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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I am grateful to Dr. Nayana Alagiyawanna, Dean, Faculty of Engineering,


University of Ruhuna and Dr. Priyankara, Director, Engineering Educational Center,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna. Also I take this opportunity to extend
my gratitude to National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) for
making necessary arrangements to provide me a valuable training period.

Also I am so Indebted to Mr. Bernard Perera, Training Consultant of Lanka


Electricity Company (PVT) LTD & Dr. Narendra Silva, Head of Engineering
Division of Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD for providing us all the facilities
in order to have a valuable training. Next, my sincere gratitude is extended to Mr.
Gajaba Nonis, Electrical Engineer of Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD for
extending us his kind co-operation. I take this opportunity to extend my profound
thanks to the Engineers of Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD.

And Also I am so indebted to Mr. Ravindu Hettiarachhi, Electrical Engineer of GIS


section, for dedicating his valuable time on behalf of our own goodness & for
providing us a faculty of knowledge. Next I am thankful to all the employees of
Nugegoda Branch and Maharagama depot for giving us their kind co-operation.

I take this opportunity to express my profuse thanks to Mr. Lochana Palayangoda,


Accountant of LECO projects, for giving us a huge knowledge on project handling.
And also I’m so thankful to all the Technical officers and Technicians of LECO for
extending their friendly hands towards us. And finally I extend my regards to all the
employees of LECO for all the supports given to have a valuable training.

Thank you!
Wijeweera D.A.P.
RU/E/2007/194
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Ruhuna.

1
PREFACE

This report on industrial training prepared by myself was done so not only as an
exercise to fulfill a part of the training requirements set out by NAITA, but also as a
testimony on the actual industrial training I had. Hereby, a detailed account of my
training programmed at Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD is included.

The idea behind this compilation is that any one going through this report should get a
comprehensive understanding of all technical and management aspects of my training.
In making this a reality, I tried my best to keep to the guidelines stipulated by NAITA.
This is succeeded by my own training experience, which is detailed to the most
possible extent.

This report contains the entire experience and knowledge I’ve achieved from Lanka
Electricity Company (PVT) LTD. The first chapter introduces the company overview
where as the second and third chapters focus on Technical and management
experiences.

I finally hope that this humble and honest effort of mine will meet the expectations of
the University.

2
CONTENTS

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.........................................................................1
CONTENTS..................................................................................................................3
Contents..........................................................................................................................3
LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................5
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................6
CHAPTER 1........................................................................................7
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................7
1.1 Overview............................................................................................7
1.1.1 Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD..........................................7
1.1.2 History of LECO...........................................................................8
1.1.3 Present Status of LECO................................................................9
1.2 LECO Distribution system.................................................................10
1.3 The Vision & Mission.........................................................................12
1.4 LECO Quality Policies........................................................................12
1.4.1 Organization Structure of LECO..................................................13
Figure 1.2- Organization Structure.........................................................13
CHAPTER 2.................................................................................................................15
Training Experiences - Technical ..................................................................15
2.1 Introduction – Training Schedule ....................................................15
2.2 11kV Line Equipments......................................................................15
2.2.1 Conductors.................................................................................15
2.2.2. DDLO, Cut outs & LBC..................................................................16
2.2.3 Surge arresters..........................................................................18
2.2.4 FDS (Fuse disconnector Switch).................................................19
2.2.5 Load Break Switch......................................................................19
2.2.6 Auto Reclosers & Sectionalizers.................................................20

3
2.2.7 Transformers..............................................................................22
2.2.8 CT/PT Unit..................................................................................23
2.2.9 Insulators...................................................................................24
2.3 Energy Meters..................................................................................25
2.3.1 Main Components of Induction Type Meters..............................26
CHAPTER 3.................................................................................................................27
Training Experiences - Management ............................................................27
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................27
3.2 Construction Manuals and Cost Manuals..........................................27
3.3 PRONTO system...............................................................................28
3.4 Cost Estimation................................................................................29
3.4.1 Cost Estimation Example...........................................................29
3.5 Tariff & Billing...................................................................................31
3.5.1 Comparison of Domestic tariff when exceeding 90 units for 30
days.................................................................................................... 32
3.5.2 Assignment on Tariff Calculation................................................33
3.6 Procurement Procedure....................................................................33
3.7 Earthing Procedure (Safety).............................................................34
3.8 Distribution Control Centre...............................................................36
3.8.1 DCC Responsibilities...................................................................36
3.8.2 Reports Produced By DCC..........................................................37
3.8.3 System Performance Indices......................................................37
CHAPTER 4.................................................................................................................39
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION..................................................................................39
4.1 Summary..........................................................................................39
4.2 Conclusion.......................................................................................39
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................41
ABBREVIATIONS......................................................................................................42
APPENDIX..................................................................................................................44
APPENDIX I................................................................................................................45

4
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 – Customer Service Centers of Branches…………………………… 10


Table 2.1 – Training Locations and durations…………………………………… 15
Table 2.2 – Bare Conductor Sizes and maximum current carrying capacities…… 16
Table 2.3 - Capacities/Full Load Currents/Fuse Ratings in HV Side…………… 23
Table 3.1 – Construction manuals and their Contents………………………… 28
Table 3.2 – Domestic Tariff Rates………………………………………………….30
Table 3.3 – Flow rated domestic tariff table for 33 days………………………… 31

5
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 – LECO Logo………………………………………………………….. 07


Figure 1.2 – Branch Locations………………………………………………… 09
Figure 1.3 – Transmission Network of Sri Lanka...…………………………… 10
Figure 1.4 - Distribution Network of LECO…………………………………… 11
Figure 1.5 – Organizational Structure………………………………………………13

