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CONTENTS

1. Introduction: 06
1.1 About the Project 06
1.2 About the Building 07
1.3 Types of Buildings 10
2. CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING: 11
2.1Sub-structure 11
2.1.1 Shallow foundation 11
2.1.1.1 Individual footings 12
2.1.1.2 Strip footing 12
2.1.1.3 Raft or Mat foundation 13
2.1.2 Deep foundation 13
2.1.2.1 Pile foundation 13
2.2 Super-structure 15
3. Materials for Construction: 17
3.1 Cement 17
3.2 Aggregate 18
3.2.1Fine Aggregate 18
3.2.2Coarse Aggregates 18
3.3 Water 20
3.4 R.C.C 20

4. Main parts of building: 21


4.1Column 21
4.2Beam 22
4.3Slab 23
4.4Beam and column connection 24
4.5Casting 25

5.Materials Testing: 26
5.1 Tests of Aggregates 26
5.1.1 Crushing Strength Test 26
5.1.2 Impact Test 27
5.1.3 Los Angles Abration Value 29
5.1.4 Shape Test 30

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5.1.5 Water Absorption Test 32

5.2 Tests of Concrete 34


5.2.1 Compressive Strength Test 34
5.2.2 Permeability Test 35
5.2.3 Slump Test 37
5.2.4 Flexural Strength Test 38

6 Equipments and Machines: 39


6.1 Batching Machine 39
6.2 Concrete Mixer 39
6.3 Transportation 40
6.4 Compactors 41

7 Brick Masonary: 42
7.1 Class of Brick 42
7.2 Size & Weight of Bricks 43
7.3 Structure of Brick 43
7.4 Types of Brick Masonary 44
7.5 Tools Used in Brick Masonary 44
7.6 Bonds in Brick Work 45
7.7 Thickness of Wall 47
7.8 Procedure of Brick Masonary 47

8 Plaster: 48
8.1 Mortar for Plastering 48
8.2 Tools for Plastering 49
8.3 Methods of Plastering 50

9 Building By-Laws: 51
9.1 Objectives of Building By-Laws 51
9.2 Plinth Area Regulations 51
9.3 Height and Size Regulation for Rooms 52
9.3.1 Height Regulations 52
9.3.2 Size Regulations 52

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9.4 Lighting and Ventilation Regulations 53
9.5 Open Space Regulations 54
9.6 Fire Protection Regulations 55

Conclusion: 57

Reference: 58

LIST OF FIGURES

S.no Name Page no.

1.1 Multi-storey Residential Building 07

1.2 Unit Plan 08

2.1 Individual Footing 12

2.2 Plinth Beam in Footing 12

2.3 Pile Foundation 14

2.4 Flooring 15

3.1 Coarse Aggregates 19

4.1 Column 21

4.2 Beam 22

4.3 Slab 23

4.4 Beam and column connection 24

4.5 Casting 25

4.6 footing 26

5.1 Los Angles Apparatus 29

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5.2 Shape Testing Apparatus 30

5.3 Slump test 37

5.4 Flexural Strength Testing 38

6.1 Concrete Mixing Machine 39

6.2 Belt Conveyors 40

7.1 Bricks 42

7.2 Stretcher Bond 45

7.3 English Bond 46

7.4 Thickness of Wall 47

8.1 Plastering 49

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LIST OF TABLES

S. Name Page no.


no
1.1 Details About Project 06
3.1 Composition of Portland Cement 17
4.1 Observation for Impact Test 28
7.1 Different Coats of Plaster 50
8.1 Maximum Permissible Covered Area 52

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT:

1. NAME OF PROJECT MULTISTOREY COMMERCIAL


BUILDING (G+8)
2. PROJECT MANAGER MR. SHIVENDRA CHOUDHARY SIR
3. COMPANY GLOBAL BUILDSTATE PROJECT
PVT. LTD. , JAIPUR
4. LOCATION OF SITE “JAGATPURA COMMERCIAL” CP-3-
235,JAGATPURA ,
JAIPUR,RAJASTHAN
5. DATE OF STARTING OCT. 2018
PROJECT
6. COMPLITION PERIOD OF DEC. 2020
PROJECT
7. TYPE OF CONSTRUTION RCC FRAME STRUCTURE
8. GRADE OF CONCRETE M-35, M-40
9. STEEL GRADE MILD STEEL
10. TOTAL BUILDUP AREA 1,15,000 Sq.ft
11. BUILDING USES OFFICE WORKS, WAREHOUSES,
RETAIL, SHOPPING MALLS, ETC.
12. FACING SIDE SOUTH
13. COST OF PROJECT 15 CRORE
Table 1.1 Details about Project

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Fig. 1.1 Site building

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Fig 1.2 Unit Plan

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1.2ABOUT THE BUILDING:
It project is a multi-storey commercial building.Commercial buildings are buildings that are
used for commercial purposes, and include office buildings, warehouses, and retail buildings
(e.g. convenience storis, 'big box' stores, and shopping malls). In urban locations, a
commercial building may combine functions, such as offices on levels 2-10, with retail on
floor 1. When space allocated to multiple functions is significant, these buildings can be
called multi-use.

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1.3TYPES OF BUILDING:
Buildings are classified on the basis of character of occupancy and type of use as –
1.3.1 Residential Building
1.3.2 Educational Building
1.3.3 Institutional Building
1.3.4 Industrial Building

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING:
In such building sleeping accommodation is provided. It includes the Living room, Bed room,
Kitchen, Hall, Toilet and Bath room. It may be a single storey building or apartments.

EDUCATIONAL BUILDING:
This includes any building using for school, college, assembly for instruction, education or
recreation.
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING:
These building are used for different purposes, such as medical or other treatment or care of a
person suffering from a physical or mental illness etc. These building includes hospital,
Sanitaria, Jail etc.

INDUSTRIAL BUILDING:
These are buildings in which products or material s of all kind of properties are fabricated,
assembled, processed. For example refineries, gas plant, mills etc.

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CHAPTER 2: CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING
Construction of the building is done in at least two steps. Which are following:
• Sub Structure
• Super Structure.

2.1 SUB STRUCTURE:


Foundation is a part of the sub structure. Sub structure is constructed according to soil
quality at that site. If soil have good bearing capacity than we use shallow foundation in
construction. And if the bearing capacity of the soil is not good or suitable than we use deep
foundation at that site. Sub structure is a load bearing structure and it is designed for load
bearing.
FOUNDATION:
A foundation is the element of any structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers
loads from the structure to the ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or
deep.
The low artificially built part of a structure which transmits the load of the structure to the
ground is called foundation.
Foundation is a load bearing structure which bearS all loadS coming on the building or any
structure. Foundation is generally of two types:
A. Shallow Foundation.
B. Deep Foundation.
Generally foundation in building construction is Shallow foundation (Raft Foundation)

2.1.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATION:


Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The 'open' refers to the
fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the
footing, and then constructing the footing. During the early stages of work, the entire footing
is visible to the eye, and is therefore called an open foundation. The idea is that each footing
takes the concentrated load of the column and spreads it out over a large area, so that the
actual weight on the soil does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil.

