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LYT-GUEST EDIT-Bogineni 3/25/09 1:06 PM Page 40



Kalyani Bogineni Reiner Ludwig Preben Mogensen Vish Nandlall

Vojislav Vucetic Byung K. Yi Zoran Zvonar

T he recent rise in data traffic volumes being carried

by mobile communication networks is tremendous.
Some mobile communication networks have already turned
provide flexible channel bandwidth for operators in both
paired and unpaired spectrum. Another important target
was to reduce user plane latency to less than 10 ms and
from voice dominance to data dominance in terms of car- control plane latency to less than 100 ms.
ried traffic volume. In 2008 the increase was up to a factor The multiple access techniques selected for LTE are
of five, and large operators’ networks are now carrying on orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)
the order of 5–10 Tbytes/day. This boom in mobile data for downlink and single-carrier frequency-division multiple
traffic has been enabled by several factors: flat rate pricing, access (SC-FDMA) for uplink. These multiple access
3G offering digital subscriber line (DSL)-like data rates, schemes provide several advantages over wideband code-
the availability of USB mobile data modems for PCs, and division multiple access (WCDMA), including flexible
Web-friendly mobile terminals. In the wake of these head- bandwidth configurations from 1.4 up to 20 MHz.
lines, mobile operators are evaluating evolved network With OFDMA, the data is transmitted over a large
infrastructures that can simultaneously provide lower cost number of orthogonal narrowband channels. By insertion
per bit and greater flexibility in the pricing structures of of a cyclic prefix, the received signal, even after undergo-
end-user services. The Third Generation Partnership Pro- ing multipath propagation, can be detected by a low-com-
ject (3GPP) has responded to these challenges with the plexity single tap equalizer in the user equipment (UE).
creation of the Release 8 specification including the long This complexity reduction (compared to a multitap equal-
term evolution (LTE) and evolved packet core (EPC) set izer) becomes especially important in combination with
of standards. spatial multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output
In Part I of this Feature Topic published in the Febru- (MIMO) techniques. OFDMA also provides easy band-
ary 2009 issue of IEEE Communications Magazine, we width scalability via configuration of the number of subcar-
investigated the technologies behind EPC. In this issue we riers. Lastly, OFDMA in combination with
provide insight into the inner workings of the LTE air frequency-dependent channel state information gives the
interface. opportunity to benefit from frequency domain channel
From a technical point of view, some of the fundamen- aware user diversity packet scheduling.
tal targets of LTE are to offer higher data rates — 100 The drawback of OFDMA is the relatively large peak to
Mb/s for down- and 50 Mb/s for uplink transmission, to average power ratio (PAPR), which tends to reduce the
increase the cell average and cell edge spectral efficiency efficiency of the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier.
by a factor of 2–4 compared to HSPA Release 6, and to Hence for uplink, SC-FDMA has been selected mainly to

