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Raisen Road, P.O. Anand Nagar, Bhopal

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Experiment Statement
Batch -
Batch - I











1 STUDY OF IEEE 802.3, 802.4 AND 802.5




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Practical No.1


SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to know how different computers are

THEORY: Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various

elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Network topologies may be physical
or logical. Physical topology means the physical design of a network including the
devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually
transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design.

A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a physical
topology and a logical topology. Any given node in the LAN has one or more links to one
or more nodes in the network and the mapping of these links and nodes in a graph results
in a geometric shape that may be used to describe the physical topology of the network.
Likewise, the mapping of the data flow between the nodes in the network determines the
logical topology of the network. The physical and logical topologies may or may not be
identical in any particular network.

Classification of network topologies

There are also three basic categories of network topologies:

1. Physical topologies
2. Signal topologies
3. Logical topologies

1. Physical topologies

The mapping of the nodes of a network and the physical connections between them – i.e.,
the layout of wiring, cables, the locations of nodes, and the interconnections between the
nodes and the cabling or wiring system

Classification of physical topologies

The study of network topology recognizes seven basic topologies:

a) Single Node Topology or Point to Point topology

b) Bus topology
c) Star topology
d) Ring topology
e) Tree topology

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f) Mesh topology
g) Hybrid topology

a) Single Node Topology or Point to Point topology: The simplest topology is a

permanent link between two endpoints. Switched point-to-point topologies are the basic
model of conventional telephony.

Permanent (dedicated)
Point-to-point topology is a point-to-point communications channel that appears,
to the user, to be permanently associated with the two endpoints. Children's "tin-
can telephone" is one example.

Using circuit-switching or packet-switching technologies, a point-to-point circuit
can be set up dynamically, and dropped when no longer needed. This is the basic
mode of conventional telephony.

b) Bus topology: In local area networks where bus topology is used, each machine is
connected to a single cable. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable
through some kind of connector. A terminator is required at each end of the bus cable to
prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on the bus cable. A signal from the
source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds
the MAC address or IP address on the network that is the intended recipient. If the
machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores
the data. Alternatively, if the data does match the machine address, the data is accepted.
Since the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement
when compared to other topologies. However, the low cost of implementing the
technology is offset by the high cost of managing the network. Additionally, since only
one cable is utilized, it can be the single point of failure. If the network cable breaks, the
entire network will be down.

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Advantages of a Bus Topology

• Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.

• Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Bus Topology

• Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main

• Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone
• Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts
• Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large

c) Star topology: In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is
connected to a central hub. In contrast to the bus topology, the star topology connects
each node to the hub with a point-to-point connection. All traffic that traverses the
network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater.

Advantages of a Star Topology

• Easy to install and wire.

• No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
• Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology

• Requires more cable length than a linear topology.

• If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
• More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs,

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d) Tree or Expanded Star: A tree topology combines characteristics of linear
bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations
connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion
of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their

Advantages of a Tree Topology

• Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.

• Supported by several hardware and software venders.

Disadvantages of a Tree Topology

• Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.

• If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
• More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

e) Ring topology: In local area networks where the ring topology is used, each computer
is connected to the network in a closed loop or ring. Each machine or computer has a
unique address that is used for identification purposes. The signal passes through each
machine or computer connected to the ring in one direction. Ring topologies typically
utilize a token passing scheme, used to control access to the network. By utilizing this
scheme, only one machine can transmit on the network at a time. The machines or
computers connected to the ring act as signal boosters or repeaters which strengthen the
signals that traverse the network. The primary disadvantage of ring topology is the failure
of one machine will cause the entire network to fail.

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f) Mesh topology: The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of
the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints, up
to and including all the endpoints, is approximated by Reed's Law.

Fully connected mesh topology: The physical fully connected mesh topology is
generally too costly and complex for practical networks, although the topology is used
when there are only a small number of nodes to be interconnected.

The number of connections in a full mesh = n(n - 1) / 2

Partially connected mesh topology: The type of network topology in which some of the
nodes of the network are connected to more than one other node in the network with a
point-to-point link – this makes it possible to take advantage of some of the redundancy
that is provided by a physical fully connected mesh topology without the expense and
complexity required for a connection between every node in the network.

g) Hybrids topology: Hybrid networks use a combination of any two or more

topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the
standard topologies (e.g., bus, star, ring, etc.). For example, a tree network
connected to a tree network is still a tree network, but two star networks
connected together exhibit a hybrid network topology. A hybrid topology is
always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.
Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star
bus network

2) Signal topology

The mapping of the actual connections between the nodes of a network, as evidenced by
the path that the signals take when propagating between the nodes. The term 'signal
topology' is often used synonymously with the term 'logical topology'. By definition, the
term 'logical topology' refers to the apparent path that the data takes between nodes in a
network while the term 'signal topology' generally refers to the actual path that the signals
(e.g., optical, electrical, electromagnetic, etc.) take when propagating between nodes.

