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Convective Heat Transfer on a Rotating Disk With Transverse Air Crossflow

Article  in  Journal of Heat Transfer · February 2011

DOI: 10.1115/1.4002603

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3 authors:

Benjamin Latour Souad Harmand

National Institute of Applied Science, France, Strasbourg Polytechnic University of Hauts-de-France


Pascale Bouvier



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Benjamin Latour
Convective Heat Transfer on a
Pascale Bouvier Rotating Disk With Transverse Air
Assistant Professor
e-mail: Crossflow
Département EEA HEI,
F-59000 Lille, France; In this study, the local convective heat transfer from a rotating disk with a transverse air
Université de Lille Nord de France, crossflow was evaluated using an infrared thermographic experimental setup. Solving the
F-59000 Lille, France; inverse conduction heat transfer problem allows the local convective heat transfer coef-
TEMPO/DF2T, ficient to be identified. We used the specification function method along with spatio-
UVHC, temporal regularization to develop a model of local convective heat transfer in order to
F-59313 Valenciennes, France take lateral conduction and 2D geometry into account. This model was tested using
rotational Reynolds numbers (based on the cylinder diameter and the peripheral speed)
Souad Harmand1 between 0 and 17,200 and air crossflow Reynolds numbers between 0 and 39,600. In this
Professor paper, the distribution of the local heat transfer on the disk allows us to observe the
Université de Lille Nord de France, combined effect of the rotation and air crossflow on heat exchanges. This coupling is able
F-59000 Lille, France; to be taken into account in a correlation of mean Nusselt number relative to both Rey-
TEMPO/DF2T, nolds numbers. 关DOI: 10.1115/1.4002603兴
F-59313 Valenciennes, France Keywords: rotating fins, air crossflow, forced convection, local heat transfer, infrared
e-mail: thermography

1 Introduction in accordance with those of the flat plate characterized by a sym-

metric Nusselt number 共Fig. 1共a兲兲. Indeed, a high convective heat
Heat exchanges by convection between rotating disk and sur-
transfer occurs at the beginning of the disk in the developing
rounding fluid are important in some engineering applications
such as turbomachinery, electrical devices, disk brake cooling, or boundary layer and decreases along the disk diameter. The flow is
even computer-disk drives. In spite of the large application field of laminar up to a critical value of ReU,re = 5 ⫻ 104 for which the
rotating devices, relatively not enough studies of local convective transition into turbulence begins, whereas the turbulent regime is
phenomena on rotating disk in air crossflow are available. The fully reached at an air crossflow Reynolds number of about
first studies dealing with rotating systems in still air were linked to ReU,re = 105. By replacing Re␻,re with ReU,re in Eqs. 共1兲 and 共2兲,
the single disk case. The flow and heat transfer around a disk the LES data are correlated by Eq. 共1兲 with C1 = 0.417 for the
principally depend on friction and centrifugal forces. They have laminar case and by Eq. 共2兲 with C2 = 0.0127 for the turbulent
been studied by many authors 关1–8兴. regime. Dennis et al. 关8兴 also proposed a correlation for the tur-
In the case of rotational disks in still air 共Pr= 0.72兲, Dorfman bulent case with an experimental value of C2 = 0.027.
关3兴 was able to identify the zones on the disk surface correspond- In the case of a rotating disk in an air crossflow, there are a few
ing to laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes, according to studies dealing with the combined effect of rotation and air cross-
disk radius and rotational speed. Concerning the convective heat flow on convective heat transfer. The most detailed one has been
transfer around rotating disks in the laminar regime in all of the realized by aus der Wiesche 关9兴 who studied the flow field and the
investigations 关3–8兴, a general formulation for Nusselt number corresponding local Nusselt number distributions on the disk for
correlation has been highlighted 共Eq. 共1兲兲: 103 ⬍ Re␻,re ⬍ 106 and 103 ⬍ ReU,re ⬍ 106. By comparing the re-
sults obtained with and without disk rotation, aus der Wiesche
Nure = C1 · Re␻0.5,re 共1兲 analyzed the rotation effect on convective heat transfer. From his
The value of coefficient C1 varies from 0.28 to 0.40 according to results, he highlighted a domain characterized by high values of
the different studies 关3–8兴. aus der Wiesche 关9兴 numerically stud- airflow Reynolds in which convective exchanges are governed by
ied convective heat exchanges around a rotating disk in still air by the crossflow since no additional heat transfer augmentation due
large-eddy-simulation 共LES兲. The rotational Reynolds numbers to the rotation was observed. Then, for low rotational and airflow
Re␻,re considered vary from 103 to 106. In the laminar regime Reynolds numbers, disk rotation slightly affects the flow field and
共Re␻,re ⬍ 2 ⫻ 105兲, results of aus der Wiesche agree well with Eq. local temperature distribution, whereas the mean heat transfer
共1兲 for C1 = 0.33, whereas in the fully turbulent regime 共Re␻,re relative to the disk surface remains constant. Indeed, rotation in-
⬎ 5 ⫻ 105兲, his results of simulation are well correlated by Eq. 共2兲 creases heat convection on the ascending 共comoving兲 side and
with C2 = 0.015, diminishes it on the descending 共counter-moving兲 side in such a
way that the mean heat transfer is almost unaffected. With increas-
Nure = C2 · Re␻0.8,re 共2兲 ing Re␻,re, the increase in the flow turbulence leads to higher
In the case of a stationary disk in air crossflow, aus der Wiesche variations in the local Nusselt number even if the typical flat plate
关9兴 also studied local convective heat transfer for air crossflow distribution can still be identified. From sufficient high values of
Reynolds numbers ReU,re varying from 103 to 106. His results are Re␻,re, the local Nusselt number distribution becomes uniform and
mainly governed by rotational effects 共Fig. 1共b兲兲. In order to
evaluate the relative influence of rotation and air crossflow, aus
Corresponding author. der Wiesche proposed a method consisting in plotting the ratio
Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOUR- Nure / Nure,␻=0 against the ratio Re␻,re / ReU,re. As a result, he high-
NAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received February 11, 2010; final manuscript
received August 23, 2010; published online November 3, 2010. Assoc. Editor: Frank lighted two zones separated by a critical value 共Re␻,re / ReU,re兲crit
Cunha. = 1.4. In the first one, corresponding to Re␻,re / ReU,re ⬍ 1.4, there is

