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Curriculum evolution dates back to pre spanish epoch to the present. If you are to
comment/critique, which of the periods would give merits or favorable comments? Which of
these would you like to erase in your memory? Support your answer.

the religious, political, economic and social influences and events that took place in the
country affected and sometimes dictated the kind of curriculum developed in that particular
epoch of Philippine history. Colonial rule in the country tailored the curriculum to serve colonial
goals and objectives.
Before the coming of the Spaniards the Filipino possessed a culture of their own. They had
contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia, India, China, Indo-china and Borneo. The
diaries of Fr. Chirino attest to the historical fact that “the inhabitants were a civilized people,
possessing their system of writing, laws and moral standards in a well-organized system of
government. They did not have an organized system of education as we have now. They,
however, possessed the knowledge as expressed in their ways of life and as shown in the rule of
the barangay, their code of laws – the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas, their belief in the bathala,
the solidarity of the family, the modesty of the women, the children’s obedience and respect for
their elders, and in the valor of the men.

different colonizers brought different culture and educational curriculum to the

Philippines. The Spanish curriculum then consisted of three r’s – reading, writing and religion
was imposed with the curricular goals for the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of
Spanish rule.
The Americans devised curriculum was also dominated with the motive of conquering the
Filipinos not only physically but also intellectually.
Just like the Spaniards and the Americans, the Japanese devised a curriculum for the
Filipino to suit their vested interest. They introduced many changes in the curriculum by
including Nippon go and abolishing English as a medium of instruction and as a subject. All
textbooks were censored and revised.
The Japanese-devised curriculum caused a blackout in Philippines education and impeded
the educational progress of the Filipinos.
In 1945, during the liberation period, steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before
the war. Filipino educational leaders, such as Cecilio Putong, Prudencio Langcauon, Esteban
Abada, Martin Aguilar, Vitaliano Bernardino and others tries to develop a curriculum based on
the characteristics and needs of the filipino children and on the needs, problem, and resources of
the community. However, their efforts remained in the ideational stage. The school curriculum
remained basically the same as before and was still subject- centered.
The granting of independence to the Filipinos led to some educational reforms in the
curriculum. Great experiments in the community school idea and the use of the vernacular in the
first two grades of the primary school as a medium of instruction were some of them. Some of
the reforms were merely extensions of the educational trends in previous decades. Others were
implemented in response to circumstances in the culture. And still others were results of research
and experimentation in the education and related disciplines.
During the new society until today, vast curricular reforms have already been established.
Almost all of the aspects of educational system has been covered for improvement in the
presidential education decree passed by then president Ferdinand Marcos. Because of the many
changes in the educational curriculum in the new society that brought improvement to the
educational system, obviously, this is the era that I’m going to give merit.
On the other hand, the Japanese- devised curriculum was never intended to help Filipinos
progress but to serve their vested interest. The Filipinos were deprived of everything during this
era. I hate to think that this happened to our forefathers. By nature, curriculum is dynamic. Hence
it must be viewed as changing and developing. As the Philippines is a colonial country, different
cultures were infused into our educational system brought about by our colonizers. Colonial rule
in the country tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives. We can do nothing
about it so let’s find ways to make use of it.


The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a
specific course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a
school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools. Depending on how broadly educators
define or employ the term, curriculum typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are
expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are
expected to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to
students; the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the
tests, assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning. An individual teacher’s
curriculum, for example, would be the specific learning standards, lessons, assignments, and
materials used to organize and teach a particular course.

Teachers design each curriculum with a specific educational purpose in mind. The ultimate
goal is to improve student learning, but there are other reasons to employ curriculum design as
well. For example, designing a curriculum for middle school students with both elementary and
high school curricula in mind helps to make sure that learning goals are aligned and complement
each other from one stage to the next. If a middle school curriculum is designed without taking
prior knowledge from elementary school or future learning in high school into account it can create
real problems for the students.


Based upon fundamental beliefs that arise from one's philosophy of Education, curricular
decisions involve consideration of several topics and issues. Precisely for this reason, we
consider philosophy one of the major foundation areas in curriculum. In this section, we shall
explore several different philosophies of education that influence curricular decisions.
Philosophy and Curriculum

Studying philosophy helps us deal with our own personal systems of beliefs and values, i.e., the
way we perceive the world around us and how we define what is important to us. As
philosophical issues have always influenced society and institutions of learning, a study of the
philosophy of education in terms of Curriculum development is essential.
In essence, a philosophy of education influences, and to a large extent determines, our
educational decisions and alternatives. Those who are responsible for curricular decisions,
therefore, should be clear about what they believe. If we are unclear or confused about our own
beliefs, then our curricular plans are bound to be unclear and confusing. One important step in
developing a personal philosophy of education is to understand the various alternatives that
others have developed over the years. Here we shall look into the following four major
philosophical positions that have, hitherto, influenced curriculum development.
i ) Idealism
ii) Realism
iii) Pragmatism
iv) Existentialism

i ) Idealism

The doctrine of idealism suggests that matter is an illusion and that reality is that which exists
mentally. It emphasizes moral and spiritual reality as the chief explanation of the world and
considers moral values absolute, timeless and universal.
If we apply this view to education what would be the implications for the role of teachers and
curriculum in education?
Obviously, teachers would act as role models of enduring values. And the school must be highly
structured and ought to advocate only those ideas that demonstrate enduring values. The
materials used for instructions, therefore, would centre on broad ideas particularly those
contained in great works of literature and/or scriptures. Since it is based on broad ideas and
concepts, idealism is not in line with the beliefs of those who equate learning with acquisition of
specific facts from various Proponents of realism view the world in terms of objects and matter.
They believe that human behavior is rational when it conforms to the laws of nature and is
governed by social laws. Applied to education, those ideas begin to reveal a second possible
philosophy of education.

ii) Realism

What kind of philosophy will that be? 'Realists' consider Education a matter of reality rather than
speculation. Application, The paramount responsibility of the teacher, then, is to impart to
learners the knowledge about the world they live in. What scholars of various disciplines have
discovered about the world constitutes this knowledge. However, like the idealists, the realists
too stress that education should reflect permanent and enduring values that have been handed
down through generations, but only to the extent that they do not interfere with the study of
particular disciplines. Clearly, unlike the idealists who consider classics ideal subject matter for
studies, the realists view the subject expert as the source and authority for determining the

iii) Pragmatism

In contrast to the traditional philosophies, i.e., idealism and realism, Pragmatism gives
importance to change, processes and relativity, as it suggests that the value of an idea lies in its
actual consequences. The actual consequences are related to those aims that focus on practical
aspects in teaching and learning (Nash, 1995).
According to pragmatists, learning occurs as the person engages in transacting with the
environment. Basic to this interaction is the nature of change. In this sense, whatever values and
ideas are upheld currently would be considered tentative since further social development must
refine or change them. For instance, at a particular period of time it was generally believed that
the earth was flat which was subsequently disproved through scientific research.
To consider, therefore, what is changeless (idealism) and inherited the perceived universe
(rea1ism) and to discard social and/or perceptual change is detrimental to the overall
development and growth of children. You can now visualize how pragmatism would have
influenced the framing of curriculum.
Curriculum, according to the pragmatists, should be so planned that it teaches the learner how to
think critically rather than what to think. Teaching should, therefore, be more exploratory in
nature than explanatory. And, learning takes place in an active way as learners solve problems
which help them widen the horizons of their knowledge and reconstruct their experiences in
consonance with the changing world. What then might be the role of the teacher? The role is not
simply to disseminate information but to construct situations that involve both direct experience
with the world of the learner and opportunities to understand these experiences.
Having seen three basic philosophical positions that have influenced curriculum development, let
us now look at the fourth one.

