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Integrated Analysis

Water and Sanitation


Baseline Report
Submitted by

The Sustainability Institute, Lynedoch, South Africa


E-Systems, Holland

under UNF-funded project,

“Integrated Resources Management for Urban Development”

(UNDP Project No. 00038512)

Trustees: EG Annecke, ADH Enthoven, EA Pieterse, G Goven, L Boya, R Shabodien


Trust Reg. No.: IT3011/99. Vat Reg. No: 4110198795
P O Box 162, Lynedoch, 7603. Tel: 021 881 3196. Fax: 021 881 3294
R310, Lynedoch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
NPO reg no: 051-245-NPO
Acknowledgements

Sonja Pithey from Sonja Pithey Consulting for report compilation

John Frame from John Frame Consulting for compilation of financial inputs

Barry Coetzee from the City of Cape Town for information on policy and other
legislative issues

Shirene Rosenberg from the City of Cape Town for information, and report review

Wouter Roggen from the City of Cape Town for information, and report review

Craig Haskins from the City of Cape Town for information, and report review

Trustees: EG Annecke, ADH Enthoven, EA Pieterse, G Goven, L Boya, R Shabodien


Trust Reg. No.: IT3011/99. Vat Reg. No: 4110198795
P O Box 162, Lynedoch, 7603. Tel: 021 881 3196. Fax: 021 881 3294
R310, Lynedoch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
NPO reg no: 051-245-NPO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................8
1.1 PROJECT LOCATION ...............................................................................................................................8
1.2 PROJECT SCOPE AND OUTCOMES .........................................................................................................10
2. POLICY AND KNOWLEDGE CONTEXT .........................................................................................11
2.1 NATIONAL LEGISLATION, POLICES AND STRATEGIES GOVERNING WATER AND SANITATION
MANAGEMENT ..........................................................................................................................................11
2.1.1 Constitution of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996 .............................................................. 11
2.1.2 Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, 1994 and 1997 White Paper. ............................ 13
2.1.3 The Water Services Act 108 of 1997 ........................................................................... 13
2.1.4 National Water Act 1998 No 36 of 1998 ...................................................................... 13
2.1.5 Municipal Structures Act (Act 33 of 2000) ................................................................... 14
2.1.6 Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000) ...................................................................... 14
2.1.7 Basic Household Sanitation Policy (2001) ................................................................... 14
2.1.8 National Water Resource Strategy (2004) ................................................................... 14
2.1.9 National Water Conservation and Water Demand Strategy and Water Conservation
and Water Demand Management Strategy for the Water Services Sector (2004) .............. 15
2.1.10 Strategic Framework for Water Services (2003) ....................................................... 15
2.1.11 Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 ........................................................ 15
2.1.12 National Disaster Management Act 2002 .................................................................. 16
2.1.13 National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) Act 107 of 1998) ........................ 16
2.1.14 Environmental Conservation (ECA) Act 73 of 1989 .................................................. 16
2.1.15 Municipal Finance Management Act, 56 of 2003 ...................................................... 16
2.2 PROVISIONAL SPATIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (GREEN PAPER), 2006 AND WESTERN
CAPE PROVINCIAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK, 2006 LEGISLATION, POLICIES AND STRATEGIES
GOVERNING WATER MANAGEMENT .........................................................................................................17
2.3 LOCAL GOVERNMENT (COCT) LEGISLATION, POLICIES AND STRATEGIES AND KEY INTERVENTIONS
GOVERNING WATER AND SANITATION MANAGEMENT .............................................................................17
2.3.1 Integrated Development Plan (2007) ........................................................................... 17
2.3.2 City Development Strategy (Sakha Ikapa 2030) ......................................................... 17
2.3.3 Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework (MSDF) .............................................. 17
2.3.4 Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy (IMEP) (GOTO 6.2) and Integrated
Metropolitan Environmental Management Strategy (IMEMS) (GOTO 6.2) .......................... 18
2.3.5 Water Services Development Plan (WSDP) ................................................................ 18
2.3.6 Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy for Cape Town (2007) ....... 18
2.3.7 By-Laws ....................................................................................................................... 19
2.3.12 Safety Health and Environment: Policy and Procedures Manual (2005) .................. 19
2.3.13 Sustainability Reporting ............................................................................................. 20
2.4 POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY ............................................................................................................20
2.5 SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER AND SANITATION PROVISION IN CAPE TOWN .........................................23
2.6 CAPACITY BUILDING STRATEGIES ........................................................................................................25
2.7 WESTERN CAPE RECONCILIATION STUDY AND BERG RIVER CMA PROCESS ......................................26
3. REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................29
3.1 REGULATORY SYSTEM.........................................................................................................................29
3.2 INSTITUTIONS ......................................................................................................................................29
3.2.1 Historical Background .................................................................................................. 29
3.2.2 Current and Future Institutional Arrangements ........................................................... 30
3.3 WATER CONSERVATION AND WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT (WC/WDM) .....................................33
3.3.1 Progress to date ........................................................................................................... 35
3.3.2 Case Studies ................................................................................................................ 37
4. WATER AND SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND USAGE ..................................................39

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 3
4.1 WATER SUPPLY ...................................................................................................................................40
4.1.1 Surface Water Resources ............................................................................................ 40
4.1.2 Groundwater Resources .............................................................................................. 43
4.1.3 Water Supply Infrastructure ......................................................................................... 44
4.1.4 Alternative Sources of Water ....................................................................................... 46
4.1.5 Water Demand ............................................................................................................. 47
4.1.6 End Use ....................................................................................................................... 49
4.1.7 Water losses and un-accounted for water ................................................................... 51
4.2 BASIC SANITATION AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT ..........................................................................54
4.2.1 Basic Sanitation ........................................................................................................... 55
4.2.2 Wastewater Treatment and Infrastructure ................................................................... 55
4.2.3 State of Infrastructure .................................................................................................. 58
4.2.4 Wastewater Effluent and Environmental Impact .......................................................... 59
4.2.5. Sewage Sludge ........................................................................................................... 60
4.2.6 Wastewater re-use ....................................................................................................... 61
4.2.7 Grey water ................................................................................................................... 63
4.3 SERVICE LEVELS ..................................................................................................................................64
4.4 URBAN WATER CYCLE ........................................................................................................................66
4.5 ASSET MANAGEMENT..........................................................................................................................66
4.6 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER AND SANITATION ........................................67
4.6.1 Biogas .......................................................................................................................... 70
4.7 SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ...........................................................................................70
5. TECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS .............................................................................................73
5.1 EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES AND ENERGY ..............................................................................................73
5.2 ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS ................................................................................................74
5.2.1 Alternative sources of water ........................................................................................ 74
5.2.2 Technologies to reduce water consumption ................................................................ 75
5.2.3 Wastewater treatment technologies ............................................................................ 76
5.2.4 Catchment Planning and Integrated Urban Water Resource Management (IUWM)... 79
5.2.5 Centralised vs. decentralized wastewater treatment technologies .............................. 80
6. FINANCIAL ASPECTS..........................................................................................................................83
6.1 WATER DEMAND AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL ...................................................................................84
6.1.1 Tariffs, Income and Expenditure .................................................................................. 85
6.2 SEWERAGE TREATMENT ......................................................................................................................89
6.2.1 Alternative Sanitation Technologies ............................................................................ 89
6.3 BILLING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................90
6.4 HOW THE WWTPS BUDGETS ARE DETERMINED...................................................................................90
6.5 HOW NEEDS ARE DETERMINED.............................................................................................................92
6.6 HOW PRIORITIES SET ............................................................................................................................93
6.7 HOW FINAL DECISIONS MADE...............................................................................................................93
6.8 CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS ........................................................................................................94
7. CONSTRAINTS AND CHALLENGES AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS..........................95
7.1 INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES ........................................................................................................................95
7.2 FINANCIAL ISSUES ...............................................................................................................................96
7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH ISSUES ...............................................................................................97
7.4 TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION ISSUES............................................................................................97
7.5 FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS ..............................................................................................................98
8. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................99

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 4 4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background

In spite of the significant economic growth, the City of Cape Town faces huge socio-
economic and development challenges. In the water and sanitation sector years of
inadequate investment in infrastructure has lead to a crises situation in the
wastewater sector. An estimated R 1, 5 billion is required to upgrade wastewater
treatment facilities to meet legal discharge requirements. Development has been
curtailed in areas with inadequate supply infrastructure and/or overloaded
wastewater treatment plants, at a huge social, economical and environmental cost.

Amidst the constraints and limitations of restructuring, budgets cuts and staff losses,
this sector has however managed to ensure that the majority of formally housed
citizens in Cape Town have reliable access to clean water and proper functioning
sanitation services.

Great strides have been made with by-laws and the development of a service
delivery plan, which aligns with the growth and development objectives of the City.
More recently, the Council committed to a R759 million strategy, which aims to guide
water conservation and demand management over the next 10 years and reduce
demand by 323 Ml/day.

Most citizens however, who tolerate the risk related realities of their un-serviced and
overcrowded dwellings, polluted rivers, oceans and skylines and the consequences
of inappropriate development would question the extent to which „paper
commitments‟ are being met.

This report provides a baseline of useful information in the Water and Sanitation
service, with specific reference to the City of Cape Town and does not attempt to
represent the entire scope of information available. This baseline report is one of
three drafted for a broader project “Integrated Resource Management for Urban
Development”, aimed at identifying more sustainability practices in the water, energy
and waste sectors . Two independent consultants were involved: Sonja Pithey and
John Frame, who was responsible for the financial chapter.

Key issues and findings are summarised as follows:

Institutional Challenges

 Human Resources: Staff placement is overdue and the success of emerging


strategies appears to demand additional, highly skilled resources. This
specialised sector requires ongoing capacity development within and outside
Council in order to ensure meaningful participation in future decisions.
 Restructuring: Ring-fencing of the service and the separation of the Water
Service Authority and Water Service Provider needs to be resolved while the
Berg River Catchment Management Agency process, currently underway,
creates an unique opportunities to revisit the „forms and functions‟ of the service.

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 5 5
 Integrated Planning and Operations: The latest Waster Services
Development Plan is the first to align with the Integrated Development Plan
(IDP). External integration with National and Provincial processes , and internal
integration amongst within line functions as far as planning and operations are
concerned, remains on ongoing concern.
 IUWM: The changing institutional landscape offers an ideal opportunity for the
adoption of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) philosophy and
practice. Research support exists in this rapidly emerging field which offers the
City an opportunity to spearhead international best practice in resource
management.

Operational Challenges

 Capital Requirements: The financial stability of the service is at risk with a


rising debt of R2 billion. Last year R 2, 6 billion was spent on operational
(running) cost and R450 million on capital cost. R1, 5 billion is required for
wastewater treatment plants to meet discharge standards. Revenue collection,
dependency on cross-subsidisation and sustainable tariffs are key to future
income for the service.
 Water Demand: Due to effective water restrictions and demand management
initiatives water use dropped from 920 Ml/day in 2000 to the current 745 Ml/day.
R759 Million was recently committed over the next ten year to strategy aimed at
reduce demand by a further 323 Ml/day, which is estimated to ensure a
comfortable supply beyond 2025. The estimated benefits of the strategy is
R 1 694 million. Success would require long term evaluation and sustained
capital commitment, beyond changes in ruling politics.
 Unaccounted for water: Latest calculations indicate that more than 23% of the
water in the city cannot be accounted for and could be lost due to unmetered
consumption, leakages or billing/meter errors. The financial implications of the
loss of revenue for 186Ml/day water are significant.
 Wastewater treatment: Wastewater and reticulation suffer a “Cinderella
syndrome”. Years of financial neglect have lead to the current wastewater
treatment crises. Treatment plants are overloaded and discharge substandard
effluent to the environment and more than 50% of the current budget (R404
million) focuses on the aging reticulation network. Ribbon cutting sermons at
sewage treatment plants are scarce although the requirements of various Acts
are being contravened.
 Basic Sanitation: More than 30 000 people living in Cape Town do not have
access to basic sanitation. In addition no provisions are in place to meet the
basic needs of 7 700 informal dwellers that arrive in Cape Town each year.
Human rights violations, insufferable living conditions and environmental impacts
are extreme and linkages with the housing crises need to be strengthened.

Resource Management Challenges

 Water: The DWAF driven Reconciliation Study, currently underway will prioritise
water supply options future demand. Most of the 81 million m3 water from the
new Bergwater Dam will be allocated to the City, who effectively reduced their
demand well below the (2003) crises predicted in 1999. Groundwater use is

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 6 6
under development and only 7% of treated effluent is currently being re-used. A
local pilot desalination plant aims to test the financial viability of this option
 Loss of Environmental Service: Most of the rivers receiving treated effluent
are severely degraded and many coastal bathing beaches are not safe to swim
in during summer months, due to contaminated stormwater and wastewater
discharges. Many urban waterbodies have lost their ability to clean up pollution
and are not fit for any recreational purposes.
 Human health risks:. Toxic algal blooms and polluted runoff from poorly
services settlements (grey and black water) pose a serious health risk to
neighbouring communities. Clear links between pollution and human
health/quality of life could possibly increase the profile of these issues.
 Energy and GHG: Local information linking the service to energy and
Greenhouse Gas issues is scarce. A pilot project at Athlone, which currently
vents the electrical production equivalent of R2, 8 million in biogas, could test
alternative technologies and approaches. Feasible energy saving technologies
have been identified in the water and wastewater sector and could be tested.
The potential contribution of sewage sludge to the energy sector is also under
exploited.

Findings of this study substantiate the strategic interventions for the water and
sanitation sector, proposed in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development.
These are:
Sustaining our ecosystems and using natural resources efficiently
Investing in sustainable infrastructure
Creating sustainable communities
Enhancing systems for integrated planning
Building capacity for sustainable development

Key recommendations

The following recommendations are presented in addition to those summarised in


the comprehensive Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy:

Resolve institutional reform issues and appoint staff as matter of urgency


Develop internal financial and business skills
Adopt philosophy and practice of IUWM, and ensure alignment with key
National, Provincial and Local future planning initiatives
Gauge progress with WC/WDM strategy and ensure the document and
commitment remain „live‟
Develop capacity to enforce by-laws
Investigate alternative technologies for wastewater treatment and disposal,
including sewage sludge
Develop indicators which link human health/quality of life health to
environmental degradation
Develop wastewater effluent re-use guidelines
Conduct an energy audit in the water and sanitation service which a few to
identify opportunities for savings
Investigate use of energy from wastewater (biogas and sludge) and
implement the Athlone pilot project

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 7 7
The future of water resource management in the City of Cape Town harbours many
untapped opportunities for innovation and transformation. The paperwork is done.

1. Introduction
The Sustainability Institute in Lynedoch, have secured UNF-funding for their
“Integrated Resource Management for Urban Development” project. This
report provides baseline information about the Water and Sanitation service,
with the emphasis on Cape Town. It is one of the three baseline studies
drafted during the first phase of the project. Baseline reports have also been
drafted for the energy and the waste sectors. These three baseline reports
represent the first phase of the broader process, which aims to assist Cape
Town with identification of more sustainability practices.

1.1 Project Location


The project focuses on the area under jurisdiction of the City of Cape Town
(COCT). The COCT is located in the Western Cape Province and covers
approximately 2 500 m2 of land in the south-eastern corner of South Africa.

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 8 8
Figure 1: Project Location

The City of Cape Town has a 371km long coastline and varying topography
which ranges from the low lying Cape Flats area to high mountains such as
Table Mountain, which towers more 1000m above sea level, and is fairly
close to the sea.

Cape Town‟s rivers are relatively small and are generally not used for
domestic water supply. Most rivers in the City have carried the brunt of urban
development, displaying poor water quality1 and high levels of alien
infestation and siltation. Some larger city rivers worth mentioning are the
Salt-, the Diep-, the Black-, the Eerste-, Kuils-, Moddergat- and Lourens
rivers. The rivers which are utilised as water sources lie mostly outside of the
City of Cape Town jurisdiction. These are the tributaries to the Berg River
namely the Wolwekloof and Banhoek tributaries, Sonderend-, Palmiet-, Klein
Berg- and Leeu rivers. Of these, the Berg River which flows in a northerly
and later westerly direction is by far the largest.

Cape Town has 64% of the Western Cape‟s population (Census 2001) and it
generates 76% of the regions Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The City is
blessed with unique geophysical features and natural resources, which form
the backbone of the highly lucrative tourism industry. Its mountains, coastline
and rich biodiversity are part of an extremely valuable natural heritage has
become increasingly threatened by the pressures of urban development.

The socio-economic and development challenges of the City are huge.


During the past decade poverty and unemployment have almost doubled, the
housing backlog has more than doubled, drug-related crime has tripled, HIV
prevalence has increased tenfold and public transport has deteriorated2. This
social deterioration has ironically occurred in spite of the significant economic
growth (4% annual increase in GGP), improvements in the provision of basic
services (water, waste, electricity) and expansion of the tourism industry.

Decades of distorted development in the city has manifested in highly skewed


distribution of income and wealth. In Cape Town there is a trend towards
rising poverty (from 25% in 1996 to 38% of households living below or
marginally above the household poverty line in 2005). High levels of poverty
and unemployment raises the issue of affordability of the service. The
document will attempt to highlight these and other critical issues facing the
water and sanitation sector in the City of Cape Town.

1
See Water Quality indicators in the Sustainability Report, COCT, 2005
2
COCT, 2007 :Executive Summary :Water Services Development Plan (WSDP)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 9 9
1.2 Project Scope and Outcomes

This baselines report summarises available information relating to the


management and operation of the water and sanitation systems in Cape
Town. Information has been sourced from a broad spectrum of (mostly local)
references, the majority of which are “unpublished” internal City of Cape Town
documents, and Council Portfolio Committee reports.

This document is submitted electronically and consists of two components:


Water and Sanitation Baseline Study - Text document in Word Format
Water Resource References – Spreadsheet in Excel Format with links
(where available) to the actual document.

Information in this Main text document will be discussed under 7 headings:

1) Introduction and background


2) Policy and Knowledge Context
3) Regulatory and Institutional Environment
4) Water and Sanitation Usage Patterns
5) Technology Interventions
6) Financial Aspects
7) Challenges, Constraints and Future Plans

This document aims to summarise key issues and publications and further
investigation into highlighted documents or issues is enabled via the reference
systems and Water Resource References spreadsheet and accompanying CD.
This reference tool is a first attempt to collate key polices, documents and
research papers in the water and sanitation sector, in a user friendly table.
Where available, hyperlinks have been established to the actual documents,
which are saved on the same CD as the spreadsheet. In order to remain
effective, this spreadsheet should be updated on a regular basis to reflect the
rapidly changing legal and research environment in the water and sanitation
sector.

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2. Policy and Knowledge context
South Africa is a water poor country and yet prior to 1994, not much had been
done to address this reality. Water allocation and sanitation provision was
driven by racial bias and the previous National Water Act 54 of 1956, placed
industrial and agricultural water needs above any social and/or environmental
water concerns. Although a mismatched distribution of water between
various user groups is still evident today, national water policy in South Africa
is at the frontier of international thinking and the soundly underpinned by the
principles of equity, sustainability and efficiency. The gap between policy and
practice however remains one of the key challenges to water managers in all
tiers of government.

The following item briefly outlines key policy documents and their implications
for the water sector, post 1994.

2.1 National Legislation, Polices and Strategies Governing Water and


Sanitation Management
The following sections provide an overview of the National legislative
environment within which water management occurs in South Africa. A brief
synopsis of the relevance to the water sector is provided. Where indicated, a
link will provide access to the full document in the Water Resource
References spreadsheet (when read in CD format), which accompanies this
word document.
2.1.1 Constitution of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996
The Constitution presents an overarching obligation to sustainable
environmental management, which calls for local government to provide
services in a sustainable manner, provide a safe and healthy environment for
all communities, promote social and economic development and ensure
transparent governance.

Section 156 of the Constitution includes a set of prescribed legislative and


executive functions of local government which include issues such as air
pollution, municipal planning, provision of infrastructure such as electricity,
municipal transport systems (air, road, rail and water), health services, water
and sanitation services and stormwater management.

The right to a healthy environment, which is protected for present and future
generations, is assigned in Section 24 of this Act. Recent legislation such as
the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act serves to support the

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 11
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constitutional rights of citizens and facilitate effective enforcement of those
rights.

The importance of access to water on an equitable basis has formed part of


the political debate since the development of the Freedom Charter and the
establishment of the new Constitution and Section 27 (1) (b) states that
“Everyone has the right to have access to sufficient water”. Post 1994, the
new Constitution paved the way for a fundamental water law review process.
The following table provides a summary of the major phases of the water
policy process:

3
Figure 2: Water Policy Process: Major phases and activities

In the WRC review, from which the above table was extracted, other macro
policy development which followed the promulgation of the Constitution, such
as the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), are expanded

3
From : An Assessment of the Water Policy Process in South Africa (1994-2003), WRC Report
No TT232/04, June 2004

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upon. These broader processes and the principles contained therein had a
direct influence on the water policy development process.