Journal of Heat Transfer Copyright © 2011 by ASME FEBRUARY 2011, Vol. 133 / 021702-1

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transfers correspond to the wake and to the flow separation lo-
cated at ␪ = ⫾ 90 deg from the front stagnation point. On the other
hand, zones of higher heat transfers are located at +110 deg⬍ ␪
⬍ +150 deg and −110 deg⬍ ␪ ⬍ −150 deg, where the legs of the
horseshoe vortex system appears. Experimental studies 关16–18兴
dealing with the visualization of the horseshoe vortex system by
particle image velocimetry highlighted a significant influence of
ReU on the size of the vortex horseshoe. Moreover, Fu and Rock-
well 关17兴 showed that 共i兲 the instability of the horseshoe vortex
generates flow perturbations in the near wake, 共ii兲 fluctuation level
increasing in the horseshoe vortex leads to the development of
coherent vortices earlier in the separating shear layer, and 共iii兲
Fig. 1 Local Nusselt number on a rotating disk in air crossflow rotational perturbation of a vertical cylinder can destabilize the
†9‡ wake flow structure.
To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous study
about the mean convective exchanges around a rotating disk
a dominant influence of air crossflow on the convective heat trans- mounted on a cylinder in airflow 关19兴. In the case of a disk of 21
fer characterized by a ratio Nure / Nure,␻=0 constant. In the second mm height and 1 mm wide mounted on a 58-mm-diameter cylin-
zone, corresponding to Re␻,re / ReU,re ⬎ 1.4, there is a significant der, Watel determined a general correlation of the mean Nusselt
increase in the ratio due to some instability created between rota- number depending on ReU and Re␻ 共Eq. 共7兲兲. From this equation,
tional and plane flows, which tend to increase the convective heat she could determine the different domains of influence 共rotation,
transfer. Based on the LES study, the author proposed different air crossflow, and combined rotation/air crossflow兲 on convective
correlations 共Eqs. 共3兲–共6兲兲 in order to predict convective ex- heat transfer,
changes on the disk: Nu = 共0.03 · Gr + 0.053 · ReU
+ 9.1 · 103 · Re␻2 兲0.275 共7兲
Re␻,re The experimental setup presented in this paper allows the influ-
Nure = Nure,␻=0 for 0 ⬍ ⬍ 1.4 共3兲
ReU,re ence of rotational and air crossflow speeds on the convective heat

冋 冊册
transfer to be studied. A transient method for identifying heat
Nure = Nure,␻=0 · 1 + 0.32 · 冉 Re␻,re
− 1.4
1/2 transfers using infrared 共IR兲 thermography is proposed. In this
method, the infrared camera measures the temperature variation of
the disk at eight angular locations in the radial direction over time.
Re␻,re Solving the inverse conduction heat transfer problem allowed us
for 1.4 ⬍ ⬍5 共4兲 to identify the local and mean Nusselt numbers in all the tests
carried out while taking into account both conductive and radia-
Nure = 冑共0.0127 · ReU,re
0.8 2
兲 + 共0.015 · Re␻0.8,re兲2 tive fluxes 关20兴.