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It includes some types of shallow foundation such as:
2.1.1.1 INDIVIDUAL FOOTINGS:

Fig 2.1 Individual footing Fig. 2.2 Plinth beam in footing

Individual footings are one of the most simple and common types of foundations. These are
used when the load of the building is carried by columns. Usually, each column will have its
own footing. The footing is just a square or rectangular pad of concrete on which the column
sits. To get a very rough idea of the size of the footing, the engineer will take the total load on
the column and divide it by the safe bearing capacity (SBC) of the soil. For example, if a
column has a vertical load of 10T, and the SBC of the soil is 10T/m2, then the area of the
footing will be 1m2. In practice, the designer will look at many other factors before preparing

a construction design for the footing.


Individual footings are usually connected by a plinth beam, a horizontal beam that is built at
ground or below ground level.

2.1.1.2 STRIP FOOTINGS:


Strip footings are commonly found in load-bearing masonry construction, and act as a long
strip that supports the weight of an entire wall. These are used where the building loads are
carried by entire walls rather than isolated columns, such as in older buildings made of
masonry.

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2.1.1.3 RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION:
Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are most often used when basements are to be
constructed. In a raft, the entire basement floor slab acts as the foundation; the weight of the
building is spread evenly over the entire footprint of the building. It is called a raft because
the building is like a vessel that 'floats' in a sea of soil.

Mat Foundations are used where the soil is week, and therefore building loads have to be
spread over a large area, or where columns are closely spaced, which means that if individual
footings were used, they would touch each other.

2.1.2 DEEP FOUNDATION:


A deep foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther
down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of
depths.

2.1.2.1 PILE FOUNDATION:


A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the
ground so that structures can be supported on top of it.

Pile foundations are used in the following situations:


1) When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight
of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be
transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
2) When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure.

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.

There are two types of pile foundations, each of which works in its own way.

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Fig 2.3 Pile foundation

End Bearing Piles:


In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or
rock. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. In a sense,
this pile acts like a column. The key principle is that the bottom end rests on the surface
which is the intersection of a weak and strong layer. The load therefore bypasses the weak
layer and is safely transferred to the strong layer.

Friction Piles:
Friction piles work on a different principle. The pile transfers the load of the building to the
soil across the full height of the pile, by friction. In other words, the entire surface of the pile,
which is cylindrical in shape, works to transfer the forces to the soil.
To visualise how this works, imagine you are pushing a solid metal rod of say 4mm diameter
into a tub of frozen ice cream. Once you have pushed it in, it is strong enough to support
some load. The greater the embedment depth in the ice cream, the more load it can support.
This is very similar to how a friction pile works. In a friction pile, the amount of load a pile
can support is directly proportionate to its length.

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2.2 SUPER STRUCTURE:
Super-structure is a part of structure that is above plinth level (P.L). Generally, columns and
walls are constructed in super structure. Following are the important parts of super-structure.

1) Floor
2) Roof
3) Lintel
4) Parapet
5) Sun Shade
6) Doors & Windows

FLOOR:

Fig. 2.4 Flooring

Floor is that part of a building on which furniture, household, commercial, industrial or any
other type of items are stored. Floor is used for walking around .
Floor separates the different levels of a building. Building is also named with reference to
floor. Like Ground floor, first floor, or a floor that is below ground level like basement floor.

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ROOF:
Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in building
depending on the location and weather. Sloping roofs are generally considered better in
mountain areas. While, in plan areas flat roofs are preferred.

LINTEL:
Lintel is constructed above doors, windows etc. to support load of wall on openings. Lintel
beam is generally made as reinforced cement concrete member. While, in residential houses
sometime lintel is made by using concrete and bricks.
Breadth of lintel is generally equals to the breadth of wall. In case of metric unit, it is
normally equals to 10cm, 15cm, 20cm etc. While, in case of FPS system it is consider as 6”,
9”, 12” etc.
Thickness of lintel should not be less than 10cm (4.5”) and maximum thickness of lintel
should not be more than its breadth.

SUN SHADE:
Sun shade is a slab that is cast on the top of doors and windows. Sun shade protects doors and
windows from sun and rain. Sun shade is cast monolithically with the lintel.

DOORS AND WINDOWS:


A door is a moving structure used to block off, and allow access to, an entrance to or within
an enclosed space, such as a building or vehicle. Doors normally consist of a panel that
swings on hinges on the edge, but there are also doors that slide or spin inside of a space.

A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if
not closed or sealed, air and sound

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CHAPTER 3 : MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION

3.1 CEMENT:
Cement was first discovered by an English brick layer named Joseph Aspdin in 1824. He
called it Portland cement for the reason that the cement he discovered resembled the
limestone found in Portland. The approximate composition of Portland cement is given below
Lime(Cao) 60-70%
Silica(SiO2) 20-25%
Alumina(Al2O3) 5-10%
Ferric Oxide(Fe2O3) 2-3%
Table 3.1 Composition of Portland cement

The function of cement is to combine with water and to form cement paste. This paste first
sets i.e. it becomes firms and then hardens due to chemical reaction, called hydration,
between the cement and water. On setting & hardening, the cement binds the aggregate
together into a stone like hard mass & thus provides strength, durability & water-tighten to
the concrete. Quality of cement is based on grade of cement. The grades of cement are as-
33 Grades
43 Grades
53 Grades
 33 Grade OPC is used for general construction works like plastering and finishing
works in normal environmental conditions. However, its use is virtually phased out
today.
 Coming to the 43 Grade OPC, it is the most commonly used grade for home
construction. It has its applications in plastering, finishing works, precast items,
foundations, brick work, and compound wall and so on. It has more strength
development than the 33 grade cement.
 53 Grade OPC develops strength very fast. High rise building constructions use 53
grade cement. This is applicable for use in structures where high grade concrete is
required.

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At the site Portland cement of 53 grades (JK SUPER CEMENT) is used.
The cost per beg = 275 rupees
The initial setting time of cement = 30 minutes (1/2 hr)
The final setting time of cement = 10 hrs.

3.2 AGGREGATE:
Aggregates are small pieces of broken stones in irregular size and shapes.
Neat cement is very rarely used in construction works since it is liable to shrink too much and
become cracks on setting. More over, it will be costly to use neat cement in construction
work. Therefore cement is mixed with some inert strong & durable hard materials.
They also reduce the cost of concrete because they are comparative much cheaper as cement.