The following section will briefly summarise the intent of some of the key acts,
policies and strategies, that are ultimately rooted in Constitution and which
have a bearing on the water and sanitation sector.
2.1.2 Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, 1994 and 1997 White Paper.
These documents saw a fundamental shift in national government
involvement in the delivery of basic water and sanitation services to
previously disadvantaged people, many whom were in rural areas. The
concept of domestic water for basic human needs and realistic pricing also
accompanied this process.
2.1.3 The Water Services Act 108 of 1997
This Act primarily legislates the municipal function for providing water supply
and sanitation services. Its mandate stems from the Constitutional right to
sufficient water and the Act gives local authorities the ability to manage their
own water supply. As part of the Integrated Development Plan (IDP)4, the Act
stipulates that every water service authority must prepare a Water Services
Development Plan (WSDP)5. The Act includes measures to promote water
conservation and demand management.
2.1.4 National Water Act 1998 No 36 of 1998
The National Water Act is acknowledged as one of the most progressive
water acts in the world and has been translated into many languages,
including Chinese6. The act represents the outcome of a consultative water
law review process, which started in 1994 under the then Minister of Water
Affairs and Forestry, Kader Asmal. A key shift in emphasis had occurred and
the principles of equity, efficiency and sustainability have become common
drivers of many new strategies and policies emerging from this act.

This act legislates the protection, use, development, conservation, control and
management of the water resource both groundwater and surface water. Its
mandate stems from the Bill of Rights in the Constitution, Section 24, that
states that „everyone has the right to an environment that his not harmful to
their health and well-being‟. This Act represents a progressive departure from
water management attempts in the early 1900, which merely controlled
irrigation. Water law development and management has seen the emergence
of increased legal protection of the sources and all users of water. The
current act is in line with international water management protocol, because
all of aspects of the hydrological cycle must be accounted for and managed.

4
IDP: A strategic plan drawn up by the Municipality to guide all future development.
5
WSDP : A business plan setting out the ways in which the water service authority must plan and
deliver water services to business and individuals in the area of jurisdiction
6
Impumelelo Case Studies, 2004 : Water

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Various policies and strategies have stemmed from this act to address the
various components of the water cycle.

2.1.5 Municipal Structures Act (Act 33 of 2000)


The establishment of municipalities in accordance with the requirements
relating to categories and types of municipalities is provided for in this act.
The division of functions and powers between categories of municipalities is
outlined and this Act allocates the responsibility for water services to the
District Municipality or local municipality if authorized by the Minister of
Provincial and Local government.

2.1.6 Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000)


This act focuses of the internal systems and administration of a municipality.
The Act introduces the differentiation between the function of an authority and
that of a provider. It focuses on the internal systems and administration of a
municipality and identifies the importance of alternative mechanisms for
providing municipal services and sets out certain requirements for entering
into partnerships. The Act requires that all Municipalities draw up an
Integrated Development plan (IDP) to strategically guide all future
development in the Municipal area.

2.1.7 Basic Household Sanitation Policy (2001)


Four key themes emerge from this policy7:
Demand driven development
Affordable systems
Dual responsibility
Full participation
Of these four, DWAF states that demand driven development is the single
most important concept.

2.1.8 National Water Resource Strategy (2004)


This strategy sets out the blueprint for water management in South Africa. It
clarifies the differences between the National Water Act and the Water
Services Act and reconciles demand for water with available supply. The role
of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry as central decision makers is
clearly defined and cooperation amongst various tiers of government and
various water management sectors, such as Catchment Management
Agencies (CMA) is promoted as the key to success of future resource
management.

7
Impumelelo, 2004 Series of Best Practice, Water

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2.1.9 National Water Conservation and Water Demand Strategy and Water
Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the Water
Services Sector (2004)
The Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the
Water Services sector form one of three components of the National Water
Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy (NWC/DM). The
other two components are the Agriculture sector strategy and the Industry,
Mining and Power Generation sector strategy. The NWC/DM is itself a
contribution to the National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS), which is a
requirement of the National Water Act. The WC/DM Strategy document for
the Water Services sector outlines the objectives, constraints and
opportunities as well as institutional roles to those involved with WC/DM.
References to useful supporting guidelines and tools to implement the
strategy are also included8.

2.1.10 Strategic Framework for Water Services (2003)


The national Strategic Framework for Water Services is a critical policy
document setting out the future approach to the provision of water services.

Of the national targets set, the most critical for Cape Town are9:
All people are to have access to functioning basic water supply by 2008
(achieved in CCT in 2005/06)
All people are to have access to functioning basic sanitation by 2010
(CCT are aiming for 2012 due to the extent of the requirement and its
unique constraints)
Investment in water services infrastructure should total > 0,75% of GDP
Institutional reform of regional water services providers to be completed
by 2013, with Water Services managed and accounted for separately
Annual reporting on key performance indicators to be started.

2.1.11 Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993


This act is essentially aimed at protecting workers at the workplace against
potential hazards in terms of health and safety. In order to comply with the
requirements of this is act, the City of Cape Town has a Health and Safety
Management System10 in place which outlines the procedures required to
create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment for al Water
Services employees.

8
DWAF, 2004: Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the Water
Services Sector, Pg 23.
9
From COCT, 2007 WSDP
10
COCT, 2005 : Safety, Health and Environment Policy and procedure Manual

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 15
15
2.1.12 National Disaster Management Act 2002
The National Disaster Management Act emphasises preparedness,
prevention and mitigation. The act calls for the drafting of disaster
management plans, which outline contingency plans and emergency
procedures. Of particularly significance to the water services is the
requirement to develop contingencies and emergency procedures to deal with
the floods, dam safety, drought and water pollution.

2.1.13 National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) Act 107 of 1998)


The National Environmental Management Act gives affect to the
Constitutional rights to a healthy living and working environment, and provides
legal power to prevent or limit environmental degradation by the activities of
government or the private sector. NEMA is an overarching piece of legislation
that provides a framework for environmental principles and policies and their
implementation11. Some of the principles such as “polluter pays”,
“environmental justice” and “integrated environmental management” and
requirements such as “community participation”, “empowerment” and
“environment education” bring new challenges to governance, management
and enforcement. Pertinent to all sectors of services delivery is also the
demand for social, environmental and economic sustainability. The
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) requirement for activities, which
could have a significant impact on the environment, is specified in Section 24
of this act.

2.1.14 Environmental Conservation (ECA) Act 73 of 1989


The ECA aims to reduce the potential negative environmental impacts of
activities related to development, and to promote sustainable development.
Activities that would require and EIA , mentioned above, are listed under
Section 21 of this act and sections 22, and 26 set out procedures for
conducting an EIA. Various activities within the water and waste service fall
within the EIA Regulations.

2.1.15 Municipal Finance Management Act, 56 of 2003


This act outlines the roles and responsibilities of Municipalities in terms of
their financial management systems. Supply Chain Management
requirements and procurement procedures are specified. Although intended
to streamline procurements, the lengthy procedures and contract limitations of
the Act often hinders service delivery in the water sector.

11
Impumelelo, 2004 : Series of best practice : Environment

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16
2.2 Provisional Spatial Growth and Development Strategy (Green paper),
2006 and Western Cape Provincial Spatial Development Framework, 2006
Legislation, Policies and Strategies Governing Water Management

These two provincial strategies form the overarching growth and development
frameworks for the Province. Key challenges and opportunities are
highlighted and targets are set. These documents provide the medium term
strategic framework, which should be fleshed out in the various Integrated
Development Plans for each Local Authority. Various Provincial Growth and
Development Strategies should in turn meet the National requirements.

2.3 Local Government (COCT) Legislation, Policies and Strategies and key
interventions Governing Water and Sanitation Management
The following sections outlines the key polices and strategies that have been
developed by the City of Cape Town to meet Provincial and National
requirements:
2.3.1 Integrated Development Plan (2007)
As mentioned above, the Municipal Systems Act, 32 of 2000, requires that
Municipalities draw up a strategic plan which should guide all future
developments. The Integrated Development Plan (IDP) identifies
Municipalities development priorities and is used by political, business and
community leadership to determine activities and operational plans and guide
the allocation of resources. It also seeks to alleviate poverty, boost local
economic development, eradicate unemployment and promote the process of
reconstruction and development12. The Municipal Systems Act (2000) and
the Municipal Financial Management Act (2003) require that the IDP be
reviewed annually.
2.3.2 City Development Strategy (Sakha Ikapa 2030)
The City is currently developing a long term Human Settlement Plan. This
strategy aims to result in substantial changes in settlement patterns, land use,
energy and water and waste issues.

2.3.3 Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework (MSDF)


The Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework aims to guide the
management of future settlement development in order to promote
integration, equity, redistribution, environmental protection and quality of life.
The spatial implications of concepts highlighted in the IDP are visualized in
this document, which should direct decisions on public capital and operating
expenditure, as well as private development proposals. The highly
fragmented spatial planning and documentation of the past has made the
integration of more than 200 local development frameworks into one

12
COCT, 2005 Integrated Development Plan 2005/6

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17
integrated document such as the MSDF, a highly complicated and time
consuming task.

2.3.4 Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Policy (IMEP) (GOTO 6.2) and


Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Management Strategy (IMEMS)
(GOTO 6.2)
IMEP represents the City of Cape Town‟s overarching environmental policy,
and was adopted by the City in October 2001. It is a statement of intent and a
commitment to certain principles and ethics. IMEP has lead the way for the
development of various sectoral strategies which detail goals, targets,
programmes and actions needed to ensure sustainable resource use and
management in the City of Cape Town.

The Policy provides a vision for the environment of Cape Town in the year
2020, which includes the following13 :

“Wastewater treatment facilities will be efficient and comply with legislative


requirements, and
“Water and energy resources and utilisation will be optimally and efficiently
managed”

The Integrated Metropolitan Environmental Strategy which followed outlines


the implementation plan for achieving the 2020 vision.
2.3.5 Water Services Development Plan (WSDP)
The Water Services Act, 1997, requires that all Water Services Authorities
(WSAs) prepare a Water Services Development Plan. Thereafter the WSAs
have to periodically review, update and adapt the plan as well as report
annually on progress with its implementation. To date the City of Cape Town
has developed three reports, of which the latest 2006/07 to 2011/12 is
currently in draft format. The WSDP is essentially a 5 year business plan
setting out the way in which the WSA must plan and deliver services to
individuals and businesses in its area of jurisdiction.

2.3.6 Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy for Cape


Town (2007)
The City of Cape Town recently adopted a new Water Conservation and
Demand Management Strategy14, which links directly with vision and
principles Water Services Department, and meets the water resource
management, water conservation and water demand management
requirements of the Water Act and the Water Services Act. The most recent
WC/WDM strategy replaces and/or incorporates all previous related plans and

13
COCT, 2001 Integrated Environmental Management Policy
14
COCT, 2007 Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy (Final Draft)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 18
18
programmes15, and presents a very comprehensive, albeit optimistic, future
commitment for the water service. The strategy is discussed in more detail
in the next chapter.

2.3.7 By-Laws
The following table provides a summary of the City of Cape Town by-laws that
relate to the water services:

By-law Date Short Description Effect on Water Services


promulgated
Water 1 September To control and regulate water More effective
2006 services in the City management of the use of
water and sanitation
services by users
Wastewater and 1 September To control and regulate sewerage More effective
Industrial 2006 and industrial effluent and management of the
Effluent discharges discharge of industrial
effluent by users
Credit Control Still in draft To give effect to the Council‟s Water Services is more
and Debt form. credit control and debt collection financially sustainable.
Collection policy, its implementation and
(Existing policy enforcement, as required by
dated June Section 98 of the Municipal
2004) Systems Act, 32 of 2000, and to
give effect to the duty imposed by
Section 96 of the Municipal
Systems Act to collect all money
that is due and payable to the
Council.

By-law relating 23 September To provide for the regulation of More effective


to Stormwater 2005 stormwater management and to management of the
Management regulate activities which may have discharge of stormwater by
a detrimental effect on the users
development, operation or
maintenance of the stormwater
system
Treated Effluent In preparation To control and regulate the use of More effective
treated effluent in the City management of the use of
treated effluent by users

16
Table 1: By-laws affecting Water Services

2.3.12 Safety Health and Environment: Policy and Procedures Manual


(2005)

The purpose of this document is to outline the procedures that are required to be
developed and put into practice to fulfill the requirements of the Occupational
Health and Safety, Act No. 85 (OH&S Act) of 1993. The NOSA Management
System has been adopted as a framework for this policy.
15
Replaces 2001 Policy and 2005 10 Point Conservation Plan
16
COCT, 2007 WSDP

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19
2.3.13 Sustainability Reporting
This report, formally know as the State of the Environment Report, tracks the
health of the City in terms of key indicators. Of particular significance to the
water and sanitation sector is the reporting on matters such as health of
rivers, vleis and coastal bathing areas, and access to basic services. The
document provides a means of benchmarking tracking overall progress and
performance of the City.

2.4 Policies for Sustainability

The UN Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000 during the


largest gathering of world leaders in history (147 Heads of State and
Government and 189 Member States) committing their nations to a new
global partnership to reduce extreme poverty. This series of time-bound
targets, with a deadline of 2015, have become known as the Millennium
Development Goals. The declaration contains 8 goals, 18 targets and 48
indicators for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions: income
poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion, while
promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.

In the context of this review, the following extracts17 from MDG particularly
significant:

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Goal 7 has the following targets:

Target 9. Integrated the principles of sustainable development into


country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental
resources
Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable
access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Target 10 has the following two water and sanitation related indicators:

Indicator 30: Proportion of population with sustainable access to an


improved water source, urban and rural
Indicator 31: Proportion of population with access to improved
sanitation, urban and rural

South Africa‟s written commitment to sustainability is evident and its progress


at meeting the MDG‟s is outlined in the Department of Environmental Affairs

17
From UN Millennium Project website : www.unmillenniumproject.org/index.htm

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 20
20
and Tourism‟s (DEAT) latest strategy for sustainable development (described
below). At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg,
the commitment to sustainable development was reaffirmed and poverty
eradication was placed at the centre of its efforts.

In their recently published National Framework for Sustainable Development


(NFSD) in South Africa18, the DEAT have attempted to develop and
consolidate a National Strategy and action plan to achieve the Millennium
Development Goals.

The Vision of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development is:

“South Africa aspires to be a sustainable economically prosperous and


self-reliant nation state that safeguards its democracy by seeing to the
fundamental human needs of its people by managing it limited
ecological resources responsibly for current and future generations and
by advancing the efficiency of integrated planning and governance
through collaboration nationally, regionally and globally.”

The Strategy identifies the following water and sanitation related risks:

Water shortage due to a combination of climate change and


increased demand if exiting technologies and management practices
remand unchanged
Declining quality of water supplies and resultant const increases of
infrastructure design and expenditure do not take into account the
need to mitigate pollution impacts from human systems
Shrinking supply relative to demand coupled to an agriculture and
industry bias in pricing structure which push up prices for domestic
households beyond affordability levels of poor communities
Impact of climate change on both water supplies and irrigation
requirements of the agricultural sector in certain critical river
catchment areas
Rising levels of sewerage output as middle class settlements expand
and pit latrine systems are installed in low-income areas where soil
structure are inappropriate, with limited efforts to re-use and recycle
these flows of nutrients and chemicals.

The NSSD has identified the following priorities area for strategic intervention:

Sustaining our ecosystems and using natural resources efficiently


Investing in sustainable infrastructure
Creating sustainable communities

18
DEAT, 2006 : National Strategy for Sustainable Development. (Draft Integrated Strategy for
Review)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 21
21
Enhancing systems for integrated planning
Building capacity for sustainable development

The Freedom Charter and Bill of Rights in the Constitution of South African
paved the way for a water law review process which saw a fundamental shift
in emphasis towards the principles of equity and sustainability. The Preamble
of the National Water Act, 1998 makes the following ultimate recognition19:

“..that the ultimate aim of water resource management is to achieve the


sustainable use of water for the benefit of all users;”

Key post-constitutional developments in water law policy included the


development of the Water Law Principles20 which lead to the White Paper on
a National Water Policy for South Africa21. These principles and policies were
followed by the promulgation of the Water Services Act and the National
Water Act, 1998 as discussed above. Implementation initiatives such as the
National Water Resource Strategy and the National Water Conservation and
Water Demand Management Strategy, references above, represent the
overall National policy framework within which the water services operates. In
print the sustainable management of our scarce water resources is a driving
philosophy which has underpinned all the post 1994 water management
processes and documentation.

At the local government level, the City of Cape Town has made noteworthy
progress in terms of incorporating the concept of sustainable resource
management into their driving policies and strategies. Overarching
documents such as the IDP, MSDF and IMEP set the City wide values and
objectives.

The first vision statement of the City‟s IDP is:

“… to establish Cape Town as a sustainable city that offers a future to


our children and their children”

Under IDP Strategic Focus Area: Sustainable Infrastructure, the following is


particularly significant:

Objective 3.1 “improved leveraging of the available funds without


compromising the Council’s ability to sustain service delivery”

The strategic intent of the Water Services is expressed in their vision22 :

19
DWAF, 1998 National Water Act
20
DWAF 1996 Water Law Principles
21
DWAF 1997 White Paper on National Water Policy for South Africa
22
COCT, 2007(Power Point Presentation) :Water and Sanitation -WSDP Executive Summary

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 22
22
“To become a leader in the provision of equitable, sustainable, people-
centred, affordable and credible water services to all”.

In their efforts to cut back on printed paper, the City recently compiled a
reference CD, which contains the equivalent of over 800 printed pages of
policy and strategy documents towards sustainable development23.

Many of the water resource management realities today however indicate


practices which are contradictory to the intent of the policy documents
governing water management.

2.5 Sustainability of water and sanitation provision in Cape Town

The City of Cape Town has made great strides towards the development of
sustainable policies, but most citizens who tolerate the risk related realities of
their un-serviced and/or overcrowded dwellings, polluted rivers and oceans
and skylines and the consequences of inappropriate development would
question the extent to which „paper commitments‟ are being met.

The preceding section has highlighted the abundance of water and sanitation
related policy documents and processes. Although South African water law is
at the frontier of international water law development, the realities of past
injustices more often than not, retards the policy implementation process.

The following critical water and sanitation related challenges were identified in
the Cities most recent Water Services Development Plan (WSDP)24 :

Eradicating the backlog of basic sanitation services


Achieving the essential targets for reducing water demand
Meeting the wastewater effluent standards and thereby reducing the
impact on the water quality of urban rivers,
Asset management and ensuring that infrastructure is extended in time
to meet the development growth demands.
Ensuring full cost recovery and debt management at a fair tariff, and
financing of capital investment.

Many of the above practice are in direct violation of various tiers of legislation.

The WSDP furthermore offers the following alarming insights:

Of the R750 million in capital expenditures required to manage water


and sanitation services sustainably, the Water and Sanitation

23
COCT, 2006 (CD): City of Cape Town policy and strategy documents towards sustainable
development through integrated environmental management
24
COCT, 2007 :WSDP Executive Summary

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 23
23
Services Department is currently only getting approximately R450
million(based on 2006/7 budget). There is a shortfall of R300 million
in capital funds.
Block capital finance to relay water mains was eliminated in 2001/02.
The water reticulation system suffers from budgetary neglect.
In 2005/6 the City eliminated its contribution to the Capital Renewal
Reserve (CRR), which is a fund for the upgrading and replacement of
infrastructure and is funded from the surplus made in previous
financial years.
Finances for the Water and Sanitation Services Department have
been deteriorating due in part to poor revenue collection and
increasing bad debt, and there is currently no funding source through
which to maintain infrastructure.
No funding for the upgrade and replacement of infrastructure was
available up until June 30th, 2007.

Finally, “the pressures to deliver” (or speed at which results need to be


achieved) often pose the biggest threat to the sustainability of projects.
Pressures could be (one or a combination of) legal, political, financial and/or
social environmental reasons.

A pilot service delivery project, which used DWAF‟s Dense Settlement


Strategy in Kalkfontein25, highlights the importance of community participation
in all aspects of a project. Time constraints in service delivery projects often
leads to token or no public involvement. In his paper, Scmitz26, highlights
some of the concerns related with accelerated pace of delivery. These were
combined with general observations and project lessons to develop the
following checklist:

Project Sustainability Check List:


Needs driven projects are easier to implement than desktop
developed projects (bottom up vs. top down approach)
Alignment should be ensured with broader strategies and policies
(e.g. Acts, IDP, MSDF etc)
Community participation is required at all levels : from planning to
operations
Monitoring and evaluation systems should be determined before hand
and implementation and sustained
Appropriate technology, that meets social, economic and
environmental requirements to be used

25 Della Togna M & Pithey S , 2003 (VIDEO and CD). Improving Services Trough Dialogue. The
Kalkfontein Stormwater Project. Rainbow Circle Films, Cape Town.