Figure2.1 – DDLO in open condition……………………………………………… 17


Figure 2.2 – LBC with arc chute interrupter……………………………………… 17
Figure 2.3 – inside view of a fuse link…………………………………………….. 17
Figure 2.4 – A Surge arrester……………………………………………………….18
Figure 2.5 – Load Break Switch………………………………………………… 20
Figure 2.6 – Auto Recloser (left) a sectionalizer (right)……………………………20
Figure 2.7 – Auto Recloser & Sectionalizer Arrangement………………………… 21
Figure 2.8 – Internal Structure of a Transformer………………………………… 22
Figure 2.9 – Winding Arrangement (Left) & the Representation of Dyn11……… 23
Figure 2.10 – CT/PT unit…………………………………………………………. 23
Figure 2.11 – Two watt meter method for 3phase 3 wire supply…………………. 24
Figure 2.12 – Pin Post and Tension Disc Insulators (Left to Right)………………..25

Figure 3.1 – Site plan of a proposed bulk substation…………………………….. 30


Figure 3.2 – Procurement Procedure of LECO…………………………………… 34
Figure 3.3 – Earthing Procedure of LECO………………………………………… 35

6
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
As my second compulsory session of industrial training of the Engineering degree
program, I was appointed at Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD. This training
was arranged for 12 weeks from 02-08-2010 to 21-10-2010. During this period I was
assigned in Engineering division, Branch office Nugegoda, Maharagama Depot,
control section and meter test lab and the transformer workshop. This report consists
of the experience & knowledge that I got during the training period.

1.1.1 Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD


Lanka Electricity Company Private Limited (LECO) is a company incorporated in
1983 for the electricity distribution in Sri Lanka. LECO is a government owned
private company which purchases power from Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) and
distribute to people in the LECO areas. The major goal of founding LECO was to
create a modern and efficient distribution network. In this 27 years, LECO has
successfully reached their target and was able to erect an efficient network all over the
LECO areas. The company has throughout attracted foreign funding from Asian
Development Bank and highly benefited by the consultancies of utility consultants
such as Becca Worely International in setting up their efficient network. LECO as a
utility is benchmarked very high in South East Asian region.

Figure 1.1 – LECO Logo (Source – www.leco.lk)

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1.1.2 History of LECO
Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD (LECO) is a private limited liability company
registered under the Companies Act No 17 of Sri Lanka for distribution of electricity.
Initially, LECO was founded to answer the problem of voltage drop and to provide a
better reliable supply to the consumers.

Due to the poor management and lack of proper engineering application, local
government authorities failed to maintain their electricity distribution networks with
the rapid growth of urban population. As they were unable to generate sufficient
revenue their dues to Ceylon Electricity Board were not settled properly. All these
resulted in the collapse of the electricity supply system within many local authority
areas. The government, recognizing the weaknesses of Local Authority operations
such as unreliability of supplies, voltage drops, high electrical losses, unsatisfactory
revenue collection procedures as well as a general lack of investment in system
improvements, appointed a presidential Committee to come up with solutions to the
below the issues.

• Improving the quality of electricity supply & reduction of electricity wastage.


• Improvement of billing, revenue collection and payments to CEB for bulk
purchases and Improvement of quality of management.
• Improvement in customer relations, prompt attention to Complaints and
overall efficiency

In 1982,the committee report on the “improvement of Electricity Distribution in


Local Authority areas” having studied several options to overcome problem discussed
above, recommended that formation of an Electricity Distribution Company with
Ceylon Electricity Board participation be the best solution.

As a result of this, LECO was incorporated on the 19th September; 1983.Present share
holders of LECO are Ceylon electricity Boar, Urban Development Authority,
Government Treasury and four Local Authorities. LECO operates under the direct
supervision of the Ministry of Power and Energy of Sri Lanka and the guidance of
Public Utilities Committee of Sri Lanka

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1.1.3 Present Status of LECO
Today, the service areas of LECO spread in the costal belt of 4 districts. Though this
is an area with high population density LECO could be able to minimize their losses
up to 6% and it is an extra ordinary achievement of a distribution system of Asian
region as well as south region.
Now LECO launches its operation through 7 branches. They are Negambo,
Nugegoda, Kotte, Moratuwa, Kelaniya,Kaluthara and Galle. Though the LECO area
is very small compare to the area of the country, LECO facilitates more than 15% of
the power distribution.

NUGEGODA BRANCH

Figure 1.2 – Branch Locations (Source – www.leco.lk)

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Branch Name Customer Service Center
Negambo Negambo, seeduwa, Ja- Ela
Kelaniya Dalugama, Mahara, Kandana, Wattala
Nugegoda Nugegoda, Maharagama, Boralesgamuwa
Moratuwa Moratuwa North, Moratuwa South,
Panadura, Koralawella, Keselwatta
Kotte Pitakotte, Kotikawatta, Kolonnawa
Kalutara Kalutara, Payagala, Aluthgama
Galle Galle, Hikkaduwa, Ambalangoda

Table 1.1 – Customer Service Centers of Branches

At the present, LECO provides following services to consumers.


1. Providing new connection in LECO areas.
2. All type of breakdown maintenance and preventive maintenance.
3. Rehabilitation of the network
4. Providing necessary facilities for maintaining supply line to line voltage in the
region of 400V±6%
5. Maximum reliability with minimum number of interruptions and minimum
number of interrupted consumers.
6. Revenue collection

1.2 LECO Distribution system


LECO uses 11kV sub transmission voltage to transmit power in LECO areas and then
it will step down to 400V to distribute to consumers.

11kV-14kV 132 kV/220 kV 132 kV/220 kV 33kV 33kV 11kV

Generation
GSS PSS

33kV
LECO
distribution
system

400 V
CEB distribution
system

Figure 1.3 – Transmission Network of Sri Lanka

10
11
LECO
CEB

33kV Transformer 11kV


3P3W OH radially interconnected feeder -150mm2 AAC

Main Supply Feeder bay LBS


LBS 11kV/LV
LBC
DDLO transformer
Bus coupler bay
Spurs – 100mm2 AAC or
60mm2 AAC 3P4W OH radial LV feeders – 70/50mm2 ABC

Surge
FDS
arrester
Alternate Supply
M
Transformer

PSS
Cutout

MDB

Figure 1.4 – Distribution Network of LECO


LECO takes power from the Primary substations, and then the power is transmitted to
LECO areas via 11kV 3 wire feeders which are radially interconnected. So in a case
of an interruption LECO is able to minimize the interrupted customers as the feeders
are interconnected. Then in the load centers, Distribution transformer is kept to step
down the 11kV to 400V and to distribute it to the consumers. The sectionalized
switching regimes at feeders are configured for rapid fault location and isolation. The
11kV feeders are routed mostly along road corridors and other such access routes. The
automatic reclosing and feeder sectionalizing protection regimes implemented on
these feeders are designed to improve supply reliability