40 IEEE Communications Magazine • April 2009

LYT-GUEST EDIT-Bogineni 3/25/09 1:06 PM Page 41


improve RF transmission power efficiency in the UE. By (SR) mechanism allows the UE to request uplink transmis-
inserting a cyclic prefix, as in OFDMA, the received signal sion resources from the eNodeB through either random
after multipath propagation can still be detected by a low- access SR or dedicated SR. LTE supports discontinuous
complexity equalizer at the enhanced NodeB. SC-FDMA reception (DRX) to enable UE power savings by shutting
can be treated as a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) pre- down a portion of, or possibly the whole, receiver. With
coded OFDMA signal, and hence provide the same scala- respect to scheduling, the challenge is to provide desired
bility advantages as OFDMA. SC-FDMA, however, quality of service (QoS) on a shared channel. LTE does
requires transmission in consecutive bands, and thus intro- not provide any dedicated channel, and it is up to eNodeB
duces restrictions on the frequency domain packet schedul- implementation and schedulers to assign radio resources in
ing for individual users compared to OFDMA. Compared a way to obtain the agreed QoS characteristics. The over-
to wideband code-division multiple access (WCDMA), head analysis and performance result indicate that the
intracell orthogonality is preserved between users by using LTE link layer is highly efficient to meet and even exceed
timing advance such that the users are received syn- the requirements of mobile broadband users in the future
chronously. This provides significant coverage and capacity with low overhead, while still being flexible enough to pro-
gain in the uplink over WCDMA. vide support to TCP services as well as real-time services
LTE Release 8 supports spatial multiplexing with two such as voice over IP (VoIP).
codewords and up to four parallel streams in the downlink. LTE can expect some distinct deployment challenges.
In combination with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation LTE users should be able to make voice calls from their
(QAM), the peak data rates in downlink exceeds 300 Mb/s. terminal and have access to basic data services even when
LTE also supports user specific beamforming. The corre- they are in areas without LTE coverage. LTE therefore
sponding uplink peak data rate is approximately 75 Mb/s allows smooth, seamless service handover in areas of
using single-stream transmission. Spatial multiplexing in CDMA, 1xEV-DO, HSPA, WCDMA, or GSM/GPRS/
the uplink is introduced in a second phase of LTE, and is EDGE coverage. Furthermore, LTE/SAE supports not
part of the LTE-Advanced Study Item. only intra- and intersystem handovers, but also interdo-
A detailed overview of the LTE radio interface, includ- main handovers between packet and circuit switched ses-
ing both frequency- and time-division duplex (FDD and sions. These issues are examined in the article
TDD) techniques, is described in the article “LTE: The “Coexistence Studies for 3GPP LTE with Other Mobile
Evolution of Mobile Broadband” by David Astely, Erik Systems” by Man Hung Ng, Shen-de Lin, Jimmy Li, and
Dahlman, Anders Furuskär, Ylva Jading, Magnus Lind- Said Tatesh. It provides an overview of the coexistence
strom, and Stefan Parkvall. In addition to transmission studies, and system simulation methodology and assump-
scheme, the authors have outlined details associated with tions used in the studies. In addition, they show some sim-
spectrum flexibility covering transmission bandwidth and ulation results for the possible impacts with different
duplex schemes, multi-antenna transmission, power control system parameters such as adjacent channel interference
and intercell interference coordination. Current activities ratio (ACIR).
within 3GPP, often referred to as LTE-Advanced, are Supporting vertical handover (VHO) between different
briefly introduced in terms of several technology compo- networks requires the provision of ubiquitous mobile ser-
nents including carrier aggregation, relaying, extended vices. The article “Data Loss Preventive Optimized Verti-
multi-antenna transmission, and coordinated multipoint cal Handover Technology for 3GPP and Mobile WiMAX
transmission/reception (CoMP). Communications” by William Song, Jong-Moon Chung,
The challenge in designing the LTE link layer protocol Daeyoung Lee, Chaegwon Lim, and Sungho Choi address-
is to provide a simplified architecture considering high es VHO between 3GPP and mobile WiMAX networks.
data rates of the LTE physical layer while having strict They introduce a new network entity named the data for-
latency requirements. An overview is provided in the arti- warding function (DFF) to resolve the data loss problem
cle “The LTE Link Layer Design” by Anna Larmo, Mag- in existing techniques. They show through simulation
nus Lindstrom, Michael Meyer, Ghyslain Pelletier, Johan experiments that the loss of data can be significantly
Torsner, and Henning Wiemann. The underlying principle reduced by applying the proposed optimized VHO scheme.
in design approach is an efficient interaction among differ- A second deployment challenge involves the presence
ent layers. The resulting LTE link layer consists of three of interference between eNodeBs and within an eNodeB’s
sublayers: packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) coverage. A combination of high- and low-power subchan-
responsible for IP header compression and ciphering, nels can be exploited to increase the overall capacity of the
radio link control (RLC) protocol covering mainly auto- network compared to networks which use the same trans-
matic repeat request (ARQ) functionality and supporting mission power for all subchannels. This approach is known
data segmentation and concatenation, and medium access as fractional frequency reuse (FFR) as all base stations use
control (MAC) protocol, which provides hybrid ARQ func- the same frequency band and low-power subchannels, but
tionality and is responsible for scheduling operation. The only a fraction of the high-power subchannels. Additional
relevant functionality is described in an intuitive manner techniques are used to cancel interference using a variety
focusing on the key aspects of the standard. In retransmis- of advanced decoding principles. These technologies are
sion handling a fundamental design choice for LTE has reviewed in the article “Interference Coordination and
been not to propagate any bit errors to higher layers but Cancellation for 4G Networks” by Gary Boudreau, John
rather to drop the entire data unit. A scheduling request Panicker, Ning Guo, S. Vrzic, Reid Chang, and Neng

