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LX

User Manual, Rev. R


SeeGull® LX
High-Speed Scanning Receiver
User Manual

Single Receiver Dual Receiver


Protocols and Bands Protocols and Bands
Supported: Supported:

GSM 850MHz cdma2000 850 MHz Tri-Band GSM/WCDMA


GSM 900 MHz cdma2000 1900 MHz 900/1800/2100 MHz
GSM 1800 MHz cdma2000 450 MHz Dual-Band GSM/WCDMA
850/1900 MHz
GSM 1900 MHz cdma2000 Dual-Band 850/1900 MHz
Dual-Band WCDMA
GSM Dual-Band 850/1900 MHz cdma2000 Japan 850/2100 MHz 2100/1900 MHz
GSM Dual-Band 900/1800 MHz EV-DO 850 MHz WCDMA 2100 MHz PLUS
UMTS WCDMA 2100 MHz EV-DO 1900 MHz Dual-Mode cdma2000
UMTS WCDMA 1900 MHz EV-DO Dual-Band 850/1900 MHz EV-DO 850/1900 MHz
UMTS WCDMA 850 MHz EV-DO 450 MHz Dual-Mode cdma2000
UMTS WCDMA 1800 MHz EV-DO 450 MHz
UMTS WCDMA Dual-Band
850/1900 MHz

Document Number: 100004-00


Rev. R
RoHS Compliance for European Models

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


ii
Table of Contents

Preface..................................................................................................................................................... iv
Purpose ............................................................................................................................................... iv
Applicability.......................................................................................................................................... iv
References ........................................................................................................................................... v
Trademarks .......................................................................................................................................... v
Notices and Warranty Information........................................................................................................ v
Restrictions.......................................................................................................................................... vi
1. Overview and System Requirements .................................................................................................. 7
General Description.............................................................................................................................. 7
Initial Inspection.................................................................................................................................... 8
Options ................................................................................................................................................. 8
System Requirements ........................................................................................................................ 11
Software Requirements...................................................................................................................... 12
2. Installation.......................................................................................................................................... 13
Integration........................................................................................................................................... 13
DBS Option Installation ...................................................................................................................... 14
3. Operation ........................................................................................................................................... 15
Calibration .......................................................................................................................................... 15
Software Upgrades............................................................................................................................. 15
Operation: Controlling the Scanner and Acquiring Data ................................................................... 15
cdma2000/EV-DO use of GPS........................................................................................................... 15
HoldOver Option Operation................................................................................................................ 15
4. DBS Operation.................................................................................................................................... 16
5. Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................. 19
6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)................................................................................................... 22
7. Support .............................................................................................................................................. 29
Contact Information ............................................................................................................................ 29
Calibration Notice ............................................................................................................................... 29
Procedure for Returning a SeeGull® LX for Repair: ........................................................................... 30
8. PCTEL, RF Solutions Group’s Product Offering................................................................................ 31

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


iii
SeeGull® LX Manual: Preface

Preface ƒ cdma2000 Japan 850/2100


ƒ Tri-Band GSM/WCDMA 900/1800/2100
Purpose ƒ Dual Mode GSM/WCDMA 850/1900
This document is a user’s manual for the ƒ EV-DO 1900, 850 and 450
SeeGull® LX high-speed, demodulating ƒ EV-DO Dual-Band 850/1900
scanning receiver. It is available along with
ƒ Dual Mode cdma2000/EV-DO 850/1900
other documentation that describes
PCTEL’s other products and related ƒ Dual Mode cdma2000/EV-DO 450
applications.
The SeeGull® LX receivers have these
features:
Applicability
This manual covers PCTEL’s SeeGull® LX GSM
receivers. The SeeGull® and SeeGull® DX ƒ Fast Scanning Speed
receivers are described in other manuals. ƒ BCCH Decoding Option
For more information please contact your ƒ BSIC Decoding Option
sales or marketing representative (contact ƒ C/I (Co-Channel Interference)
information provided in section 7). Measurements
The SeeGull® LX receivers are used ƒ Spectrum Analyzer Scan
globally to optimize wireless network ƒ Distance Based Sampling Option
performance via drive test and ƒ RSSI Channel Scan
measurement, perform tower site surveys, ƒ RSSI Frequency Scan
provide base station monitoring, ƒ Concurrent Measurements
demodulate RF signals and analyze ƒ Built-in GPS Option
wireless market data.
WCDMA
The SeeGull® LX receiver is capable of
supporting multiple protocols and frequency ƒ Fast Scanning Speed
ranges as listed below. The differences ƒ Distance Based Sampling Option
between the various LX models concern the ƒ Time Slot Scan
operating frequency range, bandwidth, ƒ Pilot Scan
modulation type, and measurement ƒ PSCH & SSCH Scans
features. The SeeGull® LX receiver is a ƒ Top N Scan
software-defined receiver, providing our ƒ RSSI Channel Scan
customers with numerous advantages from ƒ RSSI Frequency Scan
the receivers’ flexibility and upgradeability. ƒ Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR)
Measurements
SeeGull® LX scanning receivers will ƒ Multiple Concurrent Frequency Scans
support the following Second and Third ƒ Spectrum Analyzer Scan
Generation (3G) protocols: ƒ Rake Finger
ƒ GSM 850, 900, 1800 and 1900
cdma2000
ƒ GSM Dual-Band, 850/1900
ƒ GSM Dual-Band, 900/1800 ƒ Fast Scanning Speed
ƒ Spectrum Analyzer Scan
ƒ UMTS WCDMA 2100, 1800 and 1900
ƒ Pilot Zoom Scan
ƒ UMTS WCDMA Dual-Band 850/1900 MHz ƒ Pilot Scan
ƒ UMTS WCDMA Dual-Band 2100/1900 ƒ PCH w/Pilot List Scan
MHz ƒ PCH w/Top N Scan
ƒ cdma2000 450, 1900 and 850 ƒ Pilot Detail Scan
ƒ cdma2000 Dual-Band 850/1900 ƒ Distance Based Sampling Option
ƒ RSSI Channel Scan

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


iv
SeeGull® LX Manual: Preface

®
ƒ RSSI Frequency Scan CLARIFY logo and the PCTEL logo are
ƒ Top N Pilot Scan trademarks of PCTEL, Inc. All other
ƒ Multi-Frequency PN Scans trademarks are property of their respective
ƒ HoldOver Option owners. Specifications are subject to
ƒ Synch Ch Timing Option change without notice.
ƒ Code Domain Option
ƒ Built-in GPS Notices and Warranty Information

EV-DO The information in this document is subject


ƒ Fast Scanning Speed to change without notice and should not be
ƒ Spectrum Analyzer Scan construed as commitment by PCTEL.
ƒ Pilot Zoom Scan PCTEL assumes no responsibility or makes
ƒ Pilot Scan no warranties for any errors that may
ƒ RSSI Channel Scan appear in this document and disclaims any
ƒ RSSI Frequency Scan implied warranty of merchantability or
ƒ Top N Pilot Scan fitness for a particular purpose.
ƒ Multi-Frequency PN Scans WARNING: These devices have no
ƒ HoldOver Option protection against lightning. Please turn off
ƒ Built-in GPS the receiver during a thunderstorm and, if
applicable, take the antenna inside the car
cdma2000 Japan before a thunderstorm approaches.
ƒ Fast Scanning Speed
ƒ Pilot Zoom Scan NOTICE: There are no user serviceable
ƒ Pilot Scan parts inside the receivers.
ƒ RSSI Channel Scan RoHS Compliance: Effective July 2006,
ƒ Top N Pilot Scan PCTEL SeeGull LX Scanners being
ƒ Multi-Frequency PN Scans delivered to participating European nations
ƒ HoldOver Option will be compliant to EU Directive
ƒ Synch Ch Timing Option 2002/95/EC (RoHS). This program applies
ƒ Built-in GPS to our SeeGull LX WCDMA 2100 and GSM
900/1800 units, including our multimode
configurations (Tri-Band) along with
References accessories (cables and antennas). Other
1. The SeeGull® LX Applications Programming SeeGull LX scanners will not be affected at
Interface (API) Specification; document number this time, including CDMA, EV-DO, WCDMA
120008-00M.
1800, and GSM 850/1900.
2. SeeGull® LX Enhanced Interface Control
Document (eICD); document number 121000- The RoHS scanners are designed to
01M.
preserve the functionality of the existing LX
3. SeeGull® LX Scanner DBS Application Note; scanners and to provide seamless
document number 121028-01M.
continuity for you in order to integrate them
4. PCTEL, RF Solutions Group’s Terms & Conditions into your drive test systems. The pertinent
of Sale
details are listed below:
For more information please visit
www.pctel.com, and click on the RF ƒ The product is essentially unchanged,
Solutions Group link. using the same product names and part
numbers and providing the same features
Trademarks and performance using the same interface
© 2005 PCTEL, Inc. All rights reserved. (eICD and API).
® ® ®
PCTEL, SeeGull , InSite , CLARIFY , the

