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FINAL TEST OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

Lecturer : FATCHUL MU’IN


Student’s Name : M. Laili Hanafi
Reg. Number : A1B213083

A. What is meant by a Speech Act and how many types of speech act as suggested by John
Searle? Explain and give some examples to support your answers!

B. Analyze the utterances of the following sentences based on the principles of speech
acts:

 Will John leave the room?


 John will leave the room
 John, leave the room!
 Would that John left the room
 If John will leave the room, I will leave also.

C. What are the differences of Text Analysis and Discourse Analysis? Explain and give
some examples to tu support your anwers!
D. Mention one of the Discourse Analysis Model!, and expalin and give some examples
to support your answers!
E. There are many types of sentences in English; how do you classify the sentences? Based
on the classification, mention the types of each classification? Explain and give some
examples to support your answers!!

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A. Speech act is a term to describe actions such as “requesting,” “commanding,”


“questioning” or “informing.” So we can define a speech act as the action performed
by a speaker with an utterance. John Searle has classified speech acts into five, which
are:
 Assertives: is a type of speech which is purposed to state, conclude, or boast
something to other people. For example, someone says “I am better than him on
that game”. The speaker want to boast to other people that he is better to do
something than the aimed.
 Directives: is a type of speech where the speaker asks or requests something to
the listener. For example the speaker says “Can you close the door?” for the
speaker wants the hearer close the door for him.
 Commissives: is a type of speech where the speaker makes an utterance of
statement like promise, vowing, or planning. For example the speaker says “I
will call you tonight”. The speakers vows to himself/herself or someone that
she/he promise that the he/she will call the listener tonight.
 Expressives: is a type of speech where the speaker express his/her attitude or
expression such as thanking, apologizing, and deploring to the hearer. For
example, the speaker says to the hearer “Thank you very much my dear.” The
speakers expresses his/her gratitude toward the hearer.
 Declarations: is a type of speech where the speaker utterance brings about a new
external situation. For example is when the priest says “Now, both of you is a
spouse. You may kiss your wife now.” in wedding ceremony speech. That priest
declares that both of them is a spouse from the time he states that statement.

B. Here is the analysis of the sentences by using Austin’s theories:

 Will John leave the room?

We could state that this sentence is an interrogative sentence (Illocutionary acts). We


could also stated that the speaker want to ask someone whether John will the room or
not (Locutionary acts). This question may be responded by the listener with “Yes, he
will leave the room”, the listener responds like this because the listener know that John
will leave the room soon (perlocutionary acts)

 John will leave the room

We could the stated that this sentence is a statement (illocutionary acts). We could also
stated that the speaker want to answer someone’s question who ask about whether John
will leave the room (Locutionary acts). This statement may be responded by the listener
with “Okay, thank you for your answer”, this may be happened because the listener had
asked the speaker whether John will leave the room or not.

 John, leave the room!

We could state that this sentence is imperatives sentence (Illocutionary acts). We could
also stated that the speaker want John to leave the room (Locutionary acts). This
statement may be responded by John himself with “Okay, I will leave the room now”,
this may be happened because the presence of John is very annoying to other people.
Therefore, the speaker wants John to leave the room (perlocutionary)

 Would that John leave the room

We could state that this sentence is interrogative sentence (Illocutionary acts). We could
also stated that the speaker expect that John would leave the room as soon as possible
(locutionary acts). This statement may be responded by the listener with “Yes, john will
leave the room now”, the listener responds like this because the listener know that John
will leave the room soon (perlocutionary acts)

 If John will leave the room, I will leave also


We could state that this sentence is a statement (illocutionary acts). We could also state
the speaker is close friends of John. Therefore, if John left the room the speaker will
also left the room (locutionary acts). This may be happened because the relationship
between John and the speaker are very close.

C. According to James Paul Gee (1999), Discourse Analysis is the analysis of written and
spoken language as it is used to perform something, discourse analysis is usually
analyzed from speaker or listener’s culture, personal, purpose, environment, etc. And
according to Cambridge dictionary, discourse is a speech or piece of writing about a
particular, usually serious, subject. Analyse is to study or examine something in detail,
in order to discover more about it. And analysis is an effort when someone analyse
something. So, based on all of these definition, discourse analysis is a person’s or a
group’s effort to examine or study something in detail in order to discover more about
things related to a speech or piece of writing about a particular subject. Discourse is
different from text for the text itself is a representation of discourse (Brown and Yule,
1983:5), and in the chapter 1 of Discourse Analysis by Brown and Yule (1983), they
define text as the verbal record of a communicative event. In the discourse field itself,
text is divided into written texts and spoken texts (Brown and Yule, 1983:6). And the
text analysis usually tends to focus only on the grammatical structure, so it is more
narrow than the discourse analysis.

For example “When you breakfast?”

 From Text analysis point of view, the text are structurally wrong, because the text
is asking what time that the respondent is breakfast, it can make ambiguity for the
respondent because this can be refers to the event that happened, not asking when
the respondent is breakfast. The correct sentence is supposed to “What time that
you usually breakfast?”
 From Discourse analysis point of view, this sentence can be understood even the
structure is wrong. In this sentence, that the writer want to ask about what time that
usually the respondent do the breakfast.

D. One of the Discourse Analysis Model is Dell Hyme’s SPEAKING model.


 Setting and Scene
"Setting refers to the time and place of a speech act and, in general, to the physical
circumstances" (Hymes, 55).The living room in the grandparents' home might be a
setting for a family story. Scene is the "psychological setting" or "cultural definition"
of a scene, including characteristics such as range of formality and sense of play or
seriousness (Hymes, 55-56). The family story may be told at a reunion celebrating the
grandparents' anniversary. At times, the family would be festive and playful; at other
times, serious and commemorative.