IEEE Communications Magazine • April 2009 41

LYT-GUEST EDIT-Bogineni 3/25/09 1:06 PM Page 42


Wang. It provides an overview of techniques that can be dardization of the policy and QoS framework of the 3GPP EPS, including
link layer aspects of the LTE radio access. He currently holds an expert posi-
employed to mitigate interference in fourth-generation tion in the Systems and Technology Department of Ericsson’s Business Unit
(4G) OFDM systems with specific relevance to LTE. Networks, where he is responsible for policy and QoS control for fixed and
Viable approaches include the use of fractional power con- mobile access networks.
trol, static and adaptive fractional frequency reuse, oppor- P REBEN M OGENSEN received his M.Sc.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees in 1988 and
tunistic spectrum access, intra- and inter-eNodeB 1996, respectively, from Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Since 1999 he
has been a part time professor in the Department of Electronic Systems,
interference cancellation, MIMO, SDMA, adaptive beam- AAU, where he heads the Radio Access Technology (RATE) research section.
forming, and network MIMO as well as advanced coding He also holds a part time position as principal engineer at Nokia Siemens
theory concepts such as dirty paper coding. They suggest Networks, Aalborg, where he is involved in LTE and LTE-Advanced stan-
dardization research. He is author or co-author of more than 170 technical
combinations of approaches that provide gains in short- publications within a wide range of areas, including radio wave propaga-
term and long-term perspectives. tion, advanced antenna technologies, receiver design, frequency assign-
To ensure a smooth transmission from standardization ment, radio resource management, and packet scheduling.
to commercialization, a global group of equipment vendors VISH NANDLALL is the chief technical officer for Carrier Networks at Nortel.
and operators have formed the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative He is responsible for Nortel’s technology vision in 4G and in particular LTE,
and has shaped Nortel's product and standards strategy in this field, advo-
(LSTI). The first trial results compiled by LSTI are includ- cating seamless intertechnology handoff and flat network topologies. He
ed in this edition as an invited article by Julius Robson, has spent the last 15 years in architecture roles within Nortel, most recently
Chair of LSTI’s proof of concept group, entitled “The as chief architect for Nortel's CDMA and EVDO wireless access division, con-
tributing to the launch of high-speed data services in North America and
LTE/SAE Trial Initiative: Taking LTE/SAE from Specifi- Eastern Europe. Prior to his life in wireless, he contributed to Nortel's Metro
cation to Rollout.” LSTI is coordinating and reporting Optical and DMS product lines, providing key technologies in core comput-
progress on trial activities to ensure that everyone has a ing and private line services. His current research is in cross-layer design for
cellular interference control and scheduling in direct relay systems.
realistic understanding of a) what performance and func-
tionality to expect from LTE, and b) the readiness of the VOJISLAV VUCETIC received his Ph.D. degree from Imperial College, London,
United Kingdom. In 1988 he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he
technology for commercial rollout. Apart from reporting worked on software design and software architecture for data communica-
measurement results on raw data rates, the article also tions systems, and network designs for data carrier networks internationally.
reports measurement results for packet latency and idle to In 1998 he joined Cisco, where he worked as a consulting engineer support-
ing U.S.-based and international service providers. He also contributed to
active time. metro Ethernet and cable-based VoIP development activities. Currently he is
The editorial team would like to thank Editor-in-Chief a senior manager in the Carrier Standards and Architecture group. He leads
Nim Cheung for providing the opportunity to present this a group that is responsible for coordinating industry and standards activities
with Cisco carriers’ development organizations and service providers. His