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


v
SeeGull® LX Manual: Preface

ƒ The product uses the same mechanical All Rights Reserved


package (dimensions, weight and
configuration) and connector location; only Copyright 1997-2006 by
the LEDs are moved.
PCTEL, Inc.
ƒ The parts that are used are all RoHS
RF Solutions Group
compliant, including the accessories, and
20410 Observation Drive
are essentially equivalent replacements.
Germantown, MD 20876 USA
ƒ There is a new version of software Phone: +1 (301) 515-0036
(WCDMA/GSM Release 6.0) that supports Fax: +1 (301) 515-0037
the new parts, and will only be used on
RoHS compliant products. All products Restrictions
manufactured before this change will
This document contains proprietary
continue to use 5.x software.
information that is protected by copyright; it
ƒ Applications that check the software is intended for internal use only, it is not to
version numbers reported by the scanner be disclosed to a third party. All rights
will need to accept the new version reserved. No part of this document may be
numbers. No other application photocopied or reproduced in any way
development work is needed. without the prior written permission of
PCTEL, Inc. The information contained in
The RoHS product can be identified in 3 this document is subject to change without
ways: notice. PCTEL, Inc. makes no warranty of
any kind with regards to this document.
ƒ A RoHS indicator on the chassis PCTEL, Inc. shall not be liable for errors or
ƒ A query to the scanner will indicate a omissions contained herein or for incidental
RoHS version of hardware or consequential damages in connection
ƒ The scanner will be using WCDMA/GSM with the use of this document.
Release 6.0 or later.

Single scanners that are upgraded to dual


mode or tri-band configurations will have
special treatment:
ƒ If the scanner is RoHS compliant, it will be
upgraded using all RoHS material,
resulting in a RoHS compliant product.
ƒ In accordance with the RoHS directive, if
the scanner is not RoHS compliant, it may
be upgraded using all RoHS material or all
non-RoHS material.

Copyright Information

No part of this document may be used or


copied in any form or any means without
prior written consent of PCTEL.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


vi
SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

1. Overview and System The DSP processor controls the RF front


Requirements end, including tuning to the desired
channels, and acquires two channels of
This section describes the SeeGull® LX baseband data. Depending on the protocol
receiver, including the applicable system and the type of measurement, the SeeGull®
configuration and software requirements. LX receiver can provide the user with critical
measurements for managing the quality of
General Description the network. See Figure 1-2 for details.
The raw data is further processed in the
The SeeGull® LX (Figure 1-1) is a dual- DSP processor to yield the averaged RSSI
conversion super-heterodyne receiver that (Received Signal Strength) data and the
includes a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) base station identifier, statistics of the
for signal detection, demodulation, and data signal, and other RF measurements. The
acquisition. It uses a control processor for unit can also be customized to do various
control functions messaging. It was levels of protocol analysis.
designed for the planning, installation, and
maintenance of wireless networks. It is a The serial communication link allows the
test tool for signal strength and modulation host (IBM PC or a proprietary computer with
measurement, engineered for the rigors of a USB or an RS-232 interface) to control the
the mobile test equipment operation of the scanner and to receive the
market. measurement results. The RS-232
interface comes standard with 115.2k Baud
speed, but can also be factory configured
for 38.4k Baud. (Refer to section 3 for more
details). If the host is an IBM PC or another
Windows computer, the Applications
Programming Interface (API), available from
PCTEL, makes writing the host software
Figure 1-1: SeeGull® LX Receiver with GPS easy. An optional description known as the
Interface Control Document (ICD) of the
low-level serial protocol development is also
available for non-PC applications. For
copies of the API and/or the ICD, please
contact your PCTEL sales or marketing
representative.

RF GPS
Control Antenna Antenna
+12 VDC

RS-485 Internal
GPS
RS-232
Control Digital RF
Processor DSP Downconverter Front End
Data & Data &
Address Address
Busses Busses
DB9

DC/DC
Converter
Figure 1-2: Top-Level Block Diagram

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

Note that the Tri-Band and Dual-Band units


provide a USB interface that is supported by The Distance Based Sampling (DBS) option
Windows PC platforms. (part number OP029) is available for the
SeeGull® LX scanning receiver. This
enables a scanner to support a DBS
Initial Inspection application, and is available for all models of
the LX scanner. The scanner will then be
Inspect the shipping container and verify able to receive pulses over an RS-422
that the contents are complete and match interface to control when measurements are
the packing list. The single receiver should taken. For information required to interface
look similar to the picture in Figure 1-3. If a DBS sensor to an LX scanner, refer to the
the contents are incomplete or the SeeGull® SeeGull® LX Enhanced Interface Control
LX appears damaged, please call the Document (eICD). This describes the
Technical Support line at 866-384-7877. required hardware interface and the
software techniques to control the scanner
for DBS applications.
GPS Antenna
Input
Distance Based Sampling Kit

The Distance Based Sampling (DBS) Kit


(part number OP028) is available for the
RF Antenna SeeGull® LX scanning receiver. See Figure
Input
Power On RS-232 1-4 for details. It provides both model tuning
LED Data/Powe and optimization capability in one tool.
r
Figure 1-3. Front View of SeeGull® LX
Connector
Information on the DBS applications is
Receiver Showing Connections provided in Section 4.

Traditionally, two separate tools were


Options needed for these functionalities. The DBS
There are a number of options available for option is a cost-effective and user-friendly
the LX scanners. These are described here. approach to distance based sampling. For
Refer to Section 6 for a complete list of more information, please contact your sales
options available for the SeeGull® LX or marketing representative.
product line with their part number. Please
contact your PCTEL sales or marketing
representative for pricing and delivery
information
HoldOver option for cdma2000/EV-DO

The HoldOver for cdma2000 and EV-DO


scanners enables users to collect
measurements even when a GPS signal is Mount Magnetically or
not present. Examples include indoor Mechanically to Vehicle...
applications, driving through tunnels or in
urban areas where maintaining GPS (which
is used by the scanner for both location
Figure 1-4. Distance Based Sampling Option
and CDMA timing) is difficult.
Distance Based Sampling Option The Distance Based Sampling option
includes a kit containing the following:

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

GSM C/I Option


ƒ Sensor
ƒ DBS Interface Cable This option is available with the GSM LX
ƒ Magnetic Mount scanners and it provides co-channel
interference (C/I) measurements as well as
decoding of BSIC (Base Station
GSM BCCH Decoding Option
Identification Code).
This option, available on the GSM LX
scanners, provides decoding of the BCCH CDMA2000 Code Domain Option
(Broadcast Control Channel) type 3
messages. These messages contain the This option is available on the CDMA2000
Cell Identity and Local Area Identification LX scanners. For each RF channel, Code
information broadcast by the network Domain Scan allows the determination of
infrastructure. This information includes where the signal energy is into the code-
the: separated channels. The Ec/Io is reported
• MCC (Mobile Country Code), for each Code Channel in a list user, using
• MNC (Mobile Network Code), and integer values from 0 to 127.
• LAC (Location Area Code).
CDMA2000 Sync Channel Timing Option
These messages also contain significant
information on the configuration, activity and This option is available on the CDMA2000
performance of the network. This includes LX scanners, including CDMA Japan.
information concerning: Timing can be acquired using Chip Timing
• Neighbor list Synchronization. The timing can be
• Mobility management (handovers, acquired in 3 ways as selected by the user:
etc.) GPS only, Sync Channel or GPS Priority.
• Group and broadcast call control This is available for Pilot, Pilot Detail, Pilot
• GPRS mobility management, Zoom, Top N, Code Domain, PCH w/Pilot
transparent transport and session list and PCH w/Top N measurements.
management
• Radio resource management
• SMS messages CDMA2000 Layer 3 Message Decoding
• Location services Option
The SeeGull® LX receiver supports This option is available on the CDMA2000
numerous BCCH frequency channels. LX scanners. It provides Layer 3 Message
Decoding of Sync Channel Message and
Primary Paging Channel, including:
GSM BSIC Decoding
• System Parameters Message
• Extended System Parameters
This feature is included with the GSM LX
Message
scanners. The BSIC (Base Station
Identification Code) is decoded in the • Neighbor List Message
receiver and can be used for identifying the • Extended Neighbor List Message
transmitting base station. The SeeGull® LX • CDMA Channel List Message
platform has the best performance yet • Extended CDMA Channel List
regarding the detection sensitivity of the Message
transmitting base stations.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

Built-In Spectrum Analyzer

The built-in spectrum analysis feature


provides an effective means to detect and
troubleshoot frequency related problems.
The scanner measures and reports power
spectral density using frequency domain
techniques. Frequency span in the RF
Band, resolution bandwidth (5, 10, 20, 40,
and 80 kHz), and sweep averaging (1, 2, 4,
8, and 16) are adjustable.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

warranty. See Figure 1-6 for the location of


System Requirements the power and ground pins on the RS-232
Typical System power/connector for the single LX scanner.
Depending on a user’s requirements,
various hardware and software components Pin 2 Pin 3
Pin 5
may be used in the scanning system along Pin 6
Pin 2: XMIT
Pin 3: RCV
with the SeeGull® LX scanner. However, in Pin 5: GND
Pin 6: +12 VDC
most cases, a typical configuration will
include a host IBM or compatible PC
connected to the scanner via a serial cable
and running the user’s application software.
This configuration is illustrated in Figure 1-5.

Figure 1-6. RS-232 Power/Connector Cable

PC

Com Port

12 VDC

Figure 1-5. Typical SeeGull LX System RF GPS


Antenna Antenna

OP 021 or OP 022
Antenna Requirements Power/Data Cable
Use a 50 Ohm impedance antenna with an
SMA male connector at the end of the
cable. Refer to PCTEL’s product offering DB9 SMA SMB
matrix in section 6 for part number
information. SeeGull® LX
Receiver
Power Source Requirements
Use one of the following voltage levels:
• +12 VDC @ 2.4 A (Tri-Band & Dual Figure 1-7. Typical System Configuration Block Diagram
Receiver)
• +12 VDC @ 1.0 A all others

Use a car battery, a 12-volt battery, or an


AC/DC adapter. It is imperative that the
power source be capable of supplying the
receiver with the voltage and current levels
as above. It is HIGHLY recommended that
the power supply not exceed the working
range of the receivers. Applying excessive
voltage to the receiver will void the unit’s

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

PC Requirements Documents, eICDs) can be furnished with


the scanner. This allows the user to write
Software Requirements the communication drivers necessary to
operate their system.
Option 1:
Windows Based Control

If the user is planning to develop proprietary


software to control the SeeGull® LX receiver
using the Windows OS, PCTEL can provide
your software developers with the LX
Applications Programmers Interface (API) or
Enhanced Interface Control Document
(eICD) to communicate with the scanner.

Option 2:

If the user does not want to develop


software, PCTEL’s InSite® LX, a data
collection software package, can be
purchased. InSite® LX (Figure 1-8) allows
for control of PCTEL’s receivers and data
acquisition. Contact your PCTEL sales
representative for more information.

Figure 1-8. Display from InSite™ LX Software Package


(Option)

Other System Configurations


In some cases, users connect the SeeGull®
LX scanner to computers other than IBM-
compatible PCs. In these cases, optional
low-level serial communication protocol
information (Enhanced Interface Control

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

2. Installation
The following steps explain how to connect
This section describes how to set up the the unit to the host PC and power source
SeeGull® LX receiver. and to begin collecting data.

1. Connect the antenna to the antenna SMA


Integration connector on the unit (if purchased from
PCTEL, RF Solutions Group, the RF
There are eight (8) mounting holes (6-32 Connector color will match the antenna’s
screw) on the chassis of the unit that are colored sleeve, if present; newer
used for mounting in the user’s antennas do not have sleeves.)
enclosure/rack. See Figure 2-1 for details. See Figure 2-2.

When installing the unit in a system


enclosure, rack, or case, there should be
good dissipation of heat in order to prevent
the unit from overheating. Unobstructed
convection airflow is recommended. The
use of carefully designed, thin-walled
pouches for carrying the unit is allowed, but
thorough testing of the temperature regime
is highly recommended.
(Note: Make Sure that Antenna
SMA Connector
Color Code, If Present, Matches
from Antenna
Receiver Color Code

Figure 2-2. Attaching the Antenna to Receiver

Rear of Receiver

2. Connect the GPS antenna (or input) to


the SMB connector. See Figure 2-3.
Side of Receiver
(Typical Both Sides)
SMB Connector from
GPS Antenna

RF Input Power Data

Mounting Holes Mounting Holes


(8 Total) (8 Total)
Front of Receiver

Figure 2-1. Mounting Holes for Rack Mounting

Note:

Maximum Depth of Screw


Insertion from Chassis Exterior Figure 2-3. Attaching the GPS Antenna to Receiver
0.110 inches (0.28 cm)

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

Note the colored band around the


RF connector. This denotes the RF
frequency range and PCTEL, RF
Solutions Group’s antennas have Scanner Power Connector
matching colored bands. PURPLE (RS-232)

denotes the 2100 MHz band and


YELLOW denotes the Dual-Bands
from 806-1990 MHz.

Not pictured is the Tri-Band


GSM/WCDMA unit or the Dual-Mode
cdma2000/EV-DO unit. These units
PC Serial Port
have two RF connectors. RF1 is for
WCDMA or EV-DO, coded PURPLE
and RF2 is for GSM of cdma2000,
coded YELLOW. Lighter Adapter, Connects
to Car Cigarette Lighter

3. Connect the scanner to a PC serial


port and to the car cigarette lighter Start Up (Orange)

adapter using the optional Normal Operation (Green)


power/data cable (OP021), as
illustrated in Figure 2-4. After the System Failed (Red)

power is applied, the LED on the


receiver illuminates in orange. After
a short delay, the light turns green. Figure 2-4. Connection of Scanner to PC, Power Supply
and Startup
If the light turns dark red, the unit
has failed the power-up test. Please
contact Customer Support.

