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R. Chusnu Yuli Setyo/NIM.

10746007/S3 English
Department/PPs Unesa 2010/


Literally, ex post facto means ‘from what is done
afterwards’. In the context of educational research, this phrase
means ‘after the fact’ or ‘retrospectively’ and refers to those
studies which investigate possible cause-and-effect relationship by
observing an existing condition or state of affairs and searching
back in time for plausable causal factors.
Ex post facto research is a method of teasing out possible
antecedents of events that happened and cannot, because of this
effect, be engineered or manipulated by the investigator. More
formally, it can be defined as a research in which the independent
variable or variables have already occurred and the researcher
starts with observation of a dependent variable or variables. In
this case, the researcher then studies the independent variable or
variables in retrospect for their possible relationship to, and effects
on, the dependent variable or variables. Thus, the researcher is
examining retrospectively the effects of naturally occurring event
on a subsequent outcome with a view to establishing a causal link
between them.

Kinds of Design in Ex Post Facto Research

There are two kinds of design in ex post facto research,
they are:
1. Co-relational study ( causal research) is concerned with
identifying the antecendents of a present condition. The basic
design is:

This design has three possible interpretations:

a. that the variable X has caused O
b. that the variable O has caused X, or
c. that some third unidentified, and therefore unmeasured,
variable has caused X and O

2. Criterion group study (causal comparative research) is

concerned with the attempts to dicover possible causes for a
phenomenon being studied by comparing the subjects in which
the variable is present with similar subjects in whom it is absent.
This approach is seen as bridging the gap between descriptive
research method on the one hand and true experimental
research on the other hand.
The basic design of this study is:

Characteristic of Ex Post Facto Research

1. data are collected after the presume cause or causes have
2. in contrast with true experimental research, in EPF the
manipulation control and
randomisation of the independent variable is not possible

The advantages of EPF are (1) it is appropriate when the more

powerful experiment method is not possible; (2) it can yield useful
information concerning the nature of phenomena; (3) improvement
in statistical technique and general methodology have made tihis
design is more defensible; (4) it is appropriate when simple cause-
and-effect relationship are being explored; (5) the method can give
a sense of direction and provide a fruitful source of hypothesis that
can be tested by the more rigorous experimental method