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Ivan W. Selesnick

6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201

selesi@taco.poly.edu

This paper describes a new complex-directional expansive corresponding to each of the two DWTs form a Hilbert

perfect reconstruction twc-dimensional wavelet transform. transform pair,

Each complex wavelet is oriented along one of six possible

directions, and the msgnitude of each complex wavelet has & ( t ) = x{$‘h(t)}. (1)

a smooth bell-shape. The transform is based both on the The dual-tree DWT was further analyzed in [16] which in-

complex dual-tree wavelet transform introduced hy Kings- troduces a characterization theorem describing how the fil-

bury and on the double-density DWT. I t is designed so as to ter coefficientsshould be chosen so as to obtain two wavelet

possess simultaneously the properties of the complex dual- bases where the two wavelets form a Hilbert transform pair.

tree DWT and the doubledensity DWT. The paper also A design algorithm based on spectral-factoriiation was de-

describes a simple subband-dependent data-driven denois- scribed in [13]. This design algorithm extends the algorithm

ing algorithm for use with this transform. An example is developed by Daubechies for the construction of orthogonal

shown t o illustrate the performance of the denoising a l g e wavelet bases [5], to the new problem arising from the cam-

rithm and the transform. plex dual-tree DWT.

The doubledensity DWT was developed to be a less-

1. INTRODUCTION expansive version of the undecimated DWT. (For denoising,

the undecimated DWT out-performs the critically-sampled

This paper describes a two-dimensional double-density dual- DWT 14, 91, but not by as much as the complex dual-tree.)

tree discrete wavelet transform (DWT), an overcomplete The double-density DWT is based on a single scaling func-

(expansive) transform designed so as to possess simultane- tion and two distinct wavelets, where the two wavelets are

ously the properties of the double-density DWT [15,17] and designed to he off-set from one another by one half - the

the complex dual-tree DWT [7, 81. integer translates of one wavelet fall midway between the

The double-density DWT and the complex dual-tree integer translates of the other wavelet,

DWT are both expansive (they both transform and N point

signal to an M point signal with M > N); they are both $z(t) 3 $i(t - 0.5). (2)

nearly shift-invariant; they are both based on FIR perfect

The design of wavelet frames (or expansive transforms) of

reconstruction filter banks; and they both outperform the

this type is described in [15]. Specifically [I51 describes the

critically-sampled DWT for image denoising. However, the

design of wavelet filters of minimal support with vanishing

Icomplex dual-tree DWT is based on wavelets which are ori-

moment properties (analogous to Dauhechies’ orthonormal

ented along one of six specific directions, while the double-

wavelet bases but now in the over-sampled case). The re-

density is based on wavelets which are similar to those of the

sulting wavelets are very smooth with short support and

critically-sampled separable DWT. In addition, the com-

the transform is nearly shift-invariant.

plex dual-tree DWT has two wavelets in each direction -

The twedimensional double-density dual-tree DWT pre-

one can be interpreted as the real part, the other as the

sented in this paper is based on the separable (row/column)

imaginary part, of a single complex wavelet. The magni-

implementation of the one-dimensional double-density dual-

i.tude of the two-dimensional complex wavelet so obtained

tree transform [14] which is based on two distinct scaling

‘has roughly a Gaussian bell-shaped curve. This character-

functions and four distinct wwelets,

istic of the complex dual-tree DWT makes it highly effective

for image denoising by the shrinkage of wavelet coefficients

(soft thresholding, for example). Instead of shrinking each

wavelet coefficient directly, one can shrink the magnitude of where the two wavelets $ h , 4 ( t ) are off-set from one another

the complex wavelet to improve the denoising performance. by one half, and qg,<(t)likewise:

The complex dual-tree DWT is implemented with two

suitably designed critically-sampled DWTs operating on

This work was supported by the NSF under CAREER p a n t and where the two wavelets Q g , l ( t ) and $ h , l ( t ) form an

CCR-987452. approximate Hilbert transform pair, and & , z ( t ) and l / ) h . z ( t )

likewise:

is too lengthly to describe here, however, it draws on the d e

sign procedures for the doubledensity DWT and the dual-

tree DWT described in 13, 151 and 1131. The design p r ~

cedure, fully described in [14], produces sets of compactly

supported wavelets with vanishing moments satisfying the

sought properties (3,4).

We also wish to note that although the structure of the

DWT introduced in this paper is different, the goals are

similar to those described in 1191, which introduced shiftable

multisale transforms. In addition, a complex-directional

filter bank is described in 1111. Other directional filter banks

are possible as well, see [I, 61. Also, the doubledensity

DWT is an example of an affine frame, see 13, 10, 121.