TYPES OF AGGREGATES:
.Fine Aggregate
.Coarse Aggregate

3.2.1 FINE AGGREGATE (SAND):


The aggregate, which pass through 4.75 mm, I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 75 micron
(.075mm) I.S. sieve is known as fine aggregate.

FUNCTION OF FINE AGGREGATE:


The function of using fine aggregate in a concrete mix is to fill up the voids existing in the
coarse aggregate and to obtain a dense and strong concrete with less quantity of cement and
increase the workability of the concrete mix.

3.2.2 COARSE AGGREGATE:


The aggregate, which pass through 75 mm I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 4.75 I.S. sieve is
known as coarse aggregates. At the site the coarse aggregate was 10mm & 20mm (graded).

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Fig. 3.1 Coarse Aggregates

FUNCTION OF COARSE AGGREGATE:


The coarse aggregates are used in mixing of concrete. It is mixed cement, sand with water.
These aggregates increase the strength of bonding in aggregates. Coarse aggregates are used
in construction of plan cement concrete (PCC), foundation, beams and columns etc.

GRADING OF CONCRETE:
The art of doing gradation of an aggregate as determined by sieve analysis is known as
grading of aggregate. The grade of concrete is depends on size of aggregates.
The principle of grading is that the smaller particles will fill up the voids between large
particles. This results in the most economical use of cement paste for filling the voids &
binding together the aggregate in the preparation of concrete.
Thus proper grading of fine & coarse aggregate in concrete mix produces a dense concrete
with less quantity of cement.

REINFORCEMENT:
The material that develops a good bond with concrete in order to increase its strength is
called reinforcement. Steel bars are highly strong in tension, shear, bending moment, torsion
and compression.

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FUNCTION OF REINFORCEMENT:
Reinforcement working as a tension member because concrete is strong in compression and
week in tension so reinforcement resists the tensile stresses in the concrete members. At the
site contractor using the high strength steel bars and T.M.T. (Thermo Mechanically Treated)
bars of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, 16 mm, & 32 mm as per requirement of design.

3.3 WATER:
It is an important ingredient of concrete because it combines with cement and forms a
binding paste. The paste thus formed fills up the voids of the sand and coarse aggregate
bringing them into close adhesion.
In this project source of water is a tube well which is closely spaced to the building. The
quality of water is good and can be used for drinking purpose aiso.

3.4 R.C.C.
Though plain cement concrete has high compressive strength and its tensile strength is
relatively low. Normally, the tensile strength of a concrete is about 10% to 15% of its
compressive strength. Hence if a beam is made up of plain cement concrete, it has a very low
load carrying capacity since its low tensile strength limits its overall strength. It is, there
reinforced by placing steel bars in the tensile zone of the concrete beam so that the
compressive bending stress is carried by concrete and tensile bending stress is carried by steel
reinforcing bars. Generally in simply supported and
Cantilever beams the tension zone occurs at bottom and top of beam respectively.

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CHAPTER: 4 MAIN PARTS OF BUILDING
4.1 COLUMN:
 An RCC column is a structure member of th RCC frame structured building. It’s a
vertical member which transfers loads from the slab and beams directly to subsequent
soil.
 A whole building stands on columns.
 Most of the building failure happens due to column failure. And most of the column
failure happens not for design fault but for the poor construction practice.
 So, it is very important to know the construction process of the RCC
column properly.

Basic Construction Process of RCC Column:


Constructing RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) Column involves the following four
steps of works –

1. Column layout work


2. Column reinforcement work
3. Column formwork, and
4. Pouring concrete into the column

Fig. 4.1 column

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4.2 BEAM:

A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting


bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external
loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SUPPORTS:

1. Simply supported – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have
no moment resistance.
2. Fixed – a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.
3. Over hanging – a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.
4. Double overhanging – a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on
both ends.
5. Continuous – a beam extending over more than two supports.
6. Cantilever – a projecting beam fixed only at one end.
7. Trussed – a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss.

Fig. 4.2 beam

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4.3 SLAB:

Concrete floor slab construction process includes erection of formwork, placement of


reinforcement, pouring, compacting and finishing concrete and lastly removal of formwork
and curing of concrete slab.
A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel
reinforced concrete, typically between 4 and 20 inches (100 and 500 millimeters) thick, are
most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior
paving. Sometimes these thinner slabs, ranging from 2 inches (51 mm) to 6 inches (150 mm)
thick, are called mud slabs, particularly when used under the main floor slabs or in crawl
spaces.

Fig. 4.3 slab

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4.4 BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION:
Beam-to-column connections are widely used for steel structures. They provide moment
resistant connections between beams and columns at the corners of frames or a moment
resistant connection to elongate beams.

The analysis of the beam-to-beam connection is complex: due to the geometrical arrangement,
different failure modes are possible, and some of them cannot be presented by simple
equations. Finite element analysis can be practical to verify the loadbearing capacity of the
connection.

Fig. 4.4 slab column connection

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4.5 CASTING:

Cast-in-place concrete, also known as poured-in-place, is a concreting technique which is


undertaken in situ or in the concrete component’s finished position. Cast-in-place concrete is
the preferred choice for concrete slabs and foundations, as well as components such
as beams, columns, walls, roofs, and so on.

The concrete is typically transported to site in an unhardened state, often using a ready
mixed concrete truck. A chute extends from the back of the truck to place the concrete either
in the required location or into a dumper or pump.

An alternative concreting technique is precast concrete which is prepared, cast and cured off-
site, usually in a controlled factory environment, using reusable moulds. For more
information, see Precast concrete.

While cast-in-place concrete can allow for greater flexibility and adaptability, it can be
difficult to control the mix particularly if weather conditions are not favourable. Cast-in-place
concrete will also require a strength test and time for curing, which makes it slower to
construct than precast concrete. However, there are fewer joints in the structural system not
as much handling equipment is required.

Fig. 4.5 casting

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CHAPTER 5 : MATERIAL TESTING

5.1 TESTS OF AGGREGATES:


Below are some of the important test which are perform on aggregates at every construction
site to check the quality of the aggregate for better construction and fulfil the requirement of
the client.
1. Crushing Test
2. Impact Test
3. LOS Angles Abrasion Test
4. Shape Test
5. Water Absorption Test.

5.1.1 CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST:


Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV)-1963 Methods of test for aggregate for concrete Part IV
Mechanical Properties.

Equipment used:
o Steel Cylinder
o Sieves (12.5mm,10mm)
o Cylindrical metal measure
o Tamping Rod
o Balance (0-10kg)
o Oven (3000c)
o Compression testing Machine (2000KN) .

Procedure:
1. The cylindrical steel cup is filled with 3 equal layers of aggregate and each layer is tamped
25 strokes by the rounded end of tamping rod and the surplus aggregate struck off, using the
tamping rod as a straight edge.
2 .The net weight of aggregate in the cylindrical steel cup is determined to the nearest gram
(WA) and this weight of aggregate is used for the duplicate test on the same material.