for Re␻,re ⬎ 2 ⫻ 105 and ReU,re ⬎ 5 ⫻ 104 共5兲

2 Experimental Study
Nure = 冑共0.0127 · ReU,re
0.8 2
兲 + 共0.33 · Re␻0.5,re兲2
2.1 Experimental Setup. Local convective exchange coeffi-
for Re␻,re ⬍ 2 ⫻ 105 and ReU,re ⬎ 5 ⫻ 104 共6兲 cients on the surface of a rotating disk in air crossflow were ob-
tained by measuring the spatio-temporal temperature variations on
Our study deals with a rotating disk mounted on a shaft perpen-
the disk 共Fig. 3共a兲兲. The 2-mm-wide and 60-mm-high disk was
dicular to an air crossflow. In the case of a fixed disk mounted on
a cylinder and submitted to an air crossflow, the presence of the made of aluminum 共␭al = 200 W m−1 K−1, ␳al = 2700 kg m−3, and
cylinder generates flow perturbations at the disk/cylinder junction, Cal = 0.96 kJ kg−1 K−1兲 and was mounted on a 58-mm-diameter
as studied by different authors 关10–15兴. From experimental obser- cylinder 共Fig. 3共b兲兲. The chosen disk height, higher than the 21
vations, they detected a boundary layer development from the mm one used by Watel, allows us to observe the height influence
leading edge of the disk associated to a reduction of velocity due on mean heat transfer as well as the radial variations of the con-
to the adverse pressure gradient in the stagnation zone upstream of vective heat transfer coefficient. The disk and cylinder were cov-
the cylinder. This causes the flow to separate and to form a horse- ered with a thin coat of black paint, which relatively high emis-
shoe vortex system 共Fig. 2兲 consisting of counter-rotating vortices sivity allowed the radiative heat flux emitted to be more
swept around the cylinder base. Zones of lower convective heat accurately determined, thus improving the accuracy of the rela-
tionship between the camera exit signal and the disk temperature.
The disk was driven by an electric motor coupled to a frequency
variator, which allowed us to vary the rotational speed from 0 rpm
to 2000 rpm. The experiments were performed in a 2.4-m-long
wind tunnel. The test disk was positioned at a distance of 2 m
from the fan in order to obtain a straightened airflow upstream
from the disk. A diaphragm allows us to vary airflow speed from
0 m s−1 to 14 m s−1. In order to measure disk temperatures by
thermography, the front wall of the wind tunnel included a port-
hole made up of an infrared transparent film. The calibration law
was determined with an extended black body at the laboratory.
A radiant panel emitting short infrared waves was placed hori-
zontally above the disk, heating them uniformly to temperatures
about 120° C. Once the steady thermal state was reached, the heat
source was shut off. The disk then cooled through radiative and
Fig. 2 3D boundary layer separation and horseshoe vortex convective heat transfers, depending on the rotational and air
system in the region of interaction between mainstream bound- crossflow speeds. The surface temperatures during the cooling of
ary layer and cylinder †10‡ the disk were recorded using an IR camera 共JADE 3 from Cedip

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Fig. 3 Representation of the test facility: „a… experimental setup and „b… disk geometry

Infrared Systems兲 without a filter. A photoelectric sensor was used Jmeas = ␶ambJdisk + 共1 − ␶amb兲Jamb 共8兲
to detect the eight reflective bands stuck on the cylinder. Once the
sensor had detected the bands, it triggered the IR camera, which In this equation, the radiosity Jdisk depends on the radiosity of all
then scanned the whole disk. In our study, the camera was placed the surfaces around it. Thus, the radiosity Jdisk can be expressed as
2.50 m in front of the disk with an acquisition frequency of 600 follows:
Hz and a window of 160⫻ 120 pixels, where each pixel corre- n
sponds to almost 2.5 mm2 of the disk surface. Figure 4 shows the
real image taken by the camera. The dashed lines correspond to
Jdisk = ␧n␴Tdisk
+ 共1 − ␧n兲 兺F
disk−j J j 共9兲

the other locations taken at each turn of the disk.

The camera exit signals obtained during the cooling were col- The cylinder’s temperature Tcyl is measured by the pyrometer and
lected and processed with the software MATLAB to determine the the ambient temperature Tamb = T⬁ is measured by a K-type ther-
radial temperature profiles of the disk. They were expressed in mocouple. The emissivity of the black paint was determined ex-
thermal levels; their processing is explained in detail in the fol- perimentally in the laboratory 关19兴 and depends on temperature T
lowing section. An infrared pyrometer was placed perpendicular as follows:
to the cylinder’s rotational axis in order to measure the cylinder’s ␧n = 0.93 for 293 K ⱕ T ⱕ 353 K
temperature evolution over time. The air temperature measured by
a K-thermocouple 0.5 m from the disk while they were cooling ␧n = 0.98 − 5.7829 · 10−4共T − 273兲 for 353 K ⱕ T ⱕ 413 K
was used as the reference temperature.
2.2 Disk Temperatures. The infrared image taken by the IR
Equation 共9兲 leads to the following equation:
camera shows the “thermal levels” 共Imeas兲 of all the pixels. We
converted these levels into temperatures using the camera calibra- Jdisk = a1 · ␴ · Tdisk
+ a2 · ␴ · Tcyl
+ a3 · ␴ · T⬁4 共11兲
tion law and the expression of the radiative heat flux density Jdisk
where coefficients a1, a2, and a3 are functions of the view factors
emitted by the disk. The flux Jmeas reaching the camera is, in fact, between the different surfaces and the black paint emissivity. The
weakened by the atmosphere, thus yielding
thermal level I共T兲 is the camera exit signal corresponding to a
black body at temperature T, which makes the level proportional
to ␴T4. Thus, we can express the thermal level Idisk of the disk as
Jdisk = a1 · I共Tdisk兲 + a2 · I共Tcyl兲 + a3 · I共T⬁兲 共12兲
Using Eqs. 共8兲 and 共11兲, it is possible to write
Imeas = ␶amb关a1 · I共Tdisk兲 + a2 · I共Tcyl兲 + a3 · I共T⬁兲兴
+ 共1 − ␶amb兲 · I共T⬁兲 共13兲
The disk temperature is obtained from Eq. 共13兲 and the camera
calibration law, determined using the reference temperature of the
extended black body 共Eq. 共14兲兲,
Imeas − 共1 − ␧n兲 · Ia
I共T兲 = 共14兲
␶ · ␧n
Indeed, the camera calibration law I depends on the following
data: the thermal level Imeas 共Imeas = ⫾ 4%Imeas兲 of the extended
black body measured by the camera, the transmittivity ␶amb
共⌬␶amb = ⫾ 0.001 关19兴兲, the black paint emissivity ␧n 共␧n
= 0.93⫾ 0.02 关19兴兲, and the thermal level corresponding to the
environment Ia 共⌬Ia = ⫾ 0.58%Ia兲. Finally, the uncertainty of the
Fig. 4 The eight angular locations of measurement at each calibration law is ⌬I共T兲 = ⫾ 6%I共T兲. The temperature Tdisk de-
turn pends on the following data: the camera calibration law 共Eq. 共14兲兲,