iv) Existentialism
This doctrine emphasizes that there are no values outside human beings, and thus, suggests that
human beings should have the freedom to make choices and then be responsible for the
consequences of those choices.
According to this philosophy, learners should be put into a number of choice-making situations,
i.e., learners should be given freedom to choose what to study. It emphasizes that education must
centre on the perceptions and feelings of the individual in order to facilitate understanding of
personal reactions or responses to life situations. Of primary concern in this process is the
individual. Since life is based upon personal meanings, the nature of education, the existentialists
would argue, should be largely determined by the learner. Individual learners should not be
forced into pre-determined programmes of study. Whatever the learner feels he/she must learn
should be respected and facilitated by the system. An existentialist curriculum, therefore, would
consist of experiences and subjects that lend themselves to philosophical dialogue and acts of
making choices, stressing self-expressive activities and media that illustrate emotions and
insights. The teacher, then, takes on a non-directive role. The tender is viewed as a partner in the
process of learning. As a professional, the teacher serves as a resource facilitating the individual's
search for personal meaning rather than imposing some predetermined values or interests on
Existentialism has gained greater popularity in recent years. Today, many educationists talk
about focusing on the individual, promoting diversity in the curriculum and emphasizing the
personal needs and interests of learners. Here, perhaps, we can recall the philosophy that
underlies the open distance education system. Learner-autonomy, which the existentialists seem
to suggest, has been and remains the prime characteristic feature of the distance mode of
teaching-learning. Because of the explosion in knowledge and tremendous growth in information
technology, the curriculum of the past seems to be obsolete.
To plug the gap between the needs of the learner, the society and the curriculum content,
rethinking in the area of curriculum development appears to be unavoidable. What might have
been relevant in a particular situation need not necessarily always be so. In essence, social
changes demand changes in the existing pattern of education. The inherent potentiality of the
system of distance education enables it to accommodate and cater to these changes. It should be
clear from the above discussion that by and large, in operational terms, both pragmatism and
existentialism find ample expression in open distance education.
Each of the four major philosophies just described begins with a particular view of human nature
and of values and truths, and then proceeds to suggest what such a view implies for curriculum
development. Before we conclude our discussion on the philosophical foundations of curriculum,
we should make note of a few educational philosophies in order to reinforce what has been said
so far.

Educational philosophies:

Although aspects of educational philosophy can be derived from the roots of idealism, realism,
pragmatism and existentialism, a common approach is to provide a pattern of educational
philosophies which derives from the major schools of philosophy some of which have been
touched upon above. Here, we shall be looking into the following four educational philosophies
for their implications in the area of curriculum development.
i) Perennialism
ii) Progressivism
iii) Essentialism, and
iv) Reconstructionism
Let us discuss each one of these in this very order.
i) Perennialism
It advocates the permanency of knowledge that has stood the test of time and values that have
moral and spiritual bases. The underlying idea is that education is constant, absolute and
universal. Obviously, "perennialism" in education is born of "idealism" in general philosophy.
The curriculum of the perennialist is subject-centered. It draws heavily on defined disciplines or
logically organised bodies of content, but it emphasizes teaching leaming of languages,
literature, sciences and arts. The teacher is viewed as an authority in a particular discipline and
teaching is considered an art of imparting inforrnation knowledge and stimulating discussion. In
such a scheme of things, students are regarded immature as they lack the judgement required to
determine what should be studied, and also that their interests demand little attention as far as
curriculum development is concerned.
There is usually only one common curriculum for all students with little room for elective
subjects. According to this point of view putting some students through an academic curriculum
and others through a vocational curriculum is to deny the latter genuine equality of educational
opportunity. Such views appeal to those educators who stress intellectual meritocracy. Their
emphasis is on testing students, enforcing tougher academic standards/programmes, and on
identifying and encouraging talented students.

ii) Progressivism
This emerged as a protest against perennialist thinking in education. It was considered a
contemporary reformist movement in educational, social and political affairs during the 1920's
and 30's. According to progressivist thought, the skills and tools of learning include problem
solving methods and scientific inquiry. In addition, learning experiences should include
cooperative behaviour and self- discipline, both of which are important for democratic living.
The curriculum, thus, was interdisciplinary in nature and the teacher was seen as a guide for
students in their problem-solving and scientific projects.
Although the progressive movement in education encompassed many different theories and
practices, it was united in its opposition to the following traditional attributes and practices: the
authoritarian teacher; excessive dependence on textbook methods; memorization of factual data
and learning by excessive drilling; static aims and materials that reject the notion of a changing
world; and attempts to isolate education from individual experiences and social reality.
Although the major thrust of progressive education waned in the 1950's with the advent of
"essentialism", the philosophy has left its imprint on education and educational practices of
today. Contemporary progressivism is expressed in several movements including those for a
socially relevant curriculum, i.e., a match between subjects taught and student needs which is
one of the theoretical bases of distance education.

iii) Essentialism
This philosophy, rooted partly in idealism and partly in realism, evolved mainly as a critique of
progressive thought in education. Yet, the proponents of essentialism do not totally reject
progressive methods as they do believe that education should prepare the learner to adjust to a
changing society. Thus, in essentialism learning should consist in mastering the subject matter
that reflects currently available knowledge in various disciplines. Teachers play a highly
directive role by disseminating information to students. According to this viewpoint, the main
arms of the institution (be it a school or a college) get sidetracked, when, at the expense of
cognitive needs, it attempts to pay greater attention to the social and psychological problems of
In recent years, the essentialist position has been stated vociferously by critics who claim that
educational standards softened during the 1960s and early 1970s. The most notable achievements
of the essentialists have been the widespread implementation of competency based programmes,
the establishment of grade-level achievement standards, and the movement to reemphasize
academic subjects in schools/colleges. In many ways, the ideas of essentialism lie behind attacks
on the quality of education by the media and by local pressure groups, which includes, to a good
extent, attaces on distance education.

iv) Reconstructionism
It views education as a means of reconstructing society. The reconstructionists believe that as
school/college is attended by virtually all youth, it must be used as a means to shape the attitudes
and values of each generation. As a result, when the youth become adults they will share certain
common values, and thus the society will have reshaped itself.
As for the curriculum, it must promote new social, economic and political education. The subject
matter is to be used as a vehicle for studying social problems which must serve as the focus of
the curriculum. The following gives you a view of the reconstructionist programme of education:
critical examination of the cultural heritage of a society as well as the entire civilization; scrutiny
of controversial issues; commitment to bring about social and constructive change; cultivation of
a planning-in-advance attitude that considers the realities of the world we live in; and
enhancement of cultural renewal and internationalism.
Stemming from this view, reconstruction expands the field of curriculum to include intuitive,
personal, mystical, linguistic, political and social systems of theorizing. In general, the
curriculum advocated by reconstructionists emphasizes the social sciences-history, political
science, economics, sociology, psychology and philosophy-and not the pure sciences. The thrust
is on developing individual self-realization and freedom through cognitive and intellectual
activities, and thus, on liberating people from the restrictions, limitations and controls of society.
The idea is that we have had enough of discipline-based education and narrow specialization,
and that we don't need more specialists now, we need more "good" people if we want to survive.
Before we proceed further, let us ask ourselves a question. What insights do we gain from the
discussion on the philosophical foundations of curriculum'? Foundations of Curriculum Ideas
about curriculum and teaching do not arise in a vacuum. As curriculum development is heavily
influenced by philosophy, those involved in such planning should be clear about contemporary,
dominant philosophy.
If we are unclear about our philosophy of education,our curriculum plans and teaching
procedures will tend to be inconsistent and confused. This being so, we should be aware of the
fact that development and awareness of a personal philosophy of education is a crucial
professional responsibility. Further, we need to be constantly open to new ideas and insights that
may lead to a revision or refinement of our philosophies. Our position should be that no single
philosophy, old or new, should serve as the exclusive guide for making decisions about
curriculum. What we, as curriculum specialists, need to do, is to adopt an eclectic approach, in
which there is no emphasis on the extremes of subject matter or socio-psychological
development, excellence or quality. In essence, what we need is a prudent philosophy-one that is
politically and economically feasible and that serves the needs of students and society. It is here
that open distance education comes forth with its promises for the future.


Everyone agrees that education is a good thing. Unfortunately, the agreement pretty much ends
there. Although almost everyone agrees that education is good, there is wide disagreement on
what education is.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, there has been a sometimes heated debate, not only
about what schools should do, but what they should be. Generally speaking, there are two sides
in this debate.

On one side are the traditionalists, made up mostly of parents, but including older teachers and
private school teachers. Traditionalism still holds sway in many private Christian schools.
Classical education is a species of traditonalism that retains the older emphasis on classic
literature and languages.

On the other side are the progressives, made up mostly of educational professionals.
Progressives dominate teachers colleges and educational publishing companies and control
almost all of the professional academic journals and education publications that professional
educators read. Almost all professional development programs for teachers in public schools are
conducted from a progressivist perspective.

The first and most important difference between the two philosophies has to do with how they
conceive of education and what they think it is for.