4. Note the Tri-Band GSM/WCDMA 5. Install and start the PC program. If you
and the Dual-Mode cdma2000/EV- are using InSite® LX, refer to the InSite®
DO units interface to a PC using a LX manual for specific instructions.
USB interface. Two virtual COM
ports will be available to the 6. The system is ready for use.
application software and functionality
is the same as that with RS232.
See USB Driver Installation
Instructions for more information. DBS Option Installation
(document #100029-00)
To install the Distance Based Sampling
option, plug the cable provided into the
sensor. For mounting and placement of
the sensor, refer to the installation
instructions (Document 130019-00M)
provided in the DBS kit.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

3. Operation
If the user incorporates the scanner into
This section discusses calibration, software their test system running Windows 2000,
upgrades, and integrating the SeeGull® LX use the Application Programming Interface
receiver into the user’s test system. (API) described in References, Item 1
(Preface Section).

Calibration In case the user has a system that runs an


operating system other than Windows, use
SeeGull® LX receivers are calibrated at the the description of the serial interface and
factory. The calibration data is stored in the messages. See References, Item 2
internal non-volatile memory for each 1 dB (Preface Section).
step for the whole input signal dynamic
range. Recalibration is recommended every
year in order to maintain the specified cdma2000/EV-DO use of GPS
accuracy levels. Please refer to the During collection, the cdma2000 and EV-
Calibration Notice in section 5 for more DO scanners utilize a GPS signal to provide
information. Re-calibration is available as accurate timing for measurements of Pilot
an optional service from PCTEL, RF Delay, Delay Spread, Pilot Number,
Solutions Group. Aggregate and Peak Ec/Io. If the GPS
signal is lost, inaccuracies in these
Note: measurements may occur within minutes,
Recalibration is Recommended unless the HoldOver option is used.
Every Year
HoldOver Option Operation

When a GPS signal is present, the


Software Upgrades CDMA 2000 and EV-DO scanners use the
GPS data for timing information to decode
SeeGull® LX scanner stores the application the CDMA Signals. With the HoldOver
program in internal non-volatile memory, option, the CDMA2000 and EV-DO
and accordingly, is capable of being scanners will continue accurate decoding of
upgraded via software. Upgrades may be pilots for a period of 2 -4 hours in the
needed to incorporate new features or bug absence of any GPS signal. To get the best
fixes. Please note that some upgrades can performance of the HoldOver option during
only be performed at PCTEL’s factory. indoor measurements, we recommend that
the GPS be locked for at least 45 minutes
before using the scanner in an unlocked /
Operation: Controlling the Scanner and holdover mode (with power maintained).
Acquiring Data

A unit is controlled, and the measurement


data is received via the RS-232
communication link running at 115.2k Baud
(factory standard) or 38.4k Baud (please
request at time of order). For instructions
on how to change the baud rate, please
refer to the eICD, or the API. Depending on
the PC software used to work with the unit,
the following is applicable:

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

4. DBS Operation the distance to take another measurement,


using guidelines like those listed above. (Of
If you are developing proprietary software to course, other application can be used to
control the SeeGull® LX receiver, please interface with the scanners and provide
refer to the LX Applications Programmers these capabilities.)
Interface (API) or Enhanced Interface
Control Document (eICD) for how to control Scanner measurement speed: Each
and use the Distance Based Sampling technology in the LX scanner has a
option. maximum scanning speed (the ability to
reliably perform a maximum number of
measurements per second) for making
Background RSSI CW (continuous wave)
Typical application requirements: DBS is measurements:
used primarily for enforcing rules about the WCDMA: 600 per second
distance spacing between measurements. GSM: 150 per second
One primary motivator of this type of
measuring is the “Lee criteria”. This states These speeds are achieved regardless of
that the appropriate distance for measuring the number of channels selected for
a signal is taking 50 measurements within a measurement. When the scanner is
distance that is 40 times the frequencies configured to exceed these speeds, error
wave length. messages are reported and the resulting
measurement speed is degraded.
Within the cellular technologies, the
common bands are listed here, with the This indicates the limits on which selections
corresponding parameters. The number of should be made for scanning. Final
required measurements per second for one, scanning speed is based on 4 parameters:
two and four channels is given if driving is 1. Technology of the scanner
assumed to occur at 100km/h (app. 62 2. The band to be measured
mph); other sampling rates can be 3. The distance selected for making
determined for slower speeds. measurements
4. The speed that the scanner is
40λ/50
Meas./sec Meas./sec Meas./sec moving when taking measurements
Band @100km/h @100km/h @100km/h
(cm)
1 channel 2 chans. 4 chans.
2100 11 252 504 1008 The maximum channels that can be
1900 12 231 462 924 configured using the Lee Criteria above are
1800 13 213 426 852 at 100km/h and 50km/h are given in this
900 26 107 214 428
850 27 103 206 412 table:
450 52 54 108 216
40λ/50
Band Meas./sec WCDMA GSM
(cm)
DBS in LX Scanners: The scanners are 2100 11 252 / 126 2/4 0/1
designed to provide the means to take RSSI 1900 12 231 / 115 2/5 0/1
measurements based on distance. Using 1800 13 213 / 106 2/5 0/1
900 26 107 / 53 5 / 11 1/2
external sensors that provide pulses based 850 27 103 / 51 5 / 11 1/2
on distance (via an RS-485 interface), the 450 52 54 / 27 11 / 23 2/5
scanners can be configured to make *100km/h / 50km/h
measurements for the channels on the scan
list once for time a certain number of pulses LX reporting of measurements: One
occur. The InSite application provides the characteristic of PCTEL’s LX scanners is
means to “calibrate” the sensor, which using stacked mode to achieve these
determines the correct numbers of pulses scanning speeds, and works as follows:
per meter. It then allows the user to define

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Operation

• The scans are performed requested,


but results are grouped in a large
group (up to 255)
• These results are reported from the
scanner on 1 second boundaries
• If less than 255 results are produced
in a second, one message is
reported with the measurements
done; if more are produces a set of
messages are reported
• The messages with contain a count
of results that are a multiple of the
number of channels (ex. If 10
channels are requested, there will be
up to 250 results in each message)
The result is that the scanners ability to
report messages does not limit the
measurement speed.

When compared to the table above, when


the scanner is configured for one channel,
in most cases, each 1 second report will
contain less that 255 measurements. But,
for 2100MHz and 4 channels, each
message in a report 150 per second will old
252, so it would provide 4 messages in
each report per second with 252
measurements in each message.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

5. Troubleshooting
Positive Connection
Pressure Clips
This section describes a few suggestions for
several common problems that might occur.
These suggestions are user serviceable.

No Power: Receiver LED’s Not


Illuminated
Fuse Holding Nut
(Turn Counter-Clockwise to Open)
Should there be no power displayed on the
Power LED located on the face of the
®
receiver, please check the connection first, Figure 5-1: SeeGull LX Power Plug
then the fuse, which is located in the
cigarette lighter end of the power cord. Replace the fuse with an identical 3-amp
fuse. ONLY USE a 3-amp! Any other fuse
Note: value may cause severe problems with the
unit and void the warranty. Insert the new
Check The Fuse in the Cigarette fuse in the housing and re-assemble the
Lighter Plug First! plug by turning the knurled finger nut in a
clockwise direction. Tighten this nut as tight
as you can with your fingers.
The fuse can be “blown” by a surge in the Note:
portable or mobile battery system. A
temporarily shorted wire can also cause Do Not Use Tools to Tighten
other problems.