Journal of Heat Transfer FEBRUARY 2011, Vol. 133 / 021702-3

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Tcal共r = ri,z,t兲 = Tdisk共r = ri,t兲

Tcal共r = re,z,t兲 = Tdisk共r = re,t兲

− ␭al · 冏 ⳵ Tcal共r,z,t兲
冏 z=e/2

− ␭al · 冏 ⳵ Tcal共r,z,t兲
冏 z=0
= ␸rad共t兲 + h共r兲 · 共Tcal共r,z = 0,t兲 − T⬁兲

In this model, the temperature distribution at the initial time and
the boundary conditions on the inner and outer radii 共ri and re兲 of
the disk are obtained from IR camera thermal levels. As shown in
Fig. 5, at z = 0 in the perpendicular direction, there is a convective
heat flux density ␸conv共r , t兲 = h共r兲共Tcal共r , z = 0 , t兲 − T⬁兲, character-
Fig. 5 Perpendicular view of the disk ized by a local time-averaged heat transfer coefficient h共r兲 and a
radiation heat flux density ␸rad共t兲 given by Eq. 共15兲. At z = e / 2, the
temperature gradient is null. To solve the direct model, the radial
the temperature of extended black body TCN 共⌬TCN = ⫾ 0.5 K兲, distribution of heat transfer coefficient h共r兲 is assumed to be
the air temperature T⬁ 共⌬T⬁ = ⫾ 3%T⬁, T⬁ in °C兲, the cylinder known. The equations in the system 共Eq. 共16兲兲 are discretized and
temperature Tcyl 共⌬Tcyl = ⫾ 2 K兲, the emissivity, the transmittiv- then solved by finite differences with an implicit scheme using
ity, and the view factors Fi−j 共⌬Fi−j = ⫾ 3%Fi−j兲. Taking into ac- right differences for first-order terms and central differences for
second-order terms. A sensitivity study allowed us to better deter-
count all of these uncertainties led to an absolute error on Tdisk
mine the fixed steps ⌬r and ⌬z. The temporal step ⌬t was fixed
evaluated at about 1 ° C.
using the camera acquisition frequency.
2.3 Radiative Heat Flux Computation. Since the disk was
3.2 Inverse Model. The inverse model allows the distribution
cooled by convection and radiation, it was necessary to determine
h共r兲 to be determined by comparing the computed and measured
radiative heat flux in order to identify the convective heat transfer
coefficient. The radiative heat flux depends on ambient and cylin- temperature evolutions during the cooling process. In order to
der temperatures that were measured experimentally. This flux is reduce the effect of measurement noise on the parameter to be
computed from radiative balance of the forward surface of the identified, we used spatio-temporal regularization. As explained
disk. If the forward face radiosity is denoted as Jdisk,f , the radia- by Beck et al. 关21兴, this model involves searching for the distri-
tive heat flux rad can be expressed as follows: bution h共r兲 that will minimize the following function:

␸rad =
− Jdisk,f 兲 共15兲
S= 兺 兺 关T
t r
cal共r,t兲 − Tdisk共r,t兲兴2 + ␣ · 兺 关ⵜជ 共h共r兲兲兴

1 − ␧n
We thus obtained an equation similar to Eq. 共11兲, which depends F S1 共17兲
on temperatures Tdisk, Tcyl, and T⬁. By introducing the uncertain- where ␣ is the regularization parameter of the model. The regu-
ties of emissivity, disk temperature, and view factors into the cal- larization term S1 is added to a function specification method in
culation of the radiative heat flux, the ␸rad uncertainty was evalu- order to obtain a stable solution in spite of the measurement noise.
ated at about 25 W m−2. In the case in which Re␻ = 12, 900 and The S1 term that we used was a first-order term that reduces the
ReU = 22, 650, it represents an error of about ⫾4%. wide variation of the solution due to the noise 关22,23兴. To mini-
mize S, we added a correction to the imposed distribution himp共r兲
3 Convective Heat Transfer Identification Method 共which was arbitrarily chosen兲 using an iterative identification
Unlike disk temperature and radiative heat flux, the convective process that stops when the derivative with h of Eq. 共17兲 tends to
heat flux cannot be determined directly from measurements be- zero 关22,23兴.
cause convective phenomena depend on unknown flow character- The procedure to validate this method is the following: A spa-
istics. This type of problem is an inverse heat conduction problem tial variation of the heat transfer coefficient was chosen and the
that has been described by Beck et al. 关21兴. In such problems, direct model was used to calculate the temperature histories at
temperature measurements can be exploited to identify surface radial locations. Then, these data were contaminated by noise to
conditions such as convective heat flux using the direct and in- simulate real temperature measurements. Next, these simulated
verse models described below. measurements were introduced in the inverse model to recover the
evolution of the heat transfer coefficient. The correctness of the
3.1 Direct Model. The direct model involves solving partial inversion was evaluated by comparing the exact and estimated
differential equations related to the cooling of the disk. This heat transfer coefficients 关23兴. Figure 6 presents the results ob-
model allows the spatio-temporal evolution of the disk tempera- tained from temperatures contaminated by the noise of standard
ture 共Tcal共r , z , t兲兲 to be computed. Figure 5 presents the perpen- deviation ␴ = 0.1 with and without regularization. Adding the
dicular view of the disk with its boundary conditions. The 2D regularization term S1 to the specification function allowed us to
equation system used in the direct model is recover the theoretical profile of the heat transfer coefficient in
spite of the measurement noise. The choice of the value of hyper-
␳al · Cal ⳵ Tcal共r,z,t兲 ⳵2Tcal共r,z,t兲 1 ⳵ Tcal共r,z,t兲
· = + · parameter ␣ will be explained in Sec. 4.
␭al ⳵t ⳵ r2 r ⳵r
3.3 Convective Heat Transfer Uncertainty. When calculat-
⳵2Tcal共r,z,t兲 ing the convective heat transfer uncertainty, it is necessary to
⳵ z2 evaluate the influence of measurement uncertainties on the con-
vective heat transfer. The computation of the radial distribution
Tcal共r,z,t = 0兲 = Tdisk共r,t = 0兲 h共r兲 depends on the parameters ␳al, Cal, ␭al, Tdisk, T⬁, and ␸rad in