Everyone agrees that education is good, but there is a wide disagreement on what
education is.
What Education Is For
For traditionalists, schools are academic institutions with a more purely academic purpose, which
is to develop the mental ability of students in particular, and more generally to pass on the
Western cultural heritage to the next generation. Classical schools maintain the emphasis on the
full range of the Western culture and tradition, but even many non-classical private
Christian schools, although they may not be fully aware of their debt to Greece and Rome, still
emphasize those aspects of traditional American education that are grounded in Western ideas
and values.

Progressives, on the other hand, see schools more as social service agencies whose purpose is to
prepare them for the social, political, and economic realities of modern life. This would include
job skills training, certain forms of social indoctrination, and a certain amount of psychological
Traditionalism isn’t necessarily against all of these things, but it recognizes that they are
approached best indirectly and only as by-products acquired while pursuing academic ends.

While job skills training for progressives would involve instruction in specific skills needed for
specific kinds of work, the traditionalist considers instruction in basic skills—in addition to
higher kinds of thinking skills acquired through the study of grammar, logic, rhetoric—and math
skills to be the best preparation for any job. The familiarity with history and classic
literature, because of the ideals and values gained through the reading of it, would be considered
to contribute to the formation of a more employable person.

Social and political indoctrination for progressives commonly manifests itself in an emphasis on
issues like environmentalism and multiculturalism. Recent national science standards, for
example, place a great deal of stress on climate change. Traditionalists tend to avoid stressing
particular political or social beliefs, and instead place an emphasis on a more broad kind of civics
education that emphasizes an understanding and appreciation of America’s unique political
order through a more academic familiarity with the story of America’s founding, and the more
objective treatment of the nation’s history and culture through time.

And while the progressivists consider an understanding of child psychology as essential for
a teacher, and the practice of certain therapeutic exercises in the classroom as part of a teacher’s
role, traditionalists tend to stress the kind of moral literacy that can be gleaned from the
humanities, as well as training the affections through the reading of the Bible and, for
the classical educator, classical history and literature.

What Schools Should Teach

The second difference between these two philosophies has to do with what, in fact,
schools should teach. Traditionalists believe in an academic curriculum that teaches mastery of
basic skills in the primary grades and the more sophisticated language and math skills of the
liberal arts in the higher grades. They also teach the basic facts of Western cultural history and
thought. Perhaps more importantly, it seeks to inculcate the ideals and values that have formed
the basis of the moral order that has undergirded American civilization and the European and
classical civilizations on which it was founded.

Increasingly, modern progressivists reject the idea that there is any one culture or academic
curriculum that should be taught to all children. Education, they say, should be “child-centered,
not subject-centered.” Western culture in particular has fallen in popularity among many of those
who run today’s schools.

Sometimes other cultures are held up as worthy of study. It is not uncommon to hear the
objection that, for example, the classical education movement has a single-minded emphasis on
Western culture, and that students should be familiarized with Eastern culture as well.
But although this is a valuable objective, and one which is, in fact, pursued in most classical
programs, those educators who champion nontraditional educational approaches seldom actually
accomplish the multi-culturalism they champion. They more often end up teaching the dogmas
of the modern Western monoculture that dominate among elites in developed countries that has
little resemblance with the beliefs and values of Eastern or other native cultures. In any case, our
education system has an obligation to master our own culture before studying other ones.

In practical reality, the utilitarian, career-oriented emphasis of progressivism simply results in a

fractured and highly unstructured course of studies that would be difficult to call a curriculum at
all. If a parent were to ask those running the typical modern public school what his child could
be expected to learn in a particular grade, he would find it difficult to get a coherent answer. This
is because most schools really don’t have a cohesive curriculum, and whatever curriculum
one school may have will in all likelihood be quite different from that of another school in
another district, or even another school in the same part of town.

This situation is exacerbated by the fact that, unlike most European countries, the United
States has no national curriculum. And periodic attempts to impose such a common curriculum
almost inevitably fail because of a cultural disconnect between the educational establishment and
the general populace. Numerous attempts at trying to establish national history or English
standards always end up being destroyed in the flames of partisan controversy. The consequence
is that there is no actual curricular sequence a student is expected to progress through.

This problem is less pronounced in math and science, in which there is still an acknowledged
scope and sequence, but in the language arts and the humanities, the lack of curricular structure
is particularly pronounced.

In the more traditional American schools of the nineteenth century, students knew where they
were in the implicit curriculum that was presented to them in their school readers. In the days of
the McGuffey readers and other similar texts, if a student was asked how far along they were,
they answered that they were in “the middle of the third reader,” or “just beginning the fourth
reader.” All these readers followed a similar scope and sequence and there were
common cultural touchstones they all sought to reference. And even in those rural schools that
had little money for books, the teacher generally had the outlines of the common curriculum of
her time in her head. She knew the system of arithmetic and taught it the way she had learned it.
She knew the system of letter-sound correspondences and basic phonetic rules and stepped her
students through the English phonetic system. She also knew the more simple common cultural
reference points that were manifested in the stories of famous characters of history and literature.

Although today’s traditional education is not quite as simple and straightforward as that
which characterized earlier education in this country, there is still a significant commonality in
the programs used; for example in most Christian schools, where traditionalism still thrives.

How Students Should Be Taught

In addition to a certain curriculum, which is a matter of what students should be taught,
traditional educators have always believed in a certain method of teaching, which is a matter of
how they should be taught.

Generally speaking, progressives reject the academic, subject-centered educational view of

the traditionalists in favor of a more romanticist “child-centered” approach taught in a non-
directive way. They spurn any educational approach that puts students in a passive learning role
and believe that all learning should actively engage the student through interesting and
entertaining activities that are, insofar as it is possible, chosen by the students themselves.

In the primary grades, this results in a de-emphasis on basic skills training, which is reflected in
rhetoric that makes reference to “boring” drill and practice and “rote” memorization.
Progressives believe that there should be less emphasis on a mastery of basic facts and
procedures and more focus on the conceptual aspects of reading and mathematics. In addition,
the teacher conducts the instruction in a much more non-directive way and classrooms are
organized to reflect progressivist pedagogy, such as large tables, at which students often face
each other, as opposed to individual desks facing the teacher, and “learning centers,”
where students engage in more self-directed, as opposed to teacher-directed, activities.

Traditional educators, on the other hand, have always recognized the central role of the teacher
in guiding the learning of students. In primary grades, in which the priority is the transmission of
the basic skills and content of reading, writing, and arithmetic, the teacher has an explicitly
directive role in making sure that students master the material. Traditionalists believe
memorization, drill, and continual practice are necessary to acquire knowledge and mastery of
these skills, and that they require an instructor to administer effectively and efficiently.

In addition to a highly teacher-directed classroom pedagogy for the basic skills and content
needed in lower grades, traditionalists also recognize the essential role of coaching in advanced
skills training and Socratic discourse in the inculcation of ideals and values in the middle and
upper grades, but that, even here, teacher directedness never entirely goes away.

The debate over these issues has been going on since progressivism began to displace
traditionalism in American schools in the early twentieth century. The problem today is that most
people are not familiar with the history of this rivalry, and more importantly, how these two
philosophies of education really differ from one another. Modern classical educators in particular
should strive to see their place in this history if for no other reason than to be able to avoid the
pitfalls of those who are constantly confusing traditionalism and progressivism.