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3) Logical topology

The logical topology, in contrast to the "physical", is the way that the signals act on the
network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to
the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. A network's logical
topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. For example, twisted pair
Ethernet is a logical bus topology in a physical star topology layout. While IBM's Token
Ring is a logical ring topology, it is physically set up in a star topology.

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Practical No.2


SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to know differents connectors.

RJ45: RJ45 is a registered jack. As a registered jack, telephone RJ45 specifies the
physical male and female connectors as well as the pin assignments of the wires in a
telephone cable. The original RJ45 uses a special keyed 8P2C modular connector, with
Pins 5 and 4 wired for tip and ring of a single telephone line and Pins 7 and 8 connected
to a programming resistor. It is meant to be used with a high speed modem, and is
obsolete today.

RJ-11: More commonly known as a phone jack or phone connector, the RJ-11 is short
for Registered Jack-11 and is a four or six wire connection primarily used for
telephones and computer modem connectors across the world.

RJ14: RJ14 is simailar to RJ11 but for two lines.

RJ25: RJ25 is simailar to RJ11 but for three lines.

RJ61: RJ61 is simailar to RJ11 but for four lines.

RJ9 or RJ10: The 4P4C connector, an Acronym for 4 Position, 4 Conductor .it is
popularly, but incorrectly, called RJ22, RJ10, or RJ9. It is also commonly referred to as a
"Handset Connector" because of the most popular usage for the connector. It is the de
facto industry standard for wired telephone handsets. It is used to provide connection
from the base of the telephone to the handset.

Practical No.3

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SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to know network devices.


• Gateway: device sitting at a network node for interfacing with another network
that uses different protocols. Works on OSI layers 4 to 7.
• Router: a specialized network device that determines the next network point to
which to forward a data packet toward its destination. Unlike a gateway, it cannot
interface different protocols. Works on OSI layer 3.
• Bridge: a device that connects multiple network segments along the data link
layer. Works on OSI layer 2.
• Switch: a device that allocates traffic from one network segment to certain lines
(intended destination(s)) which connect the segment to another network segment.
So unlike a hub a switch splits the network traffic and sends it to different
destinations rather than to all systems on the network. Works on OSI layer 2.
• Hub: connects multiple Ethernet segments together making them act as a single
segment. When using a hub, every attached all the objects, compared to switches,
which provide a dedicated connection between individual nodes. Works on OSI
layer 1.
• Repeater: device to amplify or regenerate digital signals received while setting
them from one part of a network into another. Works on OSI layer 1.

Some hybrid network devices:

• Multilayer Switch: a switch which, in addition to switching on OSI layer 2,

provides functionality at higher protocol layers.
• Protocol Converter: a hardware device that converts between two different types
of transmissions, such as asynchronous and synchronous transmissions.
• Bridge Router(Brouter): Combine router and bridge functionality and are
therefore working on OSI layers 2 and 3.
• Digital media receiver: Connects a computer network to a home theatre

Hardware or software components that typically sit on the connection point of different
networks, e.g. between an internal network and an external network:

• Proxy: computer network service which allows clients to make indirect network
connections to other network services
• Firewall: a piece of hardware or software put on the network to prevent some
communications forbidden by the network policy
• Network Address Translator: network service provide as hardware or software
that converts internal to external network addresses and vice versa

Other hardware for establishing networks or dial-up connections:

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• Multiplexer: device that combines several electrical signals into a single signal.
• Network Card: a piece of computer hardware to allow the attached computer to
communicate by network . A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware device
that handles an interface to a computer network and allows a network-capable
device to access that network. The NIC exists on the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of
the OSI model.
• Modem: device that modulates an analog "carrier" signal (such as sound), to
encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to
decode the transmitted information, as a computer communicating with another
computer over the telephone network.

Practical No.4

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SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to understand configuration of IP


THEORY: These guidelines when planning the configuration of the interfaces to the
private network between nodes in a cluster that can be used as a control network
between nodes:

• Each interface has one IP address.

• The IP addresses used on each node for the interfaces to the private network are
on a different subnet from the IP addresses used for public networks.
• An IP name can be specified for each IP address in /etc/hosts.
• Choosing a naming convention for these IP addresses that identifies them with the
private network can be helpful. For example, precede the hostname
with priv- (for private), as in priv-xfs-ha1 and priv-xfs-ha2.