If the fuse is not operating normally, it will


Received Signal Strength Appears Low
open up, thereby disconnecting the input
power from the SeeGull® LX Receiver. The
If the received signal strength appears to be
fuse is the first line of defense should any
lower than expected, it is likely that (1) an
short, large spike, or other problems occur
incorrect antenna is being used, (2) an
within the power wiring circuitry. When the antenna is not properly connected or (3) the
fuse “blows”, there will be no power to the antenna or antenna cable is damaged.
receiver.
Check the antenna to be used with each
receiver to be sure that the correct
Changing the Fuse in the Power Plug frequency antenna is being used or that one
is even connected.
If it is necessary to change the fuse in the
power plug, remove the cigarette lighter
Note:
plug end from the power source. See
Figure 5-1 for an illustration of the power
Antennas Sold by PCTEL, RF Solutions
plug.
Group Look Very Similar and Can only be
Identified by the Supplied Color Antenna
Loosen the fuse-holding finger nut by
Sleeve
turning it counter-clockwise until the plug
comes apart. The fuse is inside the power
plug housing and can be removed.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

PCTEL recently released (August 2006) two antennas will continue to have a colored
new antennas that have new bases with a sleeve). Figure 5-4 shows a chart for
better cable (extended temperature range) PCTEL’s color-coding.
and a frequency range wide enough to
cover all of our scanners (except the 450 Verify that all the necessary antennas are
MHz scanners). included in the shipment and that each is
marked. Each antenna comes in a bag that
The first, OP078, replaced the OP042 and is labeled with a sleeve that identifies the
OP039; this supports all of the 800, 900, frequency band with which it is to be used
1800, 1900 and 2100 band scanners. (see Figure 5-2 and 5-3). This information
must not be lost or mixed up. Antennas
cannot be identified by length, shape, or
other physical characteristics except the
presence or absences of the colored cable
sleeve.

Note:

Some Receivers Require Multiple Antennas.


cdma2000 and EV-DO Receivers Require
Two Antennas (RF & GPS) for Proper
Operation.
Figure 5-2: OP78

The second, OP079, will replace OP065;


has a built in GPS base and supports all of
the 800, 900, 1800, and 1900 band
scanners

Figure 5-3: OP79

Until these antennas were released, all


PCTEL antennas had a colored cable
sleeve to identify the band that is supported.
The new antennas will not have a colored
cable sleeve to indicate that they work for all
bands but the 450 MHz band (those

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

SeeGull™ LX Receiver RX Band Part Color Code


Model (Frequencies in MHz) Number System

GSM 850 869 – 894 OP042 YELLOW

GSM 900 925 – 959 OP042 YELLOW

GSM 1800 1805 – 1880 OP042 YELLOW

GSM 1900 1930 – 1990 OP042 YELLOW

GSM Dual-Band 850/1900 869-894/1930-1990 OP042 YELLOW

GSM Dual-Band 900/1800 925-959/1805-1880 OP042 YELLOW

cdma2000 - 800 869– 894 OP042 YELLOW

cdma2000 - 1900 1930 - 1990 OP042 YELLOW

cdma2000 Dual-Band 800/1900 869-894/1930-1990 OP042 YELLOW

UMTS WCDMA - 1900 1930 – 1990 OP042 YELLOW

UMTS WCDMA - 2100 2110 – 2170 OP039 PURPLE


UMTS WCDMA Dual-Band 850/1900 869-894/1930-1990 OP042 YELLOW
Tri-Band GSM/WCDMA 900/1800/2100 OP042/OP039 YELLOW
Dual-Mode GSM/WCDMA 850/1900 OP042 YELLOW
EV-DO - 800 869– 894 OP042 YELLOW
EV-DO - 1900 1930 - 1990 OP042 YELLOW
EV-DO Dual-Band 800/1900 869-894/1930-1990 OP042 YELLOW
Dual-Mode cdma2000/EV-DO 850/1900 OP042 YELLOW
cdma2000 450 450 OP123 RED
EV-DO 450 450 OP123 RED
cdma2000 Japan 860-875/2110- 2170 OP078 none

®
Figure 5-4: SeeGull LX Antenna Color Coding Matrix

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

base station for this pilot is in proximity


6. Frequently Asked Questions to the indoor measurement area. If the
(FAQ) pilot is coming from further away it can
be less than 87 minutes based on the
propagation delay from the measured
PCTEL’s website provides an up-to-date list
based station to the indoor area that is
of Frequency Asked Questions (FAQ). To surveyed. This problem is typically
see this list go to www.pctel.com, click on worked around in the field by selecting
the RG Solutions Group link, then Support, all the pilots (TopN) or every n and n+1
then FAQ. At the time of release of this pilot at the expense of the slower
manual the following FAQ questions were measurement rate.
available:
• The time that will elapse
® before one pilot is detected and
SeeGull LX FAQ
the next one will depend on
What scans can work for WCDMA in room temperature and how
Q DBS mode? much time the scanner is
WCDMA with DBS only works in the RSSI allowed to obtain GPS
CW and RSSI Wide mode (there is no reference prior to going indoors.
supported 30KHz mode like GSM) and no In the worst of cases -one goes
A inside immediately after
other types of scans (data modes) can be
active acquiring GPS- the pilot will be
detected as the next one after
about 80 minutes. Typically, it
Is there any recommendation on using
will be better especially if the
Q CDMA indoors without GPS and without
scanner is allowed to acquire
the Network Timing option?
GPS for a longer time before
The difference between any two going inside a building.
consecutive (or not consecutive) pilots is
time respective to the system reference.
What are the differences between
Time is defined in chips. Due to Q CDMA 850 and CDMA2000 850?
propagation delays, far away from a cell
(>10 miles) it is possible that the delay is CDMA 850:
long enough (chips) for any pilot to be * is based on the DX platform
detected as the next one. This is the way * can perform one function at a time (e.g.
CDMA networks are. RSSI CW or Pilot Scan)
* can handle one frequency
• When using the holdover option,
the scanner will deviate by one chip CDMA 2000 850:
every so often due to timing errors. * is based on the LX platform
This is in addition to the chips of delay * can perform multiple functions
A A simultaneously (e.g. RSSI CW and Pilot
that are due to natural delays and
change over time can contribute to the Scan and Spectrum Analyzer etc.)
same result. A given pilot is detected * can handle multiple frequencies
as the next one after some time. This simultaneously
does not represent a problem on its * has spectrum analyzer capability
own if the customer is aware and (release 2.0 in April '03, other release 2.0
simply interprets the results features are Pilot zoom (Temporal
accordingly. Additionally, the customer Analyzer), DBS (Distance Based
can go outside at any point during the Sampling) with RSSI Frequency Scan)
test and allow the scanner to obtain a * has code domain (option)
new timing reference. For CDMA 850 (869~894MH), do you
measure chip offset of specified pilot in
• 87 minutes is the worst case for Q good resolution (eq, 1/16 chip or 1/8
pilot to move to the next pilot if the chip resolution)?

