don't like the colour = Ç é¬®Ω’ A = Are the police here? (§ÚM-Ææ’-©’-Ø√o®√ ™‰-E-Cí¬ ÖçC ÅE ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊.
Oh shucks = NÆæ’í∫’, *®√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-°æ-J-îË-°æü¿ç, éÌØËç-ü¿’-é¬\-´-Lq† úø•’s Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω ™‰ü¿’. àüË- Ééπ\úø?) How on earth did he become so rich? = Åçûª
´’†ç ûÁ©’-í∫’™ 'Ŷ«s— ņoô’x. Å®·ûË -D-Eo ÅEo ¢Á’iØ√/ ᙫí∫÷ Ø√éà Colour É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’. (Åçü¿’- B = Sure as hell (éπ*a-ûªçí¬, ´’†-éπ-®Ωt-éÌDl)
üμ¿†-´ç-ûª’-úÁ™« Åߪ÷u-úø¶«s, Åûªúø’?
Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úøôç bad manners. éπE ؈’ é̆†’). Come off it = í∫ClÆæ÷h äéπ-JE Eïç ä°æ¤p-éÓ-´’-E-
Hell: -îÁ-úø’-´÷-ô-N-Ø√o, -îÁ-úø’ Ææç°∂æ’-ô-† -ï-J-T-Ø√ -Å-ØË-
Yup = Yes 2) subject ´÷Í®aç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. Anyway, let's í¬F, ¢√∞¡Ÿx îÁ°œpçC ´’†ç †´’t-úøç-™‰-ü¿-E-í¬F ü¿¶«- ´÷-ô. Hell, how does he know I am here?
Suppose = if drop the matter. (ÆæÍ®™‰, Ééπ Ç N≠æߪ’ç ®·Ææ÷h îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.
ņ’éÓ = = îμª, ¢√úÕ-È陫 ûÁ©’Ææ’ ØËE-éπ\-úø’-Ø√o-†E?
suppose/ If you get the money, what will you ÇÊ°üΔlç) a) Oh! Come Off it! You know everything
How come?: = ÅüÁ™« ïJ-TçC?
do? = 3) ´’†ç îÁ°œp† N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo éÌClí¬ ´÷®Ω’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊. about it. (DEo í∫’Jç* Féπç-û√ ûÁ©’Ææ’. Eïç
How come you are here at this time =
Fèπ◊ úø¶Ôs-*aç-ü¿-†’éÓ/ Fèπ◊ úø¶ÔsÊÆh †’¢Ëyç
îË≤ƒh´¤? He has a house; anyway he was living in îÁ°æ¤p– Fèπ◊ ûÁM-ü¿E ؈o-´’t†’.)
I suppose it will rain today= Ñ ¢√∞¡ ´®Ω{ç his own house when I last met him = Åûª-úÕéÀ b) Oh, Come off it. It's not that cheap. (ÅüËç †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ Ééπ\úø Öçúøôç ᙫ ïJ-TçC?
´Ææ’hç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«. É©’xçC. àüË-´’-®·Ø√ ؈ûªúÕE *´®Ω éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-†o- é¬ü¿’™‰. Åçûª Íéç é¬ü¿C). What are you upto?: àN’öÀ O’ ÖüËl¨¡uç?/ àç

well..., = ÉC á´JûÓ-ØÁjØ√ Ææç¶μ«-≠æù v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îË- °æ¤púø’ ÅûªúÕ ≤Òçûª Éçöx Öçô’-Ø√oúø’. That's so mean of you: †’´¤y ´’K Fîªçí¬ îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 24 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Imran, Yellandu Q. Please give the meanings of (a) Predicate 3. Shouldn't I go


(b) Phrase (c) Clause and how can we there?
Q. éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©’ ÆæÈ®j-†-¢Ó é¬-¢Ó ؈-éπ\-úÕéÀ
ûÁLߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’ç-úÕ. identify the above words. ¢Á∞¡x-èπÿ-úøüΔ?
A. Predicate - Subject sen- Don't I have to
1) He is too weak to run †’ í∫’-Jç-* ûÁLÊ°
tence predicate. go there? =
2) He is very weak to run ¶μ«í∫ç
Delhi is the capital of India
؈éπ\-úÕéÀ ¢Á∞¡x
3) He is much weak to run
†´Ææ®Ωç ™‰üΔ?