Follow these guidelines when planning the configuration of the node interfaces in a
cluster to one or more public networks:

• If re-MACing is required, each interface to be failed over requires a dedicated

backup interface on the other node (an interface that does not have a highly
available IP address). Thus, for each IP address on an interface that requires re-
MACing, there should be one interface in each node in the failover domain
dedicated for the interface.
• Each interface has a primary IP address. The primary IP address does not fail
• The hostname of a node cannot be a highly available IP address.
• All IP addresses used by clients to access highly available services must be part of
the resource group to which the HA service belongs.
• If re-MACing is required, all of the highly available IP addresses must have the
same backup interface.
• Making good choices for highly available IP addresses is important; these are the
“hostnames” that will be used by users of the highly available services, not the
true hostnames of the nodes.
• Make a plan for publicizing the highly available IP addresses to the user
community, since users of highly available services must use highly available IP
addresses instead of the output of the hostname command.
• Do not configure highly available IP addresses in static Linux configuration files.

Practical No.5

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SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to understand configuration of IP


THEORY: ipconfig is a commmand line utility available on all versions of Microsoft

Windows starting with Windows NT. ipconfig is designed to be run from the Windows
command prompt. This utility allows you to get the IP address information of a Windows
computer. It also allows some control over active TCP/IP connections. ipconfig is an
alternative to the older 'winipcfg' utility.

ipconfig Usage

From the command prompt, type 'ipconfig' to run the utility with default options. The
output of the default command contains the IP address, network mask and gateway for
all physical and virtual network adapters.

'ipconfig' supports several command line options as described below. The command
"ipconfig /?" displays the set of available options.

ipconfig /all

This option displays the same IP addressing information for each adapter as the default
option. Additionally, it displays DNS and WINS settings for each adapter.

ipconfig /release

This option terminates any active TCP/IP connections on all network adapters and
releases those IP addresses for use by other applications. 'ipconfig /release" can be used
with specific Windows connection names. In this case, the command will affect only
the specified connections and not all. The command accepts either full connection
names or wildcard names. Examples:

ipconfig /release "Local Area Connection 1"

ipconfig /release *Local*

ipconfig /renew

This option re-establishes TCP/IP connections on all network adapters. As with the
release option, ipconfig /renew takes an optional connection name specifier.
Both /renew and /release options only work on clients configured for dynamic (DHCP)

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Note: The remaining options below are only available on Windows 2000 and newer
versions of Windows.

ipconfig /showclassid, ipconfig /setclassid

These options manage DHCP class identifiers. DHCP classes can be defined by
administrators on a DHCP server to apply different network settings to different types
of clients. This is an advanced feature of DHCP typically used in business networks,
not home networks.

ipconfig /displaydns, ipconfig /flushdns

These options access a local DNS cache that Windows maintains. The /displaydns
option prints the contents of the cache, and the /flushdns option erases the contents.

This DNS cache contains a list of remote server names and the IP addresses (if any)
they correspond to. Entries in this cache come from DNS lookups that happen when
attempting to visit Web sites, named FTP servers, and other remote hosts. Windows
uses this cache to improve the performance of Internet Explorer and other Web-based

In home networking, these DNS options are sometimes useful for advanced
troubleshooting. If the information in your DNS cache becomes corrupted or outdated,
you could face difficulty accessing certain sites on the Internet. Consider these two

• The IP address of a Web site, email server or other server changes (rare
occurence). The name and address of this site normally stay in your cache for 24
hours after your last visit. You may need to clear your cache to access the server

• A Web site or other server was offline when you last visited it (hopefully a rare
occurence) but since has come back online. The cache will normally keep a record
that the server is offline for 5 minutes afer your last visit. You may need to clear
your cache to access the server sooner.

ipconfig /registerdns

Similar to the above options, this option updates DNS settings on the Windows
computer. Instead of merely accessing the local DNS cache, however, this option
initiates communication with both the DNS server (and the DHCP server) to re-register
with them.

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This option is useful in troubleshooting problems involving connection with the
Internet service provider, such as failure to obtain a dynamic IP address or failure to
connect to the ISP DNS server.

Like the /release and /renew options, /registerdns optionally takes the name(s) of
specific adapters to update. If no name parameter is specified, /registerdns updates all


IPCONFIG /all Display full configuration information.

IPCONFIG /release [adapter]

Release the IP address for the specified adapter.

IPCONFIG /renew [adapter]

Renew the IP address for the specified adapter.

IPCONFIG /flushdns Purge the DNS Resolver cache.

IPCONFIG /registerdns Refresh all DHCP leases and re-register DNS names.

IPCONFIG /displaydns Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache.

IPCONFIG /showclassid adapter

Display all the DHCP class IDs allowed for adapter.

IPCONFIG /setclassid adapter [classid]

Modify the dhcp class id.

Ping Command

Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on
an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent
from the originating host to a destination computer.