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

The CDMA 2000 scanner provides a Pilot measurement without GPS is necessary,
zoom (Temporal Analyzer) scan which the normal scanner will “hold over” for a
measures the power per chip in a specific period of time until GPS can be
A
pilot. Pilot Scan and Top N Pilot Scan Pilot established. PCTEL also has a holdover
Delay data mode reports PN offset in product which can provide accurate results
chips. for hours of operation once GPS is lost
For CDMA 850 (869~894MH) do you (assuming GPS lock is first acquired).
Q measure Ec/Io of specified pilot ? Release 3.0 of the CDMA 2000 scanner
will provide a GPS priority mode which will
A This is a standard feature of the Pilot scan. use GPS for timing when possible and if
not it will use the strongest pilot’s sync
For CDMA 850 (869~894MH), do you channel to determine timing.
Q measure RSSI?
What would be the effects of Aggregate
CDMA 850 measures RSSI CW (30kHz Q when using the scanner indoors?
bandwidth) only. The CDMA 2000 scanner
Using the Scanner Aggregate Ec/Io
can measure channel power using RSSI
measurement indoors has same effect as
scan CW or Wide channel with 30 kHz and
using this measurement outdoors.
A 1.25 MHz BW respectively. In addition to A
Aggregate Ec/Io value reflects a specific
this Io-total 1.25MHz channel power is
multi path environment experienced
measured and reported in Top N Pilot,
indoors or outdoors.
Pilot, Code Domain, Pilot Zoom and Pilot
Detail scans. How is the Aggregate Ec/Io parameter
Q reported by the pilot scan calculated?
For CDMA, is it possible to measure
burst pilot [ for case of 0.5sec ON, Aggregate Ec/Io is calculated in +/- 25
Q
1.5sec OFF ]? chips window from the Peak Ec/Io by
A
aggregating all the Ec/Io components that
The current product measures according to
cross user supplied PN Threshold.
the CDMA 2000 (IS-2000) standard. If the
A pilot is punctured, it is not known how What is the difference between the
measurement accuracy or ability will be "RSSI scan" and "Spectrum Analyzer"
Q
affected. mode in the SeeGull® LX WCDMA
Scanner?
What happens to timing when GPS
Q becomes unlocked for CDMA 2000? The differences lie in the corresponding
objectives and ways of implementation of
The drift at room temperature:
the two modes. "RSSI scan" modus, on
one hand, is used for obtaining average
typical .033 chip/sec = 2 chips/minute ~ 32
power in one of the two signal bandwidths
minutes per PN
of the scanner. Accordingly, measures are
worst case .11 chip/sec = 6.6 chips/minute
taken to ensure high accuracy and stability
A ~10 minutes per PN
of the results.
NOTE: The aging spec for the oscillator on
The Spectrum Analysis is intended to
the LX clock card is 500 ppb/year. This
provide a tool that shows a wealth of
only determines system accuracy if no
information about the signal spectrum that
GPS frequency reference is available. A
is not obtainable from the channel power
What are the new values for CDMA 2000 measurement. Using Spectrum Analysis,
Q Ec/Io thresholds for release 2.0? one can analyze a fast-changing spectrum
512 taps = -16dBm, 1024 taps = -19dBm, of an unstable transmitter, as an example.
A The RSSI measurement in this case will
2048 taps = -22dBm
most often show a normal smooth picture,
For CDMA, is it possible to lock without
but the spectrum display, if used with an
GPS module using external even
Q appropriate resolution bandwidth, will show
second
an erratic behavior due to the fast update
signal?
rate and lack of averaging.
There is not a way to feed an external
A
signal for timing into the radio. If In terms of implementation, the RSSI

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

measurement uses analog and digital The difference is as follows. The


filters to select the right frequency band "detectable" signal is a signal that is
and subsequently measure total power. positively found virtually every scan. The
The SA measurement uses a segmented definition also implies the intrinsic step of
FFT approach that ensures various (nonlinear) detection (decision, as in Top-
resolution bandwidths and fast update N). In practice, the criterion we use is 95%
rates. probability of detection.
Is the built-in GPS receiver needed for
Q The notion of a "discernable" signal, on the
WCDMA?
other hand, is more "analogue" in nature. It
No. As is indicated in the product hails from the era of CRT-based radars,
documentation, the scanner will work in where the phosphorescence of the screen
areas without GPS coverage, continuously. served as the video integrator. The
However, with the coverage, the scanner A decision was made by the eye of the
provides an absolute time-offset operator. So, averaging is inherent in this
measurement as well as navigation data definition, as well as a relatively subjective
for mapping. nature of the decision. In our case, we call
A a signal "discernable" in the case when we
In order to avoid any possible confusion, can "see" the presence of the signal over
let us emphasize that the GPS receiver is noise after averaging a few scans. No
always included in the scanner, whether or threshold is being applied to the
not it is being used by the customer. The measurement before averaging, which
only exception are the GSM models that makes this parameter suitable in the case
can be purchased without navigation, of "Pilot Scan" (as opposed to Top-N). In
which have no GPS device included. practice, the number of traces is 10, and
Are the sec. sync for WCDMA also the necessary SNR after averaging is set
Q
detected and measured in top N mode? to 0.5 dB (that
A Yes Why does the noise pedestal increase
Q
around strong carriers for WCDMA?
Are the WCDMA PSCH measurements
averaged over certain timeslots? How For WCDMA signals above around -35
Q dBm our radio will introduce attenuation to
many ? Can that be defined by the
user? protect itself from overflow (overload). This
attenuation causes increase in the radio
The PSCH measurement is always noise floor. Without this we would not be
performed over 16 time slots. This is not A
A able to measure WCDMA signals up to -20
configurable by the user. dBm. Same will happen with the CW
signals (that have lower crest factor than
Are the secondary sync channels also WCDMA signals). This noise floor behavior
Q detected and measured in top N mode is typical for all spectrum analysis tools
for WCDMA? Why is peak psch and ssch skewed
Q
A Yes. toward lower values?
For the PSCH detection you are PSCH is more susceptible to fading than
distinguishing between "detectable" CPICH. This opens a whole issue of how
Q to post-process data, averaging in
and "discernable". What is the
difference? presence of fading, Lee criterion, etc.
The nature of the beast is such that it
A
skews the variation towards favoring lower
values whenever degrading factors are
present. As a minimum, do not attempt to
average results expressed in decibels but
in a linear domain instead.
How can the measured WCDMA wide
Q band RSSI be lower than -110dBm since
the thermal noise floor is at -108dBm?

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

PCTEL can account for the thermal noise will be exactly the same number of
and eliminate it to some extent in the RSSI measurements taken and outputted in
A
measurement. This enables us to measure each message from the radio. The
RSSI at lower levels relationship between Vp and Tp would be
What is the description of DBS Tp = Ds/Vp.
Q Windowing Issue (Useful for GPS
Windowing)? This same relationship exists for all
velocities and corresponding measurement
The SeeGull LX radio running controller periods. Now that we have detailed the
versions 1.13.2.2 and preceding exhibit a 'perfect' cases, we can investigate the
pooling behavior with respect to Distance behavior that results when the information
Based Sampling operation. is directly plotted in a mapping package.
The diagram below will be used to illustrate The second waveform in the picture above
the problem (see picture enclosed). shows the case where the velocity (V1) is
greater than Vp. In this situation, the time
The first thing of interest is the Message between measurements will be less than
Output waveform at the top of the diagram. the perfect time. This results in there
When the SeeGull Lx is operating in occasionally being an Extra measurement
'triggered mode' (a.k.a. DBS Mode), the in the output message, from time to time.
scanning receiver takes a measurement In the diagram above, if we were traveling
based on a user-defined distance. The at Vp we'd expect one measurement per
measurements are buffered in the radio, output message. DBS 1 shows the case
and output on 1.0-second intervals from when on the third output message, we got
the product (TE above). During a TE two measurements returned in the output
period, the number of measurements that message. The number of output
occurred is based upon the desired messages between the output messages
sampling distance and the distance with the extra measurement (NEM ) is
traveled during that time. For the purpose given by:
of this discussion, we will assume that the
GPS information is aligned EXACTLY with NEM = (V / Vp - 1)-1
the output messages.
A
The third waveform in the picture above
We will assume that the vehicle using the shows the case where the velocity (V2) is
system is traveling at a constant velocity less than Vp. In this situation, the time
(zero acceleration) for the sake of this between measurements will be greater
explanation. In reality, it is nearly then the perfect time. This results in there
impossible for a standard automobile to occasionally being a missing measurement
maintain exactly the same velocity at all in the output message, from time to time.
times. The conclusions drawn herein are In the diagram above, if we were traveling
the same for non-zero accelerations, but at Vp we'd expect one measurement per
we'd have to use integration, which would output message. DBS 2 shows the case
needlessly complicate understanding of when on the third output message, we got
the issue. zero measurements returned in the output
message. The number of output
Using these assumptions, there is one messages between the output messages
speed for every desired distance interval with the missing measurement (NEM ) is
(referred to here as the 'perfect velocity' or given by:
Vp) at which there will be exactly the same
number of measurements taken and NMM = (Vp / V - 1)-1
outputted in each message from the radio.
Note that in both the cases above, if the
Since the distance between measurements speed being traveled is an integer multiple
is also constant at a user-selected interval or divisor of the perfect velocity, then there
(DS), due to the DBS sensor, we can will be no extra or missing measurements.
define the 'perfect time' (Tp) at which there