4) He is so weak to run subject predicate
A. 1) He is too weak to run (= He is so weak clause, phrase Gurram Shankar,
Keshavapatnam VI) 1) What he knows is very little ('wh'
°j† N´-Jçî√ç éπüΔ?
that he cannot run = He is very weak, so When he was there - ÉC 'was' ÅØË verb Ö†o clause compliment)
he cannot run) - correct. Q. -Ñ éÀç-C phrase/ sentence -™ 'Native place'
group of words - clause
2) He is very weak to run, -v°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç í∫’-Jç-* -N-´-Jç-îª-ç-úÕ. -O’®Ω’ -É-C-´®Ω-™ -Ñ 2) What he has said has made me angry
Inside the box - verb -™‰-E group of words - ('wh' clause - end of 'has made')
3) He is much weak to run, and -v°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç -™‰-ü¿-Ø√o®Ω’. é¬-E -Ç®Ó -ûª®Ωí∫-A -§ƒ-®∏Ωu
phrase. 3) I know when he will come. ('wh'
4) He is so weak to run - all wrong °æ¤Ææhéπç-™ -É-™« -Öç-C.
Q. What is the difference among (a) Factory S.Naresh, Kothagudem "He wrote a letter to one of his best friends clause, object of 'know'.)
(b) Company (c) Industry- Please clarify in at his Native Place". 4) I doubt if/ whether he will allow it.
Q. éÀç-C v°æ¨¡o© Formation Correct Å´¤ØÓ é¬üÓ -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
Telugu. N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. A. We don't find the expression, native place. 5) I am interested in what he is going to
do ('wh' clause, object of the prep 'in)

What else should I write?


K.Srinivas, Anuradha, Pedamaddali.
Q. ´’ç* pronunciation èπ◊ phonetics
ØË®Ω’aèπ◊ØËçü¿’èπÿ, -´’ç-* CD Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. EFLU (English and Foreign Languages
A. a) Factory = A place where goods are pro- You can say native country/ land/ University) pronunciation CD
ûªßª÷®Ω’îËÆœ† ©’
duced on a large scale = éπ®√t-í¬®Ωç – °ü¿l city. Home (= a place of somebody's -¶«í¬ -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫°æ-úø-û√®·.
Ææçêu™ ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’ ûªßª÷®Ω’îËÊÆ îÓô’ -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù
619
birth and where somebody lives) is
preferable to native place.
Srinivas, Visakhapatnam
b) Company = i) A place where things are
sold; ii) The office of a business = Q. William went to the school by bus. Q. Pros and Cons
1. What else should I write?
´Ææ’h- – -Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’-öÀ?
´¤©’ Ţ˒t îÓô’, iii) äéπ ¢√u§ƒ-®√-EéÀ 2. Where else should all go? The boy went to the market to buy A. Pros and Cons = The advantages and
oranges. Both sentences are disadvantages of an action =
Ææç•çCμç-*† 鬮√u-©ßª’ç. 3. How often/ far/ long should äéπ Ωu ´©x
referred to in connection with their
c) Industry = °æJ-v¨¡´’ – °ü¿l-á-ûª’h† ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’ each one meet? M.SURESAN Öûªp†o´’ßË’u ´’ç*-îÁ-úø’©’
primary purpose. No article is
ûªßª÷®Ω’ îËߪ’úøç/ ÊÆ´-©-ç-Cç-îªúøç. Industry 4. For/ To/ Whom should the Police? Think of the pros and cons before buying the
used before them. Please clarify
Öûªp-ûª’h-©Fo factories ™ ï®Ω’-í∫’-û√®·. 5. Whose should I take help? it. car = car
Ç éÌØË-´·çü¿’ ´’ç* îÁúø’©’ Ç™-*ç.
É™« ûªßª÷-È®j† ´Ææ’h-´¤©-†’/ ÅçCçîË ÊÆ´-©†’ A. 1. What else should I write? - correct = A. If William, as a student went to his school,
؈’ (´·çü¿’ ¢Á†’-éπ©’ Ç™-*ç-îª-úøç)
Ţ˒t, ¢√öÀéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† ™«¢√-üË-O©†’ ÉçÍéç ®√ߪ÷L? (else - there is no need to use 'the' before it,
ÉC-é¬éπ ÉçÍé-´’Ø√o) Q. Blessed is who has a hobby -Å-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ -•-ü¿’-©’
ïJÊ° îÓô’ company. 2. Where else should all go? - correct = though it is found in a standard text book. He who has a hobby is blessed ņèπÿúø-üΔ?
Q. What is the easiest way of learning 'Simple' ÉçÈé-éπ\-úÕéÀ Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á∞«xL? Similarly, no need of 'the' before market as A. Blessed is he who has a hobby = He who
'Compound' and 'Complex' sentences. 3. How often? = How far? the purpose of his going there is to buy
Please suggest a grammar book.
áEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x? áçûª has a hobby is blessed. Blessed is he who
How long = something.