2 . COMPLEX-DIHECTIONAI.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL WAVELETS

crete wavelet transform can be efficiently implemented with

separable (row/coIumn) multirate filtering followed by (non-

separable) sums and differences. Specifically, the complex-

directional wavelets are obtained as follows.

First, define a separable wavelet basis by the following

expression,

resent the scaling function by $0, $ h , o ( x ) := 4 h ( x ) . One

of the nine functions defined in (5) is the scaling function

(&O,O(X, y)), while the other eight functions are handpass

wavelets. Similarly, define three more separable wavelet

bases by the following expressions, Fig. 1. The ZD wavelets generated by an approximate

Hilbert transform Dair of 1D wavelets.

$b.i.j(x>Y) = $s+(z)$g,j(Y) (6)

$ c . ~ . ~Y)( x=~ $ h . i ( X ) $g,j(Y) (7)

$'d.w(X>Y) = $9.c(x)d'h,j(Y) (8)

Each of the wavelets in (9-12) is oriented along one of six

for 0 5 i , j 5 2; where &,o(z) := &(x). angles: 1 1 5 , *45,+75 degrees. There are a total of 32 di-

Each of these four sets of separable wavelets bases are rectional wavelets (excluding the lowpass scaling functions

implemented using the traditional row/column filter bank corresponding to i = j = 0). They are illustrated in Fig-

structure of the usual critically-sampled separable DWT. ure 1. There are more than one wavelet in each direction;

The directional wavelets are obtained by taking the sums however, they are off-set from one another so that for each

and differences as follows. direction the integer translates of one wavelet fall midway

between the integer translates of the other wavelets oriented

$'A.i.>(z>Y) $o,*,~(XIY) +d'S.i.j(X,Y) (9) in the same direction.

$'B,<,j(X>Y) = d'a,i,j(x,Y) -$b,<,~(x,Y) (10) Moreover, the 16 wavelets in the top half of Figure 1

$C.i,j(X,Y) = $=,i.j(x,Y)+$d.i,j(X,Y) (11) can be interpreted as the real parts of 16 complex wavelets,

$'D,S,i(x,Y) = $c,<,j(xxY) ~ $d,%,j(x>Y) (12) while the 16 wavelets in the bottom half of Figure 1 can

be interpreted as the imaginary parts. This is illustrated

for 0 5 z,j 5 2, except for a = j = 0. The snmldifference in Figure 2 which shows two of the wavelets from Figure 1

operations are non-separable operations, so the total trans- together with the modulus of the complex wavelet formed

form is technically non-separable. However, they are the from them. The same functions are illustrated as gray-scale

only non-separable operations, so the total transform has images in the lower part of the figure. Because the magni-

the efficiency of a separable transform. The inverse trans- tude of the complex wavelet is relatively free of oscillations,

form requires taking the sum and difference, dividing by 4, it is roughly shift invariant and so can be used to improve

followed the seDarahle inverse DWTs. the performance of wavelet-based image processing.

111- 574

REAL WAVELET 3. AN IMAGE DENOISING ALGORITHM

. .

... To develop a simple subhand-dependent data-driven image

.

. ...

.. . . denoising procedure we can modify the Bayes-shrink algo-

rithm described in [Z]. We assume the image s is corrupted

by additive Gaussian iid noise with unknown variance, U:,

z=s+n.

coefficients using the formula

5, = median(lwk1)/0.6745

2 For each suhband, we compute the standard deviation of

the noisy wavelet coefficients using

Y 0 0 x 6, = Jz mean(lwlr/)

IMAGINARY WAVELEl which is the maximum-likelihood estimate assuming a Lapla-

cia" distribution. For each suhhand, we then estimate the

standard deviation of the wavelet coefficients of s using

= Jmax(a - B~,o).

For each subhand, we then compute the following threshold

for soft thresholding

coefficient.

Note that as the wavelets have different norms it is im-

portant to normalize the wavelet coefficients, before Per-

Y "

x forming the thresholding, by dividing each coefficient by

ENVELOPE the norm of the corresponding wavelet. Then the processed

coefficients are multiplied by the same norm, and finally the

inverse transform is computed.

... .. .