Pinging is a command, which tells you if the connection between your computer and a
particular domain is working correctly.

In windows, select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt. This will give
you a window like the one below.

Enter the word ping, followed by a space, then the domain name

If the result shows a series of replies, the connection is working. The time shows you how
fast the connection is .If you see a timed out error instead of a reply, there is a breakdown
some where between your computer and the domain. In this case the next step is to
perform a trace route.

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Practical No.6:


SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to know how to connect different

LANs like organization in on one network (WAN).

THEORY: A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad
area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or
national boundaries [1]). This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area
networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area
networks (MANs), which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific
metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively.

WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and
computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.
Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private.

How WANs Work

WANs are either point-to-point, involving a direct connection between two sites, or
operate across packet-switched networks, in which data is transmitted in packets over
shared circuits. Point-to-point WAN service may involve either analog dial-up lines, in
which a modem is used to connect the computer to the telephone line, or dedicated leased
digital telephone lines, also known as "private lines." Analog lines, which may be either
part of a public-switched telephone network or leased lines, are suitable for batch data
transmissions, such as nonurgent order entry and point-of-sale transactions. Dedicated
digital phone lines permit uninterrupted, secure data transmission at fixed costs.

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Point-to-point WAN service providers include both local telephone companies and long
distance carriers. Packet-switched network services are typically chosen by organizations,
which have low volumes of data or numerous sites, for which multiple dedicated lines
would be too expensive.

Depending on the service, WANs can be used for almost any data sharing purpose for
which LANs can be used. Slower transmission speeds, however, may make some
applications less practical for WANs. The most basic uses of WANs are for electronic
mail and file transfer, but WANs can also permit users at remote sites to access and enter
data on a central site's database, such as instantaneously updating accounting records.
New types of network-based software that facilitate productivity and production tracking,
such as groupware and workflow automation software, can also be used over WANs.
Using groupware, workers at dispersed locations can more easily collaborate on projects.
WANs also give remote offices access to a central office's other data communications
services, including the Internet.

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Practical No.7


SKILLS DEVELOPED: students shall be able to know how stop and wait protocol

THEORY: Stop-and-wait ARQ((also called the bit banging protocol) ) is a method

used in telecommunications to send information between two connected devices. It
ensures that information is not lost due to dropped packets and that packets are received
in the correct order. It is the simplest kind of automatic repeat-request (ARQ) method. A
stop-and-wait ARQ sender sends one frame at a time; it is a special case of the
general sliding window protocol with both transmit and receive window sizes equal to 1.
After sending each frame, the sender doesn't send any further frames until it receives
an acknowledgement (ACK) signal. After receiving a good frame, the receiver sends an
ACK. If the ACK does not reach the sender before a certain time, known as the timeout,
the sender sends the same frame again.

In a real life implementation there are problems to be addressed in Stop and Wait

1) The transmitter adds a redundancy check number to the end of each frame. The
receiver uses the redundancy check number to check for possible damage. If the receiver

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sees that the frame is good, it sends an ACK. If the receiver sees that the frame is
damaged, the receiver discards it and does not send an ACK -- pretending that the frame
was completely lost, not merely damaged.

2) The ACK sent by the receiver is damaged or lost. In this case, the sender doesn't
receive the ACK, times out, and sends the frame again. Now the receiver has two copies
of the same frame, and doesn't know if the second one is a duplicate frame or the next
frame of the sequence carrying identical data.

3) The transmission medium has such a long latency that the sender's timeout runs out
before the frame reaches the receiver. In this case the sender resends the same packet.
Eventually the receiver gets two copies of the same frame, and sends an ACK for each
one. The sender, waiting for a single ACK, receives two ACKs, which may cause
problems if it assumes that the second ACK is for the next frame in the sequence.
To avoid these problems, the most common solution is to define a 1-bit sequence
number in the header of the frame. This sequence number alternates (from 0 to 1) in
subsequent frames. When the receiver sends an ACK, it includes the sequence number of
the next packet it expects. This way, the receiver can detect duplicated frames by
checking if the frame sequence numbers alternate. If two subsequent frames have the
same sequence number, they are duplicates, and the second frame is discarded. Similarly,
if two subsequent ACKs reference the same sequence number, they are acknowledging
the same frame.

Stop-and-wait ARQ is inefficient compared to other ARQs, because the time between
packets, if the ACK and the data are received successfully, is twice the transit time. The
throughput on the channel is a fraction of what it could be. To solve this problem, one
can send more than one packet at a time with a larger sequence number and use one ACK
for a set. This is what is done in Go-Back-N ARQ and the Selective Repeat ARQ.


 tI is the time needed to transfer bits of information only;

 tO is the timeout;
 tF is the time to transmit a packet (successfully or not).

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