26
Scmitz, T, 1999 : Rethinking delivery : A review of efforts of DWAF, CPS Policy Analysis

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 24
24
Affordability of service: capital and long term operational cost (very
important) should be determined and committed over the long term
Ownership and accountability is required throughout the lifetime of a
project

These items are particularly significant to fast tracked water and sanitation
projects in high density/low-income areas, where basic services are often
politicised.

2.6 Capacity building strategies

The Water Conservation and Water Demand Strategy placed a high priority
on capacity building. The following extracts indicate progress in this regard:
Hlonipha Amanzi (Respect Water) Programme27
In 2006/07 Water and Sanitation Services launched their “Hlonipha Amanzi”
Programme. The programme covered 30 informal areas.
The project was aimed at informing and educating informal communities on
the basic services provided. The campaign promoted and encouraged
community cooperation to better manage valuable resources such as water,
to help keep the environment and themselves clean and to prevent the spread
of diseases associated with an unhealthy environment. Through this it was
hoped to build better communities.

The objectives of the project were:


Promotion of sustainable service delivery
Promotion of improved management of existing resources
Promotion of health and well-being of individuals
Education on how to be responsible and create a safe, secure and
hygienic community
Making information/reporting lines more accessible

A series of workshops were held in each area covering topics such as service
delivery elements, vandalism, unhealthy environments, disease/germs and
what the community can do to prevent this. The workshops culminated in
washing of hands, tea/coffee and sandwiches for all and presentation of
certificates for all attendees as well as a bucket, soap, and soap dispenser.
The last workshop in each area also had lucky draws for small prizes, like
retail store vouchers and food hampers.

The sustainability and effectiveness of initiatives need to be gauged.

27
From COCT 2007, WSDP

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25
2.7 Western Cape Reconciliation Study and Berg River CMA Process

A study to identify and prioritise future water supply is currently underway.

The Western Cape Reconciliation Study aims to develop future strategies to


reconcile projected water demands with the supply from the Western Cape
Water Supply System (WCWSS)28. The Reconciliation Study builds upon
previous studies such as Western Cape System Analysis study undertaken
between 1989 and 1995 and other more recent water resource planning
studies. The outcome will be a shortlist of options to be studies at feasibility
level and the study has been designed to facilitate public input into the
selection and screening of options.

The Reconciliation Study will also be used to launch the process to establish
a Catchment Management Agency (CMA) for the Berg Water Management
Area (WMA). The objective of the Berg CMA will be to manage the water
resources within the Berg WMA and to involve stakeholders in the protection,
use, development, conservation, management and control of these water
resources29. This process is discussed in the next chapter.

The following table provides a list of Water Demand Management and Water
Supply Options to be considered in the Study and should be read in
conjunction with the accompanying map:

28
WCWSS : The system includes five large dams, namely the Upper and Lower Steenbras and the
Wemmershoek Dams owned by the City of Cape Town, and the Voëlvlei and Theewaterskloof Dams owned
by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. In addition, there are a number of smaller dams and weirs
including the Kogelberg, Rockview, Kleinplaas and Misverstand Dams.
29
From DWAF, 2005 Newsletter 1 : Western Cape Reconciliation Study and Berg River CMA
Process

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 26
26
WS - Wide Spread implementation of options across the system area.
OMA - Outside Map Area
Water Supply Options Water Demand Management Options
SURFACE WATER SCHEMES AGRICULTURAL WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT
Dams: River Release Management:
1 Twenty-Four Rivers 23 Riviersonderend
2 Waterval River 24 Berg River
3 Lower Wit River 25 Voëlvlei/Misverstand
4 Upper Wit River Irrigation Practices:
5 Upper Campanula Scheme WS Canal and Farm Dam Losses
Diversions: WS Crop-Deficit Irrigation
6 Lourens River WS Drip/Microjet /Sprinkler irrigation
7 Eerste River
8 Olifants River (Keerom) TRADING OF EXISTING ALLOCATIONS
9 Upper Wit River 26 Eikenhof Dam
10 Upper Molenaars River 27 Lower Berg River
11 Michells Pass 28 Greater Ceres Dam (Koekedouw Scheme)
12 Voëlvlei Augmentation Phase 1
Dam Raisings: REMOVAL OF INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS
13 Misverstand WS Within catchments
14 Lower Steenbras WS Riparian Zones
15 Theewaterskloof
16 Voëlvlei Augmentation Phases 2 and 3 URBAN WATER-DEMAND MANAGEMENT
Transfers: WS Leak detection and repair
17 Brandvlei to Theewaterskloof Transfer WS Pressure management
WS Use of water-efficient fittings
GROUND WATER SCHEMES WS Metering and plumbing repairs in low income areas
18 Table Mountain Group Aquifer WS Use of grey water
19 Cape Flats Aquifer WS Use of well points and boreholes
20 West Coast Aquifers including recharge WS Metering
21 Newlands Aquifer WS Tariffs and surcharges / credit control
WS Water User education
DESALINATION WS Rainwater tanks
22 Desalination alone/with co-generation of energy
WATER RE-USE
OTHER SCHEMES WS Exchange reclaimed wastewater for commercial irrigation
OMA Congo River Options WS Industrial re-use
OMA WS Reclamation to potable water standards
Tanker /Inflatable bladders
OMA Orange River (Sea/Surface Pipeline) WS Urban irrigation
OMA Towing of Icebergs WS New housing (dual reticulation)
WS Aquifer recharge

Table 2: An initial list of Water Demand Management and Water Supply Options to be
considered in the Western Cape Reconciliation Study.

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 27
27
Figure 3: Location of initial Water Demand Management and Water Supply Options to be
considered in the Western Cape Reconciliation Study30

30
DWAF 2005 Western Cape Reconciliation Process and Berg River CMA Process, Newsletter
May 2005

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 28
28
3. Regulatory and Institutional Environment
3.1 Regulatory System

The previous chapter lists most of the policies and guidelines which govern
activities in the water and sanitation sector. This report is submitted with a
spreadsheet which provides a summary of the Acts, policies and regulations
and key documents which govern water and sanitation management in the
City of Cape Town.

It is evident that the current regulatory system demands an understanding of


a broad spectrum of laws policies and regulations. In our evolving democracy,
South Africa‟s laws and polices are constantly being amended and/or updated
or replaced. Most municipal managers are however so overburdened by their
operational responsibilities that little time is available to stay abreast of
changing laws. .

3.2 Institutions

The following sections will briefly discuss the historical and future institutional
arrangements in the water and sanitation management sector of the City of
Cape Town.

3.2.1 Historical Background


It is important to reflect on the historical perspective of the current system of
Municipal Water Services management in the City of Cape Town. The
following section is extracted from the most recent (2007) draft Water
Serviced Development Plan31:

Prior to 1994, the current City of Cape Town area consisted of a large number
of smaller municipalities, or councils. The dominant municipality was the
Cape Town City Council (CCC), which at the time also owned and operated
the bulk water supply system. Outside of the CCC area, the bulk supply
system and the secondary distribution systems of the various municipalities
were separated, with metered bulk off-takes used by the CCC for billing
purposes. Within the CCC area however, the bulk- and secondary systems
were integrated, since all its consumers were billed directly.
With the political changes in 1994, the smaller municipalities in the CMA were
amalgamated into 6 Metropolitan Local Councils (MLC‟s), with the Cape
Metropolitan Council (CMC) as a regional local authority in charge of bulk
services This prompted a separation of the bulk- and secondary systems in
the old CCC area.
In December 2000, the unified City of Cape Town (CCT) was formed, by the
amalgamation of the six short-lived MLC‟s and the former CMC.
31
COCT, 2007: WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 29
29
Currently the Bulk Water Branch within the CCT operates the bulk water
supply system, and supplies water to the Reticulation Branch‟s eight
reticulation districts who in turn distribute the water to the end users. The
number of districts may reduce from eight to four for operational efficiency.
The eight districts are required to interact with 22 sub-councils from a political
perspective to ensure co-ordination and integration at political level.

The Drakenstein (including the towns of Paarl and Wellington) and


Stellenbosch Municipalities located outside the CCT area, also purchase
water in bulk from the CCT.
Raw water is treated at water treatment plants which are operated by the Bulk
Water Branch, from where it is distributed via a network of large diameter
pipelines and reservoirs to the districts. The bulk networks are operated by
the Bulk Water Branch up to the metered connection points of the eight
districts. Downstream of the meters, the secondary distribution networks are
operated by the respective districts.
Wastewater collection and treatment is also carried out in-house, with the
wastewater collection function falling under the Reticulation Branch, whilst
treatment is undertaken by the Wastewater Treatment Branch.

3.2.2 Current and Future Institutional Arrangements

The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, who are the custodians of
South Africa‟s water resources and the key national department to whom local
government are accountable to.

The current organizational structure for water management in the City of


Cape Town is as follows:

Water Services Directorate

WDM & Strategy Customer & Revenue Management

Technical Services

Bulk Water Supply

Wastewater Treatment

Water and Sewerage Reticulation

32
Figure 4: Water Services Organisational Structure

32
COCT 2007 Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy for Cape Town

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 30
30
Reports on institutional matters are riddled with references to lack of capacity,
significant staff losses, delays in the transformation process and low staff
moral.

Two current institutional reform processes are currently underway and could
have major implications for the future operations and management of water
services in the City of Cape Town:

The Separation of the Water Services Authority and the Water


Services Provider, and
The Establishment of the Berg River Catchment Management Area

The following section provides a synopsis of these processes and the


anticipated consequences:

3.2.2.1 Separation of Water Services Authority (WSA) and Water Services


Provider (WSP)

Cape Town‟s intent follows the national agenda, which is to set up a public
and tariff service for water provision with economic growth and job creation
set as high priorities.

The decision to set up a separate Water Services Authority (WSA) and a ring-
fenced Water Services Provider (WSP) was reconfirmed by Council in June
2004 based on the recommendations of a USAID funded review of potential
business units33. This institutional reform process is also guided by the
Strategic Framework for Water Services (SFWS)34 which provides the
following definitions:

Water Services Authorities have the constitutional responsibilities for


planning, ensuring access to and regulating provision of water services
within the area of jurisdiction. They ay provide waters services
themselves and/or contract external water services providers to
undertake the provisions function on their behalf. They are responsible
for securing licenses from DWAF (or CMA‟s where established) and
regulate provision of water through by-laws and contracts

Water Service providers are the organizations that assume operational


responsibility for providing water and/or sanitation services and where
that services is provided on behalf of a water service authority is must
do so in terms of a service delivery agreement (contract) with the water
service authority

33
ODA, aloeCap and Africon, 2004 : “High level review of the project to establish internal
business units for Electricity, Water and Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Services”
34
DWAF, 2003, Strategic Framework for Water Services

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 31
31
The SFWS sets goals and targets for water services in South Africa and
provides a road map for the establishment of and separation of the authority
and the provider. The process in Cape Town has been delayed due to delays
in the transformation process.

A WRC survey35 identified the following key international trends in institutional


development:

A move towards integrated water cycle management


Increasing separation of regulatory and operational responsibilities
A move towards the decentralization of operations
Increasing emphasis on public participation, especially in policy
making and planning
A move towards treating water as an economic resource
Greater adoption of commercial management practices and
techniques
Increased private sector involvement

3.2.2.2 Establishment of the Berg River Catchment Management Area


(CMA)

The National Water Act provides for the establishment of CMAs as statutory
bodies to manage water resources within hydrologically defined catchments,
called Water Management Areas. The City of Cape Town falls within the Berg
River (and Breede River) Water Management Area and is one of the key role-
players in the establishment of the Berg River CMA. As established in the
previous chapter, the Berg River CMA process is currently being rolled-out
concurrent with the Western Cape Reconciliation Study.

Each CMA will be responsible for managing water resources within a defined
Water Management Area. The initial functions are36:

To investigate and advise on the protection, use, development,


conservation, management and control of the water resources;
To develop a catchment management strategy;
To co-ordinate the activities of water users and water management
institutions;
To promote community participation on the protection, use, development,
conservation and control of water resources; and

35
WRC, 1994 Financial and Institutional Review Survey Report: Palmer Development Group
36
DWAF, 2005 Western Cape Reconciliation Process and Berg River CMA Process, Newsletter
May 2005

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 32
32
To promote co-ordination between the implementation of its catchments
management strategy with the implementation of water services
development plans by water services authorities (municipalities).

3.3 Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM)

”The City of Cape Town has adopted a multimillion rand water savings
strategy for the next ten years.”
37
COCT , 2007

As early as 1995, the City of Cape Town committed to a 10% saving on the
historical demand for water, but only by 2002 did the Integrated Water
Resource Planning (IWRP) study38 provided a comparative evaluation of
various water demand initiatives and supply augmentation schemes that
could assist in developing a strategy.

The study concluded that water conservation and water demand


management ranked highly in terms of affordability, implementation
timeframes and was generally found to be more environmentally and socially
acceptable. The Khayelitsha Pressure management project, implemented as
part of the 2001 Strategy was very successful and received wide recognition.

The implementation of the first strategy was however not sustainable and due
to numerous institutional challenges the initial commitment and resources to
WC/WDM were significantly reduced during 2003/2004 financial year and
again during 2005/2006. Water demand management did not appear to be a
budget priority.

The City of Cape Town has recently adopted a new Water Conservation and
Demand Management Strategy39, which links directly with vision and
principles Water Services Department, and meets the water resource
management, water conservation and water demand management
requirements of the Water Act and the Water Services Act. The most recent
WC/WDM strategy replaces and/or incorporates all previous related plans and
programmes40, and presents a very comprehensive, albeit optimistic, future
commitment for the water service.

The purpose of the 2007 WC/WDM strategy, is summarised as

37
COCT, 2007 Media Release 11 June 2007, Communications Department
38
COCT, 2001 : Integrated Water Resource Planning study – Main Report
39
COCT, 2007 Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy (Final Draft)
40
Replaces 2001 Policy and 2005 10 Point Conservation Plan

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 33
33
“to ensure the long-term balance between available Water Resources
and water demand, to postpone the need for expensive capital
infrastructure projects for as long as it is economically viable and to
minimise water wastage.”

Financial efficiency occurs as a main theme throughout the document and it is


hoped to achieve these by :
Reduce operating costs by reducing non–revenue demand
(Unaccounted for water)
Improving operation and maintenance , and
Postponing the need for large expensive infrastructure projects.
Increasing income from consumers through more equitable tariffs and
capacity building amongst non-paying consumers (Current levels of
loss of income could be as high as R 205 million per annum (20% of
total demand at an average selling price of R3.5 /kl)41.

The strategy is divided into 5 goals, which in their turn are divided into 21
objectives. Goals and Objectives fall under two categories:
Implementation Goals and Objectives, which will result in direct
reduction of water demand, and
Enabling Goals and Objectives, which address the institutional and
financial aspects of the strategy.

The following section provides a summary of these:

Implementation Goals and Objectives:

Goal A: CCT must by 2010 reduce and maintain the non-revenue


water to below 15% of the total average demand and within accepted
international benchmarks.

Goal B: Water wastage by consumers should be reduced and


maintained to below 2% of the total demand by 2012 and most
consumers should achieve acceptable water efficiency benchmarks by
2016.

Goal E: Reduce the projected potable water demand to an average


growth rate of no more than 1% pa. for the next 10 years and
conserve Cape Town‟s Water Resources.

41
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 34
34
Enabling Goals and Objectives:

Goal C: CCT must by 2009 ensure and maintain ongoing effective


management systems and implement Integrated Water Resource
Planning in all decisions regarding water resources augmentation, bulk
infrastructure development and water efficiency projects.

Goal D: CCT must adopt WC/WDM as one of the key water service
delivery strategies, and must give priority to its implementation and
ensure an ongoing adequate enabling environment

3.3.1 Progress to date


During the last two years a number of successful WC/WDM projects had been
implemented, most notable projects were the M‟fuleni Integrated Leak Repair
Project, the Fixit Project (see case studies), the education campaigns, treated
effluent recycling and various pressure management projects. The focus on
these projects has reduced non-revenue demand. In addition the tariffs for
treated effluent re-use are being rationalised and should result in additional
income. The additional income is intended to be ring-fenced for use on
WC/DM projects42.

The expected budget for the 2007/2008 financial year is approximately R 7


million for Operations and R 22 million for capital projects. The key projects to
be implemented are43:
Pressure reduction – Mitchells Plain
Recycling of treated effluent – Athlone
Awareness and consumer education – city wide
Enhancement of existing infrastructure
Comprehensive leak projects in low income areas
Fix it leak project – (ad-hock repairs of large leaks)
Other small projects -city wide on priority basis

Anticipated savings have been estimated for all these projects.

The strategy predicts the following savings :

Reduction of water wastage from an estimated 148 Ml/day to 111


Ml/day
Reduction of inefficient water usage from 210 Ml/day to 147 Ml/day
Further treated effluent re-use of approximately 65 Ml/day

42
COCT, 2007 :WSDP Executive Summary
43
COCT, 2007 : (Council Report) Adoption of long-term water conservation and water demand
management strategy and financial plan, incorporating adoption of treated effluent strategy and
master plan

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 35
35
Reduction in the normal natural growth rate due to new consumers by
25 % per annum. Reduce growth rate from 3% to 2%. (excluding
reduction of existing water usage)
It is estimated that water demand can potentially be reduced by 323
Ml/day.
WC/WDM strategy, budget summary of key projects (representing 85% of the budget)
The total programme financial requirements for the next ten years are:
Objective Programme Operating Capital Total x 1000
Objective A1 A1.1 Pressure reduction R 1 110.0 R 9 990 R 11 100
A1.2 Establishment of leak detection task teams R 7 560.0 R 3 240 R 10 800
Objective A2 A2.1 Comprehensive water supply management R 80 800.0 R 121 200
projects in previously disadvantaged areas R 202 000
Objective A3 A3.2 Preventative maintenance R 10 200.0 R0 R 10 200
Objective A4 A4.2 Meter management /replacement programme R 0.0 R 37 300
R 37 300
Objective B1 B1.1 Consumer awareness campaign R 24 700.0 R0 R 24 700
B1.2 Consumer education campaign R 15 610.0 R0 R 15 610
B1.3 School education R 21 850.0 R0 R 21 850
B1.4 Special events R 10 000.0 R0 R 10 000
Objective B2 B2.2 enforcement of by-laws R 7 340.0 R0 R 7 340
Objective B5 B5.1 Implement a plumbing retro –fit programme R 37 850.0 R0
R 37 850
B5.4 Implement an on-going support programme for R 7 880.0 R0
large consumers R 7 880
Objective E1 E1 Recycling of water from wastage plants to R 20 569.0 R 185 121
parks & industry R 205 690
Objective E2 E3.1 Support working for water programme R 8 550.0 R0 R 8 550
Objective C1 C1.1 Establish Distircti management areas R 460.0 R 4 140 R 4 600
Objective C2 C2.1 Management Information System R 0.0 R 27 500 R 27 500
C2.2 Upgrading the telemetry system, remote R 0.0 R 27 980
communications (cell) R 27 980
Other Small projects R 70 596.0 R 17 649 R 88 245
Total R 325 075.0 R 434 120.0 R 759 195
Table 3: WC/WDM Budget requirements of key projects (10 year total)

The estimated financial requirement for the next ten years is R 759 million
whereas the benefit of implementing WC/WDM over the next 10 years is
estimated at approximately R 1694 million44.

This saving is summarised as follows:


Operating costs saving 131.26
Increased revenue, reduce commercial losses, debt management 600.64
Saving from deferring capital projects 1721.73
Revenue from sale of treated effluent 278.17
Sub total 2 453.62
Less cost of strategy 759.20
Total net economic benefit 1694.43

44
COCT, 2007 : (Council Report) Adoption of long-term water conservation and water demand
management strategy and financial plan, incorporating adoption of treated effluent strategy and
master plan

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 36
36
3.3.2 Case Studies

3.3.2.1 Pressure Management


The WC/DM strategy estimated that the pressure reduction (where excess
pressure is reduced in a supply zone, reducing losses through leaks) can
reduce the overall water demand by 25.02 Ml/day. The City of Cape Town
recently completed pressure management projects in Mfuleni and Gugulethu.

The following extracts from the latest WSDP45 summarise the findings:

Mfuleni
The average pressure in this township was reduced from 7 to 4 bar,
generating a saving of 36 000 kl (R200 880) per month. The night flows were
significantly reduced by more than 50%. The low project cost of R300 000
yields a very short payback period of only 2 months. Investigations are being
done to further reduce the pressure at night, by means of time-modulated
specialist controllers.