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Fig. 7 Determination of ␣opt

Fig. 6 Influence of regularization on heat transfer coefficient

ing parameter values: Re␻ between 0 and 17,200 and ReU between
0 and 39,600. In all of the tests carried out, the value of the
addition to the boundary conditions and the initial state. Since we hyperparameter ␣ occurred in Eq. 共16兲 was determined from the
did not have an explicit expression for h共r兲 as a function of all “U-curve” presented in Fig. 7. This method explained by Blanc et
these parameters, we used a sequential disturbance method 关24兴 to al. in Ref. 关25兴 consists of tracing the condition number
determine the disturbance induced by entry parameter variations 共cond共M兲兲 of the matrix to be inversed versus ␣. The optimal
due to uncertainty. Since these variations do not depend on the value is located at the minimum of the U-curve that has a para-
radial and angular positions, we considered the global uncertainty bolic shape 共Fig. 7兲.
⌬h̄ of the mean convective heat exchange coefficient h̄ based on The identification method presented in Sec. 3 allows the deter-
mination of the local convective heat transfer coefficient, leading
the quadratic sum of differences due to these variations. If ⌬h̄
to the construction of a representative image of the local heat
depends on n parameters xi with uncertainty dxi, the following
transfer on the disk for 36.5 mm⬍ r ⬍ 81.5 mm by interpolating
equation can be used to find

冋 兺冉 冊册
our data according to ␪. In order to test the influence of the angu-
n 2 1/2
⌬h̄ 1 ⳵ h̄ lar sectors number scanned by the camera, we compared the re-
= · · dxi 共18兲 sults obtained from eight and 16 radial profiles of temperature.
h̄ h̄2 i=1 ⳵ xi Even if the 16-locations treatment would lead to a better observa-
Knowing that the eight angular surfaces corresponding to angles tion of the phenomenon in the rear wake region, differences with
␪i 共see Fig. 3共b兲兲 are equal to 共ri − re兲⌬␪ / 2, the averaged convec- the eight-location case could be considered negligible. Indeed, for
both cases, convective exchanges obtained downstream from the
tive heat coefficient is
cylinder and the mean heat transfer coefficients are similar 共dif-
ference smaller than 2%兲. So, the results presented in the follow-
兺 h̄␪
ing sections concern an eight-location treatment.
h̄ = 共19兲 4.1 Rotating Disk in Still Air. For the case of a rotating disk
8 in still air 共Fig. 8兲, local convective exchanges are uniform on the
where entire disk whatever the rotational speed is. Indeed, rotational
convection is predominant in the considered domain of Re␻ varia-
␸␪i共t兲 tions compared with natural convection 关19兴. These results agree
h̄␪i = 共20兲
T̄disk,␪i共t兲 − T⬁ with those published for a single rotating disk by Dorfman 关3兴 and
aus der Wiesche 共Fig. 1共b兲兲 关9兴. Our operational conditions, re
with = 89 mm and 2150⬍ Re␻ ⬍ 17, 200, correspond to the single disk

re laminar flow domain. These initial observations verified on all the
1 tests carried out for ReU = 0 allow us to conclude that the radial
␸␪i共t兲 = · h共r, ␪i兲 · 关Tdisk共r, ␪i,t兲 − T⬁兴 · 2 · ␲ · r · dr
␲ · 共r2e − ri2兲 ri and angular locations have a negligible influence on the local
convective coefficient for a rotating disk in still air. From Eqs.
共21兲 共19兲–共21兲, we determined the mean Nusselt number Nu that is
For example, in the case in which Re␻ = 12, 900 and ReU plotted 共Fig. 9兲 against the rotational Reynolds number Re␻. The
= 22, 650, we obtained ⌬h̄ / h̄ = 0.169. correlated relationship of the mean Nusselt number and the rota-
tional Reynolds number for our tests is expressed as follows:
4 Results and Discussion NuU=0 = 0.556 · Re␻0.5 共22兲
The results reported in this section are expressed both in terms In Fig. 9, we added the experimental values obtained by Watel
of local and mean Nusselt numbers 共Nu and Nu兲, which are char- 关19兴 corresponding to a disk of 21 mm height and 1 mm wide
acteristics of convective heat transfers, and in terms of rotational mounted on a 58-mm-diameter cylinder. The observed averaged
and air crossflow Reynolds numbers 共Re␻ and ReU兲 based on the difference of about 22.5% between our and her results could come
diameter of the cylinder, which are characteristics of rotation and from the conductive fluxes that are not taken into account in Wa-
air crossflow, respectively. tel’s model. Indeed, in her model, which considered the disk ther-
Physical properties were evaluated at the air film temperature. mally thin, the conductive flux toward the cylinder was taken
To study the influence of rotation and air crossflow on convective equal to zero. At the cooling beginning, the disk and the cylinder
heat transfers over the disk, we performed tests using the follow- are at the same temperature but the temperature decrease of the