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3. The cup is fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test
sample is added in thirds, each third being subjected to 25stokes from tamping rod.
4. The surface is leveled and the plunger is inserted so that it rests horizontally on the surface.
The whole assembly is then placed between the platens of testing machine and loaded at a
uniform rate so as to reach a load of 40 tones in 10 minutes.
5. The load is then released and all aggregate is removed from the cup and sieved on 2.36 mm.
IS sieve until no further significant amount passes in one minute.
6. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 g (WB).

Aggregate Crushing Value: (WB/WA) *100

5.1.2 IMPACT TEST:


Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963

Equipment’s used:
The equipment’s as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 consists of:
1. A testing machine weighing 45 to 60 kg and having a metal base with a painted lower
surface of not less than 30 cm in diameter. It is supported on level and plane concrete floor of
minimum 45 cm thickness. The machine should also have provisions for fixing its base.
2. A cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 102 mm, depth 50 mm and minimum
Thickness 6.3 mm.
3. A metal hammer or top weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg the lower end being cylindrical in shape,
50 mm long, 100.0 mm in diameter, with a 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge and case
hardened. The hammer should slide freely between vertical guides and be concentric with the
cup. Free fall of hammer should be within 380±5 mm.
4. A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 mm and depth 50 mm
5. For measuring aggregates.
6. Tamping rod 10 mm in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end.
7. A balance of capacity not less than 500g, readable and accurate up to 0.1 g.

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Procedure:
The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm. Aggregates may be dried by
heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled.
(i) Sieve the material through 12.5 mm and 10.0mm IS sieves. The aggregates
Passing through 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10.0mm sieve comprises the test material.
(ii) Pour the aggregates to fill about just 1/3 rd depth of measuring cylinder.
(iii) Compact the material by giving 25 gentle blows with the rounded end of the tamping rod.
(iv) Add two more layers in similar manner, so that cylinder is full.
(v) Strike off the surplus aggregates.
(vi) Determine the net weight of the aggregates to the nearest gram (W).
(vii) Bring the impact machine to rest without wedging or packing up on the level plate,
block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical.
(viii) Fix the cup firmly in position on the base of machine and place whole of the test sample
in it and compact by giving 25 gentle strokes with tamping rod.
(ix) Raise the hammer until its lower face is 380 mm above the surface of aggregate sample
in the cup and allow it to fall freely on the aggregate sample. Give 15 such blows at an
interval of not less than one second between successive falls.
(x) Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup and sieve it through 2.36 mm IS sieves until
no further significant amount passes in one minute. Weigh the fraction passing the sieve to an
accuracy of 1 gm. Also, weigh the fraction retained in the sieve.

Observations:
Description Sample1 Sample2
Total weight of dry sample ( W1 gm)
Weight of portion passing 2.36 mm sieve (W2 gm)
Aggregate Impact Value (percent) = W2 / W1X 100
Table 4.1 Observations for impact test

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5.1.3 LOS ANGLES ABRATION VALUE:
Standard: IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963
Equipment’s used:
The apparatus as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963 consists of:
(i) Los Angeles Machine: It consists of a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both the ends with
an internal diameter of 700 mm and length 500 mm and capable of rotating about its
horizontal axis. A removable steel shaft projecting radially 88 mm into cylinder and
extending full length (i.e.500 mm) is mounted firmly on the interior of cylinder. The shelf is
placed at a distance 1250 mm minimum from the opening in the direction of rotation.
(ii) Abrasive charge: Cast iron or steel balls, approximately 48mm in diameter and
Each weighing between 390 to 445g; six to twelve balls are required.
(iii) Sieve: 1.70, 2.36,4.75,6.3,10,12.5,20,25,40,50,63,80 mm IS Sieves.
(iv) Balance of capacity 5kg or 10kg
(v) Drying oven
(vi) Miscellaneous like tray

Fig. 5.1 Los Angles Apparatus

Procedure:
The test sample consists of clean aggregates dried in oven at 105° – 110°C. The sample
should conform to any of the grading shown in table 1.
(i) Select the grading to be used in the test such that it conforms to the grading to be used in
construction, to the maximum extent possible.
(ii) Take 5 kg of sample for grading A, B, C & D and 10 kg for grading E, F & G.
(iii) Choose the abrasive charge as per Table 2 depending on grading of aggregates.

29 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
(iv) Place the aggregates and abrasive charge on the cylinder and fix the cover.
(v) Rotate the machine at a speed of 30 – 33 revolutions per minute. The number of
revolutions is 500 for grading A, B, C & D and 1000 for grading E, F & G. The machine
should be balanced and driven such that there is uniform peripheral speed.
(vi) The machine is stopped after the desired number of revolutions and material is
discharged to a tray.
(vii) The entire stone dust is sieved on 1.70 mm IS sieve.
(viii) The material coarser than 1.7mm size is weighed correct to one gram.

Observations:
• Original weight of aggregate sample = W1 g
• Weight of aggregate sample retained = W2 g
• Weight passing 1.7mm IS sieve = W1 – W2 g

Abrasion Value = (W1 – W2 ) / W1 X 100

5.1.4 SHAPE TEST:


Equipment’s used:
 Thickness/Flakiness Index Gauge
 Length/Elongation Index Gauge
 Aggregate sample to be tested

Fig. 5.2 Shape Testing Apparatus

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Shape of particle:
1. Rounded (river gravel)
2. Flaky (laminated rock)
3. Elongated
4. Angular( crushed rock)

Flaky:
 A flaky particle is the one whose least dimension (thickness) is than 0.6 times the
mean size.
 These are the materials of which the thickness is small as compared to the other two
dimensions.
 Limit of flaky particles in the mixes is 30%. If the flaky particles are greater than 30%
then the aggregate is considered undesirable for the intended use.

Flakiness Index:
It is the percentage by weight of flaky particles in a sample.

Procedure for Flakiness Index:


 Perform the sieve analysis on the given aggregate sample
 The aggregates are then arranged in the into a number of closely limited particle size
groups -stored on the test sieves into a number of closely limited particle size groups
– 2 ½’’ – 2’’, 1 ½’’ – ¾’’ & ½’’ – 3/8’’
 Each group (fraction) is weighed and tested for thickness on appropriate opening of
the thickness gauge by passing each particle through slot of specified thickness along
least dimension.
 The weight of particles passing the thickness gauge is recorded for each fraction. This
is the weight of flaky particles.
 The flakiness index is calculated by expressing the weight of flaky particles as a
percentage of total weight of the sample.

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Elongation:
These are the particles having length considerably larger than the other two dimensions and it
is the particle whose greater dimension is 1.8 times its mean size.
Limit of elongated particles in the mixes is 45%. Thus, if the elongated particles are greater
than 45%, then the aggregate is considered undesirable for the intended use.