Key Components of a Curriculum

Most curriculum documents contain nine key components. In some cases, a curriculum will be
presented in a single document (what many call a syllabus). It is also common to create an
instructor’s manual that presents individual unit plans, learning activities, and assessments. The
key components of such a manual include:

 Introduction—the purpose and goals of the curriculum

 Audience—a brief description of the intended students, including prerequisite skills and
knowledge levels, and demographics
 Outcomes—a clear articulation of the observable and measurable skills and knowledge
students will need to demonstrate that indicates mastery of course content within the
 Content framework—a detailed outline of the major topics and sub-topics that will be
taught in individual courses, ideally matched to learning outcomes
 Unit plans—lesson plans that organize content and learning objectives into discrete units
 Verification of learning—methods the instructor and students use to determine whether the
learning objectives have been met
 Delivery methodologies—teaching strategies and learning activities that will be used to
deliver the content, including problems to solve, case studies, scenarios, hands-on labs, two-
way exchanges of information such as question and answer with an instructor, small group
activities, discussions, and real-life experiences
 Resources and references—sources of information or teaching methods
 Program evaluation and modification—a strategy for continually revising and updating the
curriculum based on how well it is meeting the instructional purposes and needs of the target


In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be
involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals,
objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific
educational program (“Guide to curriculum development,” 2006). It can be subject specific or a
generalized overview of expectation. It must be a usable tool to assists teachers in the development
of individualized strategies and the methods and materials necessary for them to be successful.
Keywords: curriculum development, teacher involvement, challenge in curriculum development
1. Introduction The goal of a successful educational program and thus effective curriculum
development should be to meet the needs and current demands of the culture, the society, and the
expectations of the population being served. Therefore curriculum development and the
educational reform process continually under goes review, revision, and constant change (Johnson,
2001). Curriculum development can be challenging, therefore the involvement of all stakeholders,
especially individuals who are directly involved in student instruction, are a vital piece in
successful curriculum development and revision (Johnson, 2001). So, this paper will discuss the
importance of teachers’ involvement in curriculum development, the challenges that teachers face
in curriculum development, preparation for teachers involvement in curriculum development, the
teachers role in curriculum development, and then conclusion. 2. The Importance of Teachers
Involvement in Curriculum Development Without doubt, the most important person in the
curriculum implementation process is the teacher. With their knowledge, experiences and
competencies, teachers are central to any curriculum development effort. Better teachers support
better learning because they are most knowledgeable about the practice of teaching and are
responsible for introducing the curriculum in the classroom. If another party has already developed
the curriculum, the teachers have to make an effort to know and understand it. So, teachers should
be involved in curriculum development. For example, teacher’s opinions and ideas should be
incorporated into the curriculum for development. On the other hand, the curriculum development
team has to consider the teacher as part of the environment that affects curriculum (Carl, 2009).
Hence, teacher involvement is important for successful and meaningful curriculum development.
Teachers being the implementers are part of the last stage of the curriculum development process.
3. The Challenges Teachers Face in Curriculum Development The teachers’ involvement in the
curriculum development process is essential in meeting the needs of society. The process of
curriculum development requires teachers to act and reflect on society's needs in each stage of the
development process. Nevertheless, sometimes this process which teachers are requested to follow
is unclear. For example, in South Africa most teachers are not qualified and lack the necessary
skills to participate in curriculum development. Their approach of participation in the process is
not well defined and very difficult on teachers, so they face many challenges regarding their
involvement in curriculum development (Ramparsad, 2000). As a result, I think that there should
be major advances in teacher development in order for teachers to actively reflect on society's
needs in each stage of the curriculum development process. On the other hand, in any curriculum
implementation process not all teachers will have the chance to be involved in these processes.
Professional development of teachers is as an important factor contributing to the success of
curriculum development and implementation (Handler, 2010). So, we should think about what
extent teacher education programs are needed for prospective teachers to study curriculum
development. 4. Preparation for Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development Because
teachers have to be involved in curriculum development, the teacher should be provided with
appropriate knowledge and skills that help them to effectively contribute in curriculum
development operation. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper)
ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.7, No.9, 2016 107 As a result, teachers need training and
workshops, which are geared toward professional development to be able to contribute to
curriculum development. On the other hand, there is an important point to make efficient in
involvement teacher in curriculum development that is teachers have to be empowered in the
process of curriculum development (Carl, 2009). This means teachers should have improvement
and increasing in many points of them, such as experience and autonomy. Thus, teachers play an
integral part in the process of developing the curriculum; then students’ outcomes. 5. The Teachers
Role in Curriculum Development The teacher involved in curriculum organization has many roles
and responsibilities. Teachers want to enjoy teaching and watching their students develop interests
and skills in their interest area. The teacher may need to create lesson plans and syllabi within the
framework of the given curriculum since the teacher's responsibilities are to implement the
curriculum to meet student needs (Carl, 2009). Many studies support empowerment of teachers
through participation of curriculum development. For example, Fullan (1991) found that the level
of teacher involvement as a center of curriculum development leads to effective achievement of
educational reform. Therefore, the teacher is an important factor in the success of curriculum
development including the steps of implication and evaluation. Handler (2010) also found that
there is a need for teacher involvement in the development of curriculum. Teachers can contribute
by collaboratively and effectively working with curriculum development teams and specialists to
arrange and compose martial, textbooks, and content. Teacher involvement in the process of
curriculum development is important to align content of curriculum with students needs in the
classroom. 6. Conclusion In short, No curriculum will be perfect, a finished product cast in stone,
or free from criticism, but to be effective it must be accepted by teachers and must be deemed
educationally valid by parents and the community at large (“Guide to curriculum development,”
2006). Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting student needs
leads to improvement of student learning. In addition, it cannot be stagnant. Curriculum must be a
living document that is in constant flux. It must be adaptable to changes in the educational
community and in society in general. Only then will it be able to be an effective change agent in
the educational process. The change journey comes in many phases, where collaboration and
feedback are important (Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2013, p. 293). Teachers and
supervisors gather and collect data, reflect with dialogue, and make informed decisions together.
Instructional leadership is shared with teachers, in its most progressive forms it is being cast as
collegial investigation, reflection, and coaching (Blasé, 1999, p. 350). Problems and conflict do
happen, but “problems are our friends” (Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2013, p. 293).
Problems need to be embraced so that the organization can come up with a reasonable solution or
solutions. Finally, for schools to be successful with change and development, they must believe
that creating a culture of continuous improvement is the way to adapt to changing needs and
conditions. Schools need to continuously assess themselves and have the goal toward self-
actualizing (Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2013, p. 293). Thus, schools are never perfect or


An effective curriculum provides teachers, students, administrators and community

stakeholders with a measurable plan and structure for delivering a quality education.
The curriculum identifies the learning outcomes, standards and core competencies that
students must demonstrate before advancing to the next level. Teachers play a key
role in developing, implementing, assessing and modifying the curriculum. An
evidenced-based curriculum acts as a road map for teachers and students to follow on
the path to academic success.

Developing Curriculum

When developing a curriculum for a school or district, aligning curriculum and

instruction through the development process is ideal. Studying and writing curriculum
is an ongoing part of curriculum development that may adjust during the process with
teacher and district input. Including related professional development and teacher
input is imperative in especially when developing or introducing new curriculum at a
site or district level. For the curriculum development process to be successful, site and
district leadership need to be available and open to working with teachers and
curriculum developers as well.

Impact on Administrators

Administrators follow a detailed curriculum to h elp students achieve state and

national standards of academic performance. Schools can lose public funding if
students fall substantially behind peers at higher performing schools. The curriculum
ensures that each school is teaching students relevant mater ial and monitoring the
progress of students from all types of backgrounds.

Importance of Curriculum to Teaching

An effective curriculum provides teachers, students, administrators and community stakeholders

with a measurable plan and structure for delivering a quality education. The curriculum identifies
the learning outcomes, standards and core competencies that students must demonstrate before
advancing to the next level. Teachers play a key role in developing, implementing, assessing and
modifying the curriculum. An evidenced-based curriculum acts as a road map for teachers and
students to follow on the path to academic success.

Developing Curriculum

When developing a curriculum for a school or district, aligning curriculum and instruction
through the development process is ideal. Studying and writing curriculum is an ongoing part of
curriculum development that may adjust during the process with teacher and district input.
Including related professional development and teacher input is imperative in especially when
developing or introducing new curriculum at a site or district level. For the curriculum
development process to be successful, site and district leadership need to be available and open
to working with teachers and curriculum developers as well.

Impact on Administrators

Administrators follow a detailed curriculum to help students achieve state and national standards
of academic performance. Schools can lose public funding if students fall substantially behind
peers at higher performing schools. The curriculum ensures that each school is teaching students
relevant material and monitoring the progress of students from all types of backgrounds.
Impact on Teachers

A school’s curriculum informs teachers what skills must be taught at each grade level to
ultimately prepare students for postsecondary education or a job. Understanding the big picture
helps teachers align the learning objectives of their own curriculum with the school’s curriculum.
In the absence of a curriculum, teachers wouldn’t know whether students are building a solid
foundation to support learning at the next level.

Impact on Students

A curriculum outlines for students a sequence of courses and tasks that must be successfully
completed to master a subject and earn a diploma or degree. Students may be more motivated to
study if they understand why certain subjects are taught in the curriculum. A curriculum
reassures students that they’re on the right track to reaching their goals and honing desired skills.

Other Considerations

In addition to teaching students academic skills, the curriculum is also intended to teach students
the importance of responsibility, hard work and responsible citizenship. Teachers in partnership
with parents and community members collaborate on the development of a curriculum that will
instill character in students and reinforce positive behavior.