ü¿÷®Ωç? áçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ has a hobby expres-
A. Simple, complex, compound sentences
é¬Ææh éπNûªyç. É™«çöÀ
How often/ far/ long should each one E Anil, TN palem sions poetic inversion
verb
†’ Åçö«ç.
meet? form question
îªéπ\í¬ Å®Ωnç 鬢√©çõ‰ ´·çü¿’ èπ◊†o Ç®Ω’
®Ω÷§ƒ©’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓçúÕ. DEéÓÆæç í∫ûªç™ v°æ-J-ûª- ÉC Åçûª ÆæJí¬ îËÆœ†
Q. Noun clause ™E types (éÀçC¢√-öÀE) N´-Jçîª- Q. Ever, never -©-†’ -äÍé -¢√éπuç-™ -¢√-úÕ, -Å®Ωnç
¢Á’i† Spoken English 1 - 20 lessons îª÷úøçúÕ. é¬ü¿’. ûÁ©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
meet =
í∫-©®Ω’.
A. Never, ever tell this secret to any one else =
éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç éπüΔ? Ééπ\úø – Ñ
Ç ûª®Ω’¢√ûª Ñ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ í∫’®Ω’hç-éÓçúÕ. question ™ á´®Ω’, á´Jo éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L ÅØË Noun Clause
1) Verb ™‰E ´÷ô© èπÿ®Ω’p – phrase I) The Subject of a Verb ÉçÈé-´y-JéÃ Ñ ®Ω£æ«Ææuç àØ√-öÀéÃ/ á°æp-öÀéà îÁ°æpèπ◊.
N≠æߪ’ç ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ. Never ever - ÅÆæ-™„-°æp-öÀéà ™‰ü¿’.
2) verb ÖçúË ´÷ô© Ææ´‚£æ«ç – clause Ñ question †’ ´‚úø’ questions í¬ II) The Object of a Verb
3) °æ‹Jh Å®Ωnç Ö†o clause - Main clause III) The Complement of a Verb Q. íÌ°æp-¢√-J í∫’-Jç-* your excellency -Å-†èπ◊ç-ú≈
BÆæ’éÓçúÕ.
4) Å®Ωnç °æ‹Jh-é¬E clause - subordinate IV) The Complement of an Adjective his excellency Å-ØÁç-ü¿’éπç-ö«®Ω’?
1) How often should each one meet? =
clause áEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x v°æA-¢√®Ω÷ éπ©-¢√L? Éçü¿’™ V) In apposition to the noun before it A. -¢√-J Ææ´’-éπ~ç™ -™‰-üΔ °æ®Óéπ~çí¬ Ææç¶-Cμç-*-†-°æ¤púø’
Simple sentence - sentence with one His excellency Åçö«ç. -¢√-J-ûÓ-ØË ´÷ö«x-úË-ô°æ¤púø’
á´Jo éπ©-¢√L ÅE ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ– VI) Wh - Clauses as Noun Clauses
main clause, and phrases or no phrase. your excellency ÅØË Ææç¶--Cμ-ç-î √L.
v°æ¨¡o ÅÆæç-°æ‹-Jhí¬ ÖçC. ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. (1) Subject (2) In apposition
verb sentence, simple How often should each one meet him Simhachalam, Vijayawada
(3) Object (4) Adjective/ Complement
Åçõ‰ äÍé ÖçúË
sentence. question sen-
(5) Object of Preposition
Åçõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’ °æ‹®Ωh®· Q. How did you come to know about Mohan?
2 or more clauses ÖçúË sentences, tence Ææ®Ω-´¤-ûª’çC– v°æA-¢√®Ω÷ Åûª-úÕ-E VII) If/ Whether Clauses as noun clauses How did know about Mohan?
complex é¬F,compound é¬F 鬴a. áEo≤ƒ®Ω’x éπ©-¢√L? ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. -Ñ È®ç-úø’
subordinate clause Öçõ‰ ÅC complex. A. I) That he knows the truth makes me happy
2) How far should each one meet? = ¢√é¬u© -´’-üμ¿u ûËú≈ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
"That he knows the truth", is a noun A. How did you come to know about Mohan?
Spoken English -É-C-´®Ωéπ-öÀ lessons áçûªü¿÷®Ωç v°æA-¢√®Ω÷ éπ©-¢√L? – ÉC Å®Ωnç Ééπ\úø =
clause and subject of the verb 'makes'. Fèπ◊ ¢Á÷£æ«-Ø˛†’ í∫’Jç* ûÁL-ߪ’úøç ᙫ ïJ-TçC?
