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# BEGINNING ALGEBRA (Multiplication of Polynomials and Factoring)

I. COMBINING LIKE TERMS - When terms of a polynomial have the same variables raised to
the same powers, the terms are called like terms. Like terms can be combined to make the
polynomial easier to deal with.

## Example: Combine like terms in the following equation: 3x2 - 4y + 2x2

Solution: Rearrange the terms so it is easier to deal with, then combine like terms.

## II. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS - the most important polynomial multiplication is the

multiplication of binomials. Use the FOIL method to remember the steps.

## Combine like terms if possible to get a simplified answer.

Example 2: Multiply (A + B)3
Solution: Rewrite so you can actually multiply it out. (A + B)(A + B)(A + B)
Multiply the first two binomials together and combine like terms

You now have a binomial and a trinomial to multiply together. (A + B) (A2 + 2AB + B2)

Multiply the first term of the binomial by each term in the trinomial and then multiply the last
term of the binomial by each term in the trinomial.

## Practice: Multiply the following:

1. (x - y)3

2. (x + 2)3

3. (2y - 1)3

4. (3x + 2y)3

III. FACTORING - is the reverse of multiplication. When factoring look for common factors, and
write each term as a product of factors.

## Example: Factor out a common factor of 4y2 - 8.

Solution: 4 is the common factor, so pull it out and write each term as a product of factors.

## SPECIAL CASE: FACTORING A DIFFERENCE OF SQUARES

Sometimes, you will come across a situation where both terms of a binomial are squares of
another number, such as (x2 - 9). (x2 is the square of x and 9 is the square of 3.)
There is a special formula for this situation, so you don't have to factor the binomial:

## A2 - B2 = (A + B)(A - B) ** Notice it only works with a DIFFERENCE, not a SUM of squares!

Example: Factor y2 - 4.

Solution: Since y2 is the square of y, and 4 is the square of 2, this binomial fits the difference of
squares formula.
y2 - 4 = (y + 2)(y - 2)

1. y2 - 9

2. k2 - 16

3. p2 - 36

4. 4x2 - 49

5. 9x2 - 25

6. 49 - 64x2

7. 25z2 - 1

8. y4 - 100

9. 25h4 + -1

10. x2y2 - 4

## REVIEW - PRACTICE IT ALL!!

Multiply:
1. (x + 3)(x - 4) 2. (2x + 3)3 3. (2x2 - 5x +4)(x2 - 6) 4. (x - 4)2

Factor:
1. 28xy2 + 14 x2y -21 2. 81z4 - 16 3. 4pq + 40 q2p3 - 44qp

## 4. 15x2 + -50x + -10 5. 49 - 25p2 6. 36y3 + 9y2

IV. FACTORING TRINOMIALS - is essentially the opposite of the FOIL method! Recall that we
can use FOIL to multiply two binomials (2k + 7)(3k - 10) to give us a final
trinomial:
6k2 - 20k + 21k - 70 = 6k2 + k - 70

Now we will learn how to work backwards and factor a trinomial into it’s
two binomials:

## Step 1: Write the terms in order of the variable's exponent: m2 + 10m + 16

Step 2: Write two brackets side by side: (m ) (m ) with m’s to start each one

Step 3: Since all terms of the trinomial are positive, write + signs after the m’s: (m + )(m + )

Step 4: Identify the coefficients of the first and last terms of the trinomial (here it’s 1 and 16)
and find their product (1 x 16 = 16). Identify all factors of this product: 1 x 16
2 x 8
4 x 4

Step 5: Look at the coefficient of the middle term of the trinomial (here it’s 10) and determine
which pair of factors from step 4 ADD to 10. Obviously it’s 2 and 8.

Step 6: Fill in the brackets with your two numbers: (m + 2)(m + 8) and check your solution

## Example 2: Factor 10x + x2 + 21

Example 3: Factor 20 + x2 + 9x

## Practice: Factor each trinomial:

1. x2 +12x + 20 2. x2 + 2x + 1 3. x2 + 16x + 64 4. x2 + 10x + 24