1.3 The Vision & Mission

Vision
Enjoy being the light for lives of people through innovative eco-friendly business
Mission
To provide the best energy solutions to the society through continuous innovation

1.4 LECO Quality Policies


• The name Lanka Electricity Company (Private) Limited shall stand for
quality, and the company is committed to be the best electricity distributor in
Sri Lanka.
• In all process and services, company’s commitment to quality shall be
apparent. This must also be apparent in the way personnel follow and give
instructions, and in the way they apply the Quality System and support it.
• LECO Is committed to delight its customers through deployment of a
competent, dedicated and connected staff backed by the latest technology.
• Company personnel shall regard the achievement of quality as one of their
most important duties.
• LECO is committed to continually improve its environment and ecology
friendly services contributing to the economic, social and cultural
development of Sri Lanka.

12
1.4.1 Organization Structure of LECO

Figure 1.5 – Organizational Structure


Figure 1.2- Organization Structure

13
The academically qualified, committed and trained professionally-oriented Electrical
Engineers and Skilled Electricians dedicated to maintain a satisfied consumer base
always strive to give the maximum service to the consumers. They are dedicating to
assure optimum safety standards in keeping with international standards. The
chairman, Mr. C. J. Haputantri & the General manager, Dr. M.N.Susantha Perera is
dedicating to take LECO toward a quality service.

14
CHAPTER 2

Training Experiences - Technical

2.1 Introduction – Training Schedule


In the 3 months period of my second industrial training I was assigned to Different
places of LECO. This helped me to identify the processes and methods of LECO very
quickly. I was assigned to Engineering Division, Nugegoda Branch office,
Maharagama Depot, System operations, Control Center and the Meter lab. The time
durations which I spent at each location are showed below.
Training Location Time period Duration(Weeks)

Engineering Division 02/08/2010 – 06/08/2010 4


21/08/2010 – 06/09/02010
Nugegoda branch 07/08/2010 – 13/08/2010 3
13/09/2010 – 24/09/2010
Maharagama Depot 14/08/2010 – 20/08/2010 1
System operations + 27/09/2010 – 18/10/2010 3
Control center
Meter test Lab 19/10/2010 – 22/10/2010 1

Table 2.1 – Training Locations and durations

2.2 11kV Line Equipments

2.2.1 Conductors
Most of the times LECO uses bare conductors for the 11kV lines. But in some cases
LECO uses Arial bundled cables and armored cables also according to the situation.

Bare Conductors

15
For the Bare Conductors, LECO uses AAC conductors. Since LECO uses 11kV as a
sub transmission network and span between poles are minimized as LECO area is an
urban area, LECO hardly uses AAAC or ACSR cables. Conductor sizes and their
current ratings ate shown below. (Source – Construction Manual)

Conductor Name Conductor size(mm2) Maximum current rating(A)


Cockroach 250 477
Lynx 175 390
Hornet 150 352
Wasp 100 279
Fly 60 206

Table 2.2 – Bare Conductor Sizes and maximum current carrying capacities

In LECO, Hornet cable is used in the main feeders. When a spur is divided from a
feeder then Wasp cable is used. For further extensions Fly cable is used.

11kV Arial Bundled Cable


The phase wires of ABC cable made with AAC and the messenger wire is made with
either AAAC or ACSR. The insulation of the cable is made with PVC or XLPE. This
cable is used for the 11kV lines which run very close to the multi story buildings or in
the case of inability to maintain the minimum clearance.

11kV Armored Cable


LECO used Armored Cables very rarely. When a line is laid through an urban area
this cable is used. Especially when a line is laid across a railway track an armored
cable is used. The all 3 phases of the cable is inside a single armor.

2.2.2. DDLO, Cut outs & LBC


In electrical distribution, a DDLO is a combination of a fuse and a switch, used in
primary overhead feeder lines and taps to protect step down transformers from current
surges and overloads. DDLO together with fuse link provides over current and short
circuit protection.

16
Figure2.1 – DDLO in open condition Figure 2.2 – LBC with arc chute
interrupter

Figure 2.3 – inside view of a fuse link


When a DDLO (Fig 2.1 – Source - HUBBEL Cutouts manual) together used with
arcing chute interrupters it is called as a load break switch. The load break cutout
provides short circuit protection to utility lines with the added feature of a load
breaking function. The LBC (Fig 2.2 – Source - HUBBEL Cutouts manual) is
applicable for transformer and capacitor bank switching or line sectionalizing. LBCs
provide protection from overloads that just melt the fuse link through the maximum
interrupt capacity of the fuse holder. They also provide load break capability through
300 amperes. So if a LBC is located near a primary or grid substations it is essential to
disconnect the power supply before open the LBC.
The fuse link (Fig 2.3 – Source - CHANCE fuse links manual) of DDLO does the
main function of the DDLO. When a fuse is burnt due to some reason, then the wire is
melt and broken. Then the fuse tube falls down since fuse tube was supported by the
fuse wire. As illustrated in figure 2.4 above, the fuse link has a slow section and a fast
section which are separately operated in over current and short circuit regions.
The slow current-responsive element is made up of a number of components. The
heater coil and the soldered junction are the two primary components. The insulated

17
strain pin serves to carry the tension exerted when the fuse link is installed in a fuse
cutout, and as a heat conductor to the soldered junction. The ceramic tube serves as a
heat absorber. The heater coil generates heat at a rate which is proportional to the
square of the current. This heat is absorbed by the ceramic material and transmitted to
the soldered junction via the metallic strain pin. When a certain value of current flows
for a specific length of time, sufficient heat is generated and transmitted to the
soldered junction to cause melting of the solder, and the separation of the fuse
link, and the interruption of the circuit.
The fast current-responsive element is constructed like the single element in a
conventional fuse link. Operation of the fuse link in time periods of less than 4
seconds is conventional.