îª÷úøçúÕ. O’®Ω’ °j† ûÁL-°œ† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ Å®Ωnç ™‰E v°æ¨¡o. ÉEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x éπ©-´úøç Åçö«ç-í¬F,
îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-L-T-ûË, à ´’ç* grammar book Éçûª-ü¿÷®Ωç éπ©-´úøç ņç éπüΔ? II) She knows that you are here = How did you know about Mohan? =
Å®·Ø√ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. Raymond Murphy 3) How long should each one meet? = 'that you are here' is the object of the ¢Á÷£æ«Ø˛†’ í∫’Jç* FÈ陫 ûÁ©’Ææ’?
Grammar book îª÷úøçúÕ. áçûªÊÆ°æ¤ v°æA-¢√®Ω÷ éπ©-¢√L?– ÉD Å®Ωn癉E verb, 'knows'. Q. éÀçC Idiom E ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùûÓ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
Q. ؈’ Ñ dress Ç Tailor ü¿í∫_®Ω èπ◊öÀdç-î√†’. v°æ¨Ïo. äéπJo ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’ Éçûª-ÊÆ°æ¤ éπ©-´úøç I forgot everything except that he is here We are usually bursting at the seams on
(Please translate into English) Öçúøü¿’ éπüΔ? 鬕öÀd Ñ v°æ¨¡o ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. (Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úø’-Ø√oúøØË N≠æߪ’ç ûª°æp N’í∫-û√-´Fo saturday.
A. I got this dress made by the tailor 4. Ñ v°æ¨¡o àN-üμ¿ç-í¬†÷ ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. ÅÆæ-LC sen- ´’®Ω-*-§Ú-ߪ÷†’) A. Bursting at the seams = Ææç©/ •≤ƒh© èπ◊ô’x
tence é¬ü¿’, verb ™‰ü¿’ 鬕öÀd. 'That he is here' - noun clause, object of
Q. ؈’ Ç book ´÷ ûª´·t-úÕéÀ Å´÷t†’ (Please °œT-L-§Ú-´úøç (¢√öÀE áèπ◊\-´í¬ Eç°æ-úøç-´©x).
5. Whose help should I take? = ØËØÁ-´J the preposition, 'except'.
translate into English) (seam = È®çúø’ ´≤ƒY-©†’ éπL°œ éπõ‰d-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢ËÊÆ
≤ƒßª’ç BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L? – ÉC correct form of III), IV) This is all that I know èπ◊ô’d). Å®·ûË Bursting at the seams †’
A. I sold the book to my brother
the question. = Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-Æœç-ü¿çû√ ÉçûË.
Q. What is the difference between (i) effect áèπ◊\´í¬– äéπ í∫C/ v°æü˨¡ç-™ °æõ‰d ï†çéπçõ‰
Q. differences
éÀçC-¢√öÀ ûÁ©-°æí∫-©®Ω’. All that I know, noun clause; complement
(ii) affect áèπ◊\´ ï†ç Öçúøôç -Å-ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
1. Should - Must of the verb, is.
A. Affect = Indian cities are bursting at the seams =
v°æ¶μ«´ç éπLT Öçúøôç/ v°æ¶μ«´ç 2. Should I come? - Shall I come? Adjective complement Öçúøü¿’. ¶μ«®Ωûª †í∫-®√© ï†-Ææ-´’t®Ωnç ¢√öÀ NÆ‘h-®Ωg-ûª†’ N’ç*
îª÷°æúøç 3. Shouldn't I go there? - Don't I have to V) Robo, a movie Rajani has produced, is
Rain affects crops =
ÖçC.
´®Ω{ç °æçô-©†’ v°æ¶μ«-Nûªç go there? really good clause, put
(´÷´‚-©’í¬ äéπ We are bursting at the seams on Saturday =
îËÆæ’hçC/ ¢√öÀ ÆœnAE -´÷®Ω’Ææ’hçC. A. 1. Should = must = NCμí¬/ äéπJ Çïc/ ´’† in apposition to a noun
'We' restaurant, hotel
®√ü¿’. Å™« ¢√ú≈-
effect = v°æ¶μ«´ç/ °∂æLûªç
Ééπ\úø Åçõ‰ àü¿-®·Ø√
Å´Ææ®Ωç ¢Ë’®Ωèπ◊ îËߪ÷L (ûª°æpü¿’) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. ©çõ‰ Ç clause, adjective clause Å´¤-
Rain has an effect on crops = °æçô© O’ü¿ 2. Should I come? = ؈’ ®√¢√™«? sentence Rajani has
鬴a. Å°æ¤púø’ üΔE Å®Ωnç ¨¡E-¢√-®√©’ ´÷
(on crops) ´®√{-EéÀ (rain) has an effect Shall I come? = ؈ ’ ®√Ø√? (††’o
ûª’çC. °j
produced, movie E
™ ™«.
describeîË≤ÚhçC v°æü˨¡ç (Restaurant/ Hotel/ Cinema) ë«S
(v°æ¶μ«´ç éπLT Öçô’çC) ®Ω´’tçö«¢√ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) 鬕öÀdadjective clause
Å´¤-ûª’çC) Öçúøü¿’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 31 -ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2010 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Simhachalam, Vijayawada Q. Nelson's eye


ÉC Regular action
Q. éÀçC Idioms E ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω- A. Turn the Nelson's eye = ÇçüÓ-∞¡† °æúø-èπ◊çú≈ 鬴a.