Gugulethu
Further savings can be obtained from the system installed, but current
statistics indicate a saving in the region of 48 180kl (R 268 844) per month.
The payback period is only 1 month. It is estimated that combined reductions
in demand from the projects has already resulted in savings of approximately
2.5 Ml

3.3.2.2 Leaks Management


This programme involves the fixing of leaks in domestic plumbing on private
property. The City recently undertook two projects:

Mfuleni Integrated Leaks Project


The project aimed to integrate various aspects of interaction between the
community and the City with respect to Water and Sanitation Services.
Capacity building and training were included with the intent to develop
plumbing skills in the community. Initial results look promising. The average
monthly water consumption per property was has been reduced from 18,5kl
/month to 11,4kl/month. A 7kl /month saving per property of which there are
in the region of 8 000 in this area, represents a significant saving and the
payback period has been estimated at 5 months.

FixIt Leaks Programme


This programme targets indigent homes (properties under the value of R100
000). Indications were that 10% of these used in excess of 30kl per month,
which was deemed to be unacceptably high. The project prioritised the

45
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 37
37
largest-volume users in this category. As an incentive, it is agreed that arrears
will be written off, should the owner keep a leak-free property for 6 months
after the repair is complete. To date 8 000 leak repairs have been completed
at an average saving of 25kl per households per month. It is estimated that an
investment of R95 000 will continue to yield an approximate saving of R558
000 per month

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 38
38
4. Water and Sanitation Infrastructure and Usage

The limited financial situation in the City versus the high demand for new housing
has created a scenario where the City is not in a position to maintain existing
infrastructure and to provide the required bulk infrastructure for connection of
new developments.
WSDP, 2007

The current state of bulk water and wastewater infrastructure is a limiting


constraint to the social upliftment and economic prosperity of the City. Water
supply and sanitation provision has become a limiting factor to the future
growth and development in the City.

A review of infrastructure and fixed assets in 200346, assessed the state


(condition) and value of infrastructure and estimated the replacement value of
all water and sanitation infrastructure at R17,5 billion. The following table
provides a breakdown of this figure:

Water Supply Infrastructure Replacement Value R mil

Dams and catchments 932


Treatment Works 1 021
Water Reticulation 8 073
Water Pump Stations 314
Reservoirs 1 268
Depots (shared) 30
Sub Total 11 638
Wastewater Infrastructure
WW treatment works 1 420
Sewer Reticulation 4 159
Sewer Pump Stations 284
Depots (shared) 30
Sub Total 5 893
Total 17 531

47
Table 4: Water and wastewater infrastructure replacement cost

In short, the City has failed keep up with the maintenance and development of
infrastructure, and has contributed to extensive asset stripping. International
good practice dictate that around 2% of expenditure should be directed
toward Operations and Maintenance.

46
Shands, Asch and Africon Engineering : Review of the infrastructure and fixed assets of the
Water and Sanitation Service, 2003
47
COCT, 2007 :WSDP Executive Summary

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 39
39
The following provides a summary of water supply and sanitation
infrastructure and highlight some of the shortcomings identified in the asset
review:

4.1 Water Supply


4.1.1 Surface Water Resources
The following map indicates the location of key components to the water
supply system.

48
Figure 5: Main components of the Water Supply Infrastructure

The major dams from which the COCT is supplied (Wemmershoek,


Theewaterskloof and Voelvlei) are situated outside the City of Cape Town
boundary. Theewaterskloof dam, near Villiersdorp, is the major water source

48
COCT, 2006 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 40
40
and it forms a part of a large inter-basin water transfer scheme that regulates
the flow from the Sonderend-, Berg- and Eerste rivers. The Voëlvlei dam,
near Gouda relies on diversion works in the Klein Berg, Leeu and 24 Rivers
for its water supply. The Wemmershoek dam is situated in the mountains
near Franschhoek and is supplied from various small rivers in the
Wemmershoek mountains (e.g. Tierkloof- and Olifants rivers). The Steenbras
Upper dam and Steenbras Lower dam are situated inside the COCT
boundary, in the Hottentots-Holland mountain range near Gordon‟s Bay, and
serve a dual purpose of providing an upper reservoir for the Steenbras
Pumped Storage Scheme and for supplying water for domestic/industrial use
to the City. Other smaller dams include the dams on Table Mountain
(Woodhead, De Villiers, Hely Hutchinson, Victoria and Alexandra) which are
used to supply water to the southern suburbs and the Peninsula, and the
dams at Simons Town (Kleinplaas and Lewis Gay) which provide water to the
Peninsula.

The bulk of the Cities water is obtained from surface water, which represents
440,5 Mm3 /year , or 97% of the total yield. This water is stored in dams over
the wet winter months for use during the dry summer months. Groundwater
sources only account for 6,64Mm3/year or 1,46% of the total yield. The
following table provides and overview of the sources, their ownership and
yield.

FIRM YIELD*
APPROXIMATE %
OWNED & CCT Registered
DAMS/RIVERS OF TOTAL SUPPLY (1:50 YEAR)
OPERATED BY Usage
REQUIREMENTS**
3
Mm

3
Major Sources % Mm

Theewaterskloof Dam/ DWAF


48.3% 219 120
Kleinplaas Dam DWAF

Voëlvlei Dam DWAF 23.2% 105 70.5

Palmiet River DWAF 5% 22,5 22.5

Wemmershoek Dam CCT 11.9% 54 54

Steenbras Upper and


CCT 8.8% 40 40
Steenbras Lower Dam

Total 97.1% 440.5 307

Minor Sources Approx. yields

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 41
41
FIRM YIELD*
APPROXIMATE %
OWNED & CCT Registered
DAMS/RIVERS OF TOTAL SUPPLY (1:50 YEAR)
OPERATED BY Usage
REQUIREMENTS**
3
Mm

Simon‟s Town:

Lewis Gay Dam CCT 0,4% 1,85 1.85

Kleinplaas

Land en Zeezicht Dam


CCT 0,1% 0,5 0.5
(From Lourens River)

Table Mountain:

Woodhead

Hely-Hutchinson
CCT 0.88% 4 4
De Villiers Dam

Victoria Dam

Alexandra Dam

Grand Total 98.5* 446.86 313.35*

*Excludes the Groundwater resources : Altantils Aquifer and Albion Springs


**Approximate % : On an annual basis the usage from the various sources may vary. The Western Cape Water System
(WCWS) is operated so as to minimise spillage by placing a water demand on the dams that are most likely to spill during
the wet winter period

49
Table 5: Surface Water Resources

The figure shows that the bulk of the water (more than 70 -75%) is obtained
from DWAF owned dams, with the balance provided by the Cities own
sources.

The total yield for the City is estimated at 446.86 Mm3 for a 1:50 year of
rainfall. The following graph, however indicates the fluctuation in % of storage
capacity over a 12 year period. The strained capacity experienced in 2004
and 2005, with dams reaching a 12 year low of 26% full in April 2005, resulted
in accelerated water conservation and demand management strategies, the
details of which are outlined in the previous chapter.

49
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 42
42
CITY OF CAPE TOWN DAMS: 12 YEAR GRAPH INDICATING % OF TOTAL STORAGE CAPACITY

120

100

80
% FULL

60

40

20

05-Jul

18-Jul
10-May

24-May

08-Nov

22-Nov
19-Jan

07-Jun

21-Jun
01-Mar

15-Mar

29-Mar

06-Dec

20-Dec
11-Oct

25-Oct
02-Feb

16-Feb

02-Aug

16-Aug

30-Aug

13-Sep

27-Sep
12-Apr

26-Apr

DATE

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Figure 6 : City of Cape Town dams :12 Year trends in storage capacity

4.1.2 Groundwater Resources


Information regarding groundwater use in the City of Cape Town is scarce
and dated and does not appear to be monitored and/or captured. The
following table provides a summary of the available information :
Firm Yield (1:50 yr)
Aquifer No. of Boreholes % of Total Requirements
3
Mm /year

Albion Spring Not applicable Approx. 1.64


1.46% of total resources
Atlantis 44 5
Cape Flats Not yet developed 18

Newlands Not yet developed 10

Total 6.64

Table 6: Table Groundwater resources

Albion Spring is situated in Rondebosch. It was completed in 1890 and has a


treatment capacity of 4,5 Mℓ/day. Raw water is obtained directly from the
Albion Spring, the pH is adjusted by aeration, and the water is chlorinated and

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 43
43
then pumped directly into the distribution system of the City of Cape Town.
The Atlantis supply scheme comprises of two aquifers, one at Witzands and
one at Silwerstroom, with an estimated 44 boreholes extracting groundwater
from this source. The Cape Flats aquifer sits below the sandy deposits of the
Cape Flats. Its storage capacity is estimated at 128Mm3, but the rate of
natural recharge is estimated at only 18 Mm3/annum50. Use of this aquifer
and the Newlands aquifer, which could yield an estimated 10 Mm3/annum,
has not been developed.

Extracted from the most recent draft WSDP, the total amount of treated water
supplied by the City of Cape Town is summarised as follows:

2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06


3 3 3 3 3
(mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m )
Total water treated 287.5 301.4 310.2 282.7 294.5

The total bulk water supplied within the Cape Metropolitan Area for the
financial year ending June 2006 was 272 million cubic meters (average 745
Ml/day). This includes Unaccounted-for-Water (UAW) and bulk losses in bulk
pipelines. The City also supplies approximately 62 Ml/d to Water Services
Authorities and other minor consumers outside its area of jurisdiction, for a
total of 807 Ml/d.

The historic growth in demand between 1973 and 1997 is approximately 4%


per annum.

4.1.3 Water Supply Infrastructure


A review of infrastructure in 200351 provides detailed account all fixed assets
in the water services and gives an indication of the state of infrastructure, the
book value, and replacement value of fixed assets. For detailed information
the detailed review should be consulted. Information was also extracted from
an internal City of Cape Town document which summarises bulk water supply
infrastructure52. The following summary aims to sketch an overall impression:

Dams and springs


Figure 5 indicates that the City of Cape Town operates 5 major dams and one
spring. These dams vary in age from 1896, when the Table Mountain dams
which were constructed to 1980, when the Wemmershoek dam was
completed. The replacement value of the dams and catchments were
estimated at R 932 million.
50
COCT, 2005 : Water Resources and Water Resource Planning, Background information for
WSDP (Internal Document)
51
Ninham Shands, Asch and Africon Engineering : Review of the infrastructure and fixed assets
of the Water and Sanitation Service, 2003
52
COCT, 2005 : Existing Bulk Water Supply Infrastructure. Background Information for Water
Services Development Plan(Internal Document)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 44
44
Depots
The water services has 9 operational depots. Replacement value of these
was estimated to be R 58 million.

Water Treatment Plants


13 Treatment plants with an approximate replacement value of R1 billion,
threat raw water to dinking water standards. The treatment plants have a
theoretical treatment capacity of 1 669,5 Ml/day. The oldest treatment
facility, at Kloofnek was constructed in 1926, and the most recent was at
Witsands, completed in 2000, to serve the west coast water community needs
of Atlantis.

Water Storage Reservoirs


The City operates 20 bulk water and 117 smaller reservoirs in its area of
jurisdiction. Faure, Plattekloof and Blackheath are the largest three. The
reservoirs have a combined storage capacity of 3 602 Ml and are estimated to
have a replacement value of R1,3billion.

Pump stations
More than 55 water supply pump stations are operated throughout the City
and have a combined installed power of 46 135 kW. Pump stations have an
estimated replacement value of R 314million.

Water reticulation
The 9 629 273 km of pipeline which is used to convey bulk and treated water,
accounts for 70% of value of the water supply infrastructure. Replacement
value of this asset is estimated at R8 billion. The total replacement value of
all investigated water supply infrastructure is estimated at R11,6 billion.

State of infrastructure
The bulk water system in the northern areas is under stress during peak
periods. The EIA of the augmentation scheme in this area is underway. Most
alarming however the losses are recorded which relate to the state of the
reticulation system.

Future requirement:
 This network of pipes and connectors accounts for 70% of the water
supply systems fixed assets and there is an urgent need to survey and
capture the state of this system and programme a plan of remediation.

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 45
45
4.1.4 Alternative Sources of Water
Various studies have indicated that Water Demand Management and Water
Conservation (WC/WDM) initiatives are the most feasible water augmentation
options to meet the growing water demand for the city53.

Alternative sources of water currently under construction and/or investigation


includes:
Dams : Berg Water Project : Construction is underway. The project
includes a new dam on the farm, Skuifraam, a supplemental scheme
and ancillary works. This project will make an additional 81Mm 3 of
water available.
Groundwater : Table Mountain Group Aquifer Option54 (groundwater)
The exploratory drilling phase is to be complete by 30 June 2008.
The Cape Flats and Newlands aquifers also require further
investigation and development.
Seawater : (Desalination) The City of Cape Town is currently
negotiating with V&A Waterfront about a possible desalination pilot
plant. Advances in desalination technology over the last decade have
decreased the costs associated with this technology significantly. It is
currently estimated that the cost of water from a desalination plant
would be in the order of R5 /m55.
Rain harvesting : The most popular method would be to collect
rainwater with tanks from the rooftops. Due to the winter rainfall and
high cost of tanks, this method has not been explored in Cape Town,
but the most recent WC/DM strategy56 has proposed a programme to
investigate this option for low-income areas, to stimulate food
gardens.

Unconventional water sources, not currently under investigation, but listed as


another programme in the above WC/WDM strategy includes :

 Ice berg harvesting


 Sea water desalination
 Weather modification (Cloud seeding)
 Capturing storm water discharge into the sea
 Importation of water - Shipping of fresh water
 Suppression of evaporation
 Recharging of ground water aquifers
53
COCT, 2007 WSDP
54
For more information on the Table Mountain Aquifer Investigation go to
www.tmg-acquifer.co.za
55
COCT, 2007 WSDP
56
COCT, 2007 WC/WDM

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 46
46
 Water trading

Water trading with other water users in the Western Cape is highlighted as a
feasible option. This could involve the City of Cape Town purchasing water
rights from other users such as agriculture on a temporary or permanent
basis, for their own use. The programme calls for further investigation and
feasibility studies on this matter.

The “Reconciliation Study”, discussed in Chapter 2 of this report, provides a


summary of the supply potential and spectrum and status of alternative
sources currently under investigation.
4.1.5 Water Demand
Water demand has dropped from 920 Ml/day in 2000 to 745 Ml/day

The previous chapter has indicated that for the financial year ending June
2006, the City received 272 000 000m3 /year or 745 Ml/day of water.

The distribution of water demand in the City of Cape Town, from the latest
WSDP is as follows:

Category %age
Commercial & Industrial 15%
Departmental Cluster 2%
Domestic Cluster 6%
Domestic Full 45%
Government 2%
Miscellaneous 5%
Municipal 3%
Schools and Sportsfields 2%
Non-Revenue Demand 21%

Table 7: Distribution of Water Demand

Domestic (Residential) use makes up the bulk (51%) of the demand for water.
The second biggest user, Non-Revenue Demand (also known as
Unaccounted for Water), presents an alarming statistic, which due to
discrepancies in calculations, is currently being reviewed 57. Indications are
that this figure may be as high as 23 %. Third biggest water user in the City is
Commerce and Industry (15%).

57
John Frame, (Pers Com) : Ongoing revised calculations of Non-Revenue Demand

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 47
47
The City of Cape Town currently provides a full level of service to
approximately 656 800 formally registered customers. This customer base is
broken down as follows:

Customer Type Number


Commercial 15 680
Industrial 5 044
Department 10 567
Miscellaneous 8 952
Domestic* 616 557
TOTAL 656 800
* Includes cluster housing and sectional title.
Table 8: Customer base with full level of service58

Domestic customers include customers in cluster housing and sectional title.


Customers dwelling in backyard shacks number about 150 000 (2005 figure).

The following graph indicates the demand trend since 1991.

CCT Demand Projections


700
Existing Supply
Supply incl. BWP
Unconstrained
Bulk Supplied (million cubic metres)

600
Low Water Demand
Actual
500 2007/08 IDP
WDM Strategy

400

300

200

100

0
1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2017

2019

Year

BWP= Berg Water Project, with addition of new Skuifraam dam, increasing supply by 81Mm 3
59
Figure 7: Water demand curves against the backdrop of existing supply

The actual demand reduced from 1999 until 2001 due to the drought and
water restrictions. The demand started increasing again from 2001 until 2003

58
COCT, 2007 WSDP
59
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 48
48
but never recovered to the original level achieved in 1999. From 2003 until
now the demand started declining again due to further restrictions.

The current level of 272 million m 3 per annum (745 Ml/day , during 2006) is
64 million m 3 less than the demand of 2000, which was 336 million m3 per
annum(920 Ml/day). We are currently using 14% less water than in 2000.
The trend can be ascribed to the successful restrictions and water
conservation and demand management strategies, discussed in the previous
chapter.

The effectiveness of water demand initiatives and previous and current water
restrictions can be seen in the drop in actual demand since 2003. The risk of
severe restrictions has been reduced and the Berg Water Project, which is
aimed for completion at the end of 2007, brings an additional 81Mm3 of water
into the supply stream. With its Water Demand Strategy and restricted use,
the City has committed itself to minimal growth in water demand (see IDP and
WDM projections), way below the low water demand projections anticipated in
2002.

The low water demand curve, anticipated that further water resources would
be required by 2013. The latest projections based on WDM and IDP however
indicates that the need for new water resources could be postponed until
much later. The City is currently working on figures to update these
projections.

4.1.6 End Use


There is an urgent need for more accurate end use data in the City of
Cape Town.

The most recent local information regarding end use is possibly in the Water
Consumption Study for the City of Cape Town60 which conducted an
extensive literature review and published results of an end use survey which
they conducted in the City of Cape Town.

Published values for unit demand indicate that a low, typical and high per
capita demand is considered to be 50-, 300- and 650 liters/capita/day (l/c/d)
respectively, by global standards. The global minimum standard is accepted
to be about 50 l/c/d. The South African studies showed that the low-, typical-
and high demands are 50-, 150- and 300 l/c/d locally.

The study found limited information on end-use share, the difference between
indoor and outdoor use. Garden water demand appears to contribute most to
residential water demand (if a garden were present and were irrigated). The
study found that the share of water used for garden irrigation varies

60
COCT, 2005 Water Consumption Study, Community Engineering Services

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 49
49
considerably from one study to another. It is clear from literature that garden
water demand is hard to predict.

An interesting pattern emerged regarding the share of indoor water demand


by different indoor end-uses. In all cases the toilet, bath-shower and washing
machine are the most significant indoor end uses, and the published values
based on measured data are similar. It was found that these three end-uses
represent about 75% of the total indoor use (based on international studies,
which appear to be more extensive and accurate than many local studies).
Findings of the survey for unit demand, garden demand and indoor demand
are categorized according to internet responses (likely high income users)
and hand-out responses (likely low income users). With regards to price
elasticity it was found that garden water demand would reduce more than
indoor water demand if the price of water is increased.

4.1.5.1 Water use distribution

Sourced information on the use distribution was still presented according to


the previous Metropolitan Local Council (MLC) districts boundaries, as is
therefore described according to these. The six previous MLC‟s have
subsequently been replaced by 20 Sub Councils as follows:

Figure 8: Previous 6 Metropolitan Local Councils

The following (past and projected) population statistics have been extracted:
Avg Avg Avg
City of Cape Growth Growth Growth
Population Population Population Population
Town % 2001 % 2006 % 2016
2001 2006 - 2006 2016 - 2016 2031 - 2031
Cape Town 1,130,175 1,187,229 1.0 1,253,867 0.6 1,280,143 0.1

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 50
50
Tygerberg 976,412 1,075,394 2.0 1,174,194 0.9 1,214,732 0.2
Blaauwberg 173,452 271,370 11.3 374,080 3.8 433,181 1.1
South Peninsula 406,354 437,676 1.5 481,640 1.0 519,724 0.5
Oostenberg 319,710 389,351 4.4 470,436 2.1 525,466 0.8
Helderberg 148,114 186,084 5.1 243,517 3.1 282,601 1.1
Total 3,154,217 3,547,104 2.5 3,997,734 1.3 4,255,847 0.4

Table 9: Projected Population Growth for the City of Cape Town61

The following table summarises the average yearly consumption per area for
the period 1999 - 200662. For further reference, this data contains monthly
usage per MLC are for the period Jan 2004 – December 2006 and yearly total
usage for the period 1999 – 2006.

Average yearly
City of Cape Town Population water usage in % Use
2006 kl
Cape Town 1,187,229 81 578 702 34
Tygerberg 1,075,394 70 279 566 28
Blaauwberg 271,370 24 919 863 10
South Peninsula 437,676 30 501 599 12
Oostenberg 389,351 24 902 349 10
Helderberg 186,084 15 380 471 6
Total 3,547,104 247 562 510 100

Table 10: Water usage per previous MLC boundary billing area

According to these broad boundaries there is a direct link between population


size and water usage. The Cape Town area, which represents 33% of the
total population, uses 34 % of the water and Helderberg, which represents 5%
of the population, uses 6% of the water.