2.2.3 Surge arresters


Surge arresters (Fig. 2.4 – Source - COOPER surge arrester manual) are generally
used for grounding Surges which drops in to transmission lines and protect the circuit
equipments. Surge arresters provide protection against travelling waves, which may
reach the terminal apparatus. The surge arresters or surge diverters provide protection
against such surges. Surge arrester is a protective device, which conducts the high
voltage surges on the power system to the ground.

Figure 2.4 – A Surge arrester


The operation of the varistor arrester is typical of gapless metal oxide arresters.
During steady state conditions, line-to-ground voltage is continuously across the
arrester terminals. When over voltages occur, the varistor arrester immediately limits
the overvoltage to the required protective level by conducting only the necessary level

18
of surge current to earth. Upon passage of the overvoltage condition, the arrester
returns to its initial condition once again, conducting only minimal leakage current.

2.2.4 FDS (Fuse disconnector Switch)


FDS is a set of HRC fuses which uses for the protection of over current and also uses
as a on load switch. When maintenance has to be done in the LV side and if that
maintenance cannot be done without switching of the power, then FDS is used for
switch off the feeder. To switching on and off, a telescope tool is used and to avoid
the arcing on/off action is done quickly.
There are reasons to use HRC fuses in the FDS. HRC stands for “High Rupture
Capacity". This type of fuses normally used where some delay is acceptable for
protecting the system. It has an advantage of current limiting feature. So it is used for
protection of LV feeders which may melt for higher value of current. H.R.C fuses acts
as secondary protecting devices [back up protection]. This type of fuses normally
used where some delay is acceptable for protecting the system. That means this fuse
will not burn out for a current pulse & as a result of this it identifies a fault current &
an inrush current separately. So these fuses are used in series with surge arresters.

2.2.5 Load Break Switch


11kV feeders in LECO are radially interconnected. So in the case of a fault, the fault
can be isolated using the Load Break Switches and hence the number of interrupted
consumers will be minimized. LBS is a switch which is used for on load switching.
So arcing horn are included in LBS. At Present, circuit breakers are used instead of
LBS. By using a handle attached to the pole, the LBS is operated. This handle is made
out of steel and there is a possibility of a fault current flowing across this handle. So
when the handle is operated, the operator should stand up on the earthing mesh which
is commonly grounded with the handle. So in the case of a fault operator will not be
harm as the voltage difference between his arms and legs are zero. However the
operators are always advised to wear HV gloves while operating LBS.

19
Figure 2.5 – Load Break Switch (Source – Google images)

2.2.6 Auto Reclosers & Sectionalizers


Auto reclosers have the facility of to sense over current conditions on phase fault and
earth fault, and interrupt such fault currents and to re-energize the line by reclosing
automatically after a pre determined time delay. If a fault is permanent, the reclose
will lock open after a present number of operations and isolate the faulty sections
.Series coils inside the recloser tank sense fault conditions and trip the recloser.
Closing energy is provided by a high voltage closing solenoid which simultaneously
charges the opening spring in preparation for a tripping operation. The units are
capable of manual operation from ground level by means of an insulated fiberglass
operating stick. Usually in LECO, auto reclosers are mounted in the beginning of a
feeder. But auto reclosers can be mounted on a pole in the middle of a feeder.

Figure 2.6 – Auto Recloser (left) a sectionalizer (right) (Source – Google Images)
Auto recloser can be used either alone or with sectionalizers in series. If an auto
recloser is used alone then it will only be useful to in the case of a temporary failure
(e.g. In the case of a tree branch touching the line). But when sectionalizers use series

20
with the auto recloser, then it will isolate permanent faults also. Consider figure
below.

Area a fault
most likely to be
occurred
AR1 SZ1 SZ2 SZ3

Fault

Area a fault
lesser likely to
SZ4 SZ5
be occurred

Figure 2.7 – Auto Recloser & Sectionalizer Arrangement


Basically a sectionalizer does not have the ability of load breaking. It operates under
no load condition only. The theory is that, it counts the number of interruptions
occurred by the auto recloser. If that number equal to Sectionalizer’s predefined value
of interruptions then it will open the circuit. So a sectionalizer feeds the supply the
power for an area which a fault is most likely to be occurred, then it will have the
minimum tripping frequency. As in the above figure, SZ3 must have the smallest
tripping frequency (say 2) add then SZ5 has a tripping frequency greater than that (say
3).
So when a fault occurs, Auto recloser will be automatically off and all the
sectionalizers count 1. Then AR1 will be switch on again after a predefined time (say
10 seconds). If the fault is still there AR1 will be switch off again and all the
sectionalizers increase their count to 2. 2 is the value that SZ3 is programmed to open
the circuit and it will open the circuit under no load condition. Then AR1 switches on
again and if there is not a fault it stays close. If there is a fault then it will be open
again and same procedure follows until the fault is isolated.
But since LECO area is an urban area and the cost of sectionalizers and auto reclosers
are high , They are used very rarely.

21
2.2.7 Transformers
LECO uses only step down transformers either as distribution sub stations or bulk
substations. At present LECO uses seal type transformers and earlier LECO used
conservator tank type transformers. The distribution transformer and bulk transformer
step down the 11kV to 400V.

Figure 2.8 – Internal Structure of a Transformer (Source – Google Images)


On the core of the transformer, the secondary winding is wounded and on the
secondary winding primary winding is wounded. For each 3 phases there is a set of
winding. In the distribution transformer, the primary winding is delta connected and
the secondary winding is star connected and the neutral has brought out. The vector
group of the transformer is Dyn11. Transformer oil is put inside the transformer to
insulate and to avoid arcing. The transformer oil is on a certain pressure and if the
pressure inside the transformer is increased due to the temperature rise it
automatically adjust the pressure using the pressure release. Normally distribution
transformers have off load tap changers. Tap changers are on primary side to adjust
the secondary voltage and to give the nominal voltage to customer. The tapping
adjustment means the adjusting the turn ration of the transformer and hence the
voltage. Basically there are 5 tap positions and almost all the times LECO keeps tap
position in the 2nd position. In a case of feeder end voltage drops down below the
acceptable limits, LECO normally doesn’t adjust the tap positions. Instead of that new
bulk substation is constructed.