 Participants
Speaker and audience. Linguists will make distinctions within these categories; for
example, the audience can be distinguished as addressees and other hearers (Hymes 54
& 56). At the family reunion, an aunt might tell a story to the young female relatives,
but males, although not addressed, might also hear the narrative.

 Ends
Purposes, goals, and outcomes (Hymes, 56-57). The aunt may tell a story about the
grandmother to entertain the audience, teach the young women, and honor the
grandmother.

 Act Sequence
Form and order of the event. The aunt's story might begin as a response to a toast to the
grandmother. The story's plot and development would have a sequence structured by
the aunt. Possibly there would be a collaborative interruption during the telling. Finally,
the group might applaud the tale and move onto another subject or activity.

 Key
Cues that establish the "tone, manner, or spirit" of the speech act (Hymes, 57). The aunt
might imitate the grandmother's voice and gestures in a playful way, or she might
address the group in a serious voice emphasing the sincerity and respect of the praise
the story expresses.

 Instrumentalities
Forms and styles of speech (Hymes, 58-60). The aunt might speak in a casual register
with many dialect features or might use a more formal register and careful grammatical
"standard" forms.

 Norms
Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction. In a playful
story by the aunt, the norms might allow many audience interruptions and collaboration,
or possibly those interruptions might be limited to participation by older females. A
serious, formal story by the aunt might call for attention to her and no interruptions as
norms.

 Genre
The kind of speech act or event; for our course, the kind of story. The aunt might tell a
character anecdote about the grandmother for entertainment, but an exemplum as moral
instruction. Different disciplines develop terms for kinds of speech acts, and speech
communities sometimes have their own terms for types.

For example:
Motorist: My car needs a new exhaust system
Mechanic: I’ll be busy with this other car all day

Analysis by using SPEAKING model:


 Setting and Scene
This event may occured in a workshop.
 Participants
The speaker is a Motorist and a Mechanic.
 Ends
The purpose of the motorist is to ask the mechanic that he/she needs a new
exhaust system for his/her car. The reason may because he/she just wants to
upgrade his/her car’s exhaust system or he/she needs a new one because his/her
car’s exhaust system is broken. The purpose of the Mechanic is to tell that he/she
is busy with many cars which need to be repaired.
 Act Sequence
This event may begin with a Motorist came into the Mechanic’s workshop and
asked him/her to install a new exhaust system and the Mechanic told him/her
that he is busy with many cars which need to be repaired. So he/she couldn’t
install a new exhaust system for Motorist’s car right away.
 Key
The tone of this discourse may be in a relaxed voice.
 Instrumentalities
It takes a less formal form
 Norms
This discourse is less formal, and there is an interaction between the Motorist
and the Mechanic.
 Genre
This discourse is in a form of conversation between the Motorist and the
Mechanic.

E. There are different classifications of sentences. They are classified according to:
 Purpose
 Syntax or structure
 Form
 Completeness.

Here is the complete explanation:

 Sentences classified according to purpose. They are further classified into


declarative sentence, interrogative sentence, imperative sentence and exclamatory
sentence.
o The purpose of the declarative sentence is to focus the reader’s attention. It
invites the reader further to consider the assertion made by the predicate about
it.
o The purpose of the interrogative sentence is to provide assertion with regards
to the concept that is indicated by the questions. With this the reader will be
directly involve with the development of ideas through asking the reader to
phrase the statement.
o The purpose of the imperative sentence is to show the desire of the writer with
regards to the topics as well as to the actions that is being indicated. Imperative
sentence involves the reader directly through addressing him or her and asking
for a response.
o The purpose of the exclamatory sentence is to show a sudden or strong feeling
about something. In exclamatory sentence, there may be a thought, emotion or
sensation behind. It is used to express judgment, sensation and to express relieve
of an internal pressure and the like.

 Sentences are classified according to syntax or structure. These classifications


are in the form of simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and
compound-complex sentence.
o The sentence is considered as a simple sentence if it contains only a single
independent thought or clause. In this kind of sentence, the subject, the verb and
the complement maybe compounded or either modified by a single word or
phrase.
o The sentence is considered as a complex sentence when it contains two or more
independent clause. The compound sentence shows two distinct ideas. Each of
these sentences is important and they are bought to be stated in an independent
predication.
o The sentence is considered as a compound-complex sentence if the sentence
contains two or more independent clauses and contains at least one dependent
clause. This kind of sentence combines the effects of the compound sentence. It
equates and links two distinct ideas with the complex sentence, thus,
subordinating loose one predication to another.
 Sentences are classified according to their form. With this they are further
classified into periodic sentence, loose or cumulative sentence and balance
sentence.
o The periodic sentence is a form of sentence where the core idea or the main
thought is not completed until the final word.
o The loose or cumulative sentence is a form of sentence wherein the subject
and the verb are stated early and whatever additional modifier qualifications or
exemptions are just added.
o In the balance sentence, the structure and the phrasing of the second clause is
considered as repetition of the first clause. This sentence is just one sentence
possessing two balance elements.

 Sentences are also classified according to their completeness. With this they are
further classified into full sentence and incomplete sentence.
o A sentence is considered as a full sentence when it is complete grammatically.
It should also contain an expressed subject and a predicate, and it should not be
introduced by a subordinating word. Introduction by a subordinating word is
only allowed when the subordinating word belongs to a dependent clause.
o A sentence is considered as an incomplete sentence when it is not complete
although the context in which the center appears communicates a clear idea.