4.1.7 Water losses and un-accounted for water


The following section is extracted from a recent report63 to the Trading
Services and Infrastructure Portfolio Committee to, in an attempt to create an
understanding of unaccounted water losses in the City of Cape Town.

The definition of UAW as used by Water Services is from the South African
Bureau of Standards (SABS) Code of Practice (SABS 0306:1999): The
Management of Potable Water in Distribution Systems. In the code, UAW is
defined as:

61
COCT, 2006 WSDP
62
From King,Peter 2007, Unpublished Water Usage tables
63
COCT, 2007 Understanding Water Losses: Report to Trading Services and Infrastructure
Portfolio Committee

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 51
51
“Unaccounted-for water: the difference between the measured volume
of water put into the supply and distribution system and the total
volume of water measured to authorized consumers whose fixed
property address appears on the official list of the water services
authority”.

The UAW as defined above comprises both physical and non-physical losses.
The components of UAW are:

 Physical losses:
o authorised but unmetered consumption
o authorised but unmetered usage
o reservoir overflows and leakage
o distribution main bursts and leakage

 Non-physical losses:
o unauthorised unmetered connections
o inaccurate meters
o errors in billing and administrative systems

UAW can be seen as water leaving the system that is not measured in some
way i.e. not accounted for.

A summary of the water balance for the 2005/06 financial year is given below.

Total water treated: 290,698,195 m3


Total water supplied to consumers: 235,776,671 m3
Total UAW: 54,921,524 m3
Total UAW as % of total water treated: 18.9 %

The following table presents a 12 month moving average of


unaccounted for water in the City of Cape Town:

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 52
52
UAW 12 Month Moving Average

25.0%

20.0%

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0%

Nov-05
Jun-05

Jul-05

Jan-06

Jun-06
Mar-06
Aug-05

Sep-05

Dec-05

Feb-06

Apr-06

May-06
Oct-05

Figure 8: 12 Month moving average of UAW

The most recent WC/WDM strategy64 indicates that the total unaccounted for
water is estimated at 23.3% or 186 Ml/day.

The strategy explains that statistics on UAW do not necessarily reflect the
quantum of water wasted. The measurement of minimum night flow (MNF), which
is made up of reticulation losses and consumer wastage, is a proposed as an
alternative indicator. In a residential area where there is no industrial water usage
it can be assumed that most of the Minimum Night Flow recorded from data
logging is water wastage made up of the following:

Leaks in the reticulation systems


Leaks within the consumers‟ properties (i.e. plumbing leaks)
Indiscriminate wastage of water (i.e. people leaving taps open)
Automatic flushing urinals (i.e. urinals in schools and public buildings)

It is however concluded that the overall MNF in CCT cannot be accurately


calculated due to the absence of adequate district management areas in certain
areas. The overall minimum night flow in CCT is estimated at 20 % to 35% of the
total average demand. This amounts to between 159 Ml/day and 279Ml/day.

A recent Council Report on Unaccounted Water65 states the following challenges


which Water Services must still address in reducing water losses, namely:

 Move towards more informative method of reporting on water losses.

64
COCT, 2007 Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy
65
COCT, 2007 Understanding Water Losses: Report to Trading Services and Infrastructure
Portfolio Committee

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 53
53
 Ensuring the accuracy of the water balance by addressing both the accuracy
of measuring devices and the accuracy of the data used in the balance
calculation.
 Further planning and creation of distribution system zones to allow problem
areas to be identified.
 Ensure a strategy is in place to replace obsolete or inaccurate consumer
meters.
 Ensure all authorised but currently unmetered use is reasonably measured.
 Ensure all new connections are placed on the billing system.
 Audits and investigations done to identify unauthorised consumption like
illegal connections and unauthorised use of hydrants.
 Large consumer meter audit and meter sizing analysis.
 Further application of pressure management to reduce leakage levels.
 Establishment of mains leak detection and repair programme.

Water Services is in the process of compiling a detailed strategy for addressing


the above issues and challenges regarding the measurement and reduction of
water losses.

4.2 Basic Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment

“To most people sewerage is not sexy. Politicians do not hurry to be


photographed cutting ribbon on a new sewerage plant”.
Cape Times 66

The dysfunctional state of the sewage infrastructure in the City of Cape Town
is often front page news. Under the heading “Sewage Shock” the Cape
Times editorial, cited above, furthermore highlights the environmental
consequences and limitations to development caused by the lack of past
investment in the sewage infrastructure. In her 2007/8 budget speech, the
City of Cape Town‟s mayor cautions against the negative impacts on
development, public health and the environment and emphasis the need for
investment in sewage infrastructure67.

The following section provides a summary of basic sanitation and wastewater


treatment realities in the City of Cape Town.

Two critical issues from this chapter are:


Provision of basic services to existing informal settlements and new
arrivals
Upgrading and extending the existing wastewater treatment facilities

66
Cape Times, 3 April 2007 : Editorial
67
Cape Times, 3 April 2007 : Inadequate Management hinders development by Anel Powell

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 54
54
4.2.1 Basic Sanitation

The bucket system will not be eradicated as long as informal housing


persists in Cape Town, city officials say.
Cape Argus, 3 April 200768

The fate of shack dwellers using buckets for toilets was decided at a City of
Cape Town Council meeting where a call was made to address the housing
backlog of 400 000, before upgrading sanitation services to „informal‟
dwellings. It was argued that proper sanitation services could be provided
once people were moved to areas where this was possible.

The latest WSDP69 reports that approximately 30 000 households do not have
access to basic sanitation, while 17 050 remaining informal households have
a basic service which includes toilet shared at by less than 5 households per
toilet. The households that do not have access to basic sanitation have
access to an emergency level of service, which includes black buckets, of
which 2 857 still need to be replaced.

The WSDP furthermore highlights the lack of sanitation for the current influx
of approximately 7 700 households per annum into the informal settlements.

4.2.2 Wastewater Treatment and Infrastructure


The following map indicates the location of key components of the wastewater
treatment network:

68
Cape Argus, 3 April 2007: Shack Dwellers stuck with buckets by Lindsay Dentlinger
69
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 55
55
70
Figure 9: Main components of the wastewater treatment infrastructure

The City‟s bulk wastewater infrastructure consists of the following71:

20 Wastewater Treatment Works


3 Marine Outfalls
27 Major pump stations
15 Major interceptor sewers

70
COCT, 2006 : WSDP
71
COCT,2001 : Bulk Water Infrastructure and Statistics (Internal document)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 56
56
Approximately 120 km of bulk gravity sewers

In addition to the above, there are approximately 395 smaller pump stations
and associated reticulation networks, responsible for sewage conveyance
across the city. The major portion of the wastewater flow of approximately 567
Mℓ/day generated within the CMA is conveyed through pumping installations
and treated at 20 wastewater treatment works. Only 32, 5 Mℓ/day is disposed
of via the three marine outfall pipelines.

The following schedule provides a comprehensive overview of key


Wastewater Treatment Works data:

development? (%)
Hydraulic capacity

Discharge volume
Design Capacity -

Design Capacity -

Design Capacity -
Present hydraulic

Present hydraulic

development (%)

Present Organic
loading (Annual

within 5 years?
Hydraulic Load

Organic Load -
loading (Ml pa)
Permit volume

daily average)

(COD kg/day)
Organic Load

loading - pe's

Capacity still
(annual daily
available for

available for

requirement
(Ml/annum)

(Ml/annum)
equivalents
population

Additional
average)
(Ml/day)
WWTW

Type

Athlone AS 73,000 105 106.8 38,982 nil 99,000 900,000 788,527 12.4 38,982 no
Bellville AS 14,691 54.6 51.8 18,907 5.1 63,930 581,182 561,047 3.5 17,837 yes
Borcherds AS 12,045 33 31.1 11,352 5.8 39,600 360,000 400,000 NIL 10,900 no
Quarry
Camps Bay Sea Outfall 2,000 5.5 2.1 767 61.8 4,400 40,000 19,903 50.2 766 no
Cape Flats AS 91,250 200 135.2 49,348 32.4 199,100 1,810,000 1,164,078 35.7 40,000 no
Dover Ox Pond - 0.01 0.005 2 50.0 - - - 50.0 nil no
Gordons Bay AS 1,290 3.1 2.7 986 12.9 1,530 13,909 16,400 NIL 986 yes

Green Point Sea Outfall 10,950 40 26.8 9,782 33.0 25,600 232,727 175,000 24.8 9,782 no
Hout Bay Sea Outfall 3,600 9.8 4.5 1,643 54.1 8,820 80,182 32,762 59.1 1,643 no
Klipheuwel RDU - 0.07 0.1 37 NIL 50 455 750 NIL 0 yes
Kraaifontein AS + BF 2,810 17.5 18.8 6,862 NIL 17,500 159,091 125,415 21.2 6,300 yes

Llandudno RDU 114 0.28 0.19 69 32.1 175 1,591 1,036 34.9 69 no
Macassar AS 13,280 57 36.2 13,213 36.5 40,755 370,500 236,382 36.2 12,920 no
Melbosstran AS 5,475 5.4 2.9 1,059 46.3 2,700 24,545 15,753 35.8 200 yes
d
Millers Point RDU - 0.06 0.06 22 NIL 66 600 600 NIL 22 yes
Mitchells AS 9,024 45 33 12,045 26.7 52,800 480,000 392,895 18.1 12,045 no
Plain
Oudekraal RDU 1.26 0.03 0.03 11 NIL 33 300 300 NIL 11 no
Parow AS 438 1.2 1.0 365 16.7 748 6,800 7,092 NIL 0 yes
Philadelphia Ox Pond - 0.086 0.075 27 12.8 - - - 10.0 0 yes
Potsdam AS + BF 14,700 32 35.5 12,958 NIL 33,600 305,455 385,000 NIL 8,319 at
present
Scottsdene AS 2,140 12 10.3 3,760 14.2 10,200 92,727 68,417 26.2 3,300 yes
Simons BF 730 5 2.3 840 54.0 3,040 27,636 12,710 54.0 840 no
Town
Wesfleur AS 2,372 14 9.8 3,577 30.0 16,800 152,727 87,713 42.6 0 yes
Wildevoelvlei AS 2,555 14 9.9 3,614 29.3 9,460 86,000 73,615 14.4 3,613 yes

Zandvliet AS 16,790 59 52 18,980 11.9 41,300 375,455 336,341 10.4 18,980 at

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 57
57
development? (%)
Hydraulic capacity

Discharge volume
Design Capacity -

Design Capacity -

Design Capacity -
Present hydraulic

Present hydraulic

development (%)

Present Organic
loading (Annual

within 5 years?
Hydraulic Load

Organic Load -
loading (Ml pa)
Permit volume

daily average)

(COD kg/day)
Organic Load

loading - pe's

Capacity still
(annual daily
available for

available for

requirement
(Ml/annum)

(Ml/annum)
equivalents
population

Additional
average)
(Ml/day)
WWTW

Type
present
Treatment Type : AS= Activated Sludge Ox Pond = Oxidation pond BF = Bio-filter RDU = Rotating Disk Unit
72
Table 11: Wastewater treatment data

There is a critical shortage of treatment capacity (hydraulic and/or


organic) at in the areas experiencing the rapid expansion i.e: Bellville,
Klipheuwel, Gordon‟s Bay, Kraaifontein, Parow and Potsdam.

Other significant statistics form the same report cited above includes:
Approximately 31,0 Ml/d (5,9%) of wastewater is discharged directly
via marine outfall sewers
53 000 tonnes/annum of dry sludge is estimated to be produced
Approximately 31 Ml/d (6%) of treated effluent is re-used

The total effluent received at the treatment works is given in the table below:
2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06
Total (Ml) 193 453 192 083 195 865 196 214 196 498 198 891
Inc / dec -0.7% +2.0% +0.2% +0.1% +1.2%

This represents 88.3% and 84.3% of the water supplied to consumers in


2004/05 and 2005/06 respectively. The relatively high proportion can be
attributed to the stormwater ingress.
4.2.3 State of Infrastructure
The strategic assessment of the bulk wastewater infrastructure conduced in
1999 73 evaluated the performance of wastewater equipment, processes and
management systems and identified where improvements were necessary.
This comprehensive 37 volume report, which assessed requirement over the
next 20 years, has provided the basis for the identification of future
management interventions. As noted above, the operational realities in the
wastewater department have however not been able to keep to these
recommendations.

Media attention and the latest WSDP continues to highlight the deteriorated
state of infrastructure, particularly the sewer system. This alarming fact is due
to under-provision for essential maintenance and replacement of aging
infrastructure over several years. Major pipe collapses, leakages and
stormwater infiltration requires urgent attention. Many sewer systems are
72
COCT, 2007, WSDP
73
CMC, 1999 : Strategic Assessment of Bulk Wastewater Infrastructure : Study Synopsis
(Ninham Shand and Africon)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 58
58
running over capacity and discharging sub-standard effluent and sewage
sludge into the receiving water and marine environments. The areas where
water and sewer infrastructure are severely stressed and are in need of
significant upgrades include74:
West Coast / Parklands development corridor
De Grendel / N7 development node
Northern development corridor
Bottelary development corridor
Fast-track housing projects (e.g. N2 Gateway)
Maccassar / AECI development node
4.2.4 Wastewater Effluent and Environmental Impact
The following table provides a summary of the % compliance of WWTW to the
treatment standards prescribed by DWAF.

WORKS Susp Solids Chem Ox Ammonia E Coli


Demand
Athlone 98 98 98 0
Bellville 78 82 62 2
Borcherds Quarry 100 98 86 65
Cape Flats 49 47 49 83
Gordons Bay 100 98 96 93
Klipheuwel 96 60 38 89
Kraaifontein 98 92 76 89
Llandudno 96 98 96 42
Macassar 100 90 72 80
Melkbosstrand 100 100 100 94
Millers Point 69 29 76 95
Mitchells Plain 98 96 92 48
Oudekraal 79 67 85 81
Parow 86 72 88 66
Potsdam 86 26 20 26
Scottsdene 96 89 96 91
Simons Town 76 4 37 62
Wesfleur – Domestic 100 98 100 100
Wesfleur - Industrial 88 45 88 60
Wildevoelvlei 94 94 100 96
Zandvliet 98 100 92 98

MORE THAN 90% COMPLIANCE


75% - 90% COMPLIANCE
LESS THAN 75% COMPLIANCE
75
Table 12: % Compliance of WWTW to DWAF standards
The figure shows that 70% or 14 out of the 20 wastewater treatment plants in
the City of Cape Town have less than 75% compliance to the DWAF
standard, as far as one or more of the listed variables are concerned.
Although many wastewater practices are in directly violating the Water Act,
DWAF have favoured a „cooperative governance‟ approach and steered clear
any intentions to enforce their laws at this stage

74
COCT, 2007 WSDP, Executive Summary
75
COCT, 2007 WSDP

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 59
59
The Cities State of the Rivers76 report documenting the health of rivers in the
greater Cape Town area found the ecological health of rivers downstream of
final effluent discharges from Wastewater Treatment Works “poor” to “bad”.

Degradation of the rivers, wetlands and coastal bathing areas, toxic algae
blooms and alien infestation are some of the consequences of polluted
discharges. In addition, altered flows and canalization have diminished the
system‟s capacity to self cleanse, or assimilate pollution. Water Quality
Indicators show severe environmental degradation. The impact on human
health has however not been quantified, and there is an urgent need link
human health issues/quality of life with degraded environments in order to
increase the profile of this issue.
4.2.5. Sewage Sludge
Wastewater treatment has three by products. Wastewater (liquid) and biogas
(gas) and sewage sludge (solid). It is estimated that the City produces 48 415
ton of sewage sludge per year of which 57% was beneficially used in 2006.

QUANTITY
ESTIMATED ANNUAL % MONTHLY
BENEFICIALLY USED
WORKS SLUDGE BENEFICIALLY PRODUCTION
JAN TO DEC 2006 -
PRODUCTION - Tons USED - tons
Tons
Athlone 7,500 0 0.0 625
Bellville 5,250 5,889 112.2 438
Borcherds Quarry 4,000 1,881 47.0 333
Cape Flats 11,000 4,000 36.4 917
Gordon's Bay 140 0 0.0 12
Kraaifontein 1,100 890 80.9 92
Macassar 2,800 2,789 99.6 233
Melkbosstrand 150 150 100.0 13
Mitchells Plain 4,250 104 2.4 354
Potsdam 4,500 4,500 100.0 375
Scottsdene 825 800 97.0 69
Simon's Town 100 0 0.0 8
Wesfleur 1,100 1,100 100.0 92
Wildevoelvlei 800 800 100.0 67
Zandvliet 4,900 4,900 100.0 408
TOTAL 48,415 27,803 57.4 4,035
77
Table 13: Beneficial sludge utilisation

Due to the potential health risks, beneficial use of sewage sludge is governed
by stringent regulations78. Many under utilised opportunities exist for
beneficial use sewage sludge, especially at Athlone wastewater treatment
plant which produced 7,500 tons of sludge per year.

76
Cited in COCT, 2006 WSDP for 2006/7
77
King, P Pers Com and unpublished graph
78
DWAF, 2006/7 Guidelines for Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater sludge (Volume 1-5)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 60
60
The following disposal processes were considered in an earlier strategic
investigation for bulk wastewater79
Incineration
Composting
High lime process
Drying and pelletisation
Co-disposal on landfill
Direct agricultural use
Manufacture of organic fertilizer
Brick making and allied fields
Co-combustion in coal fired power stations

The City of Cape Town currently uses composting (Vissershok), land


application (Athlone) and pelletisation. The eventual selection of the final
disposal option will determine the preceding treatment processes and costs.

As current information regarding uses and quantities is scarce, opportunities


for beneficial use of sludge, especially in the energy sector, should be the
subject of further investigation.

4.2.6 Wastewater re-use

“The investigation established that the potential of treated effluent use


could be expanded to 170 Mega liters per day (40% of the total
summer waste water treated per day) at an average total supply cost of
below R2,0 / kl. This equals 30% of the annual supply from the new
Berg River Dam project.”
COCT, 2007: Review of Progress

Treated effluent re-use is possibly the most underexploited resource in the


City of Cape Town!

Two thirds of the City‟s water consumption ends up in more than 20


Wastewater Treatment Works across the City from where the final effluent is
normally discharged back into the environment. Thus far, the majority of Golf
Courses in the City are using treated effluent for irrigation purposes, as do
parks and sport fields. A limited number of Industries are also benefiting from
the lower tariff, of re-used water. The total existing average daily summer re-
use is estimated at 30 Ml per day or 7% of the total waste water treated80. As
cited above, it has been established that re-use can be increased from 7%
(30Ml/day) to 39% (170Ml/day).

79
CMC, 1999 : Strategic Investigation of Bulk Wastewater, Study Synopsis, Cape Wastewater
Consultants
80
COCT,2006 Water Services Annual Report 2005/6

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 61
61
A feasibility assessment in 2004 determined that at R2.00 per kilolitre, 23 000
000 kl/year (63 Ml/day) can (in the short term) be recycled to a number of
potential large consumers.

The following financial implications, extracted form the progress report above,
illustrate the financial feasibility:

“To achieve the 63 Ml/day saving of potable water, it will cost the City in the
order of R202M (NPV). At an average R 2 /kl the income generated once
completed will be approximately R 51 million per year. This implies that the
programme will pay itself in approximately four years and will subsequently be
generating an income for CCT.”

The City of Cape Town has identified three main programmes to achieve the
objective of maximizing treated effluent and these are as follows81:
Installations and modifications to infrastructure to the value of R202
million
Operations, maintenance and effective management of the treated
effluent systems
Consumer and financial management

The following table summarises the cost and flow related figures of immediate
“quick win” and longer term effluent reuse opportunities:

PLANT EFFLUENT REUSE Site


Present Immediate Cost Long Cost Total
term
Ml/d Ml/d NPV(R/m) Ml/d NPV(R/m) Demand
Athlone 2.911 0 0 14.787 41 17.698
Bellville 4.133 0.000 0 7.103 40 11.236
Cape flats 2.620 0.204 0 5.356 32 8.180
Gordons Bay 0.000 0.291 0 0.763 4 1.054
Kraaifontein 0.833 3.202 0.54 0.623 2 4.657
Macassar 2.038 0.000 0 4.949 13 6.986
Mitchells Plain 0.000 0.000 0 3.528 14 3.528

Parow 0.699 0.175 0.45 0.437 1 1.310


Potsdam 4.657 0.000 0 19.212 13 23.869
Scotsdene 0.116 3.202 2.5 1.182 9 4.500
Wesfleur 0.175 0.000 0 1.863 9 2.038
Wildevoelvlei 0.000 0.000 0 2.765 11 2.765
Zandvleit 0.291 0.000 0 2.329 13 2.620
Total 18.473 7.073 3.49 64.895 202 90.441

Table 14: Effluent re-use: Immediate and long term opportunities

81
COCT, 2007 WSDP

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62
The income that could be generated from the immediate works that would
cost R 3.49 million would release 7 Ml of effluent for re-use and generated an
estimated at R 5.2 million per annum.