Elongation Index:
It is the percentage by weight of elongated particles in a sample. The Elongated index is
calculated by expressing the weight of Elongated particles as percentage of total weight of the
sample.

5.1.5 WATER ABSORPTION TEST:


Standard: IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete (Part I)
Particle size and shape.

Equipment’s used:
 Wire basket
 Oven (3000c)
 Container for filling water and suspending the basket
 An air tight container
 Balance[0-10 kg]
 Shallow tray & absorbent clothes.

Procedure:
 bout 2kg of the aggregate sample is washed thoroughly to remove fines, drained and then
placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22 to
320C with a cover of at least 50 mm of water above the top of the basket
 Immediately after the immersion the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting
the basket containing it 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop 25 times
at the rate of about one drop per second. The basket and the aggregate
should remain completely immersed in water for a period of 24±0.5 hours afterwards.

32 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
 The basket and the sample are then weighed while suspended in water at a temperature of
22 to 320C. The weight is noted while suspended in water (W1) g.
 The basket and the aggregate are then removed from water and allowed to drain for a few
minutes, after which the aggregates are transferred to one of the dry absorbent clothes.
 The empty basket is then returned to the tank of water, jolted 25 times and weights in
water (W2) g.
 The aggregates placed in the dry absorbent clothes are surface dried till no further
moisture could be removed by this clothe.
 Then the aggregate is transferred to the second dry cloth spread in a single layer, covered
and allowed to dry for at least 10 minutes until the aggregates are completely surface dry.
10 to 60 minutes drying may be needed. The surface dried aggregate is then weighed
W3 g.
 The aggregate is placed in a shallow tray and kept in an oven maintained at a temperature
of 1100C for 24 hours. It is then removed from the oven, cooled in air tight container and
weighed W4 g.
 Weight of saturated aggregate suspended in water with basket = W1 g
 Weight of basket suspended in water = W2 g
 Weight of saturated aggregate in water = (W1-W2)g = Ws g
 Weight of saturated surface dry aggregate in air = W4 g
 Weight of water equal to the volume of the aggregate = (W3-Ws) g

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5.2 TESTS OF CONCRETE:
Below are some of the concrete test which are perform on concrete at site and laboratory.
1. Compressive Strength Test.
2. Permeability Test.
3. Slump Test.
4. Flexural Strength Test

5.2.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST:


Standard: IS: 516-1959 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete.

Equipment’s used:
 Compression testing machine (2000 KN)
 Curing tank/Accelerated curing tank
 Balance (0-10 Kg)
Representative samples of concrete shall be taken and used for casting cubes 15
cm x 15 cm x 15 cm or cylindrical specimens of 15 cm dia. x 30 cm long.

Procedure:
1. The concrete shall be filled into the moulds in layers approximately 5 cm deep. It would
be distributed evenly and compacted either by vibration or by hand tamping. After the top
layer has been compacted, the surface of concrete shall be finished level with the top of
the mould using a trowel; and covered with a glass plate to prevent evaporation.
2. The specimen shall be stored at site for 24+ ½ h under damp matting or sack. After that,
the samples shall be stored in clean water at 27+20C; until the time of test. The ends of all
cylindrical specimens that are not plane within 0.05 mm shall be capped.
3. Just prior to testing, the cylindrical specimen shall be capped with Sulphur mixture
comprising 3 parts Sulphur to 1 part of inert filler such as fire clay.
4. Specimen shall be tested immediately on removal from water and while they are still in
wet condition.
5. The bearing surface of the testing specimen shall be wiped clean and any loose material
removed from the surface. In the case of cubes, the specimen shall be placed in the
machine in such a manner that the load cube as cast, that is, not to the top and bottom.
6. Align the axis of the specimen with the steel plates, do not use any packing.
7. The load shall be applied slowly without shock and increased continuously at a rate of
approximately 140 kg/sq.cm/min until the resistance of the specimen to the increased load
breaks down and no greater load can be sustained. The maximum load applied to the
specimen shall then be recorded and any unusual features noted at the time of failure
brought out in the report.

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5.2.2 PERMEABILITY TEST:

Equipment’s used:
A concrete permeameter apparatus consisting of the following basic components,
 A permeameter cell which can maintain a seal over the circumference of a saturated
cylindrical concrete specimen and which is capable of operating effectively under
pressures of up to 1000kPa.
 A means of supplying de-aired water to the top surface of the concrete specimen
contained within the permeameter cell at a constant pressure head of up to 1000kPa.
MAIN ROADS Western Australia Water Permeability of Hardened Concrete Page 1
of 7 T\wa625_1.rtf Test Method 71/10/625.1 Issue 1 10/98 Pavements & Structures
TEST METHOD WA 625.1
 A pressure gauge to measure input pressure and a thermometer to measure ambient
temperature.
 Data acquisition equipment to record, at suitable intervals of time, the pressure,
volumetric flow of water into and out of the concrete specimen and the ambient
temperature
1. Diamond cut saw.
2. Balance of suitable capacity readable to 0.1g with a limit of performance of not more
than 0.6g at the 99% confidence level.
3. Supply of de-aired water.
4. Vacuum pump.
5. Vernier callipers.
6. Diamond corer drill.
7. 100mm diameter concrete mould complying with AS 1012.8.
8. Worksheet (optional). A graphical representation of the data, including the calculation of
the D’Arcy Coefficient of Permeability is suitable.

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Procedure:
1. Obtain samples of hardened concrete of appropriate diameter from existing structures by
diamond core drilling or from moulded specimens. The specimens shall be prepared in
accordance with AS 1012. Using a diamond saw cut a section of the sample to allow
approximately 2mm clearance at each end of the Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV)
silicone rubber seal. The test sample should have a minimum length of 2.5 times the
maximum aggregate size. The cut section will be the test sample.
2. . Condition the test sample in accordance with AASHTO T277 to a Saturated Surface Dry
state, deleting the section referring to the use of epoxy resins.
3. Fill the voids that are 2mm or greater in diameter that occur on the sides of the test
sample with plasticine or a similar material.
4. Measure and record the mass of the test sample to the nearest 0.1g and the diameter (D)
and length (L) of the sample to the nearest 1mm.
5. Seal the test sample within the permeameter cell.
6. Ensure that the permeameter apparatus is completely filled with de-aired water and
contains no air pockets or bubbles.
7. Apply a constant pressure head of water to the inflow side of the permeameter cell and
continuously monitor the pressure throughout the duration of the test.
8. Continuously monitor and record the volumetric inflow and outflow of water.
9. Continuously monitor and record the ambient temperature, to the nearest 0.1°C. Ensure
that the temperature is maintained within a range of 21 to 25°C.
10. After steady state flow through the sample has been achieved, monitor and plot volume
flow (Q) against time (t) until the slope of the inflow and outflow lines can be achieved.
Calculate the permeability by taking the mean of the inflow and outflow plots within the
steady state flow range. NOTE: This test is designed to determine the order of magnitude
for concrete permeability. A variation between the inflow and outflow slopes of up to 20%
will not significantly affect the outcome.
11. Remove the test sample from the apparatus and measure and record the mass of the test
sample to the nearest 0.1g.