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Troubleshooting

As can be seen above, this is a fairly


The issue with the extra/missing samples complex issue, and will change from
is most obvious when data points are configuration to configuration.
plotted on a map in a product like
MapInfo® without using any interpolation. This issue has not been addressed to date,
Since we can new GPS Data on every and exists in all versions of the product
output message (due to our assumption produced so far.
above), we would label each point with the
location in memory at the time the Does WCDMA scanner report 'delay'
message is received in the host from the Q
measurement?
scanning receiver. The would result in the
case of the missing output scenario (DBS If you mean, can the customer measure
2) in a map that looks like its missing a the delay of the signal, the answer is Yes.
point every once in a while. Absolute time offset of a selected WCDMA
pilot in chips is measured. Ranges of the
The way to address this when using A time offset are from 0 to 38399. It is also
distance-based sampling is to apply an possible to estimate the clock frequency
algorithm to the returned measurements offset of a Pilot by continuously observing
that using interpolation to place the Time Offset parameter change for a given
measurement point at the appropriate point Pilot.
between the two GPS readings. The What is the difference in measurement
actual algorithm used is a matter of some Q speed between With PSCH and Without
discussion, and there are many choices PSCH?
depending upon the goal of the data With PSCH present: 525ms for one pilot.
collection. One simple example would be A Without PSCH present: 60ms (minimum)
to assume a straight line between two GPS for one pilot.
points, and space the number of
measurements that occurred during that Any usage of WCDMA scanner to
Q
second equally along that line. For most correct a pilot pollution?
cases, this is sufficient. If more accuracy Pilot pollution means there are more active
of data location is necessary, than sources pilot than a handset can measure (#pilot
on interpolation can be consulted for more present > #rake receivers in the phone), so
robust algorithms. Remember that due to by looking at the pilot measurement of the
the sensor, you can rely on the distance carrier or the Top N measurement, if there
A
traveled between two measurements to be are more pilots present than a UMTS
very nearly the specified distance. handset can handle, then it indicates pilot
pollution present. Thus the WCDMA
scanner can help to identify the presence
As a note, this same scenario can exist of pilot pollution.
absent of DBS, due to GPS information My question about the LX scanner is:
being available only once a second. If does it present average RSSI values of
there were multiple output messages Q the samples that it measures? If yes,
between the GPS messages, then the how is this averaging done and over
simple algorithm would lump the how many samples?
measurements to the GPS location of the
The RSSI value an LX scanner returns is a
nearest preceding second. As with the
combination of direct sample average and
DBS case above, interpolation can be
A other non-linear methods. It is more
used to spread the measurements out
flavored towards instantaneous “stable”
more realistically over the interval.
power than the average power.
Another common technique is 'binning',
which takes ALL of the measurement and I would like to know more details how
averages them to single point based upon Q the scanner is calculating the C/I
overlaying a grid with the desired values.
resolution. In the case of GSM, the Scanner is
A
calculating C/I based on the FCCH burst. It

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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measures correlated power of the FCCH is not the same RSSI value measured
burst C and total power Io for the same for the same channel in RSSI window at
time window. C/I is than calculated as: a given time. Could you please clarify?
C/I = C/(Io-C) The question here is why RF
attenuation is automatically tuned on ?
Q GPS takes longer to lock than normal.

If you have had your LX scanner for about


2 years, then it may need to be returned to RF attenuator is automatically turned on to
A prevent overflow in the unit, avoid non-
PCTEL for recalibration. The user will need
to pay a calibration fee. linear effects and extend the dynamic
range of unit at the expense of the noise
How do you decode the GPS data to the
figure degradation. This happens each
Q proper format (degree, minute,
time instantaneous (peak) power of the
second)?
signals in the 5 MHz IF bandwidth crosses
Our scanner reports GPS Lat/Long in A around -35 dBm. This is a normal behavior
Radians... Please see legend below then same as in any Spectrum Analyzer
the conversion to degrees / minutes / instrument, and should not be treated as a
seconds: system error. There could be some
measurement difference with or without RF
Legend: attenuator been turned on, but the
-------------- measurement error should be with in
D = Degrees PCTEL specification of RSSI accuracy.
M = Minutes
S = Seconds
.m = Decimal Minutes
.s = Decimal Seconds
If the FAQ list does not answer your
DM.m = Degrees, Minutes, Decimal question or resolve the problem, please
Minutes (eg. 45 ο 22.6333) contact our customer support, at +1 (240)
D.d = Degrees, Decimal Degrees (eg. 460-8833.
45.3772ο)
DMS = Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (eg.
A
45 ο 22'38")
------------------------------------------------

Radians (taken from scanner) *


57.2957795 = Degrees, Decimal Degrees
(D.d)

then

D.d --> DM.m (45.3772 --> 45 ο 22.6333)


- Multiply .d by 60 to get M.m
(.3772*60=22.6333)
DM.m --> DMS (45 ο 22.6333 --> 45
22'38")
- Multiply .m by 60 to get
S(.6333*60=38)

We are doing scan for spectral


clearance ( RF Ch RSSI Scan.), and on
usage some of the times the spectrum
Q window show error message "RF
attenuation is automatically tuned on",
As well the RSSI measured for a
particular channel in spectrum window

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SeeGull® LX Manual: Support

7. Support Warranty Information

This section provides support information, Terms of Warranty


including PCTEL RF Solutions Group’s
contacts, warranty information, calibration Refer to PCTEL RF Solutions Group’s
notice, and technical specifications. Terms & Conditions of Sale for warranty
terms.
Contact Information

Calibration Notice
Phone Numbers
Departments Contact Information
PCTEL recommends a yearly re-calibration
Marketing/Product of its scanning receivers. This
301-444-2006
Feedback recommendation is based on our
Customer Support 240-460-8833 understanding of various factors that may
Quality Manager 301-444-2045 affect accuracy of the measurement results.
The following factors have been identified
North American Sales 301-467-4549 as potential sources of accuracy
Government Sales 301-444-2015 degradation: crystal oscillators’ aging;
amplifier stages’ gain drift; LC and ceramic
filters’ part value change (due to aging, as
an example).
Email Addresses
Departments Contact Information Although our experience has been that in
Product most cases the units coming back for re-
productfeedback@pctel.com calibration are still well in the specified
Feedback
Customer accuracy margin, in some cases re-
support.rfsg@pctel.com calibration is necessary.
Support
RMA
rma@pctel.com The SeeGull® scanning receivers are
Coordinator
calibrated for several sources of variations
Quality including amplitude levels, ambient
quality.rfsg@pctel.com
Manager temperature, input frequency, and internal
North noise levels for narrow and wide channel
American nasales@pctel.com bandwidths. The calibration parameters are
Sales stored as single values or arrays in the
scanners’ non-volatile memory. Automated
Global Sales globalsales@pctel.com test and calibration stations use proprietary
software which performs the process with
no or minimum human intervention. The
calibration process is followed by a fully
automated production test. The test results
are stored in a central quality database and
they are extracted and used for periodic
quality audits.

Every unit that passes the calibration and


test process successfully receives a
Certificate of Calibration. This Certificate is
shipped back with the unit.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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The complexity of the calibration process


precludes field calibration. It is highly
recommended that PCTEL’s scanning
receivers be returned to the factory annually
to maintain the units’ exceptional
measurement capability.

Procedure for Returning a SeeGull® LX


for Repair:

1. Complete the RMA form on the website


at www.pctel.com Click on RF Solutions
Group, then Support, then RMA Support
from the table. Alternatively, you can
provide the information (your name and
contact information, the company’s
name and address, the serial number
and protocol of the unit, and a
description of the problem) via fax at +1
(301) 515-0037.