The Athlone, Bellville, Cape Flats and Potsdam works have the highest
effluent re-use potential and it is estimated that 64.89 Ml of effluent could be
made available for re-use in the long term, at a cost of R202 Million.

A major extension to the Potsdam Treated Works includes a new intake


chamber, two new pump stations, a filtration plant, 4km of pipeline and a 40Ml
storage reservoir. This scheme is able to re-use 17Ml/day of treated effluent,
saving on the same amount of potable water use. It was constructed at a cost
of R19,0 M82.

4.2.7 Grey water


There are two key issues relating to grey water in the City of Cape Town:
The current risk that it poses to human health and the receiving
environment in informal areas
The unexplored potential of grey water as an alternative water
resource

The City of Cape Town‟s Greywater guidelines83 define grey water as the
runoff from informal settlements as a result of emergency water supply which
consists of wastewater from the washing of laundry, personal bathing and
cooking activities.

Grey water from un-serviced or poorly services areas is highly contaminated


with organics, nutrients and pathogens. The bulk of the grey water from
informal settlements is discharged to the stormwater system, where is causes
severe pollution, poses health risks to neighbouring communities, and has
huge maintenance cost implications. The current guidelines propose that
Grey water should be disposed of to the sewer system or to a soak-away,
where the soils allow for this practice.

The latest WSDP 84 reports on a pilot grey water management pilot project in
an informal settlement in Khayelitsha. The project aims to establish the
impact of aeration on a stormwater trench which collects grey water. More
information needs to be obtained about the long term objectives and
sustainability of this project.

82
COCT, 2007 WSDP
83
COCT, 2005 : Greywater Guidelines
84
COCT, 2007

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63
Grey water from formal serviced areas is less prone to harmful pathogens and
the nutrients therein offer opportunities for re-use in gardens and/or toilet.
One of the objectives of the City of Cape Town‟s latest Water Conservation
and Water Demand Management Strategy85 is to promote alternative water
resources and technologies which include the following:

Promote rain harvesting


Promote local borehole extraction for small consumers
Promote grey water reuse
Investigate unconventional Water Resources

The strategy notes the need for to address the health and pollution issues
related to this practice and proposes that the following activities of this
programme that need to be budgeted for:

Development of guidelines and regulations regarding the use of grey


water
Research into products that can assist into grey water reuse
Pilot project into grey water reuse
Promoting the use of grey water

4.3 Service levels

The following table shows the service levels categories used by the City of
Cape Town:

Category WATER

Inadequate No access to basic water supply as defined below. (Water would generally be obtained at
great difficulty from other residents supplied at an emergency, basic or full level of supply.)

Emergency Partial access to basic water supply, as dictated by site-specific constraints (e.g., high
dwelling densities).

Basic a) The provision of potable water (usually through communal taps/standpipes):

within 200 meters of a household;

at a ratio of not more than 25 households per tap (based on 25 liters per person per
day at a flow rate of 10 liters per minute);

with an effectiveness of not more than 7 days interruption supply to any consumer
per year; and

b) the provision of appropriate education in respect of effective water use.

Full House connection

85
COCT, 2007 WC/WDM Strategy

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SANITATION

Inadequate No access to sanitation as defined below. (Residents would either share with other residents,
supplied at a basic or full level of supply, their sanitation facilities, or would provide for
themselves – often through unhygienic means. In many instances these residents are being
serviced by the CCT through the weekly removal of 20 litres open stercus “black bucket”
containers, a service which is to be replaced.)

Emergency Partial access to sanitation (more than 5 households per toilet), as dictated by site-specific
constraints (e.g., high dwelling densities),

Basic a) The provision of a shared toilet (at a ratio of not more than 5 families per toilet) which is
safe, reliable, environmentally sound, easy to keep clean, provides privacy and
protection against the weather, well ventilated, keeps smells to a minimum and prevents
the entry and exit of flies and other disease-carrying pests; and

b) the provision of appropriate health and hygiene education.

Full On-site Waterborne, Septic Tank or French Drain

86
Table 15: Service level categories

Both existing formal developed and informal areas (excluding rural areas) in
the City of Cape Town generally meet the minimum standards for water
supply as required by the Water Services Act 108 (of 1997) i.e. a communal
standpipe within 200 m walking distance (with a minimum supply rate of 25
litres per person per day at 10 litres per minute).

All of the 847 000 consumer unit‟s formal households have either a metered
water connection to the house or to a yard toilet with water tap (uncontrolled
volume supply). The first 6 kilolitres per month are supplied at no charge (free
basic). Informal areas have communal standpipes and water is provided free.

The latest WSDP87 reports that approximately 30 000 households do not have
access to basic sanitation (inadequate), while 17 050 remaining informal
households have a basic service which includes toilet shared at by less than 5
households per toilet. The households that do not have access to basic
sanitation have access to an emergency level of service, which includes black
buckets, of which 2 857 still need to be replaced. 768 000 Households
discharge to the sewer treatment works.

Formal households generally have water-borne sewer connections with the


first 4, 2 kilolitres of sewerage conveyed at no charge (free basic) although
households with a property value of greater than R100 000 used to pay a
fixed charge dependent on the value of the property. This fixed charge will be
discontinued from 1 July 2007.
.

86
COCT, 2007 WSDP
87
COCT, 2007 WSDP

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4.4 Urban Water Cycle

The following useful schematic is from the Water Conservation and Demand
Management Strategy:

88
Figure 10: Urban water cycle in COCT

4.5 Asset Management


Infrastructure management is one of the key strategy drivers of the Water
Services Strategy. An asset management plan is a plan developed for the
management of one or more infrastructure assets that combines multi-
disciplinary management techniques (including technical and financial) over
the life cycle of the asset in the most cost effective manner to provide a
specified level of service. A significant component of the plan is a long-term
cash flow projection for the activities89.

88
From Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy, COCT 2004
89
COCT, 2005 Project Definition Report for the Asset Management Plan for the Trading Services

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66
Various Water Services reports have acknowledged that the lack of a proper
Asset Management System contributed extensively to the deterioration in
infrastructure and service delivery in the City of Cape Town. A project was
launched in 2003 to develop a Strategic Municipal Asset Management Plan
(AMP) for the Trading Services to ensure that:
Asset requirements and asset management strategies are driven by
defined service levels and performance standards, and are linked to
strategic planning objectives as defined in the Integrated Development
Plan [IDP];
Scarce financial resources are properly allocated and managed to
optimise investment in infrastructure; and
A long-term (life-cycle) approach is taken when determining asset
operations, maintenance, renewal and development strategies.
The project entails a six staged approach:
Stage 1: Improvement Strategy Development
Stage 2: Basic Asset Register
Stage 3: Basic Asset Management
Stage 4: Improved Maintenance Management
Stage 5: Introduce Advanced Asset Management Techniques
Stage 6: System Optimization

To date the programme has been facilitated through an asset care centre and
managed through a bureau arrangement with asset performance
management specialist PRAGMA Africa.

4.6 Greenhouse gas emissions associated with water and sanitation


A scoping study on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation projects
was conduced for the City of Cape Town in 200290. The purpose of the study
was to demonstrate how energy efficiency retrofits could assist the COCT to
achieve ongoing energy consumption and operational cost savings in
municipal services, to improve existing quality of municipal service, and to
reduce local pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the
atmosphere due to their municipal services.

The scoping report uses the GHG contribution statistics from an earlier
survey91 as its point of departure. This study found solid waste land fills sites
are the largest contributor to GHG emissions (tonnes CO2 equivalent) at 37%
and that water and sewerage only contributes 6%.

The study results are summarised as follows:

90
COCT, 2002 : Scoping Investigation Report on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas
Mitigation Projects for the City of Cape Town
91
Sustainable Energy Africa & COCT, 2002 (Unpublished report): Greenhouse Gas Inventory for
the City of Cape Town

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 67
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Water & sewerage Waste
6% 37%

Vehicle fleet
15%

Buildings
Street lighting
18%
24%

Figure 11: Sectoral contribution to greenhouse gas emissions

With regards to water and sewerage, it appears as if the study only


considered emission related to energy consumption. Verification is required
on whether the statistics above include the methane (CH4) emissions from
wastewater treatment plants.

The study makes various energy saving recommendations per sector, of


which the following is relevant to the water supply and wastewater sectors:

Water Supply:
The main opportunities for energy efficiency are:
Scheduling of pumps
Use of more efficient pumps and/or technologies such as variable
speed drives (VSD)
Adjusting the diameter of existing pipes to more efficient dimensions
Repairing cracks and leaks in the distribution system
Redirecting water flow more effectively through the installation of new
valves, and
Expanding the volumes of water containment areas and holding tanks
The following feasible projects were recommended for implementation (cost
estimates for 2002):

Atlantis : Install VSDs on all large pumps of Altantis pumping station


(at the Silwerstroom WTP) at a cost estimate of R522,000 and
potentially reduce electricity by 3 072 870 kWh , saving R460 930.
The project payback period was estimated at 1.3years, which could
result in emission reductions of 2 735 tonnes CO2 per year, 24 tonnes
SOx emissions, 12 tonnes NOX emissions and 1 tonne particulate
emission per year.

Wynberg: Install VSDs on all large pumps at a cost of R 1 179 000


and potentially reduce electricity by 5 236 237 kWh, saving R 785

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436. The project payback period was estimated at 1,5 years, which
could result in emissions of 4 660 tonnes CO2 per year, 41 tonnes
SOX emissions, 21 tonnes NOX emissions and 2 tonnes particulate
emissions per year.

Wastewater

As aeration is the largest component that contributes to electricity


consumption, the following was recommended ;
Change the aeration process form surface aeration to blower
(diffused air) aeration

The largest WWTW (Athlone, Bellville, Borcherds Quarry and Cape Flats)
already have blower aeration and the following 6 cases were proposed:

Melkbos
Description Macassar Zandvliet Wildevoelvlei Potsdam Gordons Bay
Strand

Annual energy consumption savings [kWh] 3,504 MWh 2,313 MWh 1,226 MWh 1,367 MWh 259 MWh 154 MWh

Maximum demand reduction [kW] 400 kW 264 kW 140 kW 156 kW 30 kW 18 kW

Annual energy cost of current system [Rand/yr] R1,282,308 R918,877 R567,394 R463,334 R122,003 R53,725

Annual savings in cost due to modification


R512,923 R367,551 R226,958 R185,334 R48,801 R21,490
[Rand/yr]

Initial capital investment [Rand] R1,900,000 R1,500,000 R1,200,000 R1,200,000 R400,000 R350,000

Net present value [Rand] R1,584,502 R996,926 R341,818 R59,049 -R68,474.22 -R204,009

Internal rate of return [%] 28% 25% 18% 13% 8% -4%

Straight payback period [years] 3.7 4.1 5.3 6.5 8.2 16.3

Straight payback period [months] 44 49 63 78 98 195

Discounted payback period [years] 4.6 5 7 9 12 20

Discounted payback period [months] 55 60 84 108 144 240

Annual CO2 emission reductions [tonnes/yr] 3,119 2,058 1,091 1,216 231 137

Annual SOX emission reductions [tonnes/yr] 28 18 10 11 2 1

Annual NOX emission reductions [tonnes/yr] 13 8 4 5 1 1

Annual particulate emission reductions


1.09 0.72 0.38 0.42 0.08 0.05
[tonnes/yr]

Table 16: Wastewater treatment works aeration conversion analysis results.


Macassar presented the most attractive business case as a change in
aeration system was estimated to result in a net reduction in electricity of
3 504 MWh, (nearly 40% from the current). These reductions, together with
the reduced electricity demand (400 kW), would bring associated cost savings
of R 512,900 per year. The capital cost for the new systems was estimated at
approximately R1.9 million. Thee straight payback period was estimated at
3.7 years and the discounted payback period at 4.6 years. Reduced
electricity consumption was estimated as 3 119 tonnes CO2 emission
reductions per year, 28 tonnes SOX, 13 tonnes NOX and 1 tonnes particulate
emission reductions per year.

The status and progress of these projects needs to be assessed.

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69
4.6.1 Biogas
The process of anaerobic digestion (biomethanation) of wastes produces
methane rich biogas and effluent. Biogas mainly consists of methane (60-
75%), carbon dioxide (25-40%) and can be used for cooking/heating or
motive power or electricity through dual-fuel, gas engine, low pressure gas
turbines or steam turbines92.

Athlone wastewater treatment plant which treats 105 Ml of sewage per day,
currently vents over 4 000 000 m3 (1857 tons) of methane to the atmosphere
per year. All eight of its 1000 m3 anaerobic digestors are not capturing
biogas for re-use and indications are they are going to be decommissioned93
in the near future.

In slides94 from his discussions with the COCT, Mark Wells highlights the
following statistics:

• 4,000,000 m3/year of biogas


• 107,826 GJ/year of energy
• 7 GWh/year of electrical power (at 25% conversion efficiency, at 65%
methane in the overall biogas volume produced).
• R2,800,000 per year worth of electricity production (at 40cents per kWh)
• 37,600 tons/year of CO2 green house gas equivalent abated by burning
methane
• 7064 tons/year CO2 saved from coal emissions
• R2,100,000 per year worth of Carbon Credits (CDM funding at R48/ton)
(Assumes 10% line losses + one month down time per year)

Proposals are made to re-use biogas from Athlone to generate electricity,


convert to bio-diesel or methane gas cars or sell/pipe gas to homes for use.
The sewage to gas proposal at Athlone estimates that R14 million capital
investment and R 500 000/a operating cost could earn the City R2,8 million in
energy savings and R2,1 in carbon credits, resulting in a payback period of
3,2 years.

There is a need for further investigation into biogas production and re-use
potential at other COCT plants such as Cape Flats (1, 5 times more than
Athlone, some used), Mitchells Plain (1/3 of Athlone, dysfunctional gas
collector), Kraaifontein (vented) and Simonstowns (vented).

4.7 Summary of Environmental Impacts

92
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, India http://mnes.nic.in/u3.htm
93
King, P Pers Com, May 2007
94
Wells, M 2005, (Power Point Presentation) Athlone Biogas and Integrated Farming Systems,
Concept Discussions with the COCT, Agama Energy 6 September 2005

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The City of Cape Town has made great strides towards the development of
sustainable policies, but most citizens who tolerate the risk related realities of
their un-serviced and/or overcrowded dwellings, polluted rivers and oceans
and skylines and the consequences of inappropriate development would
question the extent to which „paper commitments‟ are being met.

Investigations have been conducted in some catchments to determine the


impact of wastewater treatment facilities on vulnerable waterbodies. Due to
time constraints and the relocation of the relevant department and their library
(Catchment Stormwater and River Management Department) a
comprehensive referenced list of these investigations could not be included.
It is however understood that information is available for the following:
Wildevoelvlei (WWTW impact)
Rietvlei(WWTW impact)
Zeekoevlei(WWTW impact and groundwater)
Houtbay (Marine discharge impact)
Fasle Bay (Marine discharges)
Kuils River (WWTW impact)
Salt River (WWTW impact)

The following section provides an overview of some of the key environmental


issues that stem directly from the water and sanitation service:

Flow alteration: Large volumes of treated effluent are discharged


into the receiving environment, altering natural flows, with most
significant impacts on summer low-flow conditions. Dams and water
abstractions and alter normal flow regimes, which disturbs natural
fauna and flora migration patterns.

Water Quality deterioration: Most of the water bodies that receive


treated effluent, including bathing beaches show severe signs of
deterioration, due to the continued discharge of substandard effluent.
In addition, health and environment is compromised by runoff from
un-serviced areas (grey and black water), which contains high levels
of faecal coliform bacteria and could carry waterborne diseases of
epidemic proportions.

Nutrient Enrichment (Eutrophication): Final effluent and runoff


from poorly serviced areas is high in nitrates and phosphates, which
when discharged into the receiving environment, creates
opportunities for alien aquatic weeds, such as water hyacinth, to
flourish. Toxic algal blooms have also been recorded in two water
bodies in the City which receive final effluent from wastewater
treatment plants.

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71
River bed and bank alteration: Sewage spills and runoff form urban
areas cause rivers siltation. In order to prevent flooding river need to
be cleared (mostly mechanically) of silt and alien vegetation which
causes bed and bank habitat destruction. Years of digging have also
deepened the profile of many rivers that use to be flatter in profile. In
addition to the loss of habitat, this action also results in dangerously
steep river banks that are often difficult to climb out of, in the event of
an accident.

Nuisance: Wastewater treatment plants are often associated with


bad odours, flies and unsightly water bodies. Although none of these
should occur at a fully functional plant, few would volunteer to stay in
the vicinity of one. (Ask the neighbours of Athlone WWTW).

Footprint: Water and wastewater treatment plants are traditionally


big unsightly structures highly secured and inaccessible to the public.
They often create a “sterilize” pocket in the urban landscape which
contributes quite extensively to greenhouse gas emissions (see
previous chapter).

Loss of environmental service: Not only do polluted rivers river


represent a loss of a recreational and/or ceremonial amenity, the
potential environmental service (ability to clean up/absorb spills etc)
which it offers has also been lost.

Involvement of an informed public and officials in a process that would


mitigate these challenges and still provide an affordable service is an ongoing
challenge. The lead time for new infrastructure, including an Environmental
Impact Assessment, could take up to 7 years.

Future work in required in this field includes:


Linking human health risk to environmental risk in order to increase
the profile of environmental degradation in the Cities waterways
Quantifying the value of the environmental service that the natural
resources offers, in order to calculate the long term loss
Collate available information and quantify the current impact of
WWTW on the receiving environment

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72
5. Technological Interventions
Energy represents the largest controllable cost of providing water or
wastewater services to the public.
California Energy Commission95

5.1 Existing Technologies and Energy


The following graph (under development) list technologies in water in
sanitation in according to their energy demands:

Technology Energy Use


(Ranked from high to low)
Bulk water supply
Inter –basin transfer (national) (Lesotho)
Inter-basin transfer (local) H
Catchment run-off ▼
Groundwater abstraction L
Rainwater harvesting

95
Californa Energy Commission website www.energy.ca.gov

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 73
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Storage
Dams H
Reservoirs ▼
Rainwater tanks L
Aquifers
Water purification
Sedimentation/flocculation H
Primary settling ▼
Boiling L

Transportation to end-users
Pump stations H
Water vendors (transportation) ▼
Gravitational flow L

Sewage transportation
Pump stations H
Transportation (conservancy tanks and bucket systems) ▼
Gravitational flow L

Sewage Treatment
Aerobic Treatment (Activated sludge)
Anaerobic treatment H
Primary :Screening (to sea) ▼
On site (e.g. VIP, septic tank) L
None (Greywater)

Disposal
Re-use : Domestic
Re-use : Industrial
Re-use : Recreational (Golf/sportfields/parks) H
Re –Use : Agricultural (Phillipi) ▼
Discharge to rivers/wetlands L
Discharge to groundwater
Discharge to sea
Discharge to stormwater system (Greywater)

5.2 Alternative Technology Options


5.2.1 Alternative sources of water

Literature reviewed cites the most feasible alternative sources of water for the
City of Cape Town as:
Groundwater
Treated Effluent
Desalinated seawater

In view of the dramatic impact of effective water conservation and demand


management on water use, it is should not deemed feasible to consider more
dams to supplement Cape Town‟s water supply. The environmental impacts
of dams and potential water losses due to evaporation are well documented.