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5.2.3 SLUMP TEST:
Equipment’s used:
 Slump cone,
 Scale for measurement,
 Temping rod (steel)

Fig 5.3 Slump Test

Procedure:
1. The mold for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The
base is 200 mm (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm (4
in).
2. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete in
three layers, whose workability is to be tested .
3. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel rod,
rounded at the end.
4. When the mold is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off
(leveled with mould top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of the
temping rod.
5. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so that it
could not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by means of
handles or foot - rests brazed to the mould.
6. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is leveled, the cone is slowly
and carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump.

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7. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called slump.
8. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and the
temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the area of
slumped concrete.
9. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scale. (Usually
measured to the nearest 5 mm (1/4 in).

5.2.4 FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST:


Standard: IS: 516: Methods of tests for Strength of Concrete
Apparatus:
Flexural Strength Machine.

Fig 5.4 Flexural Strength Testing

Procedure:
 Take put specimen for curing tank, Clean it with Water
 Make a 5cm Mark vertically, on specimen on either ends.
 Specimen shall be placed in machine such a way that the load shall be applied to the
upper most surface as cast in mould.
 The axis of the specimen shall be carefully aligned with the axis of the loading device
 Load shall be applied continuously and without shock.
 The load shall be increased until the specimen fails and load applied is recorded at the
failure.

38 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
CHAPTER 6: EQUIPMENTS AND MACHINES

6.1 BATCHING MACHINE:


The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as batching. The machines
which used for batching is known as batching machine.

6.2 CONCRETE MIXER:


This is a power mechanically operated machine which is used to mix the concrete. It consists
a hollow cylindrical part with inner side wings. In which cement, sand, aggregates and water
is mix properly.

Fig. 6.1 Concrete Mixing Machine

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6.3 TRANSPORTATION:
The process of carrying the concrete mix from the place of it’s mixing to final position of
deposition is termed as transportation of concrete. There are many methods of transportation
as mentioned below-
Transport of concrete by pans
Transport of concrete by wheel barrows
Transport of concrete by tipping Lorries
Transport of concrete by pumps
Transport of concrete by belt conveyors
At this site belt conveyors were used.

Fig 6.2 Belt Conveyors

40 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
6.4 COMPACTORS:
When the concrete has been placed, it shows a very loose structure. Hence, it must be
compacted to remove the air bubbles and voids so as to make it dense and solid concrete to
obtain a high strength. There are two method- of compaction.
Manual compaction
Mechanical compaction

Generally in large projects mechanical compactors are used . There are various mechanical
compactors which uses according to requirement as needle and screed vibrators needed to
compact the column and floor respectively.

41 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
CHAPTER 7 : BRICK MASONARY

The bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangular block of uniform size and then
drying and burning these blocks. Brick masonry easy to construct compare stone masonry. It
is less time consuming and there is no need of skilled labour to construct it. The bricks do not
require dressing and the arty of laying bricks is so simple.

7.1 CLASS OF BRICKS :


On the basis of quality and performance of brick is classified in three parts-
CLASS A
CLASS B
CLASS C
At this site A class brick is used.

Fig. 7.1 Bricks

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7.2 SIZE AND WEIGHT OF BRICKS:
The bricks are prepared in various sizes. On the basis of size , BIS bricks are categories in
two parts-

MODULAR BRICKS:
BIS recommends a standard size of brick which is 190mm*90mm*90mm. With mortar
thickness, size of such a brick become 200mm*100mm*100mm.

TRADITIONAL BRICKS:
The brick of which size varies and not standardized known as traditional brick.

WEIGHT OF BRICK:
It is found that the weight of 1 cubic meter brick earth is about 1800 kg. Hence the average
weight of a brick will be about 3 to 3.5 kg.

7.3 STRUCTURE OF BRICK:

STRETCHER:
If brick laid along its length then front view of brick is known as stretcher.

HEADER:
If brick laid along it’s width , then front view of brick is known as header.

FROG:
It is top of brick. It provides strong bonding between two courses of masonry by filling the
mortar. It also consists the name of company.

QUEEN CLOSER:
This is obtained by cutting the bricks longitudinally in two equal parts.

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BAT:
This is piece of brick , considered in relation to the length of brick as half bat, three quarter
bat, etc.

7.4 TYPES OF BRICK MASONARY:


Brick work is classified according to quality of mortar, quality of brick and thickness of joints.
They types of brick work as follows-

BRICK WORK IN MUD MORTAR:


IN this type of brick work mud is used to fill up the joints. Mud is mixer of sand and clay.
The thickness of mortar joint is 12mm.

BRICK WORK IN LIME MORTAR:


In this type of brick work, lime mortar is used to fill up the joints. Lime mortar is mixer of
lime and sand the thickness of joints does not exceeds 10mm.

BRICK WORK IN CEMENT MORTAR:


In this type of brick work ,cement mortar is used to fill up the joints. Cement mortar is mixer
of cement and sand in ceftain ratio. The ratio Of cement and sand varies according to
construction as in brick masonary it generally kept 1:6.The thickness of joint does not
exceeds 10mm. The brick work with cement mortar provide high adopted in building
construction.
At this site cement mortar is used in brick work. The ratio of Cement to sand is 1:6.

7.5 TOOLS USED IN BRICK MASONRY:


The tools used in brick masonry are trowel, spirit level, plumb bob, square, hammer, straight
edge.

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7.6 BONDS IN BRICK WORK:
There various bonds which provided in brick work to increase the stability of walls. Various
types of bonds are as follows-
Stretcher Bond
Header Bond
English Bond
Flemish Bond

STRETCHER BOND :
The bricks are laid along its length in all courses. A half and three quarter bat is used in
alternative courses to break the verticality of joints.

Fig. 7.2 Stretcher Bond

HEADER BOND:
The bricks are laid along its width in all courses. A half and three quarter bat is also used in
alternative courses to break the verticality of joints.

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ENGLISH BOND:
This bond is widely used in practice. It is consider the strongest bond. Alternate courses
consist of stretcher and header. A queen closer is put next to quoin header to break the
verticality of joints. Generally such types of bond is provided in walls width is 9 inches.
At this site ENGLISH BOND is prefer in main wall and STRETCHER BOND in partition
walls.

Fig. 7.3 English Bond

FLEMISH BOND:
This is also widely used because it gives better appearance to English bond. It also provides
good strength. Stretcher and header is provided in each course alternatively. A queen closer is
put next to quoin header in each alternate course to break the verticality of joints.