Stakeholder typically refers to one who is associated with the welfare and success of a school and
its students. They may also be collective entities, such as local businesses, organizations,
committees, media outlets…more.

Franchisors should understand the importance of stakeholders as they can take leadership
responsibilities, or lend voice to ideas, opinions, and perspectives. They should understand that
the role of every stakeholder is crucial for the development of an education empire.

School administrators
School administrators, who monitor the implementation of the curriculum, play a vital role in
structuring and developing the school and students. Furthermore, they are responsible for the
purchasing of learning materials which are essential for curriculum implementation. They are
usually informed by teachers, students, and the community about the success of their
curriculum. They can also employ the services of professional for evaluating the performance of
the curriculum.

Parents influence the implementation of the curriculum by playing a vital role in monitoring the
lessons taught at schools, filling the gap between their children and the school administration by
providing various resources which are not available in school. Teachers often take help of parents
for monitoring the social and behavioral development of a child, especially for special educational

Psychologists and social workers are known for their contribution towards special schools and
their children. These stakeholders provide useful options for dealing with students of foreign origin
or those with disabilities. Often acting as school board members, community members are usually
seen contributing to the various resources which are not found at school premises.

Government and the professional regulation commission are other stakeholders providing a license
to graduates of different universities and colleges.


- in delivering curriculum the role of technology is very important -right at the planning phase of
any instruction, aside from formulating the objectives and among other considerations, there is a
need to identify what instructional media are to be utilized in the implementation.:
- in delivering curriculum the role of technology is very important -right at the planning phase of
any instruction, aside from formulating the objectives and among other considerations, there is a
need to identify what instructional media are to be utilized in the implementation.
Instructional Media:
instructional media should not be confused with the terms media technology or learning
technology. Instructional media also referred as media technology or learning technology, or
simply TECHNOLOGY. Instructional Media

Types of Instructional Media:

The plural form of the term media is used purposely to indicate that there are various forms of
means used in implementing the curriculum. Technology offers various tools of learning ranging
from projected and non-projected media from which the teacher can select. However, the teacher
should be careful in the selection of appropriate technology that would match the supposed
objective of the instruction. For example , will pictures be enough in presenting the story
selection or will a video clip of the same be needed to capture the interest of the learners? Types
of Instructional Media

Non-projected media include: Real objects, models, realia, diorama, fieldtrips, kits, printed
materials such as books, magazines, worksheets; visual materials like drawings, pictures, graphs,
charts; visual boards as chalkboard, whiteboard, flannel board; and audio materials. :
Non-projected media include: Real objects, models, realia , diorama, fieldtrips, kits, printed
materials such as books, magazines, worksheets; visual materials like drawings, pictures, graphs,
charts; visual boards as chalkboard, whiteboard, flannel board; and audio materials. Projected
media cover overhead transparencies, opaque projection, slides, filmstrips, films, video, VCD,
DVD, and computer or multimedia presentations.

Other technology applications:

Technology moves forward everyday. As technology progresses, education will continue to be
shaped by it. Specifically, the selection and design of instructional media will become more
sophisticated also. The concept of educational technology is very complex and becomes more
sophisticated with the advent of what is called hypermedia or multimedia packages that include
text, audio, graphics, animation and video. Hypermedia also finds an application in what is
known as Information and Communication Technology that includes tutorial software packages,
webpages, simulation games, project management packages, and others. O ther technology

Interactive Whiteboards SMART BOARDS and MIMEO BOARDS are interactive whiteboards
which can be used by teachers and learners in manipulating texts, objects and in visiting websites
for content review. :
Interactive Whiteboards SMART BOARDS and MIMEO BOARDS are interactive whiteboards
which can be used by teachers and learners in manipulating texts, objects and in visiting websites
for content review.
Example of Whiteboards:
Example of Whiteboards

Websites and Blogs Teachers can create websites and blogs to post lectures, assignments,
communications, communications, and other learning materials. They also offer multiple
representations of knowledge in the form of video, audio, text, image and data.:
Websites and Blogs T eachers can create websites and blogs to post lectures, assignments,
communications, communications, and other learning materials. They also offer multiple
representations of knowledge in the form of video, audio, text, image and data.

Social Networks Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, Instagram have
academic benefits if used for the purposes of assignments and class projects. :
Social Networks Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, Instagram have
academic benefits if used for the purposes of assignments and class projects.

Tablets and Mobile Devices Access to websites and other educational programs can be done
through tablets and mobile phones, which are very much handy. :
Tablets and Mobile Devices Access to websites and other educational programs can be done
through tablets and mobile phones, which are very much handy.

Criteria in Developing Visual Material and Presentation Children learn 83%- through the use of
sight 10%- hearing 4% -smelling 2%- touching 1%- tasting When teachers develop visuals for a
wide range of materials like visuals boards, overhead transparencies and other computer
generated presentations, there are basic principles of design. :
Criteria in Developing Visual Material and Presentation Children learn 83%- through the use of
sight 10%- hearing 4% -smelling 2%- touching 1%- tasting When teachers develop visuals for a
wide range of materials like visuals boards, overhead transparencies and other computer
generated presentations, there are basic principles of design.

1. Visual Elements- pictures, illustrations, graphics 2.Overall Look- Patterns of alignment, shape,
balance, style and color :
1 . Visual Elements- pictures, illustrations, graphics 2.Overall Look- Patterns of alignment,
shape, balance, style and color Principles of Design
We live in age when technological innovation is fast developing and this will always influence
the trends in education. One of the current trends Is the increased use of new information and
communication technology.:
We live in age when technological innovation is fast developing and this will always influence
the trends in education. One of the current trends Is the increased use of new information and
communication technology.

The following are the roles of educational technology in delivering the instructional program of
the curriculum of school: 1. Catering to personalized and differentiated instruction adapted to
different levels of learners using technology aided instruction. 2. Upgrading the quality of
teaching and learning in schools by using technology as avenue for extended teaching and
learning. :
The following are the roles of educational technology in delivering the instructional program of
the curriculum of school:
1. Catering to personalized and differentiated instruction adapted to different levels of learners
using technology aided instruction.
2. Upgrading the quality of teaching and learning in schools by using technology as avenue for
extended teaching and learning.
3. Increasing capability of teacher to inculcate learning effectively and for learners to gain
mastery of the lessons.
4. broadening of delivery of education outside schools through modern approaches to formal and
informal learning.
5. revolutionizing the used of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that give
importance to students centered learning.


Monitoring and evaluation are essential aspects of the school’s aim to raise achievement. •
Monitoring and evaluating in the curriculum involves focusing on teaching and learning: the
performance of pupils, the effectiveness of teachers and hence the standard of achievement across
the whole school. All staff are involved in this process all the time, although certain colleagues
carry specific responsibilities for aspects of the process (see below) and there is a systematic
programme for monitoring and evaluating over time which allows for different degrees of scrutiny
and analysis for different areas of the curriculum at different times. • An effective system of
monitoring and evaluating can: − broaden our knowledge about what makes for effective teaching
and learning − confirm we are doing what we said we would do, as stated in the school aims −
establish whether curriculum documentation (policies, schemes of work, planning etc) is not only
consistent with practice but also having a positive effect on standards and quality − identify good
practice within the school and enable us to share it − indicate where improvements in standards
and quality can be made − establish whether changes have been effective. • The process of
monitoring and evaluating in the curriculum has much in common with the process of assessment
for the students of the school: − the process should be open and shared − the purpose of monitoring
and evaluating should be clear to all involved: and it should be seen as a supportive and
developmental process, aimed at improving standards throughout the school − all those involved
should be aware of the criteria for judging success (there are standard pro formas for lesson
observation, for instance) − the process should be manageable, rigorous and systematic in planning
and target setting.

Criteria for Curriculum Assessment Defined

Criteria are a set standards to be followed in assessment. Specifically, as they apply to
curriculum, criteria are set of standards upon which the different elements of the curriculum
are being tested.  The criteria will determine the different levels of competencies or
proficiency of acceptable task performance.