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 74
74
The following table, compiled from information in a recent COCT Portfolio
Committee report96 provides an overview of the various alternative sources of
water currently being investigated, together with the status of the
investigation:

Source Status Responsibility


TMG Aquifer Feasibility study underway COCT
Newlands Aquifer Feasibility study planned for 2007 COCT
Cape Flats Aquifer Feasibility study planned for 2007 COCT
Desalination Pilot plant feasibility study COCT
underway
Raising Steenbras Feasibility study planned for 2007 COCT/DWAF
lower damwall
Lourens river Update to pre-feasibility study COCT/DWAF
diversion planned for 2007
Voelvlei phase 1 Update feasibility planned for 2007 DWAF
Mitchells Pass Pre-feasibility planned for 2007 DWAF
diversion
Effluent re-use Polices, standards and project pre- COCT/DWAF
feasibility planned for 2007
COCT: City of Cape Town DWAF: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
Table 17: Summary of supply interventions, their study status and the responsible
authority

An alternative use of resource, not listed above, is the use of underground


aquifers for storing water. Namibia is leading the way in Southern Africa with
this practice which negates the need for costly dams, reduces many of the
environmental impacts (and evaporations) and creates an opportunity to
recharge aquifers that might have been depleted by over-abstraction. In their
most recent Strategy for Sustainable Development97, the DEAT calls for the
development of a programme to use underground aquifers for sourcing and
storing water in accordance with sustainability principles.
5.2.2 Technologies to reduce water consumption
The recently updated Water Conservation and Demand Management
Strategy for the City of Cape Town98 list the following methods of reducing
new demand by new consumers:

1. Installation of pre-payment systems (if economically, technically and


socially viable)
2. Installation of flow limiters (water demand devices)
3. Effective billing systems
4. Communication and education campaigns
5. Regulations and by-laws
96
COCT, 2007 An overview of the western cape water supply system reconciliation strategy and
the roles and responsibilities of the city in implementation of the strategy, Report to Utility
Services Portfolio Committee
97
DEAT, 2006 Strategy for Sustainable Development
98
COCT, 2007 Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy

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6. Negotiations and incentives to developers
7. Improved reticulation design and plumbing standards
8. A high level of operation and maintenance, with rapid response to bursts
and leaks

The Strategy estimates that increased efficiency of all new consumers can
reduce the growth in water demand 25%. Key issues are selecting
appropriate levels of service for different communities, ensuring efficient
plumbing fittings (such as dual flush toilets), efficient reticulation design
practices and pre-payment meters.

5.2.3 Wastewater treatment technologies

Sewage treatment technology has conventionally been considered as a „stand


alone‟ solution to the sewerage. A recent WRC report99 highlights the
interdependencies between water, food and raw materials and calls for a
holistic approach where waste should be seen as a resource and the
management thereof linked to water resource and nutrients. The following
three steps are proposed:

Prevent and minimize waste (decrease consumption : water saving


technologies)
Treat/re-useue/recover (Convert nutrients to protein :
agriculture/aquaculture)
Safe disposal

Conventional sewage treatment technology process typically involves the


following three stages:

1. Primary Treatment - to settle out solids


2. Secondary treatment - to remove the dissolved and emulsified components
3. Tertiary treatment - to make the effluent fit to be received in the
environment.

The figure100 is a generalized flow chart of the sewage renovation process used
in on-site treatment. In addition to the processes shown, some removal of
nitrogen, phosphorous, other nutrients, and other contaminants occurs due to
primary and secondary treatment.

99
WRC, 2005 A 3 Step Strategic Approach to sustainable wastewater management
100
Virginia State University website : On site sewage treatment
http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/waterquality/448-407/448-407.html#L5

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There are various technologies and various biological treatment processes
available101 e.g.:

The process biochemistry could be one of three:

Aerobic process (e.g., activated sludge, wastewater maturation ponds,


trickling filters, high-rate stabilization ponds).
Anaerobic process (e.g., anaerobic ponds, UASB-Upflow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket reactors).
Facultative process (or mixed) (e.g., facultative ponds, some constructed
wetlands, wastewater reservoirs).

The anaerobic process has the highest potential to produce energy. Methane
is a by-product of digestion and could be converted to energy, and produce

101
Adapted from “Sewage Treatment Technologies” Juanicó - Environmental Consultants Ltd.
Isreal : http://www.juanico.co.il

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77
and income. A pilot biogas and integrated farming systems project is currently
being proposed for Athlone wastewater treatment plant102. Due to their lower
energy demands, anaerobic processes are cheaper than aerobic processes
(pumping, aeration) and they also produce less sludge.

In an interesting pilot project in Los Angeles, the LA Renewable Energy


Project103, wastewater is used for electricity generation. Sewage sludge is
pumped into reservoirs underground from where geothermal methane is
collected for energy.

There is an increasing global trend away form costly high tech solutions to
wastewater management. The UNEP‟s Water and Sanitation programme
have made phytotechnology (using plants) a priority. Low cost solutions such
as constructed wetlands, stabilization ponds and anaerobic baffled reactors
are being looked at as solutions to wastewater problems with specific
reference to grey water and urban sewage.

The following web-linked UNEP manuals104 offer wastewater technology and


planning guidance:

Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands - Design Manual,


2005
Integrated Watershed Management - Ecohydrology & Phytotechology -
Manual, Nov 2005
Water and Wastewater Reuse - An Environmentally Sound Approach for
Sustainable Urban Water Management , Nov 2005
Phytotechnologies; A Technical Approach in Environmental
Management, [FMS7] March, 2003
Managing Urban Sewage; an Introductory Guide for Decision-makers
[FMS10], March, 2003 –
Guidelines for the Integrated Management of the Watershed –
Phytotechnology and Ecohydrology [FMS5], December, 2002
Biosolids Management; An Environmentally Sound Approach for
Managing Sewage Treatment Plants Sludge [FMS1] November, 2002
International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for
Wastewater and Stormwater Management [TP 15]
March, 2002 –
Environmentally Sound Technologies in wastewater treatment
for the implementation of the UNEP Global Programme of Action (GPA)
"Guidance On Municipal Wastewater, January, 2002

102
Wells, M 2005 Athlone Biogas and Integrated Farming System
103
LA Renewable Energy Project www.physorg.com
104
UNEP website : http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/WS/publications.asp

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Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages regarding
construction costs, operational costs, energy use, size, operation simplicity,
stability and reliability.

Issues to consider:
Public health and environment protection.
Low construction and operational costs.
Issues which could be more sites specific include:
Availability of land
High cost of conveyance of sewage
Availability of trained operators
Optomising re-use of effluent

5.2.4 Catchment Planning and Integrated Urban Water Resource


Management (IUWM)

“The IUWM approach is an important strategy in providing water


services of adequate quality and quantity to as many people as
possible, thereby moving towards the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) of halving the number of people without access to water and
sanitation by 2015.” UNEP, IETC Brochure105

An interesting global trend in sewage treatment plant design and water and
wastewater management, is catchment based planning and management.
The approach demands a move away from the design of a treatment plants
as an isolated event, towards design within a broader planning framework.

In this approach a relatively simple sewage treatment plant design would


have been preceded by a broader catchment planning exercise, which
highlights the social, environmental and economic opportunities and
constraints in that catchment. The catchment becomes the unit of
management and planning and the final choice of sewage treatment
technology and any other intervention in the catchment would take public
health and environmental consideration into account. This approach
demands the involvement of a multi-disciplinary team of professionals and
goes beyond the classical engineering biased processes of the past.
The City of Cape Town face the following challenges regarding catchment
based planning:

Responsibility : There is no single department responsibility for


the entire water cycle or Integrated Urban Water Management

105
UNEP webpage : www.unep.or.jp/ietc/brochures/iuwm.pdf

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Fragmentation : Water issues, planning issues and socio-
environmental issues are managed as separate entities and are
not sufficiently integrated
Speed of development: There are problems with „developmental
blueprints‟ (what should go where) for the City as a whole and fast
tracked emergency planning is undertaking to meet development
needs. Due processes such as public participation, integration and
investigation of alternative technologies suffers as a result of time
constraints.

The City of Cape Town has a Catchment, Stormwater and River management
department who are responsible for the management of the stormwater
system (including surface water bodies)106. They are however not responsible
for the entire water cycle. Although the water and sanitation service is one of
the largest impactors on the stormwater system (increased flows, Greywater
run-off etc) their planning and operational systems do not adequately
integrate with those of Stormwater.

An innovative new opportunity for the City is to implement the philosophy and
practice of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM).

The following extract form the Water Research Commission IUWM


programme explains107:
“…this (IUWM) is a new field that has emerged as a direct result of
conclusions drawn by international and local agencies that sanitation,
waste disposal, urban stormwater and runoff, water reticulation cannot
be considered to be stand alone issues as they have in the past”

The implementation of IUWM could ensure that all water related processes
are planned and managed with a view toward their collective social, economic
and environmental impact. This approach would require a paradigm shift
within the existing water and sanitation sector of the City of Cape Town.

5.2.5 Centralised vs. decentralized wastewater treatment technologies

Most of the formal developed areas in Cape Town are served by one of the
20 large (centralised) wastewater treatment plants. By definition a
decentralised wastewater system treats sewage from homes and business
that are not connected to a centralised wastewater treatment plant and
includes on site and cluster system108. A septic tank and soak-away or
Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) toilet are typical on-site systems, whereas a
106
COCT, 2002 Catchment, Stormwater and River Management Strategy 2002-2007
107
WRC Website : www.wrc.org.za/downloads/knowledgereview/2002/Integrated.pdf
108
EPA, 2004 : Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems
http://www.epa.gov/OWM/primer.pdf

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 80
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plant that treats a small group of houses or a development, relatively near
their location, is typically a cluster system.

This section highlights issues for consideration and emphasises the need for
more research in this field.

Issues for consideration: Centralised vs. Decentralised systems:


Planning: Centralised systems offer a regional solution to wastewater
treatment, whereas ownership and operational issues regarding
decentralised systems could require more planning and consultation.
Capital and Operating Cost: Centralised systems are often more capital
and labour intensive and more expensive to maintain.
Collection and Conveyance costs: Sewer collection via a vast network of
pipelines and rising mains often contribute to 80% of the overall cost of
treatment. Decentralised systems could place re-usable wastewater and
sludge closer to potential users, saving again on conveyance.
Energy: Due to the extensive distances from source to treatment and
larger volume of sewage, centralised systems are more energy
consuming than smaller localised systems.
Land requirement/footprint: Centralised systems have a larger physical
and carbon footprint.
Skills requirements: Centralised system often requires highly skilled
operators and large operational teams, whereas decentralised systems
tend to be more low-tech and “hands-on”.
By products: Both systems offer opportunities for re-use of water and
solids (sludge) and biogas. Large volumes of effluent generated at
centralised systems are often discharged back into the environment at
one place. Smaller systems impact less on flow receiving environment,
provided that the water quality requirements are met. Groundwater
contamination is often associated with decentralised systems such as
soak-away systems. Larger volumes of biogas at centralised systems
possibly make secondary uses more financially feasible.

A brief internet search produced the following examples of decentralised


treatment projects underway elsewhere:

India: Sukriti Engineers109 offers decentralised treatment technologies based on


the ground and available land considerations which includes:
Underground sewage treatment plants based on bio filters
Mobile, containerised sewage treatment plants or
Compact plants

109
Sukriti Engineers in : www.tradeindia.com

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Germany: Heidelberg-Neurott110 decentralised membrane sewage treatment
demonstration plant produces wastewater fit to swim in. Each house has a small
pump that leads to an influent storage tank, where mixing occurs before
treatment by the pre-manufactured unit.

Figure 12: Process flow chart for the membrane bioreactor plant in Heidelberg-Neurott 101

The US Environmental Protection Agency‟s reference document for municipal


wastewater treatment111 provides a comprehensive overview of various
centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment types.

There is extensive scope for research into the viability (financial, social and
environmental) of decentralised wastewater treatment, possibly as a potential
solution to the City of Cape Town‟s wastewater treatment crises for new
developments? Opportunities for treated wastewater and sludge re-use closer
to source are also favoured by this approach.

Choice of appropriate technology (operating skills, cost), to serve the


purpose intended (quality of final effluent/sludge), without compromising
human or environmental health, remains one of the biggest challenges in this
regard.

110
Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology
www.igb.fraunhofer.de/start.en.html
111
EPA, 2004 Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems
http://www.epa.gov/OWM/primer.pdf

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6. Financial Aspects112
Over the last decade of the restructuring of Water and Sanitation Services
within the broader context of the restructuring of the City there have been
ongoing annual operating and capital budget cuts. Staff that have left the
service through natural attrition have in many cases not been replaced,
resulting in a critical skills shortage particularly of engineers and project
managers.

The budget cuts have meant that infrastructure expansion and maintenance
have fallen behind. In particular, much of the wastewater treatment and sewer
pipelines and pump stations infrastructure are in critical need of expansion,
upgrading and replacement.

The water tariff is low when compared to other major cities in South Africa.
In addition bad debt has grown to a massive R2.0 billion (R1.5 for water and
R0.5 for sanitation).

112
The chapter was written by John Frame and contains numerous extracts from the COCT
Water Services Development Plan 2007/8 – 2011/12, referenced elsewhere in this document,
which he co-authored and project lead

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The severe drought of 2004/05 resulted in water restrictions at a 20% level of
reduction. In order to maintain the momentum of a water saving culture of the
customers a 10% level of restrictions has been in force since November 2005.

6.1 Water demand and wastewater disposal

The total amount of water sold (billed) versus what was delivered (water
treated) is given in the table below:

2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06


3 3 3 3 3
(mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m ) (mil m )
Total water treated 287.5 301.4 310.2 282.7 294.5
Billed (Total) * * * 222.5 235.8
Billed (External customers) 19.9 22.5
Unbilled metered and * * * 6.0 6.0
unbilled unmetered (est)
Total authorised * * * 228.5 241.8
Non-Revenue demand 54.2 52.7
* Pre-SAP figures not available
Table 18: Water billed vs. water treated

The growth in water demand over the last 5 years has been 2.7% or 0.5% per
annum compared to an historic 3-4% per annum. This reduction in demand
growth has been as a result of increased consumer awareness due to the
severe water restrictions of 2004/05 and water demand management
initiatives.

In the 2005/06 the breakdown of water usage in the different categories was:

Category %age Water Usage


Commercial & Industrial 14.6% 39,604,273
Departmental Cluster 1.9% 5,296,873
Domestic Cluster 5.5% 15,085,701
Domestic Full 45.1% 122,767,813
Government 1.6% 4,337,839
Miscellaneous 5.1% 14,003,230
Municipal 2.6% 7,182,864
Schools and Sportsfields 1.9% 5,284,754
Unbilled (estimated) 2.2% 6,000,000
Non-Revenue Demand 19.3% 52,390,255
TOTAL 271,953,601

Table 19: Water usage in different categories

In addition an amount of 22,542,399 m3 was sold to external customers.

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Domestic consumption accounted for 50.7% and non-revenue demand for
19.3 % of the total demand.

6.1.1 Tariffs, Income and Expenditure

The budgeted income for the financial year 2006/07 is given in the table
below:

Item Amount
User Charges for Services -1,598,153,508
Rent of Facilities and Equipment -122,434
Interest earned on Arrears -110,000,000
Operating Grants and Subsidies -170,254,241
Other Income -11,739,398
Internal Charges Revenue -813,340,495
Internal Cross Subsidization Revenue -35,952,000
TOTAL -2,739,562,077

Table 20: Budgeted income for 2006/7

The total water and sewerage expenditure budget for 2006/07 is given in the
table below:

EXPENDITURE 2006/07

Salaries Wages and Allowances 348,212,131


General Expenses - Other 252,573,115
Bulk Purchases 249,710,992
Contract Services 66,388,599
Grants and Subsidies 0
Bad Debts / Working Capital Reserve 324,859,627
Repairs and Maintenance (primary) 77,564,987
Repairs and Maintenance (secondary) 52,695,467
Depreciation 129,473,185
Depreciation (new assets)
Interest Internal Borrowings 110,398,783
Interest (new loans)
Transfers to&from Reserves/Appr Acct 70,787,876
Internal Utilities Expenditure 48,242,231
Bulk Charges Expenditure 735,111,956
Insurance Departmental Expenditure 11,824,557

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Internal Contribution Expenditure 92,040,000
Activity Based Costs -92,304,405
Corporate Support Services 134,362,233

2,611,941,335
TOTAL

Table 21: Expenditure for 2006/7

The costs are split 60% water and 40% sewerage.

A balanced budget is aimed at where the income equals the expenditure.


Historically water income subsidized the rates income but this is to be
discontinued from the 2007/08 financial year.

The projected water usage in each category (and each block – e.g. there are
6 blocks for single residential domestic) with the tariff applied to each
determines the “user charge for services”. The volume of sewerage disposed
is based on the water consumption and user charges for sewerage are based
on a fixed and volumetric charge. The fixed charge, which is based on the
value of the property, will no longer apply from 2007/08. Water and sewerage
tariffs are set each year for various levels of water restrictions - 0%, 10%,
20% and 30%.

A bulk tariff is charged to external users.

The average cost of water and sanitation for the financial year 2006/07 is
R7.07 per Kl of water sold. The average cost of water is R4.95 per Kl
consumed and that of wastewater or sewerage is R2.79 per Kl disposed.

6.1.1.1 Water Tariffs


Water tariffs for a 10% restriction level for the financial years 2006/07 and
2007/08 are given in the table below:

TARIFFS 2006 / 2007 TARIFFS 2007 / 2008


Domestic Full 0-6 0 0-6 R0
Water that is used
predominantly for domestic +6-12 R2.56 +6-12 R 3.05
purposes and supplied to +12 – R5.46 +12 – 20 R 6.50
single residential 20
properties. +20 – R8.08 +20 – 40 R 9.63
40
+40 – R9.98 +40 – 50 R 11.90
50
+50 R13.17 +50 R 15.70

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TARIFFS 2006 / 2007 TARIFFS 2007 / 2008
Commercial – Water supplied to R 5.83 Comm / Ind R 6.95
premises predominantly of a
commercial nature
Industrial - Water which is used in
manufacturing, generating electricity,
land-based transport, construction or
any related purpose.
Schools / Sport – Any educational R5.15 Schools / Sport R 6.14
activity / sporting body
Domestic Cluster – Bulk metered R5.47 Dom. Cluster R 6.52
flats, cluster developments including
single title and sectional title units.
An allowance of 6 Kl per unit per
month at zero cost upon submission
of affidavits stating the number of
units.
Government - National and R5.53 Government R 6.59
Provincial Departments
Municipal – Departmental use R5.15 Municipal R 6.14
Homeless people shelters – n/a 0 – 0.75 /person R0
Accredited shelters registered with +0.75 /person R6.14
the City of Cape Town.
Miscellaneous – All consumers who R5.53 Miscellaneous R 6.59
do not fall within the above
categories.
Miscellaneous External - All R6.61 Miscellaneous R 7.88
consumers supplied outside the City External
of Cape Town.
Bulk Tariff - Exclusive of the Water R2.21 Bulk Tariff R 2.37
Research Commission Levy
Only for Bulk Supply to other
Municipalities and for cost recovery
from Water Services Reticulation of
the City of Cape Town
Table 22: Water Tariff

6.1.1.2 Sanitation Tariffs

Sewerage (sanitation) tariffs for a 10% restriction level for the financial years
2006/07 and 2007/08 are given in the table below:

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87
TARIFFS TARIFFS
VOLUMETRIC TARIFFS
2006 / 2007 2007 / 2008

Domestic Full- Single residential 0 – 4.2 0 0 – 4.2 0


properties.
+4.2 – 8.4 R1.68 +4.2 – 8.4 R 3.78
70% of water consumption to a
maximum of 35 kl of sewage per +8.4 – 28 R4.10 +8.4 – 14 R 8.04
month (70% of 50 kl water equals
35 kl of sewage) n/a +14 - 28 R8.79

n/a +28 - 35 R 9.23


Homeless people shelters – 0 – 0.525
R0
Accredited shelters registered with /person
n/a
the City of Cape Town. +0.525
R5.20
/person
Domestic Cluster - Bulk metered
flats, cluster developments.
Including sectional and single title
units.
90% of Water Consumption (* see
note)
R4.04 R 9.10
An allowance of 4.2 kl per unit per
month will be made available at zero
cost upon submission of a signed
affidavit stating the number of units
supplied from that metered
connection.
Industrial and Commercial -
Schools, hospitals, Government:
National / Provincial and any other – R2.51 R 5.65
95% of water consumption (* see
note)
Departmental - 95% of water (*
see note) consumption excluding
R2.31 R 5.20
facilities not connected to the sewer
system
Table 23: Sanitation Tariff

6.1.1.3 Life line Tariffs

All domestic properties receive 6 kilolitres of water free per month while the
first 4.2 (70% of 6 Kl) per month of sewerage is disposed free of charge.
Effectively consumers that use more water cross subsidize those that use

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less. In addition all properties that are valued at R100 000 or less receive a
R20 Indigent Grant and do not attract a fixed charge for sewerage. At 2006/07
tariffs this Indigent Grant meant that consumers could use 10.695 kilolitres of
water and dispose of 7.487 kilolitres of sewerage per month without attracting
a charges. However, due to the increase in tariffs in 2007/08 the Indigent
Grant has been increased to R30 as is applied to the water account. The
property value that attracts the Indigent Grant has been adjusted to R199
000. Previously a sewerage connection attracted a fixed and volumetric
charge. However, from 2007/08 all sewerage will be charged volumetrically.