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7.7 THICKNESS OF WALLS:
Thickness of wall depend on load, strength of material ,length of wallet. In this project the
thickness of main wall is 9 inches and partition wall is 4.5 inches.

Fig. 7.4 Thickness of Wall


7.8 PROCEDURE OF BRICK MASONRY:
In frame structure brick work starts after construction of foundation, column, beam, and slabs.
Following procedure is adopt to construct the brick masonry-
1. Initially clean and wet the surface on which brick wall is be constructed.
2. Set a straight alignment by using threads in both side of a wall .
3. Prepare the cement mortar.
4. At this site cement sand ratio is 1:6 for all walls.
5. Mortar is laid on surface base and then bricks are laid over it .
6. Prepare a course and then again laid the mortar on existing course and provides bricks
in such a way that the vertical joint should not stand in a line.
7. To break the verticality of joints generally English or Flemish bond is adopted.
8. Use the plumb bob to check the verticality at regular interval.
9. Also use square to check the wall is constructing straight or not.
10. After each 1 meter height of wall provide a layer of reinforced cement concrete of 1.5
to 2 inches.
11. It will increase the strength of structure.

47 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
CHAPTER 8: PLASTER

The term plastering is used to describe thin cover that is applied on the surface of walls. It
removes unevenness of surface of walls. Sometimes it is use for decorative purpose also.

8.1 MORTAR FOR PLASTERING:


Selection of type of mortar depends on various factors such as suitability of building material,
atmospheric conditions, durability etc. there are mainly three type of mortar which can be
used for the purpose of mortar
Lime mortar
Cement mortar
Water proof mortar

LIME MORTAR:
The main content of lime mortar is lime that is mixed with correct proportion of sand.
Generally fat lime is recommended for plaster work because the fat lime contains 75% of
CaO and it combines with CO2 of atmosphere and gives CaCO3 quickly. Thus, the lime sets
quickly, but it imparts low strength. So it can be use only for plaster work. The sand to be
used for preparing lime mortar for plastering work should be clean, coarse and free from any
organic impurities.

CEMENT MORTAR:
The cement mortar consists of one part of cement to four part of clean and coarse sand by
volume. The materials are thoroughly mix in dry condition before water is added to them.
The mixing of material is done on a watertight platform. It is better than lime mortar. It is
widely used in construction work.

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Fig. 8.1 Plastering

WATER PROOF MORTAR:


Water proof mortar is prepared by mixing one part of cement, two part of sand and
pulverized alum at the rate of 120Nperm3 of sand. In the water to be used, 0.75 of soft soap is
dissolve per one liter of water and this soap water is added to the dry mix.

8.2 TOOLS FOR PLASTERING:


Gauging Trowel
Metal Float
Floating Rule
Plumb Bob
Sprit Level
Brushes

49 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
8.3 METHOD OF PLASTERING:
According to the thickness of wall there are three method of plastering.
One coat method
Two coat method
Three coat method

ONE COAT METHOD:


It is in the cheapest form of construction that plaster is applied in one coat.
This method is quietly used in rural areas for the construction of low category and cheap
house.

TWO COAT METHOD:


Following procedure is carried out for two coating plaster work
Clean the surface and keep it well watered on which plaster work to be done.
If it is found that the surface to be plastered is very rough and uneven, a preliminary coat is
applied to fill up the hollows before the first coat of plaster is put up on the surface.
Now the first coat is applied on the surface. The usual thickness of first coat for brick
masonry is 9mm to10mm.
Second coat of plaster is applied after about 6 hours and the thickness of second coat is
usually about 2mm to 3mm.It is finished as per requirement.

THREE COAT METHOD:


The procedure for plaster in three coats is the same as above except that the num of coats of
plaster is three.

Table:
Name of coat Thickness
First coat Rendering coat 9 to 10 mm
Second coat Floating coat 6 to 9 mm
Third coat Finishing coat 3 mm
Table 8.1 Different Coats of Plaster

50 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
CHAPTER 9: BUILDING BYLAWS

For the construction of any building, certain restrictions are laid down by Municipal bodies,
Urban development authorities ,and other government departments as town planning trusts to
clear open spaces to be left around the buildings.

9.1 OBJECTIVE OF BUILDING BYLAWS:


 Allows disciplined and systematic growth of buildings and towns and prevent
haphazard development.
 Protect safety of public against fire, noise , health hazards and structural failures.
 Provides proper utilization of space. Hence maximum efficiency in planning can be
derived from these bylaws.
 They give guidelines to the architect or an engineer in effective planning and useful in
preplanning the building activates.
 They provides health, safety and comfort to the peoples living in the building.
 Due to these bylaws, each building will have proper approaches, light air, ventilation
which are essential for health , safety and comfort.

9.2 PLINTH AREA REGULATIONS:


The minimum area of buildings of different classes shall be governed by the following:

1. In an industrial plot, the plinth area should not exceed 60% of the site area.
2. In a market area, the plinth area should not exceed 75% of the area of site, provided
sufficient off-street parking facilities for loading and unloading of vehicles are
provided on the same plot as the building.
3. In residential plots, the covered areas should be as given in the table 1.

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S.no Area of plot Maximum permissible covered area
1 Less than 200 sq. m 66.66 % of the plot area on the ground.
2 201 to 500 sq. m 50% of the plot area or 133 sq. m whichever is
more.
3 501 to 1000 sq. m 40% of the plot area or 250 sq. m whichever is
more.
4 More than 1000 sq. m 33.33 % of the plot area or 400 sq. m whichever is
more.
Table 9.1 Maximum permissible covered area

9.3 HEIGHT AND SIZE REGULATIONS FOR ROOMS:

9.3.1 HEIGHT REGULATIONS:


 Habitable rooms: The minimum height from the surface of the floor to the ceiling or
bottom of slab should be not les than 2.75m. For air-conditioned rooms, a height of
not less than 2.4 m measured from the top of the floor to the lowest point of the air-
conditioning duct or the false ceiling should be provided.
 Bathrooms, water closets and stores: The height of all such rooms measured from
the floor in the ceiling should not be less than 2.4m. In the case of a passage under the
landing, the minimum headway may be kept as 2.2m.
 Kitchen: The height of the kitchen measured from the floor to the lowest point in the
ceiling should not be less than 2.75m except for the portion to accommodate floor trap
of the floor.

9.3.2 SIZE REGULATIONS:


 Habitable rooms: The area of habitable rooms should not be less than 9.5 sq. m
where there is only one room. Where there are two rooms, one of these should not be
less than 9.5 sq. m and other be not less than 7.5 sq. m with a minimum width of
2.4m.
 Kitchen: Minimum floor area required is not less than 5.5 sq. m. It should not be less
than 1.8min width at any part. With a separate storeroom, the area may be reduced to

52 AIETM/CE/2019-2020/P.T.I.V
4.5 sq. m. A kitchen cum dining room should have a floor area not less than 9.5 sq. m
with a minimum width of 2.4m. Each kitchen should be provided with a flue.
 Bathrooms and water closets: The size of bathroom should not be less than 1.5m x
1.2m or 1.8 sq. m. If it is combined with water closet, its floor area should not be less
than 2.8 sq. m. the minimum floor area of a water closet should be 1.1 sq. m.