ùûÓ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. Öçúøôç.He turned a Nelson's eye to the The college is
Barking up the wrong tree. problem closed every sum-
A. Barking up the wrong tree = Q. Order of the day mer
ÅÆæ©’ ¢√∞¡x†’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ ÉçÈé-´®Óo A. Order of the day = ØËöÀ B®Ω’ Shops are closed
on sundays
éÓ°æp-úøôç. Q. Hand in glove with
I didn't take away your book. You are bark- A. Hand in glove with = èπ◊´’t-éπ\-´úøç. ÉC °æ‹®Ωh-®·† action
ing up the wrong tree =
鬴a.
†’´¤y éÓ°æp-ú≈-LqçC Q. Bee in one's bonnet ÉC v°æÆæ’hûªç ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC 鬕öÀd, ÉC
The college has been closed -
Probable present.
´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’.
††’o é¬ü¿’. ØËØËç F °æ¤Ææhéπç Bߪ’-™‰ü¿’. A. Bee in one's bonnet = äÍé N≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ v§ƒüμΔ†uç etc.
Q. Make (sb) mind up about (sb) 2) If he came home, his mother would be
ÂÆ©¢Ó/ Ææ¢Á’t ´©xØÓ,
Shops have been closed = ´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’ – °j
É*a üΔE í∫’Jç* Ç™-*ç-îªúøç.
A. Makeup somebody's mind about something Saving money is the bee in his bonnet happy = Åûªúø’ É°æ¤púø’/ v°æÆæ’hûªç ÉçöÀ-éÌîËa
= üËE N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√ äéπ E®Ωgߪ’ç BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç. now = úø•’s §Òü¿’Ê° Åûª-úÕ üμÓ®ΩùÀ.
鬮Ω-ù«© ´©x. Ŵ鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’; ´ÊÆh ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC.
She has made up her mind about her mar- É™« ÅAí¬ Ç™-*ÊÆh ÅÆæ©’ ®√ߪ’úøç, ´÷ö«x-úøôç (ÉC v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’– Åûªúø’ ®√†÷ ®√úø’.
riage. She is going to marry the young man N. Ranga Rao, Guntur èπÿú≈ ´’üμ¿u™ ÇT-§Ú-´îª’a. NØË-üΔ-Eo-•öÀd, îªC-¢Ë- ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠æ°æúøô´‚ ™‰ü¿’. ÉC
she loves = °Rx N≠æ-ߪ’¢Á’i äéπ E®Ωg-ߪ÷-EéÀ Q. You have not seen the movie yet!- -F-´¤ -îª÷-úø- üΔEo-•öÀd, ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’ç-ú≈L. Improbable present - v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫-EC)
´*aç-üΔ¢Á’. û√†’ vÊ°N’-Ææ’h-†oûªúÕE °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ- Question tag
™‰-üΔ -Å-E -Ç-¨¡a®Ωuç -´uéπh°æ®Ω-îª-ú≈-EéÀ Q. If, whether ©†’ á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î √L? 3) If he had come home, his mother would
¶ûÓçC. ¢√--ú≈-L -™‰-üΔ -v°æ-¨¡o -¢Ë-ߪ÷-L éπ-üΔ! If = 1) Å®·ûË. have been happy = Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀéÀ ´îª’açõ‰
(í∫ûªç™) ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œç-îËüË– Åûªúø’ ®√™‰ü¿’,
¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œç-îª-™‰ü¿’. ÉC Impossible
Wher e ther e is a will ther e is a way past. Éçé¬ N´-®√©’ 鬢√-©çõ‰, Spoken
English Lessons 25-40 îª÷úøçúÕ.