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Primary

Figure 2.9 – Winding Arrangement (Left) & the Representation of Dyn11


30
Below shows the relevant fuse links for protecting the transformer from HV side.
A
Transformer capacity (kVA) 50 B100 160 250 C400 630

11kV full load current (A) 2.6 5.2 8.4 13.1 21.0 33.1

a
Fuse rating (A) b 6 10 c 12 15 n 30 40/ 50

Table 2.3 - Capacities/Full Load Currents/Fuse Ratings in HV Side

2.2.8 CT/PT Unit Secondary


The main purpose of the this unit is reduce current and voltage levels such as

Dyn11
measurable to many kind of electrical equipment such as measuring meters. Two lines
of three phases are gone through the unit while taking these lines as the primary of the
current transformers. The secondary of the CT will reduce the current to be
measurable while voltage is also reduced by a voltage transformer. Then measuring
devices can be measured the load. The other phase of 3 phase line is kept as a
reference since CT/PT unit uses two watt meter method to measure the power.

Figure 2.10 – CT/PT unit (Source – Google Images)

23
To understand the measurement technique of a CT/PT unit, let’s consider the example
below.

W1

IR
R

VRN
VRB

VBN VYN

B Y
VYB

IY

W2

Figure 2.11 – Two watt meter method for 3phase 3 wire supply
In W1 meter,
P1 = IR x VRB
In W2 meter,
P2 = IY x VYB
=IY x (VYN - VBN)
By adding above 2 equations,
P = P1 + P2
= IRVRN + IYVYN – VBN (IY + IR)
But IR + IT +IB = 0
So, P = IRVRN + IYVYN+IBVBN

2.2.9 Insulators
Insulators are intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing
current through themselves. They are made out of dielectric materials as ceramic or
polymer. There are various type of insulators according to their usage. The insulators
commonly used in 11kV system are,
1. Pin insulators

24
2. Post insulators
3. Tension Disc insulators
Pin Insulators – Pin Insulators (Fig 2.12 – source – Google images) are almost
always deployed in the open air, when wet is a major consideration. To combat this
problem, pin insulators feature skirts or wide shells to increase the surface distance
between the conductor and the pin
Post Insulators – Post insulators (Fig 2.12 – source – Google images) are taller than
pin insulators. These are used for construction especially in the coastal areas the
feeder segments likely to be straight.
Tension Disc Insulators – Disc Insulators (Fig 2.12 –source – Google images) are
used in termination and section poles to bare the tension and also used in the deviation
of feeder direction in large angles.

Figure 2.12 – Pin Post and Tension Disc Insulators (Left to Right)

2.3 Energy Meters

LECO have understood properly maintenance of measuring system can act a


important role in their income. So they are maintain a test lab under the Test Engineer
not only that they have the energy meter factory that installed recently at
BANDARAGAMA .Now they are producing electronic meters which has more
accuracy . LECO always make sure to maintain the accuracy of meters between
±2.5%. There are two types of energy meters according to the working principle They
are, .Induction type meters and Electronic meters.

25
2.3.1 Main Components of Induction Type Meters
Current coil
Each phase has a current coil in series with the load. The line that has high current
flaw must have the CTs in accordance .If it is a single phase only have one coil

Pressure (Voltage) coil


Each phase has a voltage coil in parallel with the load. Supply voltage is directly
applied to this coil. One voltage coil is employed in single phase meters whereas three
in 3 phase meters.

Breaking magnet
This is used to control the disk rotation. This is a permanent magnet located closer to
the disc. If it is not a load the disk must not be rotated

Rotating Aluminum disc


According to the fluxes produce by the current and pressure coil ,the disc rotates
.There are two disks in some kWh meters only. Single phase meters have and most of
three phase meters have only one disc. A shaft, worm gear and bearing surfaces are
attached to it with anti-creep holes and timing mark on it.

Mechanical register
Standard type register has five number wheels, light weight and made to rotate
smoothly.

Bearing
Jewel or magnetic bearings are used. The rotating disk is mounted on the
bearing while making free rotation

26
CHAPTER 3

Training Experiences - Management

3.1 Introduction
LECO has a large number of consumers and LECO is obliged to provide their
maximum service to them. For that, they have a proper efficient system, which the
specified targets and goals are defined and the responsibility is clearly divided. So
each and every employee of LECO has set of tasks and he the person who responsible
for that. In this chapter, the administrative and office practices of LECO.

3.2 Construction Manuals and Cost Manuals


Since almost all the details relevant to the LECO are included in these manuals they
can be treated as the bible of LECO. It is essential to explain about Cost manuals and
construction manuals therefore in this chapter.
Most of the duties, procedures, responsibilities, methods, standard approved designs,
and tools are documented to manuals which are called as construction manuals.
Basing those manuals operations are launched. So it is very easy to find any necessary
details by referring these manuals. Each and every person of the LECO staff has the
access of these construction manuals. So when a problem arises they can clear it by
using these manuals. These construction manuals are essential documents to run the
system smoothly. The contents of construction manuals are shown below.

Construction manual volume and Contents


name
Volume 1 Voltage definitions, circuit definitions,
(Design criteria selection of equipment design philosophy, Clearance parameters,
overhead line construction) Equipment specifications, Distribution
design symbols etc.
Volume 2 Arrangement drawings involving
(General Arrangement Drawings) clearances described in volume 1 and
other important details.
Volume 3 Sag & tension charts, pole selection

27
(Equipment selection chart) charts, foundation selection charts,
insulator selection charts and cross arm
capability chart.
Volume 4 Drawings of all the equipments used in
(Equipment drawings) construction process such as cable cutters,
T-offs and terminal lugs etc.
Table 3.1 – Construction manuals and their Contents

Cost manuals are very useful in estimation processes. Cost manuals include,
• Material costs of items and their item code
• Labour costs for their defined tasks.
• Estimated costs for standardised jobs.
By using these cost manuals we can estimate the cost of a project very quickly and it
is very efficient due to minimum errors. Since these cost manuals are updated time to
time there is not any danger of calculating estimates lesser than actual value.