Feature Topic and guiding the process toward publication. current focus is on architecture and protocols for access-agnostic IP-based
The team would also like to thank the reviewers who networks to support 3GPP, 3GPP2, WiMaX, and other access technologies.
helped us select the best papers. Last but not least, the BYUNG K. YI, senior executive vice president of LG Electronics, has over 32
editorial team would like to thank our companies for pro- years of experience in research and development of communication and
viding support in this initiative that will help engineers to space systems. He has been working on 3G and 4G wireless communica-
tion systems. He served as TSG-C chair of 3GPP2 for two terms, developing
get a basic understanding of LTE technology and the asso- cdma2000 air interface specifications, and served as a co-chair of Working
ciated networking concepts. Group 5 of 3GPP2 TSG-C, developing 1xEV/DV wireless standards. Under his
leadership, TSG-C published three important air interface standards,
cdma2000 Rev. D, and High Rate Packet Data (HRPD) Revs. A and B. He is
BIOGRAPHIES currently heading the LGE North America R&D center, developing mobile
terminals for North American carriers. He was in charge of small satellite
KALYANI BOGINENI ( is principal archi- system engineering for distributed low earth orbiting telecommunication
tect at Verizon Communications with extensive experience in architecture and remote sensing applications at Orbital and CTA as a chief engineer. He
and design of telecommunications networks for wireless and wireline tech- taught graduate courses for nine years at George Washington University as
nologies as well as various application technologies. She has published an adjunct professor. His current interests are wireless and space communi-
extensively in IEEE/ACM peer-reviewed journals and conferences. She has cation systems, iterative decoding, and space system engineering. He holds
been on the Technical Program Committees for several conferences, and eight U.S. patents and five international patents in the areas of iterative
has been a reviewer for various IEEE journals and magazines for over 18 decoding and handoff schemes for cellular-based systems.
years. She is an active speaker on next-generation converged networks at
various conferences and panels. Recently she has been active in the devel- ZORAN ZVONAR is director of systems engineering, MediaTek Wireless, and a
opment of 3GPP standards for 4G technologies focused on the develop- MediaTek Fellow. He received a Dipl.Ing. in 1986 and an M.S. degree in
ment of converged networks for multiple access technologies with IP-based 1989 from the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bel-
mobility management mechanisms, policy-driven roaming architectures, grade, Serbia, and a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Northeast-
and converged security architectures. She has B.Tech and M.E. degrees in ern University, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1993. From 1994 to 2008 he
electrical engineering, an M.S. degree in computer engineering, and a Ph.D. pursued industrial carrier within Analog Devices. He was a member of the
in electrical and computer engineering. core development team for the baseband platform and RF direct conver-
sion transceiver wireless product families, and has been a recipient of the
REINER LUDWIG received his Diploma and doctoral degree in computer sci- company’s highest technical honor of ADI Fellow. Since January 2008 he
ence from the University of Technology, Aachen, Germany, in 1994 and has been with MediaTek focused on the design of algorithms and architec-
2000, respectively. He joined Ericsson in 1994 working within the Research tures for cellular standards, with applications to integrated chip set solu-
Department on cross-layer aspects of wireless packet-based networks. He tions and real-time software. He is the Editor of the Radio Communications
has worked within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), where he co- Series in IEEE Communications Magazine and has served as Guest Editor
authored standards on operating end-to-end protocols across wireless and the member of the editorial boards for a number of professional jour-
access networks. More recently, he has been actively involved in the stan- nals in wireless communications.

42 IEEE Communications Magazine • April 2009