Q. I have to go = I have got to go = I got to go
= I gotta go = -ØË-†’ -¢Á-∞«}--L – -Å-E- îÁ-§ƒp®Ω’. OöÀ
Q. Step on If you work hard, you will come up í∫’Jç* N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. Stepon - Independent
ÉC í¬ ¢√úø®Ω’. Step on = †’´¤y v¨¡´’ °æúÕ-†-ôx-®·ûË Â°jéÌ-≤ƒh´¤. A. I have to go = I have got to go = I got to go
it = (car) ¢Ëí∫ç °ç-î√-©-E Çñ«c-°œç-îªúøç. He told -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 620 If you start now you will reach = I gotta go.
me to step on it = (car) ¢Ëí∫ç °ç-î√-©-E Çñ«c- there at 10 = †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ •ßª’-©’- Éçü¿’™ I have to go - American;
üËJûË, °æCç-öÀéÀ îË®Ω-û√´¤. I have got to go - British
A. You haven't (have not) seen the
°œçî√úø’.
Q. Your wish is my command If = 2) Whether. Å´¤ØÓé¬üÓ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ I gotta go -
movie yet!- ÉC Ǩ¡a®Ωuç ´uéπh-°æ-J-îËç- ÉC ûªy®Ω-ûªy®Ωí¬ ´÷ö«x-úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ N†-
A. O’®Ω-úÕ-TçC ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ îË≤ƒhç/ O’®Ω-úÕ-TûË î√©’, ¢√úøû√ç. °æúË ¢√éπuç.
M.SURESAN
ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. v°æ¨¡o ®Ω÷°æç-™-í¬F, i) No body knows if/ whether he Q. éÀçC-¢√öÀ í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
ÅC ïJ-T-§Ú-ûª’çC, ÅE îÁ°æpúøç. question tag é¬F Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’
comes or not - Broil - roast; alone - lonely;
Q. Tooth and nail
ÅûªúÌ≤ƒhúÓ ®√úÓ
Q. The villagers tried to sell their surviving live- á´-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. admire - appreciate; alternate - alternative;
A. Tooth and nail - To fight tooth stock, but no one could pay a high price for
ii) Ask him if/ whether he likes it or not =
ÉC ´·êuçí¬ have to - need.
and nail/ to oppose tooth and nail ™ ¶μ«í∫çí¬ a skinny, starving goat or cow. üΔEE Åûªúø’ É≠æd-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúÓ ™‰üÓ Åúø’í∫’. A. Broil = §Ò®·u ´’çô éÀçü¿-í¬F/ O’ü¿í¬F Ɇ°æ
´Ææ’hçC. -Å°æ¤púø’ üΔE Å®Ωnç Ééπ\-úø No one could pay -Åç-õ‰ -îÁ-Lxç-îª-™‰-ü¿’ -Å-E Q. Conditional sentences í∫’-Jç-* N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ´y© O’ü¿ ´÷çÆæç/ chicken 鬩aúøç.
To fight tooth and nail = ¨¡éÀh éÌDl §Ú®√-úøôç. -Å®Ωnç -éπ-üΔ! No one would pay- Å®Ωnç -ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ. A. Conditional sentences Åçõ‰ conditions (= Roast = §Ò®·u´’çô O’ü¿ ´÷çÆæç direct í¬
Gandhi fought the British Govt tooth and nail. A. Could pay = îËߪ’-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’ (Åçûª ¨¡éÀh ™‰E- sentences.
≠æ®Ω-ûª’©’) ûÁLÊ° OöÀE í∫’Jç* ÉC- 鬩aúøç.
To oppose tooth and nail = ¨¡éÀhéÌDl ´uA-Í®- ¢√®Ω-ߪ÷u®Ω’) Lessons
´®Ω-éπöÀ ™ (25–40) N°æ¤©çí¬ ÖçC. Alone = äçôJí¬/ ÉçÈé´J ≤ƒßª’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈
Gandhi opposed foreign goods tooth
éÀçîªúøç. No one would pay = á´®Ω÷ îÁLxç-îª®Ω’ (¢√∞¡Ÿx ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ èπ◊x°æhçí¬ N´-J-Ææ’hØ√oç. Lonely = ¶«üμ¿ éπL-TçîË äçô-J-ûª†ç. Alone
and nail = í¬çDμ NüËQ ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’ ¨¡éÀhéÌDl ´uA-Í®- É≠æd-°æ-úø®Ω’/ ä°æ¤p-éÓ®Ω’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ). O’J-*a† sen- Conditional sentences ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ If, unless, Åçõ‰ äçôJí¬ ÅE ´÷vûª¢Ë’. äçô-J-ûª†ç ´©x
éÀç-î√úø’. tence ™ would pay Å-†-úøç, could pay éπçõ‰ when, where, before, after, suppose, provid- ´îËa ¶«üμ¿, É•sçC alone ™ Ææ’p¥Jç-îªü¿’. ÅüË
Q. Call a spade a spade ÆæÈ®j-†C. ed ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-©-ûÓ ÖçúË clauses †’ éπLT lonely Åçõ‰ äçô-J-ûª†ç ´©x ´îËa ¶«üμ¿/
A. Call a spade a spade = Ö†oC Ö†o-ô’dí¬ Q. Æœ-E-´÷ -¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-ü¿-ô, -¢Á-∞¡-üΔ-´÷– -D-E-E -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™  Öçö«®·. É•sçCE áèπ◊\´í¬ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC.