Together these construction manuals and cost manuals are very powerful documents
which highly help to improve the efficiency of the LECO. It is very essential to keep
that type of essential data as documents since all the employees can use these data as a
reference and it improves the efficiency of the whole system.

3.3 PRONTO system


PRONTO is a software which uses in LECO for all type of managerial works. For this
system each person of LECO has the access anywhere in the LECO network by using
their user name and password. But according to the Hierarchical level of the
organization they have certain levels of authorization. PRONTO system is used for,
• Cost estimation
• Store keeping
• Store checking
• Items ordering
• Procurement procedures
• Billing
• Keeping consumer details
• New connection process

28
• Etc.
So we can see it is very useful in almost all the cases.

3.4 Cost Estimation


For the various reasons, LECO have to do various estimations. As examples,
• New service connection
• Erection of new line,
• Providing a bulk supply
• Rehabilitations etc.

These estimations typically consists of,


• Material cost
• Labour cost
• Over head cost
• Payments to the contractors.
When a cost estimation done using the PRONTO system, it is programmed according
to several kit numbers according to standardized job. (E.g.- For 11kV bare line with
11kV PS poles 1km 60AAC include the kits MKIT045, LKIT014, CKIT024 and
VKIT010) These kits basically divide in to 4 groups. They are,
• LKIT- Labour cost
• MKIT - Material cost
• CKIT – Contractor cost
• VKIT – Overhead cost (Variable kit)
So by using both PRONTO system and the cost manuals, we can do the estimations.

3.4.1 Cost Estimation Example


Below shows a sketch of a plan which is drawn to note down the necessary details of
a proposed bulk substation replacing a 3 phase 60A connection

29
100 kVA Bulk sub station

Existing 11 kV Line

Existing LV Line

Proposed 11 kV Line

Existing pole

Proposed pole

Length of the proposed line = 40 m

Figure 3.1 – Site plan of a proposed bulk substation

The customer already has a 3 phase 60A connection. But he needed to improve it to a
bulk substation. Old connection was taken from the LV line shown in figure. But to
do this task, the existing LV line had to be converted to 11kV+LV line. Below Shows
the necessary steps to be done and the necessary details for the estimation.
• 40m of LV line have to be converted to 11kV+LV line
• If number of poles to be erected is greater than the number of poles which
gives from cost manual then add the cost of additional poles
• Cost of 11/500 PS poll, labour cost and cost for the concrete have to be added
for the transformer pole.
• Since the cost of LV bundle cable is included in the standardized cost of
11kV+LV line and there is an existing line, the cost of LV bundle cable has to
be deducted.
• Add the cost of the 100kVA bulk substation.
• Cost of 3 phase meter has to be deducted since the existing 3 phase meter will
be returned to stores.

30
3.5 Tariff & Billing
In the present, LECO & CEB have the same tariff rates effects onwards 1st of
November 2008. There are several tariff rates for the several categories of consumers.
Basically 2 factors are considered for dividing the consumers among those categories.
They are,
1. Estimated Ampere requirement of the consumer
2. Consumer’s purpose
The present tariff categories using in Sri Lanka are,
1. Domestic purpose
2. Religious purpose
3. General purpose
4. Industrial purpose
5. Hotel purpose
6. Street lighting
See the appendix 1 to study the tariff rates.
Basically LECO has a billing cycle of 30 days and revenue officers visit each and
every consumer and take the meter reading and submit the bill to the consumer.

Tariff category Unit charge Fixed charge


Domestic Purpose (Rs/kWh) (Rs/month)
up to 30 units per month 3 60
in excess of 30 and up to 60 units per month 4.7 90
in excess of 60 and up to 90 units per month 7.5 120
in excess of 90 and up to 180 units per month 16 180
in excess of 180 and up to 600 units per month 25 240
above 600 units 30 240

Table 3.2 – Domestic Tariff Rates


In the present domestic and religious tariff schemes, there is a large amount of
increasing in the bill, when the 30 days consumption exceeds 90 units. This is a weak
point of this tariff system. It must be highlighted that above all consumption unit
margins are defined for 30 days. In a case of increasing of decreasing of a billing
cycle therefore there won’t be harm to the consumer. As a example if the revenue
officer comes after a 33 days then the above tariff table will be flow rated as below.

31
Tariff category Unit charge Fixed charge
Domestic Purpose (Rs/kWh) (Rs/month)
up to 33 units per month 3 60
in excess of 33 and up to 66 units per 33 days 4.7 90
in excess of 66 and up to 99 units per 33 days 7.5 120
in excess of 99 and up to 198 units per 33 days 16 180
in excess of 198 and up to 660 units per 33 days 25 240
above 660 units 30 240

Table 3.3 – Flow rated domestic tariff table for 33 days

3.5.1 Comparison of Domestic tariff when exceeding 90 units for 30 days


For 90 units,
Cost For 0 -30 units = 3x30
= Rs.90.00
Cost For 30-60 units = 4.70x30
= Rs.141.00
Cost For 60-90 units = 7.50x30
= Rs.225.00
Fix cost = Rs.120.00
Discount (as no of units<90) = Rs.30.00
Total bill = Rs.546.00

For 91 units,
Cost For 0 -30 units = 3x30
= Rs.90.00
Cost For 30-60 units = 4.70x30
= Rs.141.00
Cost For 60-90 units = 7.50x30
= Rs.225.00
Cost For 90-91 units = 16x1
= Rs.16.00
Fuel adjustment charge = 0.3x(90+141+225+16)

32
= Rs.141.60
Fix cost = Rs.180.00
Total bill = Rs.793.50
Hence we can see that there will be a price difference of Rs.247.50 between 90 units
and 91 units.

3.5.2 Assignment on Tariff Calculation


In the training period we were asked to make a simple tariff calculator to calculate the
bill of a domestic user. The input parameters were the Number of units and the
Number of days of the consumption. Excel coding for above task is shown below.