6.2 Sewerage Treatment

The total amount of sewerage treated is given in the table below:

2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06


Total (Ml) 193 453 192 083 195 865 196 214 196 498 198 891

The increase over the last 5 years has been low (2.7%) in line with the low
increase in water demand.

The operating and maintenance costs for the wastewater treatment works for
2006/07 is given in the table below:

Item Budget 06/07


Operating R 129,482,484
Maintenance R 29,016,191
TOTAL R 158,498,675

Table 24: Operating and maintenance cost for 2006/7

The cost is therefore R0.80 per Kilolitre (R0.973 including overheads but
excluding capital charges) of wastewater treated. The ratio of water treated to
water supplied to properties is 0.67. Since water ingress into the sewer
system is a problem, all the water treated does not originate as potable water
but a proportion is storm water and ground water. This ingress results in
higher costs of treatment and affects water quality.

The cost of constructing a conventional wastewater treatment plant is


approximately R6 to7 million per megalitre of installed capacity.

6.2.1 Alternative Sanitation Technologies

Alternative sanitation technologies such a dry sanitation have mainly been


tested in informal areas. Approximately 3,000 septic tank systems exist in the
former South Peninsular Administration.

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There have not been studies within the city to examine the financial
implications of applying new technologies to new areas. Social acceptance is
considered a major obstacle. The unit costs of other waste processing
systems such as biolytic, multi-system approaches and separation toilets (e.g.
urine diversion) needs further research.

6.3 Billing System

The billing system used to bill users is the SAP system which sends out a
consolidated bill for rates, solid waste, electricity (where conventional meter),
water and sewerage.

The City is divided into 20 billing areas, which coincide with the meter reading
areas. Bills are therefore sent out on a daily basis after the meter reading has
been loaded into the system and verified. There are strict deadlines for the
bills to go out so meter reading runs to a strict schedule.

Currently all users are divided into the following rate categories.

Bulk Water
Bulk Water Other
Departmental Water
Municipal Standpipe
Goverment Water
Miscellaneous External
Miscellaneous Water
Water for Schools
Domestic Water Cluster
Commercial Water
Industrial Water
Water Domestic Full
Water contracts
Citywide Miscellaneous
Municipal Water
Standpipes
Shared Water Meter

Each rate category has a unit rate for the volume of water consumed. Water
availability charges apply where there is no water usage but a connection
exists.

6.4 How the WWTPs budgets are determined


The operating budgets for WWTPs are determined in a similar way to the
result of the service. Operating budgets are based on the previous year plus

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an inflationary increase. Changes in technology and in the way the plant is
operated is also taken into account. Often, capital budget constraints do not
permit higher expenditure that will result in longer term lower costs or higher
income.

Multi-year Capital Spending Strategy


The low budget and the high needs over the last 5 years has meant that only
very critical projects have received the go ahead. However, from 2006/07 the
Council has adopted an approach of ensuring that the core services like water
and sanitation have sufficient funds for the need.

The historical and future capital budgets and the funding sources are given
below:
Capital Budget 2004/05 to 2006/07

2004/05 2005/06 2006/07


R mil R mil R mil

EAMS 0.1 10.1 0.0


BULK WATER 13.0 27.3 17.8
RETICULATION 156.0 278.3 307.6
SUPPORT SERVICES 0.0 4.0 0.0
SCIENTIFIC SERVICES 0.0 3.0 0.0
WASTE WATER 61.7 78.7 87.7
WDM 0.0 0.0 2.0
N2 GATEWAY 13.6 0.0 0.0
OTHER 0.0 0.0 8.5
W & S SERVICE TOTAL 244.5 401.3 423.6

Table 25: Capital Budget for 2004/5 – 2006/7

Funding Sources 2005/06 and 2006/07 were:

2005/06 2006/07
R mil R mil

AFF (now CRR) 55.4 62.0


BICL 22.6 53.0
CMIP 4.5 0.0
DWAF 1.7 0.3
EFF 161.6 152.1
MIG 137.5 141.1
Other 18.1 15.1
TOTAL 401.3 423.6

Table 26: Funding sources for 2005/6 and 2006/7

The projected Capital Budget for the years 2007/08 to 2011/12

2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12

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R mil R mil R mil R mil R mil

Reticulation 404.1 313.0 190.7 172.7 131.5


WWT 133.0 174.3 145.3 163.4 185.0
Bulk water 77.8 357.6 579.1 426.0 389.0
WDM 22.5 21.5 25.5 14.1 12.8
Support 3.0 3.5 4.0 27.2 27.7
Water Meter repl. 16.0 16.0 16.0 18.3 19.2
Informal settlements 56.4 55.6 47.1 38.0 39.9
EAMS 31.3 55.2 40.2 42.0 42.0
Scientific Services 2.3 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.7
TOTAL 746.4 998.1 1049.2 903.4 848.7

Note: the first 3 years correspond with the 3 year capital budget.
Table 27: Project Capital Budget for 2007/8 – 2011/12
Funding Sources for the years 2007/08 to 2011/12 are projected to be:

2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12


R mil R mil R mil R mil R mil

Capital requirement 746.4 998.1 1049.2 903.4 848.7


Grants (MIG & DWAF) 179 188 197 207 217
CRR 100 120 144 173 207
Nett Capital from EFF 467.4 690.1 708.2 523.4 423.7
CRR = Capital Replacement Reserve
EFF = External Financing Fund
Table 28: Funding Sources for 2007/8 – 2011/12

The capital budget is set to increase significantly from approximately R400 mil
per annum to over R800 million with EFF set to increase from around R150-
R160 million to R460-R700 million. This is to ensure that the necessary
infrastructure is built to cater for growth in the city and existing infrastructure is
maintained and upgraded or replaced.

6.5 How needs are determined


Master plans of the future infrastructure requirements are drawn up based on
the capacity and location of existing infrastructure and where new and infill
development is planned for the City. The nature of the development
determines future water demand and wastewater disposal requirements.
These in turn determine the additional capacity that is required and where it is
required. In addition the performance of the existing infrastructure is
monitored and infrastructure that requires upgrading or replacement is
identified.

The infrastructure needs are therefore determined based on what is required


for growth and what infrastructure needs to be upgraded or replaced based
on its performance.

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There is currently an initiative that will ensure that all master planning is
based on the same base data for the Bulk Water, Wastewater Treatment,
Reticulation and Water Demand Management. Currently base data is
fragmented and planning is not fully integrated.

6.6 How priorities set


The overarching method of determining priorities is through the Integrated
Development Plan or IDP and the Water Services development Plan (WSDP)
which is a sector plan of the IDP. The infrastructure needs are determined by
technical master plans as outlined above.

On an annual basis, through the IDP and WSDP process, which is guided by
national policies and legislation, goals and objectives are set. The current
situation is assessed and the strategic gap is identified. From this strategies
are developed to ensure that the gap is closed.

Once projects have been identified these are entered into the draft capital
budget. A process of determining the priorities is then followed until a final
capital budget is determined. The process of determining which projects are
priority is not easy despite the IDP and WSDP process. In recent years due to
the tight capital budget the method of determining which projects should go
ahead has been based on a risk analysis that determines that consequences
or impact of not doing the project and the likelihood of these impacts.

6.7 How final decisions made

The final decision as to what will be submitted to Council rests with the
Directors and Executive Directors in conjunction with the Finance Directorate.
The total capital budget is set based on the impact on the tariffs and the
affordability thereof for the whole municipal account. Theoretically, because
Water and Sanitation Services generates its own income the total budget can
be determined by financial modeling. However, this has not always been the
case and the service often “cross-subsidizes” the rates capital budget. The
high debt of the service has also reduced affordability.

Many infrastructure projects, especially bulk projects, impact the capital


budget for numerous years. In approving the project the Council has in effect
approved that portion of the capital budget for a number of years to come.
This is not always fully understood by the decision makers who have tended
to only want to approve projects for one year despite the IDP and WSDP‟s
five year horizon.

Ultimately the Council decides from what is submitted and within the budget
constraint what projects go ahead.

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6.8 Challenges and Constraints
There are numerous financial challenges that need to be overcome. Probably
the most critical is the high and rising debt (currently R2.0 billion) as it puts
the financial sustainability of the service at risk, increases the cost of
providing the service and affects the service‟s ability to attract much needed
capital to maintain, upgrade and extend infrastructure. The Capital
requirements over the next 5 years are extremely high with EFF set to
increase from around R150-R160 million to R460-R700 million. While the
proper asset management will increase costs in the short term, they will
reduce costs in the longer term and the life cycle costs will be reduced i.e.
assets that are properly maintained last longer. Additional staff are required to
improve the financial management of the service as well as ensuring that
infrastructure is maintained, upgraded and extended.

All these needs will necessitate increases in tariffs significantly above


inflation. The affordability of these tariffs, particularly for low-income groups
need to be tested.

Other challenges include:


Ensuring that the tariff structure remains stable (brings in the
necessary income) while implementing the comprehensive water
demand management strategy.
Increasing income.
Reducing targeted costs without lowering levels of service delivery.
Reducing the cost of capital.
Devising innovative solutions for funding capital projects.
Improving data integrity particularly as it pertains to customer
information and income generation.
Incentives, financial or otherwise, for water saving devices and
alternative sanitation technologies.

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7. Constraints and challenges and future recommendations
Findings of this study substantiate the strategic interventions for the water and
sanitation sector, proposed in the National Strategy for Sustainable
Development113. These are:
Sustaining our ecosystems and using natural resources efficiently
Investing in sustainable infrastructure
Creating sustainable communities
Enhancing systems for integrated planning
Building capacity for sustainable development

The following section provides an outline of the key issues and


recommendations gathered during the course of this analysis:

7.1 Institutional Issues


Changing Environment: A high level of adaptability is demanded
from officials who are operating in a rapidly changing regulatory and
institutional environment.

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Capacity: Capacity constraints exist do to long overdue vacancies.
Low staff morale is counter-productive to the high expectations on
service delivery
Integration: Future planning scenarios needs to fast tracked within
the various tiers of government, amongst the various line functions in
within the various departments of the water and sanitation service.
Budget Timeframes: The “pace to deliver”, once financial
commitment is secured, is often driven by financial limitations (spend
the money before we lose it). Sustainability is risked in fast tracked
projects with limited public and other line-functions involvement.
Projects may suffer from lack of ownership by communities and
officials! This is particularly true for service delivery projects in high
density low income areas.
Capacity building: In order to ensure meaningful participation within
and outside Council, the water and sanitation service needs to explore
methods to creating an understanding of the highly technical issues it
deals with.

7.2 Financial Issues


Increasing bad dept The water and sanitation service‟s financial
sustainability is at risk due to its rising dept (R2 billion) and realistic
tariffs need to be charged to ensure desperately needed capital.
Revenue Collection : Billing, metering and revenue collection needs
to be improved
Skills Shortage: There is a critical shortage of much needed financial
management skills in the water and sanitation service.
Unaccounted for water: Latest figures indicate that this could be as
high as 23%, represented a loss of revenue for 186 Ml/day water.

The key financial strategies for CCT in the IDP are114:

Reducing salary costs to acceptable levels, taking into account the


City‟s new operating model and transferring savings to improve the
maintenance of assets;
Reducing the cost of servicing long-term debt with innovative
methods of borrowing and capital financing;
Reducing the dependency on cross-subsidisation from tariff-based
services to within acceptable norms;
Maintaining rate and tariff adjustments within national norms and
guidelines, ensuring the national and local economy are not
undermined;

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Making adequate provision for free basic services for the poor, to
ensure that there is no further marginalisation of poorer communities
or individuals through the entrenchment of the indigent policy;
Preparing realistic income budgets with adequate provision for non-
recovery to ensure the expenditure reflected for each year can be fully
covered by cash receipts;
Ensuring that adequate cash reserves are maintained to cover
legislated funds and provisions.

Implementing these financial strategies in the context of the implementing the


WSA and WSP arrangements will go a lot way to putting Water and sanitation
Services on a sustainable path.

7.3 Environmental and Health Issues


Loss of amenity: Most of the rivers receiving treated effluent are
severely degraded and many coastal bathing beaches are not safe to
swim in summer months due to contaminated stormwater and
wastewater discharges.
Health Risks: Toxic algal blooms and polluted runoff from poorly
services settlements pose a serious health risk to neighbouring
communities. The links with Environmental Health practitioners needs
to be strengthened.
Low Profile of Pollution in budget allocations: There are no clear
links between pollution and human health/quality of life which could
possibly increase the profile of the Cities strained water bodies. The
water sectors contributions include sub standard effluent discharges,
runoff from informal settlements pumps station overflows, leaking
reticulation which impact on surface and groundwater.
Increased maintenance Invasive aquatic weeds flourish in the
nutrient enriched water bodies, where they choking rivers, enhance
flood risks and required capital intensive maintenance operations to be
cleared. Sludge spills silt of rivers, which also required costly
maintenance to avoid floods.
Energy from waste: In view of Cape Town‟s energy crises, the use of
existing bio-gas and sewage sludge as energy source should be
explored as a matter of urgency. An energy audit within the water and
sanitation sector would assist with identification of large consumers.
Climate change: The impact of climate change, and sea level rise
need to be assessed within the water and sanitation service, which
has significant infrastructure on the Cities coastline.

7.4 Technology and Information Issues

Forecasting models: The current method of demand forecasting


results in a wide range of future scenarios. International models based

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on “end-use” demand analysis appear to provide a greater level of
confidence.
Water saving devices: The availability and affordability of many of the
water saving devices promoted in the Water Conservation and
Demand Management Strategy needs to be ensured in order for the
strategy to meet its goals.
Alternative technologies: There is an urgent need for a detailed
investigation into alternative technologies for water and wastewater
treatment. The role of technologies such as solar disinfection,
decentralised wastewater treatment and innovative bio-gas sewage
sludge re-use should be explored in new and existing developments.
Greywater: Innovative solutions need to be explored to deal with the
highly polluted run-off from un-serviced and/or poorly serviced
settlements.
Effluent re-use: The City is currently re-using only 7% of the potential
39% of treated effluent available for this purpose. This untapped
resource offers huge opportunities for innovative development.
Guidelines for the re-use of treated effluent within the urban
environment need to be develop as a matter of urgency.

7.5 Future Recommendations

The following recommendations are presented in addition to those


summarised in the comprehensive Water Conservation and Water Demand
Management Strategy:

Resolve institutional reform issues and appoint staff as matter of


urgency
Develop internal financial and business skills
Adopt philosophy and practice of IUWM, and ensure alignment with
key National, Provincial and Local future planning initiatives
Gauge progress with WC/WDM strategy and ensure the document
and commitment remain „live‟
Develop capacity to enforce by-laws
Investigate alternative technologies for wastewater treatment and
disposal, including sewage sludge
Develop indicators which link human health/quality of life health to
environmental degradation
Develop wastewater effluent re-use guidelines
Conduct an energy audit in the water and sanitation service which a
few to identify opportunities for savings
Investigate use of energy from wastewater (biogas and sludge) and
implement the Athlone pilot project

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Amidst the constraints and limitations of restructuring, budgets cuts and staff
losses, the water and sanitation sector has managed to ensure that the
majority of formally housed citizens in Cape Town have reliable access to
clean water and properly functioning sanitation services.

Great strides have been made with by-laws and the development of a service
delivery plan, which aligns with the growth and development objectives of the
City. More recently, the Council committed them selves to a R759 million
strategy which will guide water conservation and demand management over
the next 10 years. The future of water resource management in the City of
Cape Town harbours many untapped opportunities for innovation and
transformation.

8. References
Cape Times, 3 April 2007: Editorial

Cape Times, 3 April 2007: Inadequate management hinders development by Anel


Powell

Cape Argus, 3 April 2007: Shack dwellers stuck with buckets by Lindsay Dentlinger

CMC, 1999: Strategic Assessment of Bulk Wastewater Infrastructure : Study Synopsis


(Ninham Shand and Africon)

COCT,2001: (Internal document) Bulk Water Infrastructure and Statistics

COCT, 2001: Integrated Water Resource Planning Sudy – Background, Results and
Recommendations (Ninham Shand and Arcuss Gibb)

COCT, 2001: Integrated Environmental Management Policy for the City of Cape Town

COCT, 2002: Catchment, Stormwater and River Management Strategy 2002-2007

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p. 99
99
COCT, 2002: Scoping Investigation Report on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas
Mitigation Projects for the City of Cape Town

COCT, 2004: Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy

COCT, 2005: Integrated Development Plan for the City of Cape Town 2005/6

COCT, 2005: Project Definition Report for the Asset Management Plan for the Trading
Services

COCT, 2005: Greywater Guidelines

COCT, 2005: Safety, Health and Environment Policy and Procedure Manual

COCT, 2005: (Unpublished Internal Document) Existing Bulk Water Supply


Infrastructure. Background Information for Water Services Development Plan

COCT, 2005: Water Consumption Study, Community Engineering Services

COCT, 2006: Water Services Development Plan for the City of Cape Town 2006/7

COCT, 2006 (CD): City of Cape Town policy and strategy documents towards
sustainable development through integrated environmental management

COCT, 2007: Water Services Development Plan for the City of Cape Town 2007/8-
2011/12 (Draft 4)

COCT, 2007: (Unpublished Council Report) An overview of the Western Cape water
supply system reconciliation strategy and the roles and responsibilities of the city in
implementation of the strategy, Report to Utility Services Portfolio Committee

COCT, 2007(Unpublished Power Point Presentation): Water and Sanitation -WSDP


Executive Summary – J de Bruyn

COCT, 2007: (Unpublished Council Report) Understanding Water Losses: Report to


Trading Services and Infrastructure Portfolio Committee

COCT, 2007: Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy (Final
Draft)

COCT, 2007: (Media Release 11 June 2007): City Adopts Multimillion Rand Water
Saving Strategy, Communications Department

COCT, 2007: (Unpublished Council Report) Adoption of long-term water conservation


and water demand management strategy and financial plan, incorporating adoption of
treated effluent strategy and master plan

DEAT, 2006: National Strategy for Sustainable Development. (Draft Integrated Strategy
for Review)

Integrated Analysis Water and Sanitation Baseline Report: SI UNDP Cape Town Project v: Final Draft 18-Jul-07, p.100
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Della Togna M & Pithey S, 2003: (VIDEO/ CD). Improving Services Trough Dialogue.
The Kalkfontein Stormwater Project. Rainbow Circle Films, Cape Town.

DWAF, 2003, Strategic Framework for Water Services

DWAF 1996: Water Law Principles

DWAF 1997: White Paper on National Water Policy for South Africa

DWAF, 1998 National Water Act

DWAF, 2004: Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the
Water Services Sector

DWAF 2005 (Newsletter)Western Cape Reconciliation Process and Berg River CMA
Process, Newsletter May 2005

Frame, J 2007: (Pers Com) : Ongoing revised calculations of Non-Revenue Demand

Impumelelo, 2004: Series of best practice : Environment

Impumelelo, 2004: Series of best practice : Water

King, P 2007, (Pers Com) and unpublished Water Usage tables

Ninham Shand, Asch and Africon Engineering, 2003: Review of the infrastructure and
fixed assets of the Water and Sanitation Service

ODA, aloeCap and Africon, 2004: High level review of the project to establish internal
business units for Electricity, Water and Sanitation and Solid Waste Management
Services

Scmitz, T, 1999: Rethinking delivery : A review of efforts of DWAF, CPS Policy Analysis

Sustainable Energy Africa & COCT, 2002: (Unpublished report): Greenhouse Gas
Inventory for the City of Cape Town

Wells, M 2005:(Power Point Presentation) Athlone Biogas and Integrated Farming


Systems, Concept Discussions with the COCT, Agama Energy 6 September 2005
WRC, 1994: Financial and Institutional Review Survey Report: Palmer Development
Group Report No 571/6/94

WRC, 2004: An Assessment of the Water Policy Process in South Africa (1994-2003),
Report No TT232/04,

WRC, 2005 A 3 Step Strategic Approach to sustainable wastewater management


(Nhapi, I & Gijzen, H)

Referenced Websites:

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Local

Water Research Commission Website: www.wrc.org.za

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry www.dwaf.co.za

City of Cape Town: www.capetown.gov.za

Table Mountain Aquifer Investigation go to www.tmg-acquifer.co.za

International

UN Millennium Project website : www.unmillenniumproject.org/index.htm

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology


www.igb.fraunhofer.de/start.en.html

EPA, 2004 : Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems


http://www.epa.gov/OWM/primer.pdf

Sukriti Engineers in : www.tradeindia.com

Juanicó - Environmental Consultants Ltd. Isreal“Sewage Treatment Technologies” :


http://www.juanico.co.il

Californa Energy Commission website www.energy.ca.gov

UNEP webpage : www.unep.or.jp

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy : India http://mnes.nic.in/u3.htm

Virginia State University website : On site sewage treatment


http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/waterquality/448-407/448-407.html#L5

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