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Fig. 8 Local heat transfer coefficient in W m−2 K−1 from a rotating disk in still air: „a… Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 0 and „b… Re␻
= 17, 200 and ReU = 0

disk is more rapid than the cylinder’s since they do not have the
same thermal inertia. When the cylinder becomes warmer than the
disk, a conductive flux occurred at the disk base. Moreover, for
highly conductive materials, neglecting lateral conduction could
lead to important errors on heat transfer coefficient 关20兴.
Correlations of Richardson and Saunders 关7兴 and Dennis et al.
关8兴 plotted in Fig. 9 are in accordance with our results with a gap
of 1.6%. However, comparing to mean Nusselt numbers of aus der
Wiesche’s study 关9兴, our results are 16% higher. Relative to the
uncertainty on Nusselt numbers, we can conclude that the cylinder
presence in our configuration does not greatly influence the mean
convective exchanges compared with the disk plane.
4.2 Stationary Disk in Air Crossflow. For the case of a sta-
tionary disk in an air crossflow, a convective exchanges symmetry
according to the horizontal axis is observed in Fig. 10. Upstream
from the cylinder, the higher heat transfers are located at the disk
leading edge, whereas the lower heat transfers appear at ␪ = 0°
near the cylinder and in angular sectors delimited by 80 deg⬍ ␪
⬍ 100 deg and −100 deg⬍ ␪ ⬍ −80 deg 共with the convention of
Fig. 9 Nu against Re␻ for a rotating disk in still air

Fig. 10 Local heat transfer coefficient in W m−2 K−1 from a stationary disk in air crossflow: „a… Re␻ = 0 and ReU = 11, 350 and
„b… Re␻ = 0 and ReU = 33, 950