2. A response including an RMA number


and in-warranty or out-of-warranty
information will be provided within 24
hours, or the next working day.

3. Please ship the unit to:


PCTEL, RF Solutions Group
Attn: RMA Coordinator
20410 Observation Drive, Suite 200
Germantown, MD 20876
(301.444.2050)

4. Reference PCTEL’s RMA number on all


shipping documentation. Units
shipped without an RMA number can
be returned to the customer without
the unit being repaired.

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Product Offering

8. PCTEL, RF Solutions Group’s Dual-Mode


Product Offering CDMA/EV-DO -
06033 LX
CDMA 850/1900
EV-DO 1900
This section describes all of the different
receivers that PCTEL offers in its product Dual-Mode
CDMA/EV-DO -
line along with Software options, Hardware 06034 LX
CDMA 850/1900
options, Accessories, and Support. For EV-DO 850/1900
further information please contact your
Dual-Mode
PCTEL sales or marketing representative. 06035 CDMA/EV-DO – LX
CDMA/EV-DO 850
Scanning Receivers Dual-Mode
CDMA/EV-DO –
06036 LX
DUAL-BAND SeeGull® Receivers CDMA/EV-DO
1900
Ordering
Product Name Platform Dual-Band
Code
06037 WCDMA LX
CDMA 2000 1900/2100
06012 850/1900 Dual- LX
Band Dual-Mode
06038 LX
CDMA/EV-DO 450
GSM 850/1900
06020 LX Dual Mode
Dual-Band
06039 GSM/WCDMA LX
GSM 850/1900 850/1900
06020N Dual-Band w/ LX
06042 WCDMA Plus 2100 LX
Navigation
GSM 900/1800
06023N Dual-Band w/ LX SeeGull® LX Receivers
Navigation Ordering
Product Name Platform
UMTS WCDMA Code
06004 850/1900 Dual- LX UMTS WCDMA
Band 06001 LX
2100
EV-DO 850/1900 UMTS WCDMA
06052 LX 06002 LX
Dual-Band 1900
CDMA 2000 UMTS WCDMA
06056 LX 06003 LX
JAPAN 2100/850 850
UMTS WCDMA
06007 LX
Tri-Band SeeGull® Receivers 1800
Ordering 06010 CDMA 2000 850 LX
Product Name Platform
Code 06011 CDMA 2000 1900 LX
Tri-Band
06030 GSM/WCDMA LX 06013 CDMA 2000 450 LX
900/1800/2100 06021 GSM 850 LX
Dual Mode GSM
GSM 850 w/
06031 850/1900 WCDMA LX 06021N LX
Navigation
1900
Dual-Mode 06022 GSM 1900 LX
CDMA/EV-DO - GSM 1900 w/
06032 LX 06022N LX
CDMA 850/1900 Navigation
EV-DO 850
GSM 900 w/
06024N LX
Navigation

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Product Offering

GSM 1800 w/ CDMA2000


06025N LX OP056 LX
Navigation HoldOver Option
06050 EV-DO 850 LX Distance Based
OP028 LX
Sampling Kit
06051 EV-DO 1900 LX
06054 EV-DO 450 LX Accessories
Ordering
Options & Accessories Product Name Platform
Code
Power/232 Cable;
Software Options OP021 Car-Lighter LX
Termination
Ordering
Product Name Platform Power/232 Cable;
Code
OP022 Battery Pack LX
BSIC Decoding Termination
OP001 LX
(Single Band)
Power/232 Cable;
BSIC Decoding OP060 car-lighter LX
OP005 LX
(Dual Band) termination – 6”
GSM BCCH Replacement
OP010 Decoding (Single- LX OP146 LX
Cable; metal, MM2
Band) Universal Input
GSM BCCH OP024 LX
AC/12VDC Adapter
OP011 Decoding (Dual- LX Indoor Kit - Serial -
Band) Includes bag, full
OP012 C/I (Single-Band) LX OP119 battery kit and PC
to single LX
OP013 C/I (Dual-Band) LX scanner cable
CDMA2K Code Indoor Kit - USB -
OP043 Domain LX Includes bag, full
(Single-Band) OP129 battery kit and PC
CDMA2K Code to dual LX scanner
OP044 Domain LX cable
(Dual-Band) New SeeGull®
Layer 3 Decoding - battery pack and
OP066 LX OP124
CDMA Single Band charger, with serial
Layer 3 Decoding - cable
OP067 LX
CDMA Dual Band New SeeGull®
Sync Channel battery pack and
OP125
OP070 Timing - CDMA LX charger, with USB
Single Band cable
Sync Channel New SeeGull®
OP071 Timing - CDMA LX Replacement
OP126
Dual Band Battery bag with
Sync Channel Serial cable
OP071J Timing - CDMA LX New SeeGull®
Japan Dual Band Replacement
OP127
Battery bag with
USB cable
Hardware Options
New SeeGull®
Ordering OP128 Replacement
Product Name Platform
Code Battery

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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SeeGull® LX Manual: Product Offering

New SeeGull® Annual Calibration


Replacement OPS06 SeeGull® LX Dual- LX
OP137
Battery Charger Band
power cord, US Annual Calibration:
New SeeGull® OPS48 SeeGull® LX Tri- LX
Replacement Band / Dual-Mode
OP138
Battery Charger Extended
power cord, EU Calibration Report,
OPS52 LX
New SeeGull® SeeGull® LX
Replacement Single-Band
OP139 Extended
Battery Charger
power cord, UK Calibration Report,
OPS53 LX
SeeGull® LX Dual-
Band
Antennas Extended
Antenna, Calibration Report,
OPS54 LX
OP034 GPS, LX SeeGull® LX Tri-
Magnetic Mount Band / Dual-Mode
Antenna, 1 Additional Yr
806-960 MHz/ Extended
OPS14 LX
OP078 1700-2500 MHz LX Warranty:
Dual-Band SeeGull® LX
Magnetic Mount 1 Additional Yr
Antenna,806-960 Extended
OPS15 LX
MHz/1710-2500 Warranty: SeeGull®
OP079 MHz Dual-Band LX LX Dual-Band
MAG MOUNT w/ 1 Additional Yr
GPS Extended
Antenna, 450MHz OPS47 Warranty: SeeGull® LX
OP123 LX
Single-Band LX Tri-Band / Dual-
Indoor Antenna, Mode
OP133 900 MHz/ 1800
MHz Dual-Band Notes:
Indoor Antenna, 1. Standard Lead-time is 30 Days
OP134 850 MHz/ 1900 2. *** Please Check with Your PCTEL
MHz Dual-Band Sales Representative for Lead-time
Indoor Antenna, Information.
OP135 2100 MHz Single-
Band
Indoor Antenna,
OP136 450 MHz Single-
Band

Support Options
Ordering
Product Name Platform
Code
Annual Calibration:
OPS05 SeeGull® LX LX
Single-Band

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group Rev. R


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PCTEL’s RF Solutions Group (formerly
DTI) is a leading supplier of high-speed,
multi-standard receivers as well as test
and measurement solutions to the
Wireless Industry Worldwide.

PCTEL’s RF Solutions Group maintains


its world headquarters in the technology
corridor located in Germantown,
Maryland, on the USA’s East Coast.

Our products are recognized for World-


class speed and quality that help our
customers thrive in a competitive
environment.

Wireless Solutions
• Interference & Propagation
Measurements
• Data Collection Systems
• Scanning Receivers
• Transmitters
• Market Analysis
• Base Station Monitoring
• Custom & OEM Solutions

Wireless Applications
• Network Optimization
• Co-channel Interference
• Indoor Test & Measurement
• Coverage Testing

PCTEL, RF Solutions Group

20410 Observation Drive, Suite 200 Germantown, MD 20876 USA


Voice: +1 301.515.0036 Fax: +1 301.515.0037
www.pctel.com
Specification Subject to Change Without Notice.