=IF( (A2/B2)<=1, (A2*3)+(60),


IF((A2/B2)<=2,(B2*3)+((A2-B2)*4.7)+(90),
IF((A2/B2)<=3,(((B2*3)+(B2*4.7)+(A2-(2*B2))*7.5)*1.3)+(120),
IF((A2/B2)<=6,(((B2*3)+(B2*4.7)+(B2*7.5)+(A2-(3*B2))*16)*1.3)+(180),
IF((A2/B2)<=20,(((B2*3)+(B2*4.7)+(B2*7.5)+(3*B2*16)+(A2-(6*B2))*25)*1.3)
+(240),
IF((A2/B2)>20,(((B2*3)+(B2*4.7)+(B2*7.5)+(3*B2*16)+(14*B2*25)+(A2-
(20*B2))*35)*1.3) + (240), “ERROR” ))))))

3.6 Procurement Procedure


Since LECO doesn’t produce any items within the company all necessary items have
to be taken from the outside market. Sometimes it may be local market or sometimes
it may be from the foreign market. LECO provides an essential service to the
customer. So in the case of a breakdown or any failure LECO must have all the
necessary items in their stores in order to take the quickest reaction. So LECO doesn’t
enjoy the lacking of enough stocks. So a minimum re order level is introduced. When
the numbers of items in the stores are lesser than the reorder level, then the necessary
actions must be taken to maintain the stores without lacking of stocks.

There are two ways of buying an item. They are,


1. Calling tenders
2. Calling Quotations
Selecting of the process is depending upon the value of the item to be ordered.

33
Checkingthe
stock

NO

Stock < ROL

YES

Purchase
requition
Note

Proceed
procurement

Tender or
Quotation Tender
Quotation

Quotation
invitationletter PrepareBid
withSpecification Document

Call for quotation


fromregistered BidNotice
suppliers

QuotationClosing / IssueTender
Opening document

Evaluation Closebidand
opentenders

Authorization
Bid
Andpayment
evaluation
procedures

Figure 3.2 – Procurement Procedure of LECO

3.7 Earthing Procedure (Safety)


When maintenance is done in HV line, The Line is switched off and earthed from the
2 directions of the line where maintenance is to be done. This is a highly essential
procedure for safety. Earthing is done to protect from,
1. Accidental switching on situations
2. Protect from lightning

34
3. Generator’s generating voltage which accidentally feeds to feeders
Below shows the proper earthing procedure of LECO.

The earth lead of the earthing device


should connected to the general
body of earth by the best means
available

Does each earth plug


/ The three leads which form will
form a three -phase set shall be
clamp have its own YES
earthing lead
? solidly bounded and connect to
the earth
NO

Prove the conductors are -energized


de by live
-
line indicator by the supervision of Competent
Person and Authorized Person

check again
Is it energized
? YES

NO

Earthing Device applied


to the conductors

Install additional Are earthing devices


earthings which are NO visible to the
visible to the worker workers?

YES

Authorized person provide the Work Permit


to Technical Officers
-In Charge

Figure 3.3 – Earthing Procedure of LECO

35
3.8 Distribution Control Centre
Distribution Control Center (DCC) of the LECO plays an important management role
to maintain continuous and reliable power supply throughout and hence to build a
good image about the LECO among the customers. Under these preview DCC
constantly monitors or controls the performance of the entire distribution system and
also the activities of the operational staff involve in operation and maintenance of the
LECO distribution network. DCC staff also assists customers who seek information
and assistance. DCC staff consists of Control Engineer, chief controller and
controllers.

3.8.1 DCC Responsibilities


• Direct instructions to the field staff for switching operations. Remote
operation of switchgear and acquisition of data
• Alternate supply arrangements for customers during supply outage
• Scheduling of power supply for routine maintenance work or constructions
• Inform the ordinary customers about the planned power interruptions through
media and bulk supply customers individually.
• Issuing the work permit of “permit to work “for the field staff after isolation of
the High Voltage and related terminal equipment and also reversal of the
operation after completion of the work and cancel the work permit
• Procurement of new equipment to the LECO distribution system
• Monitoring an analysis of the power failures and provide instructions to the
field staff /power dispatcher to the restore power supply without delay.
• Accepting and disseminating operational information in the form of daily and
monthly reports
• Preparation of daily and monthly outage reports and therein recommendations
for the remedial measures are forwarded to the higher management
• Assist customers who seek assistance
• Coordinating with CEB during source supply outages and other operational
matters

36
3.8.2 Reports Produced By DCC
Daily Report
Daily report consist of all the interruptions (planned and unplanned failures)
according to the relevant category and all other information such as substation name,
feeder name, outage description, , time off, time on, delay hrs, line section, affected
PSS, CSC.
Monthly Reports
1. Electricity supply outage report
This report consists of performance measurement indices, no. of outages, no.
of consumer hrs, and no. of consumer interruptions, under separate branches and as a
total value. Also all the information about interruptions, failures according to the
category are included. Other than that and loss of sales are mentioned in this report.
2. Consumer service calls report
This report consists of number of service calls, average restoration time per
call in hours, as a total value, branch wise, and CSC wise. Also includes percentage
values of calls to depot (by person, by telephone), calls to DCC, type of fault,
unwarranted calls, and speed of restoration.