îÁ°æpúøç, E®Ìt-£æ«-´÷-ôçí¬. -á-™« -Åç-ö«ç? Conditional sentences èπ◊ Å®Ωnç á°æ¤púø÷ ÅC She lives alone in that big house and feels
Let me call a spade a spade. Your clothes A. The movie seems to be good/ They say the ïJ-T-ûËØË/ ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púË ÉC ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC, ÅC lonely = Ç¢Á’ Ç Â°ü¿l Éçöx äéπ\ûË Öçô’çC.
movie is good, shall we go?
are not to my liking = Ö†oC Ö†o-ô’dí¬ ï®Ωí∫éπ-´·çü¿’ ÉC ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’, ÅC ïJT Öçõ‰-ØË ÉC Ç äçô-J-ûª†ç Ç¢Á’†’ ¶«Cμ-≤ÚhçC.
îÁ•’ûª’Ø√o. F ü¿’Ææ’h©’ Ø√Íéç †îªa-™‰ü¿’. Q. °-†’o--ØË -BÆæ’èπ◊®√, °-Eq-™¸ -´-ü¿’l – D-E-E -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ ïJT ÖçúËC– É™« Å®√n©’ ´Ææ’hç-ö«®·. Admire = äéπ ´uéÀh íÌ°æp-ûª†ç ´©x/ äéπ ÆæçÆæn
If he comes home, his mother will be happy
Q. Tongue in cheek
-á-™« -Åç-ö«ç? íÌ°æp-ûª†ç ´©x ´’†™ ¢√J/ ¢√öÀ °æôx éπLÍí íÌ°æp
A. Get only the pen, not the pencil-. = Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀéÌÊÆh ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. íı®Ω-´-¶μ«´ç, ÅGμ-´÷†ç.
A. Tongue in cheek =
'If he comes home- conditional
°jéÀ éπE-°œç-îªE Ê£«∞¡-†ûÓ. Éçü¿’™ ÉC We admire Gandhi for his truthfulness =
He said my speech was good, but I knew it S. Naresh, Kothagudem clause- Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀ-éÌÊÆh, ÅØË ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤- Çߪ’† Eñ«-ߪ’B Çߪ’† °æôx íÌ°æp íı®Ω´
was the tongue in cheek = Åûªúø’ Ê£«∞¡-†- Q. "The work is done" Åçõ‰– °æE °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ’- ûÓçC 鬕öÀd. É™«çöÀ clause Ö†osentence ¶μ«¢√Eo, ¢Á’°æ¤p†’, ÅGμ-´÷-Ø√Eo éπL-Tç-îªúøç.
Ææy®ΩçûÓ, Ø√ Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç ¶«í∫’ç-ü¿-Ø√oúø’. (Ê£«∞¡† •úÕçü¿E ÅØ√o®Ω’. é¬E– "The work has been conditional sentence Åçö«ç. ÉüË Å®√nEo éÀçC Appreciate = äéπJ/ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ´’ç*
°jéÀ éπE-°œç-îª-èπ◊çú≈) done" ÅØËC ÆæÈ®j† v°æßÁ÷í∫ç éπüΔ? È®çúø÷ NüμΔ©’í¬ îÁ§Òpa. í∫’ù«©†’, ´’ç* ©éπ~-ù«-©†’ í∫’Jhç* džç-
Q. Maiden speech ÆæÈ®j†¢Ë Å®·ûË àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úøû√®Ó N´-Jç- Unless he come home, his mother will not Cçîªúøç.
A. Maiden speech = v°æv°æ-ü∑¿´’ Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæç. îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Simple present tense ßÁ·éπ\ passive be happy = Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀéÌÊÆh-í¬E/ ûª°æp ¢√∞¡x´’t I appreciate her patience = Ç¢Á’ ã®Ω’p†’ ؈’
Maiden Åçõ‰ á´-J -@-N-ûªç-™-ØÁjØ√ -¢Á·-ü¿-öÀC. voice á°æ¤púø’ Present perfect tense èπ◊ Ææ´÷- ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úøü¿’. í∫’Jhçîªí∫LT £æ«J{-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
Maiden Movie, Maiden Century, etc. †-´’-´¤-ûª’çC? When he comes home, his mother will be You cannot appreciate my difficulties =
(Maiden = éπ†u) A. The work is done = The work (°æE) done happy (Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀ-éÌ-*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ- Ø√ éπ≥ƒd©’ †’´y®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-™‰´¤/ †’´¤y í∫’Jhç-îª-™‰-éπ-