.. .. We tested the denoising scheme with the 512 by 512

%bit gray-scale Lena image. With the standard deviation

of the additive Gaussian noise taken to be U,, = 25, we

obtained the results illustrated in Figure 3. To evaluate the

denoising scheme we memure the rms error, or equivalently

the PSNR. Let y denote the denoised image. Therms error

is given by

2

The PSNR in dB is given by

0 0

Y

PSNR = 20 log,,

(Z)

Far the critically-sampled DWT using orthonormal Daubechies

wavelets, we obtained:

tg = 8.858, PSNR = 29.183

. . . For the doubledensity complex dual-tree we obtained:

= 7.630, PSNR = 30.48

Fig. 2. A pair of 2D wavelets from Figure 1 interpreted

as the real and imaginary parts of a complex-directional Note that this simple algorithm uses no statistical modeling

wavelet. of wavelet coefficients, which can he used to substantially

improve denoising results, see for example [lU].

4. CONCLUSION

NOISY IMAGE

This paper presents a new expansive complex-directional

discrete wavelet transform based on the complex dual-tree

DWT. We also describe a simple subband-dependent data-

driven denoising procedure in which the magnitudes of the

complex wavelet coefficients are processed by soft-threshold-

ing. Matlab programs for reproducing these results are

available on the Web at http://taco.poly.edu/selesi.

5. R E F E R E N C E S

[lj R. H. Bamherger and M. J . T. Smith. A filter bank for

the directional decomposition of images: Theory and de-

sign. IEEE Tmns. on Signal Processing, 40(4):882-892,

April 1992.

[2] S. 6. Chang, B. Yu, and M. Vetterli. Adaptive wavelet

thresholding for image denoising and compression. IEEE

Trans. on Image Processing, 9(9):1532-1546, September

2000.

131 C. Chui and W . He. Compactly supported tight frames asso-

ciated with refinable functions. Applied and Computational CRITICALLY-SAMPLED DWT

Harmonic Analysis, 8(3):293-319, May 2000.

141 R. R. Coifman and D. L. Donoho. Ttanslation-invariant de-

noising. In A. Antoniadis, editor, Wavelets and Statistics.

Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes, 1995.

151 I. Dauhechies. Ten Lectures On Wavelets. SIAM, 1992.

161 M. N.Do and M. Vetterli. Pyramidal directional filter banks

and curvelets. In Pmc. IEEE I d Conf. Image Processing,

October 2001.

[i]N. G. Kingsbury. Image processing with complex wavelets.

Phil. Tmns. Royal Society London A , September 1999.

[8] N. G. Kingsbury. Complex wavelets for shift invariant anal-

ysis and Bltering of signals. Applied and Computational

Harmonic Analysis, 10(3):234-253, May 2001.

191 M . Law, H. Guo, J . E. Odegard, C. S. Burrus, and R. 0.

Wells, Jr. Noise reduction using an ""decimated dis-

crete wavelet transform. IEEE S t p a l Processing Letters,

3(1):1&12, January 1996.

1101 A. Petukhov. Explicit construction of framelets. Ap-

plied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 11(2):313-

327, September 2001. DOUBLE-DENSITY COMPLEX DUAL-TREE

[ I l l J. Portilaa and E. P. Simoncelli. A parametric texture model

based on joint statistics of complex wavelet coefficients. Int.

J . of Comp. Vision, 4 0 ( 1 ) : 4 S i l , 2000.

[l2l A. Ron and 2. Shen. construction of compactly supported

affine frames in L,(@). In K. S. La", editor. Advances in

Wa'ouelets.Springer Verlag, 1998.

1131 I. W. Selesnick. The design of Hilbert transform pairs af

wavelet bases. IEEE Tmns. on Signal Pmeessing, 2001.

Accepted

1141 I. W. Selesnick. The doubledensity dual-tree discrete

wavelet transform. 2001. Preprint.

115) 1. W. Selesnick. The double density DWT. In A. Petrosian

and F. G. Meyer, editors, Wavelets in Signal and Image

Analysis: &om TheonJ to Pmctice. Kluwer, 2001.

I161 I. W. Selesnick. Hilbert transform pairs of wavelet bases.

IEEE Signal Pmcessing Letters, 8(6):17&173, June 2001.

[I71 I. W. Selesnick. Smooth wavelet tight frames with zero

moments. Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis,

10(2):163-181, March 2001. F i g . 3. Image denoising via soft-thresholding using the

critically-sampled DWT and the doubledensity complex

[I81 L. Sendur and 1. W. Selesnick. Bivariate shrinkage functions

for wavelet-hssed denoising. 2001. Preprint. dual-tree DWT. (A 150 by 150 subset of the full image

[I91 E. P. Simoncelli, W. T. Freeman, E. H. Adelson, and D. J.

is shown.)

Heeger. Shiftable multi-scale transform. IEEE P a m . In-

f o n . Theory, 38(2):587-607, March 1992.

111 - 576

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