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HUMAN DATABASE INTERACTION

Data retrievers should retrieves data according to their


requirements and skills. The database interface should be
sufficiently feasible to respond differently to both single time user
with unpredictable and varied requirements, and regular users
with little variation in their requirements.

Performance
Data should be retrieved as quickly as possible from the
database.

Relational database support


It should be possible for users to link pieces of information
together in the database to get added value.

Concurrency
Many uses may wish to use the database, maybe, even the same
data, at the same time and this need to be controlled.

Technology Proof: Data should not change when the


technology on which it is based is changed.

Distributed System: Data stores may need to communicate


with other storms for access to pieces of information not in their
local holding.

Database Management Systems: The database should be


capable of been managed by a complex piece of software.
Note:
Data: Data are raw facts about an object which becomes
information when processed.

WHY DATABASE
We need to organize our data because of the following reasons:-
(i) To allow speedy retrieval and updating as it is paramount
in environmental management
(ii) To give very high accuracy and precision
(iii) To be able to query the database i.e. allow selection of
items and analyses of many important spatial problems
(iv) To allow sharing of data
(v) To remove redundancy
(vi) To serve as catalyst or stimulus for many advancements

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)


DBMS is defined as “A collection of software for organizing the
information in a database.
Typically contains routines for data input, verification, storage
and retrieval.
Conventionally, a DBMS deals with alphanumeric data and has no
capability for graphic functions such as the display of maps.

Examples of common. DBMS includes:


(i) Oracle (iv) INGRES
(ii) Dbase (v) INFORMIX
(iii) Access (vi) SYSBASE etc
FUNCTIONS OF DBMS
(1) It manages the database from uncontrolled access
(2) It allows the definition of the data model
(3) It support data manipulation and provide appropriate two
way access channels between the exterior and the
database
(4) It allows the designer to define the structure of the data
in the database
(5) It provide levels of authorization that allow different
groups of users access to appropriate data and
(6) It manages the transaction with the database that may
be occurring concurrently
(7) It provides data independence so that the data in the
database are accessible without precise knowledge of
implementation details

ELEMENTS OF A DBMS
The components of a DBMS that allow it to perform complex
functions is examined in this section.
The architecture of a database system is divided into three broad
levels:-
(i) The internal level
(ii) The conceptual level
(iii) The external level
There levels are shown below:-
EXTERNAL LEVEL:
This is the level that is closest to the users.
It is concerned with the way in which data is viewed by individual
users.
The user views the database by means of an external model.
The external model is the information content of a database as it
is seen by a particular user.
The external model is defined by means of an external scheme.
The external scheme consists of the description of each of the
external records in the external model.
The external level is divided into 2 levels namely:
(a) Database expert user view
(b) End user view

CONCEPTUAL LEVEL
This is referred to as a data model. It is the representation of
data as it really is.
It is a union of views of a community of users with some
authorization and validation procedures.
It consists of multiple occurrences of multiple types of conceptual
records.

INTERNAL LEVEL
This level is concerned with the way in which data are actually
stored on the computer. It is concerned with the way in which
the computer views the database.
The internal model is defined by means of an internal scheme
which defines the various types of stored record.
MAPPING INTERFACES
There are two levels of mapping in the database system
architecture namely:-

HOW TO CARRY OUT ASTRONOMY PRACTICAL


(1) After setting up the instrument and level properly, sight
to the references object take the horizontal circle reading
and the vertical circle reading.
(2) Sight to far distance object and adjust the focus of your
instrument
(3) Sight to the sun, using sight pin to bisect the sun
(4) Clamp the horizontal slow motion screw
(5) Turn the telescope vertically to be able to see the sun
(6) After the sun have been seen clamp the vertical
(7) Now use both the horizontal and slow motion screw to
bisect the sun
(8) The reading start from second, minutes and hour before
reading the horizontal vertical circular reading.

(1) EXTERNAL/CONCEPTUAL LEVEL MAPPING: This


represents the correspondence between a particular
external level and the data model. (i.e. conceptual)

(2) CONCEPTUAL/INTERNAL LEVEL MAPPING: This


represents the correspondents between the conceptual
level (data model) and the internal storage
HOW DBMS ACCESS DATABASES
(i) The user issues an access request using data sub-
language provided for him by the DBMS
(ii) The DBMs receives the request and interprets it
(iii) The DBMS inspects all the schemes and mapping –
external scheme, external/conceptual mapping,
conceptual scheme, conceptual/internal mapping and the
internal definition
(iv) The DBMS then performs the necessary operations n the
stored database.
(v) Note that, Access to DBMS data is handled by the stored-
data-manager (Data base Administrator DBA), which calls
the operating system for control of the physical access to
storage devices.

There is component of database which are:


- Hardware
- Software
- Data
- Users
Before data model.