Criteria for Goals and Objectives  Goals and objectives are statements of curricular
expectations. They are sets of learning outcomes specifically designed for students.  The
items must reflect the takes, skills, content behavior and thought processes that make up
curricular domains and must also match the students’ needs.  Goals and instructional
objectives are formulated and specified for the following purposes:

1.To have focus on curriculum and instruction which give direction to where students need to
2.To meet the requirements specified in the policies and standards of curriculum and
3.To provide the students’ the best possible education and describe the students’ level of
4.To monitor the progress of students based on the goals set
5.To motivate students to learn and the teachers to be able to feel a sense of competence
when goals are attained

For goals and objectives to be formulated criteria on certain elements should be included
according to Howell and Nolet in 2000.
1. Content – From the objectives, what content should students learn?
2. Behavior – What will students do to indicate that they have learned?
3. Criterion – What level of performance should the students have to master the behavior?
4. Condition – Under what circumstances should the work in order to master that behavior?

Writing effective goals and objectives should also use the following general criteria.
1. Are the objectives syntactically correct? – Syntactic correctness
2. Do the objectives comply with the legal requirements of the course of subjects? –
Compliance with legal requirements
3. Do the objectives pass the stranger test? – The “Stranger Test”
4. Do the objectives address both knowledge and behavior? – Both knowledge and behavior
are addressed
5. Do they pass the “so-what” test? – The “So-What” Test
6. Are the objectives aligned? – Individualization
7. Do they make common sense? – Common Sense


Status Question Yes No
1. Do the goals and/or objectives represent an important learning outcome that is a priority
for this student?
2. Is there a goals written for each area of need stated in the present level of performance?
3. Are the goals realistic in the sense that they can be accomplished in one year?
4. Are the goals and objectives easily measured?
5. Are there multiple objectives representing intermediate steps to each goal? 6. Are the goals
and instructional objectives appropriately calibrated (sliced neither too broadly nor too
7. Are the goals and instructional objectives useful for planning and evaluating instructional

Criteria for Assessment of Instruction

INSTRUCTION – refers to the implementation of the objectives. It is concerned with the
methodologies of the strategies of teaching.
The Two Approaches of Instruction
1. Supplantive Approach
2. Generative Approach

Supplantive Approach  This is referred to as “direct” instruction (Adams & Englemann,

1996).  In here, the teacher attempts to promote learning by providing explicit directions
and explanations regarding how to do a task.  The teacher assumes primary responsibility
for linking new information with the students prior knowledge and ultimately whatever the
students learn.

With this approach, information is presented in an ordered sequence in which component

subskills are taught directly or a foundation for later tasks.  This approach is highly teacher-

Generative Approach  This is referred to as “constructivist” or “developmental”.  In here,

the teacher functions as a facilitator who takes a less central role in a learning process that is
student - directed (Ensminger & Dangel, 1992).  The teacher provides opportunities for the
students to make own linkages to prior knowledge and to devise her own strategies for work.

Generative instruction is “constructivist” because much of its emphasis is on helping students

construct their own educational goals ands experiences as well as the knowledge that results
 With this approach, information is presented on a schedule determined by students’
interests and goals.
A Comparison of Teaching Approaches Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach
Buzz words used by proponent
• Constructivist
• Developmental
• Top Down
• Holistic
• Authentic
• Meaning-based
• Direct instruction
• Teacher-directed
• Mastery learning • Task analytic
• Competency based
• Effective teaching What proponents call the other
• Romantics
• Fuzzy
• Postmodernist
• Unrealistic
• Reductionist
• Drill-and-kill
• Dogmatic
• Unauthentic Underlying beliefs about what is taught • Students construct their own
• When learning is contextualized, students will identify what they’re ready to learn
• The skills that students need to learn can be derived from an analysis of the social demands
placed on them.

Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach Underlying beliefs about how learning
• Learning is “socially constructed”, students link new information to prior know when
provided opportunities too observe or experience
• Learning can be induced through instruction that builds explicit links between new
information and prior knowledge Underlying beliefs about how to teach
• Learning is developmental and occurs much thee way early language is acquired • Teachers
take a “hand’s off” approach and seek to provide a meaningful context in which learning will
occur naturally. • When learning does not occur, it can be facilitated by building it from the
“bottom up” through teaching of prerequisite subskills
• Teachers take a “hands- on” approach by structuring lessons and providing explicit

Attribute Generative Approach Supplantive Approach Common error made by proponents

• Creating interesting classroom activities but failure to link these activities to learning
• By focusing on specific learning outcomes, they may fail attend to other equally important
interests and topics
• Too much emphasis on larger ideas, not enough emphasis on the components
• Too much emphasis on the components, not enough emphasis on the larger ideas.

Guidelines for Selecting an Instructional Approach Select the Generative Approach When:
Select the Suppllantive Approach When: The Student
• Has considerable prior knowledge
• Has adaptive motivational patterns
• Experiences consistent successes on the task
• Has little prior knowledge of the task
• Has non-adaptive motivational patterns
• Experiences repeated failure on the task The Task
• Is simple for the student
• Is well defined
• Can be completed using a general problem-solving strategy
• Is to understand but not necessarily apply, what is learned
• Is complex
• Is ill defined
• Has missing information
• Requires the use of a task-specific strategy
• Is pivotal to the learning of subsequent tasks
• Must be used with a high level of proficiency The setting
• Allows plenty of time to accomplish outcomes
• Places priority to experiences on activities
• Time allowed to accomplish outcomes is limited
• Places priority on task mastery

What are Curriculum Criteria  Curriculum are guidelines on standards for curriculum
decision making.  The objectives of a curriculum or teaching plan are the most
important curriculum criteria, since they should be used in selection learning experiences
and in evaluating learning achievement.
1. Have the goals of the curriculum or teaching plan been clearly stated; and are they
used by teachers and students in choosing content, materials and activities for learning?
2. Have the teacher and students engaged in student- teacher planning in defining the
goals and inn determining how they will be implemented?
3. Do some of the planned goals relate to the society or the community in which the
curriculum will be implemented or the teaching will be done? The criteria are stated in
the form of questions as follows:
4. Do some of the planned goals relate to the individual learner and his or her needs,
purposes, interest and abilities?
5. Are the planned goals used as criteria in selecting and developing learning materials
for instruction?
6. Are the planned goals used as criteria in evaluating learning achievement and in the
further planning of learning sub goals and activities?

Does the curriculum or teaching plan include alternative approaches and alternative activities
for learning?  Have the different learning theories been considered in planning alternative
learning approaches and activities?  Has the significance of rewarded responses, transfer,
generalization, advance organizers, self-concept, meaningfulness of the whole, personal
meaning, imitation, identification and socialization been considered in the planning?
According to Hass and Parkay (1993), individual differences, flexibility and systematic
planning are criteria that depend in part on knowledge of the different approaches to learning.
The criterion question are as follows:

What are the Characteristics of a Good Curriculum?

1. The curriculum is continuously evolving.
2. The curriculum is based on the needs of the people.
3. The curriculum is democratically conceived.
4. The curriculum is the result of a long-term effort.
5. The curriculum is a complex of details.
6. The curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter.
7. The curriculum complements and cooperates with the other programs of the
8. The curriculum has educational quality.
9. The curriculum has administrative flexibility.

What are Marks of a Good Curriculum? Here are some marks of a good curriculum
which may be used as criteria for evaluation purposes given by J. Galen Saylor.
1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated.
2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school.
3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school. 4. A good
curriculum promotes continuity of experience.
5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular
situations and individuals.
6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resources
7. A good curriculum makes maximum provision for the development of each learner.

What is Evaluation?  Evaluation is the process of determining the value of something

or the extent to which goals are being achieved.  It is a process of making a decision or
reading a conclusion.  It involves decision making about student performance based on
information obtained from an assessment process. Assessment is the process of collecting
information by reviewing the products of student work, interviewing, observing, or

Evaluation is the process of using information that is collected through assessment.  It

entails a reasoning process that is based on influence. Inference is the process of arriving
at a logical conclusion from a body of evidence.  Evaluation is thoughtful process.  It
is the judgment we make about the assessments of student learning based on established

Evaluation provides information- a. Directly to the learner for guidance b. Directly to the
teacher for orientation of the next instruction activities c. Directly to external agencies for
their assessment of schools functioning in the light of national purposes.
What is Curriculum Evaluation? Curriculum evaluation is the process obtaining information for
judging the worth of an educational program, program, procedure, educational objectives or the
potential utility of alternative approaches designed to attain specified objectives (Glass and
Worthem, 1997) Curriculum evaluation focuses on determining whether the curriculum as
recorded in the master plan has been carried out in the classroom. In evaluating a curriculum, the
following key questions are usually asked:
1. Are the objectives being addressed?
2. Are the contents presented in the recommended sequence?
3. Are students being involved in the suggested instructional experiences?
4. Are students reacting to the contents?