3.8.3 System Performance Indices


Below performance indices are calculated for each branch & also for the whole
company monthly. These indices are used to measure the overall performance of the
branch.
SAIDI - System Average Interruption Duration Index
Average total duration of interruption of supply that a consumer experience in the
period,
SAIDI = sum of {no. of interrupted consumers*interruption duration}
Total no. of consumers

SAIFI - System Average Interruption Frequency Index


Average number of interruption of supply that a consumer experience in the period,
SAIFI = sum of {no. of interrupted consumers}
Total no. of consumers

37
CAIDI - Customer Average Interruption Duration Index
Average duration of an interruption of supply for consumers, who experienced an
interruption of supply in the period,
CAIDI=sum of {interrupted consumers*interruption duration}
sum of {interrupted consumers}

38
CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

4.1 Summary
In this final industrial training, I was assigned to LECO. LECO is the only private
power distributor in Sri Lanka. LECO region is defined as the coastal area of
Negambo to Galle. LECO provides their service to their consumers through 7
branches. Instead of 33kV network as CEB, LECO uses 11kV network in their area.
Concept of is to increase the reliability and the efficiency through “Large number of
short feeders and large number of distribution substations.”
In order to provide a reliable service o the consumers, LECO has a properly organized
system. Each and every procedure is documented specifically and each and every
hierarchical level has assigned to pre defined tasks. That helps enormously to run the
system smoothly. Construction manuals, cost manuals, safety manuals, Specifications,
procurement procedures, GIS procedures, safety procedures, interruption procedures,
New connection and disconnection procedures, financial delegations, maintenance
procedures, PRONTO system, load flow analysis, load forecasting, etc, all together
help to improve the quality of the service to the customers.
The technological concepts used in LECO are suitable for the modern world. LECO
always make sure to use quality products for their distribution lines in order to assure
the safety and decrease the interruptions. Almost always type tested certified
equipments are used in the system. All these above mentioned things are experienced
by me within the 3 months of my industrial training.

4.2 Conclusion
I’ve got a good opportunity to have my second compulsory session of industrial
training in Lank Electricity Company (PVT) LTD. LECO is the Sri Lanka’s sole
private power distributor in Sri Lanka. LECO is honored ISO quality awards for its
outstanding performance and robust growth in this sector.

39
During this valuable period I was able to take so many experiences about the
distribution network of Sri Lanka and I could be able to collect faculty of knowledge
with in these three months of my industrial training.
Here I should mention that I was able to get a special opportunity to work together
technicians as well as engineers and share their knowledge and experiences. Those
things gave me a really good training as an engineering undergraduate.
Since LECO directly deals with consumers, I could be able to get the knowledge
about how to deal with them. But it would be better if LECO would change their
training schedule a little bit in order to get more practical knowledge on technical side
in the sites etc.
However I had a good training session at LECO with in my final industrial training.
So, it helps me to gain a better experience and work made my training valuable and
successful.

40
REFERENCES

1. http://www.ceb.lk/Tariff/tarrif%202008.htm
2. http://www.hntddl.com/english/abc%20cable01.asp?
gclid=CLy09P2gmaUCFQUb6wodSWphIQ
3. HUBBEL Cutouts (Standard, Linkbreak & Loadbreak)and Cutout-Arrester
Combinations manual
4. CHANCE fuse links manual
5. COOPER surge arrester manual
6. Construction Manuals of LECO
7. Cost Manuals of LECO

41
ABBREVIATIONS

1. AAAC – All Aluminum Alloy Conductor


2. AAC - All Aluminum Conductor
3. ABC- Areal Bundled Cable
4. ACSR- Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced
5. AO – Administrative Officer
6. BA – Branch Accountant
7. BE – Branch Engineer
8. BM – Branch Manager
9. BOD – Board of Directors
10. CAIDI – Consumer Average Interruption Duration Index
11. CAIFI - Consumer Average Interruption Frequency Index
12. CEB – Ceylon Electricity Board
13. CSC – Customer Service Center
14. CSS – Customer Service Superintendent
15. DCC – Distribution Control Center
16. DDLO – Drop Down Lift Off
17. EE – Electrical Engineer
18. FA – Financial Accountant
19. FM – Financial Manager
20. GIS – Geographical Information System
21. GM – General Manager
22. GPS – Global Positioning System
23. IA – Internal Auditor
24. LBC – Load Break Cutout
25. LBS – Load Break Switch
26. LECO – Lanka Electricity Company (PVT) LTD
27. MA – Management Accountant
28. P&CE – Planning & Construction Engineer
29. P&SE – Procurement and Supply Engineer
30. PE – Procurement Engineer

42
31. PM – Personnel Manager
32. PSS – Primary Substation
33. PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride
34. SC – Store Clerk
35. SAIDI - System Average Interruption Duration Index
36. SAIFI - System Average Interruption Frequency Index
37. SDM – System Development Manager
38. SOM – System Operation Manager
39. TO – Technical Officer
40. XLPE – Cross link Poly Ethylene

43
APPENDIX

44
APPENDIX I

Tariff category Unit Fixed Demand


charge charge charge
(Rs/kWh) (Rs/month) (Rs/kVA)
Domestic Purpose
For those who consume -
up to 30 units per month 3 60
in excess of 30 and up to 60 units per month 4.7 90
in excess of 60 and up to 90 units per month 7.5 120
in excess of 90 and up to 180 units per month 16 180
in excess of 180 and up to 600 units per month 25 240
above 600 units 30 240

Religious Purpose
For those who consume -
up to 30 units per month 2.5 60

in excess of 30 and up to 60 units per month 3.7 90

in excess of 60 and up to 90 units per month 3.7 90

in excess of 90 and up to 120 units per month 9 180

in excess of 120 and up to 180 units per month 10 180

above 180 units 12.5 240

General Purpose
GP1 15 240
GP2 13.8 3000 750
GP3 13.6 3000 675

Industrial Purpose
I-1 10.5 240
I-2 9.3 3000 675
I-3 9.1 3000 650
I-2(TD) peak 24.6 3000 650

45
off peak 8.4
I-3(TD) peak 23 3000 650
off peak 8

Hotel Purpose
H-1(GP) 15 240
H-2(GP) 13.8 3000 750
H-2 (I) 9.3 3000 675

Fuel Adjustment Charge 30% on all unit charges except DP & RP consumers
consuming less than 90 units per month
* Notice is hereby give in terms of section 52(3) of the Ceylon Electricity Board Act
No. 17 of 1969 that is decided to give a discount of Rs. 30/- for Domestic purpose and
Religious purpose category consumers using electricity less than 90 units per 30 day
billing period with effect from 10th Nov 2008
* The fuel adjustment charge applicable to Industrial Category and Hotel Tariff -
Industrial Category consumers has been exempted of 15% with effect from 1st
January 2009 to 09th November 2009
* Save and except the above, all tariff charges and fees published in the Gazette
Extraordinary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka No.1572/25 dated
24th October 2008 remain unchanged

46