9.3.3 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION REGULATIONS:


a) Rooms: Every habitable room which should have for the admission of air and light, one or
more apertures such as windows and fanlights, opening directly to the external air or into an
open verandah and of an aggregate area, inclusive of frames, of not les than

i. One-tenth of the floor area excluding doors for dry hot climate.
ii. One-sixth of the floor area excluding doors for wet/hot climate.

No portion of a room should be assumed as lighted if is more than 7.5m away from the door
or window which is taken for calculation as ventilating that portion.

Cross-ventilation by means of windows and ventilators or both shall be effected in at least


living room of tenement either by means of windows in opposite walls or if this is not
possible or advisable, then atleast in the adjoining walls.

b) Bathrooms and water closets: The rooms should be provided with natural light and
permanent ventilation by one of the following means:

i. Windows having an area of not less than 10% of the floor area and located in an exterior
wall facing a street alley, yard or an air shaft whose dimensions in the direction perpendicular
to the window is not less than one-third the height of the building on which the window is
located, subject to a minimum limit of 1m and maximum 6m.
ii. Skylights, the construction of which shall provide light and ventilation required in (i)
above.

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iii. Ventilation ducts: Provided such ducts have 130 square cm of area for each square meter
of area with a minimum total area of 300 square cm and least dimension of 9cm.

c) Stores, backrooms: These will have at least half the ventilation required for living room.

d) Basement and floors: Basements and rooms located therein except room shall be lighten
and ventilated by windows in exterior walls having a ventilating area of not less than 2.5% of
the floor area.

e) Kitchen shall be ventilated according to standards prescribed for habitable rooms near the
ceiling as far as possible.

f) Stairways: every staircase should be lighted and ventilated from an open air space of not
less than 3m depth measured horizontally in case of ground and one upper floor structure, 4.5
m in case of ground and two upper and in higher structure than this, the open air space shall
not be less than 6m, provided that the lighting area shall not be less than 1 sq.m per floor
height. Every staircase shall be ventilated properly.

9.3.4 OPEN SPACE REGULATIONS:


OPEN SPACE AROUND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Front open space: every building should have a front yard of minimum width of 3m and in
case of two or more sides a width of an average of 3 m but in no case it shall be less than 1.8
m. Such a yard shall form an inseparable part of the site.

Rear open space: Every residential building shall have a yard of an average width of 4.5 m
and at no place the yard measuring less than 3 m as an inseparable part of the building, except
in the case of back to back sites where the width of the yard could be reduced to 3m provided
no erection, re-erection or material alteration of the building shall be undertaken, if at
common plot line straight lines drawn downwards and outwards from the line of intersection
of the outer surface of any rear wall of the building with the roof perpendicular to that line
form an angle of more than 63.5 degree to the horizontal.

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Side open space: every residential building may have a permanently open air space not less
than 1m in width on one of its sides other than its front and rear and such side open space
shall form an inseparable part of the site. In case, side open air space is to be used for
ventilation, it shall be in accordance with the requirements mentioned in the previous
paragraph. In case, the side open space abuts a road, the width shall not be less than 3m.

9.3.5 FIRE PROTECTION REGULATIONS:


High-rise buildings have unique challenges related to fire protection such as longer egress
times and distance, evacuation strategies, fire department accessibility, smoke movement and
fire control. The numbers of persons living on high-rise buildings are high compared to low-
rise buildings, and only evacuation method in case of fire is the staircase. So, the fire
protections of high rise buildings have gained significant attention worldwide.
Thus, in case of high rise buildings, the following provision should be made for safety of
buildings from fire:

(i) National building code should be followed for fire-safety requirement of high rise
structures and at least one lift should be designed as fire-lift as defined in the Code and be
installed.
(ii) At least one stair-case shall be provided as a fire staircase as defined in the National
Building Code. Provided that this shall not be applicable if any two sides of a staircase are
kept totally open to external open air space.
(iii) Water Supply: Underground tank of the capacity of one lakh liters and two lakh liters for
the buildings situated within the municipal limit and outside of the municipal limit
respectively be invariably provided in all the high rise buildings. Water in the normal use
tank should come only through the overflow of fire tank so provided.
(iv) In high rise buildings, the internal fire hydrants shall be installed as provided in the
National Building Code or as prescribed in the Indian Standard Code of practice for
installation of internal fire hydrants in high rise buildings. The detailed plan showing the
arrangement of pipe lines, booster pumps and water-tanks at various levels shall be submitted
for approval of the concerned authority along with the plans and sections of the buildings.

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(v) In case of high rise buildings, an external fire hydrant shall be provided within the
confines of the site of the building and shall be connected with Municipal Water mains not
less than 4″ in diameter. In addition, fire hydrant shall be connected with Booster Pump from
the static supply maintained on site.
(vi) In case of high rise buildings separate electric circuits for lift installation, lighting of
passages, corridors and stairs and for internal fire hydrant system shall be provided.
(vii) All the requirements under the above regulations shall be clearly indicated on plans duly
signed by the owner and the person who has prepared the plans. The Competent Authority
may direct the owner to submit such further drawings as may be necessary to clarify the
implementation of the provisions of the above regulations.
(viii) Every building having a height of more than 25 Mts. shall be provided with diesel
generators which can be utilized in case of failure of the electricity.
(ix) The standard of National Building Code must be adopted fully in providing stair-case and
alarm system.
(x) There should be Provision of dry-powder fire extinguisher to the extent of two on each
floor with a capacity of 5 kgs, in all the high rise buildings.

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CONCLUSION

The general terms of construction are included in this study. Different types of Bonds in brick
masonary are also studied in this report. Study about different types of foundation is also
studied in this report. Study about the different Building By-laws is also done in this report.

As per my training report I have conclude that , during last 60 days I am familiar with the
construction of brick masonry & plastering and other works under a Rajasthan Housing
Board project. Brick masonry is provided to transfer the load of structure to foundation. All
though maximum load of building comes on columns and beams.

Plaster is necessary to cover and protect the masonry from weathering factor. It is a layer of
cement mortar of thickness is 1 to 1.5 inches. The basic knowledge of field is also important
for my future. I am very thankful to all those people who help me to get knowledge of brick
masonry and plastering.

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REFERENCES

 Shevendra choudhary (Project Manager at site)

 Google.com

 Wikipedia

 I.S Codes for building construction

 Building By-laws

 Books on Building Construction

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