Formative and Summative Evaluation Formative Evaluation  Takes place during the lesson or
project and tells the evaluator what is happening.  Is ongoing and yields information that can be
used to modify the program prior to termination.


1. Paper and Pencil Strategy
- it is a traditional way of teacher in assessing student performance.
Essay- refers to a writting samples of a students in which, is used to assessed student
mastery of the concept,organizing ideas and developing the critical thinking .
Select Response- is used to identify one correct answer ( multiple choice, identification and
matching type)
2. Performanced-Based Strategy
- requires students to demonstrate,create and produce.
3. Reflective Strategy
- it is a self assessment where in students reflect with there own.
4. Behavioral Strategy
- refers to the behavior of the students which the teacher usued to assessed while working/task
inside the classroom.
5.Oral Strategy
- often used by the teacher inside the classroom, a question and answer portion where in students
develop their verbal skill on how he/she response to the question given by the teacher.
6. Combination Strategy
-used by the teacher to enhanced students creativeness of answering questions.
Portfolio- refers to the student work collection.
7. Personal Communication Strategy
- is aformal and informal meeting between and among the teachers, students and parents.
- a form of conversation among/between the teachers,parents and students.
evaluation and curriculum redesign?
In a Future Ready district, curriculum, instruction, and assessment are tightly aligned, redesigned
to engage students in 21st Century, personalized, technology-enabled, deeper learning. Curricula
and instruction are standards-aligned, research-based, and enriched through authentic, real-world
problem solving. Students and teachers have robust and adaptive tools to customize the learning,
teaching, and assessment, ensuring that it is student-centered and emphasizing deep
understanding of complex issues. Assessments are shifting to be online, embedded, and
performance-based. Data and associated analysis serve as building blocks for learning that is
personalized, individualized, and differentiated to ensure all learners succeed.

The elements that comprise this Gear are as follows:

• 21st Century Skills/Deeper Learning

• Personalized Learning
• Collaborative, Relevant, and Applied Learning
• Leveraging Technology
• Assessment—Analytics Inform Instruction

A foundation for each of these elements is the increased use of digital content, providing learners
a range of high quality media, accessible 24 hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week. This provides all
students many more opportunities to personalize learning, reflect on their own work, think
critically, and engage frequently in deeper understanding of complex topics. This necessitates
equitable access to devices and high-speed networks and broadband both at school and beyond,
into the community and homes.

Elements and Levels of Readiness

Through a more flexible, consistent, and personalized approach to academic content design,
instruction, and assessment, teachers will have robust and adaptive tools to customize the
instruction for groups of students or on a student-to-student basis to ensure relevance and deep
understanding of complex issues and topics. Providing multiple sources of high quality academic
content offers students much greater opportunities to personalize learning and reflect on their
own work, think critically, and engage frequently to enable deeper understanding of complex
topics. Data are the building blocks of diagnostic, formative, and summative assessments—all of
which are key elements in a system where learning is personalized, individualized, and
differentiated to ensure learner success.

This article will explain what curriculum development is, why it’s important for an
instructor’s pedagogy and discuss the three different types of curriculum design.
Curriculum development can be defined as the step-by-step process used to create positive
improvements in the courses offered by a school, college or university. The world changes
every day and new discoveries have to be roped into the education curricula. Innovative
teaching techniques and strategies (such as active learning or blended learning) are
constantly being devised in order to improve the student learning experience. As a result,
an institution has to have a plan in place for acknowledging these shifts and then be able to
implement them in the school curriculum.


What is curriculum development?

The word curriculum has roots in Latin. It originally meant “racing chariot” and came from the
verb currere, “to run”.

The way we understand and theorize about curriculum nowadays has altered significantly over
the years. Today, the most simple definition of the word “curriculum” is the subjects comprising
a course of study at schools, universities or colleges

Of course differences in course design exist—a math course taken at one university may cover
the same material, but the educator could teach it in a different way—but the core fundamentals
of curriculum development remain the same.

What are the models of curriculum development?

Current curriculum models can be broken down into two broad categories—the product model
and the process model. The product model is results-oriented. Grades are the prime objective,
with the focus lying more on the finished product rather than on the learning process. The
process model, however, is more open-ended, and focuses on how learning develops over a
period of time. These two models need to be taken into account when developing curriculum.

What is curriculum planning?

Curriculum planning involves the implementation of different types of instructional

strategies and organizational methods that are focused on achieving optimal student development
and student learning outcomes. Instructors might structure their curriculum around daily lesson
plans, a specific assignment, a chunk of coursework, certain units within a class, or an entire
educational program.

During the curriculum planning phase, teachers consider factors that might complement or
hinder their lesson curriculum. These include institutional requirements. Each administrator at a
university or college will have guidelines, principles and a framework that instructors are
required to reference as they build out their curriculums. Educators are responsible for ensuring
that their curriculum planning meets the students’ educational needs, and that the materials used
are current and comprehensible.

Educators should employ the curriculum process that best incorporates the six components of
effective teaching. These components are applicable at both the undergraduate and graduate

 To demonstrate knowledge of content;

 To demonstrate the knowledge of students;
 Select suitable instructional strategy goals;
 To demonstrate knowledge of resources;
 To design coherent instruction;
 Assess student learning.

What is curriculum design?

Now that we’ve gone over curriculum development and planning, let’s discuss
curriculum design. Curriculum design is the deliberate organization of curriculum within
a course or classroom. When instructors design their curriculums, they identity what will
be done, who will do it and when, as well as what the objective of each course is.
Remember that the curriculum contains the knowledge and skills that a student needs to
master in order to move to the next level. By thinking about how their curriculum is
designed, teachers ensure they’ve covered all the necessary requirements. From there,
they can start exploring various approaches and teaching methods that can help them
achieve their goals.

What are the types of curriculum design?

There are three basic types of curriculum design—subject-centered, learner-centered, and

problem-centered design.
Subject-centered curriculum design revolves around a particular subject matter or
discipline, such as mathematics, literature or biology. This type of curriculum design
tends to focus on the subject, rather than the student. It is the most common type of
standardized curriculum that can be found in K-12 public schools.

Teachers compile lists of subjects, and specific examples of how they should be studied.
In higher education, this methodology is typically found in large university or college
classes where teachers focus on a particular subject or discipline.

Subject-centered curriculum design is not student-centered, and the model is less

concerned with individual learning styles compared to other forms of curriculum design.
This can lead to problems with student engagement and motivation and may cause
students who are not responsive to this model to fall behind.

Learner-centered curriculum design, by contrast, revolves around student needs,

interests and goals. It acknowledges that students are not uniform but individuals, and
therefore should not, in all cases, be subject to a standardized curriculum. This approach
aims to empower learners to shape their education through choices.

Differentiated instructional plans provide an opportunity to select assignments, teaching

and learning experiences, or activities. This form of curriculum design has been shown to
engage and motivate students. The drawback to this form of curriculum design is that it
can create pressure on the educator to source materials specific to each student’s learning
needs. This can be challenging due to teaching time constraints. Balancing individual
student interests with the institution’s required outcomes could prove to be a daunting

Problem-centered curriculum design teaches students how to look at a problem and

formulate a solution. Considered an authentic form of learning because students are
exposed to real-life issues, this model helps students develop skills that are transferable to
the real world. Problem-centered curriculum design has been shown to increase the
relevance of the curriculum and encourages creativity, innovation and collaboration in the
classroom. The drawback to this format is that it does not always consider individual
learning styles.

By considering all three types of curriculum design before they begin planning,
instructors can choose the types that are best suited to both their students and their course.


(Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.)
2.Scope Sequence Continuity Integration Articulation Balance
3. All the content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads comprising the
educational plan. (Tyler in Ornstein, 2004) It does not only refers to the cognitive content but
also affective and psychomotor. Broad, limited, simple, general are the words used to
describe the scope. Decision making of the teacher is needed.
4. Curricular coverage Time Diversity Maturity of the learners Complexity of content Level
of education
5. Scope of the Curriculum can be divided into chunks: Units Sub-units Chapters Sub-
chapters Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum objectives or goals. Division of the
content may use deductive principle. Arrangement of scope is inductive. Content Outline of
the Curriculum may follow some design: Thematic Linear Logical
6. Contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner. A particular order in which
related events, movements, or things follow each other.
7. (Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957) Simple to complex learning – content & experiences are
organized from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, easy to difficult. Prerequisite
Learning- there are fundamental things to be learned ahead.
8. Whole to Part Learning – overview before the specific content or topics. Related to gestalt
principle. Chronological learning – the order of events is made as a basis of sequencing the
content and experiences.
9. World-Related sequence Concept- related sequence Inquiry- related sequence Learning-
related sequence Utilization- related sequence
10. World-Related sequence • Space – spatial relations will be the basis for the sequence. •
Time – from the earliest to the most recent • Physical Attributes – the physical characteristics
of the phenomena such as age, shape, size, brightness & others.
11. Concept-related sequence -how ideas are related together in logical manner • Class
relations – group or set of things that share common practices • Propositional relations – a
statement that asserts something
12. Inquiry-related sequence -based on the process of generating, discovering & verifying
knowledge, content and experiences are sequenced logically and methodically
13. Learning-Related Sequence - How people learn • Empirical Prerequisites - based on
empirical studies where the prerequisite is required before learning the next level •
Familiarity – prior learning is important in sequence
14. • Difficulty – easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one • Interest – use interesting
contents and experiences to boost their appetite in learning
15. Continuity Vertical repetition and recurring appearances of the content provide continuity
in the curriculum. This process enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning
and development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral curriculum” For learners to
develop the ideas, these have to be developed and redeveloped in a spiral fashion in
increasing depth and breadth as the learners advance
16. Integration “Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging
themes.” This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design. Organization is drawn
from the world themes from real life concerns. Subject matter content or disciplined content
lines are erased and isolation is eliminated.
17. Articulation Can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation,
contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in a lower level
is connected to the next level. Horizontal articulation happens at the same time like social
studies in grade six is related to science in grade six.
18. Balance Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to
establish balance is needed in curriculum design. Too much or too little of these elements
maybe disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping the curriculum “in balance” requires continuous
fine tuning and review for its effectiveness and relevance.
19. Guidelines in Curriculum Design Pointers • Curriculum design committee should involve
teachers, parents, administrators and even students. • School’s vision, mission, goals and
objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design. • The needs and the
interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered.
20. • Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of
cost, scheduling, class size, facilities and persona; required. • The curriculum design should
take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor, concepts and outcomes.
2. CURRICULUM DESIGN? The arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive
entity. • Substantive: Having a firm basis in reality and therefore important, meaningful, or
considerable. • Entity: A thing with distinct and independent existence.
3. APPROACH? An approach to curriculum reflects the person’s view of the world, including
what the person perceives as reality, the values deemed important, and the amount of
knowledge he or she possesses. A curriculum approach reflects holistic position of
metaorientation, encompassing the foundations of curriculum (the person’s philosophy, or view
of social issues), domains of curriculum (common and important knowledge within the field) and
the theoritical and practical principles of curriculum.
4. 1. The Teacher 2. The Learners 3. Knowledge, Skills, Values 4. Strategies and Methods 5.
Performance 6. Community Partners The Six (6) Features of a Curriculum
5.  quality education requires quality teachers  good teachers bring a shining light into the
learning environment  ideal companions of the learners  with advances in communication
technology, good teachers are needed to sort out the knowledge from the information from the
data that surround the learners and from the wisdom from the knowledge The Teacher
6.  they are at the center stage in the educative process  the most important factor in the
learning environment  there is no teaching without them  their diverse background should be
accepted  their needs should be addressed and met  they should be provided with learning
opportunities and varied experiences The Learners
7.  a “curriculum oriented to tomorrow” should be designed to help learners cope with the rapid
changes  educational process should lie not only in what they learn, but how they learn and
how good they will be in continuing to learn after they leave school Knowledge, Skills, Values
8.  teachers should prepare his/her syllabus or a course of study as his vehicle for instruction 
learning goals, instructional procedures and content must be clearly explained to students 
there must be balance of theory and practice  learner’s sustained interest in the subject should
be made meaningful and relevant
9.  teachers should remember that there is no best strategy that could work in a million of
different student background and characteristics  teachers must use appropriate
methodologies, approaches and strategies “capped with compassionate and winsome nature” to
objectives of the lesson Strategies and Methods
10.  teachers should select teaching methods, learning activities and instructional materials or
resources appropriate to learners and aligned to objectives of the lesson  situations should be
created to encourage learners to use higher order thinking skills  utilize information derived
from assessment to improve teaching and learning and adopt a culture of excellence
11.  knowledge, skills and values to be developed by the learners serve as guiding post of the
teachers  at the end of the teaching act, it is necessary to find out if the objectives set were
accomplished (in curriculum these are called learning outcomes)  these learning outcomes
indicate both the performance of both the teacher and the students Performance
12.  learning outcomes are the product of performance of the learners as a result of teaching 
performance is a feature of a curriculum that should be given emphasis  the curriculum is
deemed to be successful if the performance of the learners is higher than the target set  if the
performance is low then it follows that the curriculum has failed  a good curriculum is one that
results in high or excellent performance
13.  teaching is a collaborative undertaking  to be effective, teachers must draw upon the
resources of their environment even if they are the focal Point in the learning process  teachers
must establish relationship with parents, NGO’s, and their stakeholders  partnership is a means
and not an end to be pursued Community Partners
14.  an absence of partnership often means a poor definition of education ends  as society
changes, teachers will have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast their roles in their
communities, to change their attitude to their communities, to challenge the attitude of their
communities and societies about them
15. The three major curriculum design models are implemented through the different approaches
that are accepted by the teachers and curriculum practitioners. How the design is utilized
becomes the approach to the curriculum. Approaches to Curriculum Design
16.   this approach to curriculum design is based on the underlying philosophy that the child is
the center of the educational process  curriculum is constructed based on the needs, interests,
purposes and abilities of the learners  curriculum is also built upon the learner’s knowledge,
skills, learning and potentials Child or Learner-Centered Approach
17. This approach considers the following:  A new respect for the child is fundamental  A new
freedom of action is provided  The whole activity is divided into units of work  The recognition
of the need for using and exploring many media for self-discovery and self-direction is embraced
18. Anchored on the curriculum design which prescribes different and separate subjects into one
broad field, this approach considers the following: Subject-Centered Approach
19.  The primary focus is the subject matter  The emphasis is on bits and pieces of information
which are detached from life  The continuing pursuit of learning outside the school is not
emphasized. Learning should only take place inside the classroom.  The subject matter serves
as a means of identifying problems in living
20. This approach is based on a curriculum design which assumes that in the process of living,
children experience problems. Thus, problem solving enables the learners to become
increasingly able to achieve complete or total development as individuals. Problem-Centered
21. This approach is characterized by the following views and beliefs:  The learners are capable
of directing and guiding themselves in resolving problems, thus they become independent
learners  The learners are prepared to assume their civic responsibilities through direct
participation in different activities The curriculum leads the learners in the recognition of
concerns and problems and in seeking solutions. The learners are considered problem solvers
life through deliberate planning by the teacher - MURIEL CROSBY • The social and
interpersonal relations between human beings : a course, study, or program designed to develop
better interpersonal and intergroup adjustments HUMAN
23. • How does a teacher go about the task of planning and developing a curriculum? : In
planning a curriculum designed to foster effective human relations, the teacher starts with the
problems her children experiences in daily living: Neighborhood Community Larger community
like state, region, world How does a teacher go about the task of planning and developing a
curriculum? • Ways of identifying the problems : Through the use of all the available resources
available to her including: • Records • Test results • Observations • Conferences
1. It is founded upon a professional knowledge of human growth and development and the ways
in which human beings learn. • 2. It recognizes the practicalities of group life. • 3. It provides
opportunities to solve common problems of the group as they are manifested by the individuals
in it. • 4. It is concerned with the implications of the changes in the nature and complexity of
modern life.
HUMAN RELATIONS? Because the problem –centered curriculum is centered in the needs of
children living in social groups in school and is founded upon the belief that children learn best
when they feel the need to learn and when their needs are being met Why do we say that
problem-centered curriculum is important in human relations?
26. SELF-CHECK 1. Activities are chosen based on the developmental growth of learners. 2.
The teacher’s focus is that all children gets perfect in the test. 3. The teacher excuses the learner
from the test because a typhoon hit their area. 4. Only the best can succeed. 5. School mean
“survival for the fittest.”