Q. Live from hand to mouth (îËߪ’-•-úÕ-†üÁj) is (ÖçC) ≠œÆæ’hçC) §Ú-ûª’-Ø√o´¤.
Before you pay the fees, you will not be Alternate = äéπöÀ ´÷Ja äéπöÀ
A. Live from hand to mouth = î√M-î √-©E Ñ sentence ™ °æE à ÆœnA™ ÖçC ÅØË-üΔ-EéÀ admitted =
v§ƒüμΔ†uç. îËߪ’-•-úÕ-†üÁj ÖçC – Å®·-§Ú-®·çC. °∂‘V éπôdéπ´·çü¿’/ éπôd-èπ◊çõ‰ E†’o He comes here on alternate days =
After you pay the fees you will be
Ææ秃ü¿†ûÓ •ûª-éπúøç. îË®Ω’a-éÓ®Ω’ =
With his low salary he lives hand to mouth = The work has been done Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®ÓV ´÷Ja ®ÓV ´≤ƒhúø’.
admitted = °∂‘V éπöÀd† ûª®√yûË E†’o îË®Ω’a-èπ◊çö«®Ω’ Alternative = v°æû√u-´÷oߪ’ç – äéπ-üΔE •ü¿’©’
ûª†-éÌîËa ûªèπ◊\´ @ûªçûÓ î√M-î√-©E @Nûªç í∫úø’°æ¤- The work (°æE) has been done (îËߪ’-•-úÕçC) If, unless
– (ÉüË Å®Ωnç ´îËaô’d ©’ ¢√úø´îª’a)
Ñ sentence ™ °æE-°æ‹-®Ωh®· éÌçûª-é¬©ç ¢√úË ÉçéÌ-éπöÀ.
ûª’-Ø√oúø’. Where there is a will there is a way = There is no alternative to hardwork = éπ%≠œéÀ
Q. buried the hatchet Å®·çC, ÅE Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ v§ƒüμΔ†uç. ´’†Ææ’çõ‰ ´÷®Ω_-´·ç-ô’çC. v°æû√u-´÷oߪ’ç ™‰ü¿’. éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ °æE-îË-ߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ ´÷®Ω’
A. Bury the hatchet = §ƒ-ûª -éπ-éπ~©’ ´’-®Ω-*-§Ú-´-úøç Ñ éÌCl-§ƒöÀ ûËú≈ ûª°œpç* È®çúø÷ üΔüΔ°æ¤ äÍé Provided he takes treatment, he will improve ÉçéÓöÀ ™‰ü¿’.
Q. Pandora's box Å®√nEo≤ƒh®·. =¢Ájü¿uç îË®·ç-èπ◊çõ‰ Åûªúø’ ¢Á’®Ω’-í∫´¤û√úø’. Have to = àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷Lq ®√´úøç
A. (Open) the Pandora's Box = àüÁjØ√ ¢Á·ü¿-©’- The college is closed = ´‚Æœ ÖçC = ´‚ûª- ÉO conditional sentences Åçõ‰. ´·êuçí¬ I have to go = ؈’ ¢Á∞«xL (ûª°æpü¿’)
°ôd-úøç-´©x ´’†ç °æJ-≠æ \-Jç-îª-™‰E î√™« Éûª®Ω •úÕ ÖçC – ÂÆ©´¤™x ÖçC. ´‚úø’ ®Ω鬩 conditional sentences Öçö«®·. Need = Å´-Ææ®Ωç. ÉC ÅEo-¢Ë-∞¡™« have to ™«
Ææ´’Ææu©’ Öûªp†oç 鬴úøç. The college has been closed = ´‚ߪ’-•-úÕçC 1) If he comes home, his mother will be ûª°æp-E-ÆæJ ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’.
The case may open a Pandora's box = Ñ – ´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’, ÂÆ©´¤-©èπ◊. happy = Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀéÌÊÆh ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œ- I need to go = ؈’ ¢Á∞«x-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÖçC.
case ´©x ´’†ç ņ’-éÓE, °æJ-≠æ \-Jç-îª-™‰E Ñ È®çúÕçöÀ ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ à´·çC? üΔüΔ°æ¤ äéπõ‰ Ææ’hçC. Ééπ\úø Åûªúø’ ÉçöÀ-éÌîËa Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚ (ÉC Ø√ Å´-Ææ®Ωç, á´J Çñ«c é¬ü¿’).
Ææ´’Ææu©’ áü¿’-®Ω’-é¬-´îª’a. éπüΔ? ÖçC, Åçü¿’-´©x ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œç-îª-†÷-´îª’a.

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