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phenomena downstream the cylinder are mainly governed by the
observation 共i兲, whereas for a 60-mm-high fin, corresponding to
our study, they could be explained by the observation 共ii兲. So,
mean convective exchanges seem to increase with the disk height.
Results of aus der Wiesche 关9兴 and Dennis et al. 关8兴 plotted in
Fig. 11 correspond to the stationary disk in an air crossflow. The
important difference between their results and ours can be ex-
plained by the high convective exchanges zone on the rear part of
the disk due to the presence of a cylinder 共Fig. 10兲. Indeed, in the
case of the disk plane presented in Fig. 1共a兲, local variations of the
heat transfer coefficient are only due to the boundary layer devel-
opment at the leading edge of the disk. So, the presence of a
cylinder on the disk generates important local variations of the
heat transfer coefficient, leading to a higher mean Nusselt number
value than the case of the disk plane.
4.3 Rotating Disk in Air Crossflow. Local results of the con-
vective heat transfer on a rotating disk in air crossflow are repre-
sented in Fig. 12 for four couples of values 共Re␻ , ReU兲. For the
Fig. 11 Nu against ReU for a stationary disk in air crossflow couples Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 11, 350 共Fig. 12共a兲兲 and Re␻
= 17, 200 and ReU = 33, 950 共Fig. 12共d兲兲, in comparison with the
case of a stationary disk in air crossflow, a relative uniformity of
the convective coefficient is observed. However, contrary to the
Fig. 3共b兲兲. The zone of high heat transfers occurring at the disk
rotating disk in still air case, a zone of higher transfer is observed
leading edge corresponds to the boundary layer development,
on the ascending side, where the airflow and rotation speeds are in
whereas the zones of the lower ones are linked to the separation of
the same direction 共comoving兲, whereas a zone of weaker trans-
the boundary layer as well as to the augmentation of the boundary
fers appears on the descending side, where the airflow and rota-
layer thickness up to the stagnation point. Indeed, in both cases,
the flow is retarded by the pressure gradient 关12,13兴. Downstream tion speeds are in opposite directions 共counter-moving兲 共as in Ref.
from the cylinder, a second zone of high heat transfers located in 关9兴兲. Finally, in comparison with the case of the stationary disk in
airflow, the rotation effect tends to increase the mean convective
angular sectors delimited by 130 deg⬍ ␪ ⬍ 150 deg and
coefficient by about 9% for Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 11, 350 up to
−150 deg⬍ ␪ ⬍ −130 deg corresponds to the legs of the horse-
shoe vortex systems, which is a characteristic of the flow around about 16% for Re␻ = 17, 200 and ReU = 33, 950.
the finned cylinder 共Fig. 2兲 关10–14兴. A second zone of low con- For Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 33, 950 共Fig. 12共b兲兲, a symmetry ac-
vective heat transfers comprised between both sectors is observed cording to the horizontal axis is observed, similar to the one ob-
near the cylinder, in the zone of weak recirculation generated by served in Fig. 10 relative to the fixed disk in an air crossflow.
the presence of the cylinder. The slighter the airflow speed, the However, three zones of higher heat transfer are observed at other
more extended this zone 共Figs. 10共a兲 and 10共b兲兲. Indeed, the gen- angular locations. Both of them occur at ␪ ⬵ ⫾ 90 deg, whereas
eration of new vortices for high speed increases the disk area the last one is exactly behind the cylinder 共␪ ⬵ 180 deg兲 in the
exposed to an intensive heat transfer. Furthermore, for higher air- wake zone. Moreover, a convective coefficient decrease is ob-
flow speeds, the transition toward turbulent boundary layers de- served for ␪ ⬵ ⫾ 130 deg. However, observed gradients are
stabilizes the vortex system, creating a highly turbulent wake be- smaller than the ones in Fig. 10共b兲兲. Indeed, the comparison be-
hind the cylinder, which leads to a great increase in convective tween Figs. 12共b兲 and 10共b兲 allows us to observe both totally
heat transfer. For the local analysis of our stationary disk in air- different maps of convective heat transfers at the disk surface,
flow, we conclude that 共i兲 the convective heat transfer coefficient whereas the computed mean convective coefficients are almost
obtained by our identification method is nonuniform and greatly identical. In fact, the increase in the mean heat transfer coefficient
depends on both angular and radial position; 共ii兲 the thermal re- due to the rotation is about 6% relative to the stationary disk. In
sults presented in Figs. 8共a兲 and 8共b兲 agree with flow observations conclusion, even for the lowest rotational Reynolds numbers, the
stemming from bibliography 关10–18兴. rotation tends to modify the local distribution of h without affect-
The mean value of the heat transfer coefficient on a stationary ing significantly its mean value.
disk in air crossflow can be calculated from its local variations For Re␻ = 17, 200 and ReU = 11, 350 共Fig. 12共c兲兲, the convective
共Eqs. 共18兲–共21兲兲. The corresponding mean Nusselt number evolu- exchanges tend to be uniform on the entire disk area with a
tion Nu against the air crossflow Reynolds number ReU is plotted slighter transfer zone at ␪ = 0 deg. This zone is influenced by the
in Fig. 11. These results obtained for the case of an airflow 共Pr stagnation point that should substantially move in the rotation
= 0.7兲 are correlated by direction. However, our eight-location treatment according to ␪
does not allow us to identify the real location of the stagnation
Nu␻=0 = 0.036 · ReU 共23兲 point. For this case, rotation greatly influences local distribution
The correlation of Watel 关19兴 plotted in Fig. 11 comes from mea- of the convective coefficient as well as the mean coefficient since
sures realized with low rotational and high air crossflow veloci- its value increases by about 67% compared with the stationary
ties, a domain where convective heat transfers are supposed to be disk in the air crossflow case.
governed exclusively by the air crossflow according to Watel. From the analysis of the local convective coefficient, it appears
However, for ReU ⬍ 22, 650, the higher values obtained by Watel that the thermal behavior of the disk and the mean value of the
could be explained by the increasing influence of rotation with the convective coefficient greatly depend on the couple Re␻ and ReU.
decreasing of airflow speed for her tests. On the contrary, for In order to identify the influence zones of rotation, airflow, and
ReU ⬎ 22, 650, an inversion operates. Indeed, our local analysis coupling rotation/airflow, we compare all the mean Nusselt num-
shows us 共i兲 a zone of lower convective heat transfer downstream bers computed with the one corresponding to the stationary disk in
from the cylinder for radial positions near the cylinder and 共ii兲 an an airflow. So, the evolution of the ratio Nu/ Nu␻=0 against the
increase in the high convective exchanges area on the rear part of ratio Re␻ / ReU is studied as in Ref. 关9兴. From the plot of our
the disk with the increase in the airflow speed 共Fig. 10兲. So, for a experimental results 共Fig. 13兲, three zones are underlined. For
21-mm-high disk, corresponding to Watel study, the convective Re␻ / ReU ⬍ 0.18, our experimental values fluctuate around the

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Fig. 12 Local heat transfer coefficient in W m−2 K−1 from a rotating disk in air crossflow: „a… Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 11, 350, „b…
Re␻ = 4300 and ReU = 33, 950, „c… Re␻ = 17, 200 and ReU = 11, 350, and „d… Re␻ = 17, 200 and ReU = 33, 950

horizontal axis Nu/ Nu␻=0 = 1, corresponding to a mean Nusselt rotation up to a value of 1.3Nu␻=0 at Re␻ / ReU = 0.77. From
number independent of rotation. Therefore, this first zone corre- Re␻ / ReU ⬎ 0.77, rotation influence on the mean convective ex-
sponds to the domain of airflow influence. For 0.18⬍ Re␻ / ReU changes increases. In order to quantify convective exchanges aug-
⬍ 0.77, the mean Nusselt number is slightly influenced by the mentation engendered by the rotation, two correlations similar to
Eqs. 共3兲 and 共4兲 are proposed:

Nu = Nu␻=0 · 1 + 0.45 · 冉 Re␻
− 0.18冊 册 0.77

for 0.18 ⬍ ⬍ 0.77 共24兲

Nu = Nu␻=0 · 1.3 + 0.45 · 冉 Re␻
− 0.77 冊 册
⬎ 0.77


It is also possible to predict convective exchanges by considering

Re␻ and ReU separately, as in Eqs. 共5兲 and 共6兲. For Re␻ / ReU
Fig. 13 Ratio of mean Nusselt numbers against Reynolds ⬍ 0.18, our results are correlated by Eq. 共23兲. To correlate our
number ratio results for Re␻ / ReU ⬎ 0.18, the following equation is proposed:

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versely, for highest Re␻ and lowest ReU, the rotation greatly in-
fluences local distribution of the convective coefficient as well as
the mean Nusselt number, which can be increased up to 67%. In
fact, in all of the cases, the rotation homogenizes convective heat
transfers at the disk surface. Concerning the mean Nusselt num-
bers in order to quantify rotation influence, the evolution of the
ratio Nu/ Nu␻=0 against the ratio Re␻ / ReU has been studied. In
this way, three zones were highlighted. In the first one, there is no
rotation influence, in the second one, it is slight, whereas in the
last one, it becomes stronger. The proposed correlations of mean
Nusselt numbers allows us to characterize mean convective ex-
changes of the rotating disk in air crossflow in all the conditions

C ⫽ specific heat
Di ⫽ cylinder outer diameter
Fig. 14 Evolution of Nu with Re␻ for various ReU values e ⫽ fin thickness
Fa−b ⫽ view factor between a and b
H ⫽ 共re − ri兲 disk height
Nu = 冑共0.036 · ReU
兲 + 共0.556 · Re␻0.5兲2
0.8 2
for ⬎ 0.18 h ⫽ convective coefficient
ReU I ⫽ thermal level
共26兲 J ⫽ radiosity
L ⫽ cylinder length
Figure 14 presents the experimental and correlated mean Nusselt
Nu ⫽ 共h Di / ␭a兲 Nusselt number
numbers against Re␻ varying from 2150 to 17,200 for all of the
ReU values varying from 5700 to 39,600. The agreement between Nu ⫽ 共h̄ D / ␭ 兲 Nusselt number
i a
correlations 共Eqs. 共23兲 and 共26兲兲 and our experimental values is ReU ⫽ 共U Di / ␯a兲 airflow Reynolds number
better than 10%. The highest steps are observed for the higher ReU,re ⫽ 共U re / ␯a兲 airflow Reynolds number
rotational Reynolds numbers. It would be due to the stronger in- Re␻ ⫽ 共␻ri Di / ␯a兲 rotational Reynolds number
fluence of the rotation observed 共Fig. 13兲 from the value Re␻,re ⫽ 共␻r2e / ␯a兲 rotational Reynolds number
Re␻ / ReU ⬎ 0.77. In conclusion, correlations 共Eqs. 共24兲 and 共25兲兲
r ⫽ radial coordinate
allow us to predict the global thermal behavior of a rotating disk
ri ⫽ disk inner radius
mounted on a shaft in an air crossflow by taking into account the
combined effects of rotation and airflow. However, simpler corre- re ⫽ disk outer radius
lations like Eqs. 共23兲 and 共26兲 could be used for practical appli- t ⫽ time
cations to determine convective exchanges on the disk with a T ⫽ temperature
precision of 10%. U ⫽ airflow speed
z ⫽ axial coordinate
5 Conclusion Greek
The experimental setup presented in this paper allowed us to ␧ ⫽ emissivity
evaluate the local distribution of the convective heat transfer co- ␸ ⫽ heat flux density
efficient on a rotating disk mounted on a shaft in air crossflow. In ␭ ⫽ heat conductivity
each test, the evolution of the thermal levels was recorded by the ␯ ⫽ kinematic viscosity
IR camera every 0.5 cm on the disk radius while the system was ␳ ⫽ density
cooling for eight angular positions. The thermal levels were con- ␪ ⫽ angular coordinate
verted to temperature values using the camera calibration law and ␴ ⫽ Stefan Boltzmann constant
the radiative balance of the surface scanned. An inverse model ␶ ⫽ transmittivity
based on spatio-temporal regularization allowed us to take both ␻ ⫽ rotational speed
the radial conduction and radiative fluxes into account. This
method allows us to determine local variations of the convective Subscripts
heat transfer coefficient. Concerning the case of the rotating disk al ⫽ aluminum
in still air for 2150⬍ Re␻ ⬍ 17, 200, local heat transfers are uni- amb ⫽ ambiance
form on the disk surface and a correlation between Nu and Re␻ is cal ⫽ computed value
proposed to predict its mean thermal behavior. In these conditions, conv ⫽ convective heat transfer
the shaft influence can be considered negligible since obtained cyl ⫽ cylinder
results do not differ much from the ones corresponding to the case disk ⫽ disk
of a shaftless disk given in literature. For the case of the stationary meas ⫽ measured value
disk in air crossflow for 5700⬍ ReU ⬍ 39, 600, zones of higher n ⫽ black paint
heat transfers are located at the leading edge of the disk and where rad ⫽ radiative heat transfer
the legs of the horseshoe vortex systems appear. The lower ones ⬁ ⫽ outside the boundary layer
occur at the stagnation point in front of the cylinder and at the Ā ⫽ average A
flow separation, behind it. A correlation between Nu and ReU is
proposed. When the disk rotates in air crossflow, physical phe-
nomena depend on the couple of values 共Re␻ / ReU兲. For the low- References
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